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FACE IDENTIFICATION

CONTENTS

1. ABSTRACT
2. INTRODUCTION
3. DESIGN PRINCIPLES & EXPLANATION
3.1. MODULES
3.2. MODULE DESCRIPTIOIN
4. PROJECT DICTIONARY
4.1. DATAFLOW DIAGRAMS
4.2. E-R DIAGRAMS
4.3. UML DIAGRAMS
4.4. DATA DICTIONARY
5. FORMS & REPORTS
5.1. I/O SAMPLES
6. BIBILIOGRAPHY

1. ABSTRACT
Criminal record generally contains personal information about
particular person along with photograph. To identify any criminal we
need some identification regarding person, which are given by
eyewitnesses. In most cases the quality and resolution of the
recorded image-segments is poor and hard to identify a face.

To

overcome this sort of problem we are developing software.


Identification can be done in many ways like fingerprint, eyes, DNA
etc. One of the applications is face identification.

The face is our

primary focus of attention in social inter course playing a major role


in conveying identity and emotion. Although the ability to infer
intelligence or character from facial appearance is suspect, the
human ability to recognize faces is remarkable.
The operator first logs into the system by entering username and
password. Then depending on the work allotted he has to select the
screens from main menu screen. There are mainly three important
function which he can do they are adding details, clipping image
and finally construction of the face by using the eyewitness. The
face that is finally formed is one the who has done the crime.

2. INTRODUCTION
Face Identification is a technique that is mainly used to identify
criminals based on the clues given by the eyewitnesses. Based on
the clues we develop an image by using the image that we have in
our database and then we compare it with the images already we
have. To identify any criminals we must have a record that
generally contains name, age, location, previous crime, gender,
photo, etc.
The primary task at hand is, given still or video images require the
identification of the one or more segmented and extracted from the
scene, where upon it can be identified and matched. The word
image is defined as an exact or analogous representation of a
being or thing. The image or monochrome image such as black and
white paragraph is represented as two-dimensional light intensity
function f (x, y) where x and y denotes spatial co-ordinates. A
digital image is an image of f (x, y) that has been digitized both in
spatial co-ordinate and brightness. The elements of such a digital
array are called image elements, picture elements and pixels or
pels.
PURPOSE OF THE PROJECT:
This project is aimed to identify the criminals in any investigation
department. Here the technique is we already store some images of
the criminals in our database along with his details and that images
are segmented into many slices say eyes, hairs, lips, nose, etc.
These images are again stored in another database record so to
identify any criminals; eyewitnesses will see the images or slices
that appear on the screen by using it we develop the face, which
may or may not be matched with our images. If any image is
matched up to 99% then we predict that he is only the criminal.
Thus using this project it provides a very friendly environment for
both operator and eyewitness to easily design any face can identify
criminals very easy.

PROJECT OBJECTIVE:
This project is intended to identify a person using the images
previously taken. The identification will be done according the
previous images of different persons.
PROJECT SCOPE:
The scope of the project is confined to store the image and store
in the database. When a person has to be identified the images
stored in the database are compared with the existing details.
PROJECT OVERVIEW:
This project can be used to identify a criminal in the investigation
department. The project maintains the photographs of all the
criminals. Each photograph is clipped into different parts.
EXISTING SYSTEM
The development of face identification has been past from the
year to years. In recent years to identify any criminal face they
used to make a sketch or draw a image based on the eyewitnesses.
It used to take more amount of time and it was very difficult task
for any investigation department to easily catch the criminals within
a stipulated time. In order to catch the criminals first they used to
search their record whether to find out is there any record about
that particular person in the past. In olden days each and every
record was maintained in the books or registers or files which used
to contain information about previous criminals with their names,
alias name, gender, age, crime involved, etc. Here each and every
task used to take the help of the person because they used to write
in them and it needed very much of manual effort.
There are three major research groups, which propose three
different approaches to the face recognition problem. The largest
group has dealt with facial characteristics. The second group
performs human face identification based on feature vectors
extracted from profile silhouettes. The third group uses feature
vectors extracted from a frontal view of the face. The first method

is based on the information theory concepts in other words on the


principal component analysis methods. In this approach, the most
relevant information that best describes a face is derived from the
entire face image.

