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Multichannel Frequency Modulation ( FM )

Written by Fajar Saturday, 09 October 2010 02:45

Penggunaan signal AM-VSB untuk mengirim beberapa channel analog adalah prinsip lurus kedepan dan sederhana. Bagaimana pun juga hal itu memiliki syarat C/N paling tidak 40 dB untuk setiap channel AM dimana antara laser dan penerimanya harus garis lurus. Cara lain adalah denga menggunakan modulaasi frekuensi ( FM ) dimana setiap subcarrier dimodulasi oleh frekuensi dengan signal informasi, namun hal ini membutuhkan bandwide lebih besar sekitar 7 8 kali dari AM. Rasio S/N dari output detector FM jauh lebih besar dari rasio C/N pada input dari detector. Rasio dari s/n tergantung pada desain sistem tetapi umumnya berada pada 36-44 db Di antara keuntungan FM adalah bebas dari pengaruh gangguan udara, bandwidth (lebar pita) yang lebih besar, dan fidelitas yang tinggi. Jika dibandingkan dengan sistem AM, maka FM memiliki beberapa keunggulan, diantaranya : Lebih tahan noise Frekuensi yang dialokasikan untuk siaran FM berada diantara 88 108 MHz, dimana pada wilayah frekuensi ini secara relatif bebas dari gangguan baik atmosfir maupun interferensi yang tidak diharapkan. Jangkauan dari sistem modulasi ini tidak sejauh, jika dibandingkan pada sistem modulasi AM dimana panjang gelombangnya lebih panjang. Sehingga noise yang diakibatkan oleh penurunan daya hampir tidak berpengaruh karena dipancarkan secara LOS (Line Of Sight). Bandwith yang Lebih Lebar Saluran siar FM standar menduduki lebih dari sepuluh kali lebar bandwidth (lebar pita) saluran siar AM. Hal ini disebabkan oleh struktur sideband nonlinear yang lebih kompleks dengan adanya efek-efek (deviasi) sehingga memerlukan bandwidth yang lebih lebar dibanding distribusi linear yang sederhana dari sideband-sideband dalam sistem AM. Band siar FM terletak pada bagian VHF (Very High Frequency) dari spektrum frekuensi di mana tersedia bandwidth yang lebih lebar daripada gelombang dengan panjang medium (MW) pada band siar AM. Fidelitas Tinggi Respon yang seragam terhadap frekuensi audio (paling tidak pada interval 50 Hz sampai 15 KHz), distorsi (harmonik dan intermodulasi) dengan amplitudo sangat rendah, tingkat noise yang sangat rendah, dan respon transien yang bagus sangat diperlukan untuk kinerja Hi-Fi yang baik. Pemakaian saluran FM memberikan respon yang cukup untuk frekuensi audio dan menyediakan hubungan radio dengan noise rendah. Karakteristik yang lain hanyalah ditentukan oleh masalah rancangan perangkatnya saja. Transmisi Stereo

Alokasi saluran yang lebar dan kemampuan FM untuk menyatukan dengan harmonis beberapa saluran audio pada satu gelombang pembawa, memungkinkan pengembangan sistem penyiaran stereo yang praktis. Ini merupakan sebuah cara bagi industri penyiaran untuk memberikan kualitas reproduksi sebaik atau bahkan lebih baik daripada yang tersedia pada rekaman atau pita stereo. Munculnya compact disc dan perangkat audio digital lainnya akan terus mendorong kalangan industri peralatan dan teknisi siaran lebih jauh untuk memperbaiki kinerja rantai siaran FM secara keseluruhan. Hak komunikasi Tambahan Bandwidth yang lebar pada saluran siar FM juga memungkinkan untuk memuat dua saluran data atau audio tambahan, sering disebut Subsidiary Communication Authorization (SCA), bersama dengan transmisi stereo. Saluran SCA menyediakan sumber penerimaan yang penting bagi kebanyakan stasiun radio dan sekaligus sebagai media penyediaan jasa digital dan audio yang berguna untuk khalayak.
Last Updated on Monday, 25 October 2010 08:45

Multychannel Amplitude Modulation ( AM )


