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ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY

Unit 5 Skeletal System - Class Lecture Notes Section 5.1 - Overview I. Introduction The skeletal system includes connective tissues such as bone, cartilage, tendons, and ligaments. These tissues are combined with the various types of muscle tissue to form the Musculo-Skeletal System. 1) Bone itself has five functions, including: Movement Support Calcium Storage Production of ed !lood Cells Protection 2) Cartilage serves as the fetal template for bone formation, and covers the ends of bone, most especially at the "oints, or points of articulation. 3) Tendons connect muscles to bone 4) igaments connect bone to bone II. Bone Biolo ! 1) Bone is composed of organic material #mostly collagen, a spongy protein$, within an inorganic matri% called hydro%yapatite #mostly calcium and potassium$. &$ !one tissue consists of three speciali'ed cell types, osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts a! "steo#lasts are bone(forming cells, which line the surface of a bone)s structure. #! "steocytes are bone cells and are found within the bone)s structure. c! "steoclasts are cells that resorb bone trough a degradation process. 3) $rocess of Bone %ormation *t birth, most of the skeletal system is composed of cartilage, which over time is replaced by bone. !y the early twenties, most bone growth is complete, although bone is remodeled throughout life.

Through the process of remodeling, osteoclasts circulate throughout the bone and look for old or damaged osteocytes to break down, which are then replaced by osteoblasts which lay down new bone tissue. This breakdown and buildup occurs throughout the bone, but is most visible at the growth plates of the bone which form at the "unction of the e&i&hysis #bone ends$, and the dia&hysis #bone shaft$. This "unction is called the e&i&hyseal plate, located towards the end of the bone shaft. ,inally, some growth occurs in the &eriosteum' which is a thin sheaf of tissue that covers the outside of the bone surface. The periosteum also serves as an intake of nutrition and gasses. III. Bone An"to#! +$ There are appro%imately &-. bones in the human body &$ They can be classified into four main classes a! ong #ones: main components of limbs, include the femur, humerus, radius and ulna, tibia and fibula. #! Short Bones: include metacarpals of hands and metatarsals of feet c! %lat Bones: includes cranial bones, innominates and scapula, offer protection and large muscle attachments d! (rregular Bones: includes vertebra, carpals #hand$ and tarsals #feet$, many of the cranial bones. These bones are generally comple% in design and serve speciali'ed purposes /$ The skeleton can also be divided into two parts, the a%ial skeleton, and the appendicular skeleton. a. The a%ial skeleton includes the skull or cranium, the vertebral column, and the ribs. b. The appendicular skeleton includes the pelvic and pectoral girdles, as well as the upper and lower limb bones. i. The pectoral girdle includes the scapula and clavicle, and forms the shoulder ii. The pelvic girdle includes innominate or hip bones. iii. The upper limbs include the humerus, radius, ulna, carpals, metacarpals, and hand phalanges. iv. The lower limbs include the femur, tibia, fibula, patella, tarsals, metatarsals, and foot phalanges.

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