The second method is based on extracting

feature vectors from the basic parts of a face such as eyes, nose,
mouth and chin.
DRAWBACKS IN EXISTING SYSTEM:
Need of extra manual effort.
It used to take much time to find any criminals
Not very much accurate.
Danger of losing the files in some cases.
Need Good Knowledge in drawing.
PROPOSED SYSTEM
To overcome the drawbacks that were in the existing system we
develop a system that will be very useful for any investigation
department. Here the program keeps track of the record number of
each slice during the construction of identifiable human face and
calculate maximum number of slices of the similar record number.
Based on this record number the program retrieves the personal
record of the suspect (whose slice constituted the major parts of the
constructed human face) on exercising the locate option.
ADVANTAGES OF PROPOSED SYSTEM:
Very fast and accurate.
No need of any extra manual effort.
No fever of data loss.
Just need a little knowledge to operate the system.
Doesnt require any extra hardware device.
At last very easy to find the criminals.

OVERVIEW OF THE PROPOSED SYSTEM:

Addition, Clipping, Construction and updating of the criminal


record and face.

Comparing the image with the faces that are there in our
database.

If any new images are found then it should be entered into


our database by add image module and then it should be
segmented into different slices.

3. DESIGN PRINCIPLES & EXPLANATION


3.1. MODULES
Add Image
Clip Image
Construct Image
Identification
A module is a small part of our project. This plays a very
important role in the project and in coding concepts. In Software
Engineering concept we treat it has a small part of a system but
whereas in our programming language it is a small part of the
program, which we also called as function in, some cases which
constitute the main program.
Importance of modules in any software development side is we
can easily understand what the system we are developing and what
its main uses are. At the time of project we may create many
modules and finally we combine them to form a system.
3.2. MODULE DESCRIPTIOIN
ADD IMAGE
Add Image is a module that is considered with adding image
along with the complete details of the person of whom we are
taking image. In this we add Image by importing from the Internet
and store them in our system and database. This module is mainly
considered for adding details of the criminals like name, age, alias
name, gender, location, state, Arrested Date, etc. At the time of the
adding image we give some criminal id to that particular person, so
that it can be easily added to the database with any duplication of
the data.

CLIP IMAGE
This modules main function is to divide the images into
different pieces such as hairs, forehead, eyes, nose and lips and
store them in the database and also creates the files onto our
system.
CONSTRUCT IMAGE
Based on the eyewitnesses we are going to construct the
images. The witness will give us instruction by looking onto the
screen on which there will be the parts of the images like eyes,
hairs etc.
IDENTIFICATION
This module contains the interface to take the image from
above module and it compares or searches with the images already
there in the database. If any image is matched then we identify
him/her as the criminal else we add that new image again to the
database.

4. PROJECT DICTIONARY
4.1. DATAFLOW DIAGRAMS
A graphical tool used to describe and analyze the moment of data
through a system manual or automated including the process,
stores of data, and delays in the system. Data Flow Diagrams are
the central tool and the basis from which other components are
developed.

The transformation of data from input to output,

through processes, may be described logically and independently of


the physical components associated with the system.

The DFD is

also know as a data flow graph or a bubble chart.


CONTEXT DIAGRAM:
The top-level diagram is often called a context diagram.

It

contains a single process, but it plays a very important role in


studying the current system.

The context diagram defines the

system that will be studied in the sense that it determines the


boundaries. Anything that is not inside the process identified in the
context diagram will not be part of the system study. It represents
the entire software element as a single bubble with input and output
data indicated by incoming and outgoing arrows respectively.
TYPES OF DATA FLOW DIAGRAMS:
Data Flow Diagrams are of two types as follows:

Physical DFD

Logical DFD

PHYSICAL DFD:
Structured analysis states that the current system should be
first understand correctly. The physical DFD is the model of the
current system and is used to ensure that the current system has
been clearly understood. Physical DFDs shows actual devices,
departments, and people etc., involved in the current system
LOGICAL DFD:
Logical DFDs are the model of the proposed system. They
clearly should show the requirements on which the new system
should be built. Later during design activity this is taken as the
basis for drawing the systems structure charts.
BASIC NOTATION:
The Basic Notation used to create a DFDs are as follows:
DATAFLOW:
Data move in a specific direction from an origin to a destination.

PROCESS:
People, procedures, or devices that use or produce (Transform)
Data. The physical component is not identified.

SOURCE:
External sources or destination of data, which may be People,
programs, organizations or other entities.

DATA STORE:
Here data are stored or referenced by a process in
the System

DESIGN:
Design is the first step in moving from problem domain to the
solution

domain.

Design

is

essentially

the

bridge

between

requirements specification and the final solution.


The goal of design process is to produce a model or representation
of a system, which can be used later to build that system.

The

produced model is called the Design of the System. It is a plan


for a solution for the system.

PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM


Start

Login

Authentication

Valid User

Invalid User

Main Screen

Choose Option

Add
Image

Clip
Image

Update
Details

Construct
Image

Enter
Details

Open
Image&
Make Clips

Open
Record &
Update

Specify
Feature

Add to
Database

Add Clips
to
Database

Add to
database

Search
Image

End

Search
Process
Search
Image &
Get Details
Result

FACE IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM

EYE WITNESS

OPERATOR

FACE
IDENTIFICATION
SYSTEM

CRIMINAL
FACE

Context Flow Diagram


Description: Context Flow Diagram gives us the complete details
about the inputs and outputs for a given system. In the above
system the main task is to identify a criminal face. So, the operator
and eyewitness are the inputs to our system and criminal face is
desired output.

LOGIN PROCESS

LOGIN

User Id
Password

PROCESS

SCREEN

ERROR IN
INPUT

Level-1

Description: The inputs to the process are User Id and Password


given by the developer to allow the software available for the user
environment. After giving the inputs the code checks whether the
entered ones are valid are not. It displays screen if match occurs
otherwise error message if they are not matched.

MAIN SCREEN PROCESS

Level -2

OPERATOR

MAIN
SCREEN

ADD IMAGE

Description: This process mainly explains the different screens


that are available for the operator. Here the selection of the SEARCH
screen

IMAGE

depends on the operator and he can select whatever screen he

wants. The different screens that are available are Add Image,
Show or Search Image, Clip Image and Construct Image.

CLIP IMAGE

CONSTRUCT
IMAGE

ADD IMAGE PROCESS

Level-3

DATABASE

Description: This process clearly


illustrates adding the details of
ADD

DATA
IS
theOPERATOR
criminal such as name, PROCESS
alias name, age, gender,
location,
ADDED

address, state and city along with his photo. These details are being
added to the database, if any error is generated then it will be
prompted to the operator otherwise we get message data is
successfully added.

CLIPPING PROCESS

ERROR

Level-4

DATABASE

DATABASE

Description: This is used for clipping the image into different slices
say eyes, forehead, lips, hair and nose. The input for this is face

EYES

which is divided into some slices which are stored in the database.
Even though the image is divided into slices, the original image
remains as it is.

NOSE

FACE

FACE
HAIR

UPDATE PROCESS

FOREHEAD

Level-5

DATABASE

Description: Update process is mainly used for updating or


modifying the details of the criminal or person. This is used in

UPDATE
situation
where we have entered
the details incorrectly orDATA
we want
OPERATOR
to add some new details.

CONSTRUCT IMAGE

DATABASE

PROCESS

UPDATED

HAIR
FOREHEAD

EYES

INSTRUCTION

FACE

NOSE

LIPS

Level-6
Description: Based on the instruction given by the eyewitnesses,
the operator brings the clips of the images from the database and
then goes for the construction of the image based on those clips.

COMPARISON PROCESS

DATABASE

COMPARISON
PROCESS

FACE

RESULT

Level-7
Description: The face that is constructed in the above process is
sent to the comparison process where it searches the image in the
database.

4.2. E-R DIAGRAMS


An E-R Diagram stand for Entity Relationship model is a tool that is
commonly used

to translate different views of data among

managers, users and programmers to fit into a common framework,


define data processing and constraint requirements to help us meet
the different views and helps to implement the database.

The E-R model forms the basis of E-R diagram that represent the
conceptual database as viewed by the end user. These diagrams
depict the E-R model three main Components:
Entities
Attributes
Relationships.
1. ENTITIES
An entity at the E-R modeling level actually
refers to the entity set not to a single entity occurance. In other
words the word entity in the E-R model corresponds to a table and
not to a row in the relational environment. The E-R model refers to
a specific table row as an entity instance or entity occurrence. An
entity

is

represented

by

rectangle

containing

the

entity

occurrence. An entity is represented by a rectangle containing the


entities name.

It is denoted by rectangle by specifying the table


name in it.

2. ATTRIBUTES
Attributes are represented by ovals and are connected to the entity
with a line. Each oval contain the name of the attribute it
represents. For example Criminal Details entity includes the
attributes cid, fname, lname, etc.

3. RELATIONSHIP
A relationship is an association between entities. Each relation
is identified so that its name is descriptive of the relation. Ideally
the name is an active verb.

Ci
d

fnam
ee

Forehead
age

Crime
Involve
d

Hairs

Nos
e

Chi
n

Con
necte
d by
FACE

Crim
e Id

Face_heights

Suspect
Photo

Crime
Id

Photo
Height

Face_Suspect
photo

4.3. UML DIAGRAMS

Con
necte
d by

Cid

Face_Suspects

UNIFIED MODELING LANGUAGE


UML is the international standard notation for object-oriented
analysis and design. The Object Management Group defines it. The
heart of object-oriented problem solving is the construction of a
model. The model abstracts the essential details of the underlying
problem from its usually complicated real world. Several modeling
tools are wrapped under the heading of the UML, which stands for
Unified Modeling Language.
AN OVERVIEW OF UML:
The UML is a language for

Visualizing

Specifying

Constructing

Documenting

These are the artifacts of a software-intensive system. The three


major elements of UML are

The UMLs basic building blocks

The rules that dictate how those building blocks may be put
together.

Some common mechanisms that apply throughout the UML.

BASIC BUILDING BLOCKS OF THE UML:


The vocabulary of UML encompasses three kinds of building blocks:
Things
Relationships
Diagrams
Things are the abstractions that are first-class citizens in a model.
Relationships tie these things together.
Diagrams group the interesting collection of things.

THINGS IN THE UML:

They are the abstractions that are first-class citizens in a model.


There are four kinds of things in the UML
1. Structural things
2. Behavioral things.
3. Grouping things.
4. Annotational things.
These things are the basic object oriented building blocks of the
UML. They are used to write well-formed models.
STRUCTURAL THINGS:
Structural things are the nouns of the UML models. These are
mostly static parts of the model, representing elements that are
either conceptual or physical. In all, there are seven kinds of
Structural things.
Class:
A class is a description of a set of objects that share the same
attributes,

operations,

relationships,

and

semantics.

class

implements one or more interfaces. Graphically a class is rendered


as

rectangle,

usually

including

its

name,

attributes

and

operations, as shown below.

Interface:
An interface is a collection of operations that specify a service of a
class or component. An interface describes the externally visible
behavior of that element.

Graphically the interface is rendered as a circle together with its


name.

ISpelling

Collaboration:
Collaboration defines an interaction and is a society of roles and
other elements that work together to provide some cooperative
behavior thats bigger than the sum of all the elements. Graphically,
collaboration is rendered as an ellipse with dashed lines, usually
including only its name as shown below.

Chain of
Responsibili
Chain
ty

Use Case:

Use case is a description of a set of sequence of actions that a


system performs that yields an observable result of value to a
particular thing in a model. Graphically, Use Case is rendered as an
ellipse with dashed lines, usually including only its name as shown
below.

Place Order

Active Class:
An active class is a class whose objects own one or more processes
or threads and therefore can initiate control activity. Graphically, an
active class is rendered just like a class, but with heavy lines usually
including its name, attributes and operations as shown below.
Face
Identification
Image
Suspend ()
Flush ()

Component:
Component is a physical and replaceable part of a system that
conforms to and provides the realization of a set of interfaces.
Graphically, a component is rendered as a rectangle with tabs,
usually including only its name, as shown below.

orderform.java

Node:
A Node is a physical element that exists at run time and represents
a computational resource, generally having at least some memory
and often, processing capability. Graphically, a node is rendered as
a cube, usually including only its name, as shown below.

server

BEHAVIORAL THINGS:
Behavioural Things are the dynamic parts of UML models. These are
the verbs of a model, representing behaviour over time and space.
Interaction:
An interaction is a behavior that comprises a set of messages
exchanged among a set of objects within a particular context to
accomplish a specific purpose. Graphically, a message is rendered
as a direct line, almost always including the name if its operation,
as shown below.
Display

State Machine:
A state machine is a behavior that specifies the sequence of states
an object are an interaction goes through during its lifetime on
response to events, together with its responses to those events.
Graphically, a state is rendered as a rounded rectangle usually
including its name and its sub-states, if any, as shown below.

Waiting

GROUPING THINGS:
Grouping things are the organizational parts of the UML models.
These are the boxes into which a model can be decomposed.
Package:
A package is a general-purpose mechanism for organizing elements
into groups.
Business Rules

ANNOTATIONAL THINGS:
Annotational things are the explanatory parts of the UML models.
Note:
A note is simply a symbol for rendering constraints and comments
attached to an element or a collection of elements.
Graphically a note is rendered as a rectangle with dog-eared corner
together, with a textual or graphical comment, as shown below.

RELATIONSHIPS IN THE UML:


There are four kinds of relationships in the UML:
1. Dependency
2. Association
3. Generalization
4. Realization
1.Dependency:
whenever

This

is

relationship

between

two

classes

one class is completely dependent on the other

class. Graphically the dashed line represents it with arrow


pointing to the class that it is being depended on.

2. Association: It is a relationship between instances of the two


classes. There is an association between two classes if an
instance of one class must know about the other in order to
perform its work. In a diagram, an association is a link
connecting two classes. Graphically it is represented by line as
shown.

3. Generalization: An inheritance is a link indicating one class is


a super class of the other. A generalization has a triangle
pointing to the super class. Graphically it is represented by line
with a triangle at end as shown.

4. Realization:

DIAGRAMS IN UML:
Diagrams play a very important role in the UML. There are nine kind
of modeling diagrams as follows:

Use Case Diagram

Class Diagram

Object Diagram

Sequence Diagram

Collaboration Diagram

State Chart Diagram

Activity Diagram

Component Diagram

Deployment Diagram

CLASS DIAGRAM:
Class diagrams are the most common diagrams found in modeling
object-oriented systems. A class diagram shows a set of classes,
interfaces, and collaborations and their relationships. Graphically, a
class diagram is a collection of vertices and arcs.
Contents:
Class Diagrams commonly contain the following things:
Classes
Interfaces
Collaborations
Dependency, generalization and association relationships
USE CASES DIAGRAM:
Use Case diagrams are one of the five diagrams in the UML for
modeling

the

dynamic

sequence

diagrams,

aspects

state

chart

of

systems(activity
diagrams

and

diagrams,

collaboration

diagrams are the four other kinds of diagrams in the UML for
modeling the dynamic aspects of systems). Use Case diagrams are
central to modeling the behavior of the system, a sub-system, or a
class. Each one shows a set of use cases and actors and
relationships.
Common Properties:
A Use Case diagram is just a special kind of diagram and shares the
same common properties, as do all other diagrams- a name and
graphical contents that are a projection into the model. What
distinguishes a use case diagram from all other kinds of diagrams is
its particular content.
Contents
Use Case diagrams commonly contain:
Use Cases
Actors
Dependency, generalization, and association relationships

Like all other diagrams, use case diagrams may contain notes and
onstraints. Use Case diagrams may also contain packages, which
are used to group elements of your model into larger chunks.
Occasionally, you will want to place instances of use cases in your
diagrams, as well, especially when you want to visualize a specific
executing system.
INTERACTION DIAGRAMS
An Interaction diagram shows an interaction, consisting of a set of
objects and their relationships, including the messages that may be
dispatched

among

them.

Interaction

diagrams

are

used

for

modeling the dynamic aspects of the system.


A sequence diagram is an interaction diagram that emphasizes the
time ordering of the messages. Graphically, a sequence diagram is
a table that shows objects arranged along the X-axis and messages,
ordered in increasing time, along the Y-axis and messages, ordered
in increasing time, along the Y-axis.
Contents
Interaction diagrams commonly contains:
Objects
Links
Messages
Like all other diagrams, interaction diagrams may contain notes and
constraints.
SEQUENCE DIAGRAMS:
A sequence diagram is an interaction diagram that emphasizes the
time ordering of the messages. Graphically, a sequence diagram is
a table that shows objects arranged along the X-axis and messages,
ordered in increasing time, along the Y-axis.
Typically you place the object that initiates the interaction at the
left, and increasingly more sub-routine objects to the right. Next,
you place the messages that these objects send and receive along

the Y-axis , in order of increasing time from top to the bottom. This
gives the reader a clear visual cue to the flow of control over time.
Sequence diagrams have two interesting features:
1. There is the object lifeline. An object lifeline is the vertical
dashed line that represents the existence of an object over a
period of time. Most objects that appear in the interaction
diagrams will be in existence for the duration of the
interaction, so these objects are all aligned at the top of the
diagram, with their lifelines drawn from the top of the
diagram to the bottom.
2. There is a focus of the control. The focus of control is tall, thin
rectangle that shows the period of time during which an
object is performing an action, either directly or through the
subordinate procedure. The top of the rectangle is aligns with
the action; the bottom is aligned with its completion.
Contents
Sequence diagrams commonly contains
Objects
Object Life Line
Focus Of Control
ACTIVITY DIAGRAM
An Activity Diagram is essentially a flow chart showing flow of
control from activity to activity. They are used to model the
dynamic aspects of as system. They can also be used to model the
flow of an object as it moves from state to state at different points
in the flow of control.
An activity is an ongoing non-atomic execution with in a state
machine. Activities ultimately result in some action, which is made
up of executable atomic computations that result in a change of
state of distinguishes a use case diagram from all other kinds of
diagrams is its particular content.

Contents
Activity diagrams commonly contain:
Fork
Start & End Symbol
STATE CHART DIAGRAMS
A state chart diagram shows a state machine. State chart diagrams
are used to model the dynamic aspects of the system. For the most
part this involves modeling the behavior of the reactive objects. A
reactive object is one whose behavior is best characterized by its
response to events dispatched from outside its context. A reactive
object has a clear lifeline whose current behavior is affected by its
past.
A state chart diagram show a state machine emphasizing the flow of
control from state to state. A state machine is a behavior that
specifies the sequence of states an object goes through during its
lifetime in response to events together with its
response to those events. A state is a condition in the life of the
object during which it satisfies some conditions, performs some
activity or wait for some events. An event is a specification of a
significant occurrence that has a location in time and space.
Graphically a state chart diagram is a collection of vertices and arcs.
Contents:
State chart diagram commonly contain:
Simple states and Composite states.
Transitions, events and actions.

CLASS DIAGRAM

OBJECT DIAGRAM

USE CASE DIAGRAM

SEQUENCE DIAGRAM

COLLABORATION DIAGRAM

STATE CHART DIAGRAM


ADD MODULE

CLIP IMAGE MODULE

UPDATE DETAILS:

CONSTRUCT MODULE

SHOW DETAILS:

4.4. DATA DICTIONARY

FACE
Field Name

Data Type

Size

Criminal Id

Number

5 (Primary Key)

First Name

Varchar2

15

Last Name

Varchar2

15

Alias Name

Varchar2

15

D.O.B

Date

Age

Number

Gender

Varchar2

15

Address

Varchar2

15

City

Varchar2

15

State

Varchar2

15

Arrested Date

Date

Crime Involved In

Varchar2

15

Photo

Varchar2

15

CRIMINAL_SUSPECT TABLE
Field Name
Criminal Id

Data Type
Number

Size
5 (Primary Key)

Cid

Number

FACE_HEIGHTS TABLE

Field Name
Criminal Id

Data Type
Number

Size
5

Hair

Number

Forehead

Number

Eyes

Number

Nose

Number

Lips

Number

Chin

Number

FACE_SUSPECTPHOTO
Field Name
Cid

Data Type
Number

Size
5

Suspect Photo

Varchar2

15

Suspect Height

Varchar2

15

5. FORMS & REPORTS


5.1. I/O SAMPLES

LOGIN SCREEN

MAIN SCREEN

NEW CRIMINAL FORM

SHOW DETAILS

CLIP IMAGE SCREEN

UPDATE DETAILS SCREEN

CONSTRUCT SCREEN

FIND FACE

HELP SCREEN

6. BIBLIOGRAPHY
BOOKS REFERRED
The

following

books

were

used

extensively

for

the

project

development and implementation.


1.The Complete Reference Java2 Tata McGraw-Hill publishing
Company Limited. By Herbert Schildt.
2. Software Engineering, A Practitioners Approach Tata McGrawHill Publishing Company Limited. By Roger S. Pressman.
3. PL/SQL. By Ivan Bayross.
WEBSITES REFERRED
The following links were searched and exploited extensively for the
project development and implementation.
1. http://www.java.sun.com/products\java
2. http://www.jakarta.apache.org
3. http://www.javaworld.com/
4. http://www.java2s.com/