Written by Fajar Saturday, 09 October 2010 02:43

Yang pertama kali menyebar luaskan Aplikasi untuk hubungan antara fiber optik secara analog yang mana di mulai pada akhir tahun 1980 adalah CATV Network. Network jenis ini beroperasi pada frekuensi antara 50 sampai 88 Mhz dan dari 120 samapi 550 Mhz. Frekuensi anatara 88 samapi 120 Mhz tidak digunaka karena digunakan untuk penyiaran radio FM. Network ini dapat membawa lebih dari 80 AM vestigal-side band (AM-VSB) video chanel, masing-masing mempunyai noise selebar 4 Mhz dari lebar chanel yang 6 Mhz, dengan S/N ratio sebesar 40db. Untuk mempertahankan kesamaan dengan coax base network yang sebelumnya, format dari multichanel AM-VSB juga dipilih untuk sistem fiber optik. Sinyal informasi pada chanel I gelombang pembawa AM mempunyai frekuensi Fi , dimana

I= 1,2,,N.
Power RF menggabungkan kemudian menjumlah AM sejumlah N, yang menghasilkan sinyal FDN, yang mana intensitas modulasinya seperti Laser Dioda. Seperti halnya penerima optik, susunan paralel dari filter bandpass memisahkan sinyal dari gelombang cariernya, sehingga didapat sinyal aslinya, dengan teknik standar RF. Untuk sejumlah besar carier FDM dengan fasa acak, sinyal carier menumpangi power basis. Kemudian untuk N channel, modulasi optikal dengan index m berhubungan dengan modulasi index mi per channel dengan: Jika setiap modulasi channel index mi nilainya sama dengan nilai mc, maka dirumuskan : Hasilnya jika N sinyal adalah frekuensi yang telah di multiplex dan digunakan untuk memodulasi sumber optik tunggal maka rasio ke noise dari sinyal tunggal berkurang dengan 10 log N. Andaikata beberapa channel digabungkan maka sinyal akan memperkuat tegangan, maka karakteristik penurunan menjadi 10 log N. Jika beberapa frekuensi carrier melewati peralatan non linier seperti laser dioda dapat membangkitkan sinyal yang berbeda dari frekuensi asalnya yang disebut juga sebagai frekuensi intermodulation, dan dapat menyebabkan interferensi pada kedua band dari channel. Hasilnya adalah penurunan jumlah sinyal yang dapat ditransmisikan. Jika frekuensi

kerja dari channel kurang dari 1 oktaf seluruh distorsi harmonis bahkan distorsi intermodulasi (IM) akan keluar dari passband. Jika signal passband mengandung banyak signal carrier. Beberapa IM akan muncul pada frekuensi pada sama. Hal ini disebut juga staking yang merupakan tambahan dari basis power. Dimana ada dua nada orde ketiga tersebar pada daerah operasi passband. Tripel beat product dibuat untuk dikonsentrasikan pada tengah tengah channel, jadi pembawa pusat menerima inteferensi yang paling besar. Hasil dari beat stcaking adalah secara umum pada CSO ( Composite Second Order ) dan CTB ( Composite Tripel Beat ) dan digunakan untuk menggunakan kemampuan dari multichannel hubungan AM
Last Updated on Monday, 25 October 2010 08:45

Nonlinear Characteristics
Nonlinear characteristics include self-phase modulation (SPM), cross-phase modulation (XPM), four-wave mixing (FWM), stimulated Raman scattering (SRS), and stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS).

Self-Phase Modulation
Phase modulation of an optical signal by itself is known as self-phase modulation (SPM). SPM is primarily due to the self-modulation of the pulses. Generally, SPM occurs in single-wavelength systems. At high bit rates, however, SPM tends to cancel dispersion. SPM increases with high signal power levels. In fiber plant design, a strong input signal helps overcome linear attenuation and dispersion losses. However, consideration must be given to receiver saturation and to nonlinear effects such as SPM, which occurs with high signal levels. SPM results in phase shift and a nonlinear pulse spread. As the pulses spread, they tend to overlap and are no longer distinguishable by the receiver. The acceptable norm in system design to counter the SPM effect is to take into account a power penalty that can be assumed equal to the negative effect posed by XPM. A 0.5-dB power margin is typically reserved to account for the effects of SPM at high bit rates and power levels.

Cross-Phase Modulation
Cross-phase modulation (XPM) is a nonlinear effect that limits system performance in wavelength-division multiplexed (WDM) systems. XPM is the phase modulation of a signal caused by an adjacent signal within the same fiber. XPM is related to the combination (dispersion/effective area). CPM results from the different carrier frequencies of independent channels, including the associated phase shifts on one another. The induced phase shift is due to the walkover effect, whereby two pulses at different bit rates or with different group velocities walk across each other. As a result, the slower pulse sees the walkover and induces a phase shift. The total phase shift depends on the net power of all the channels and on the bit output of the channels. Maximum phase shift is produced when bits belonging to high-powered adjacent channels walk across each other. XPM can be mitigated by carefully selecting unequal bit rates for adjacent WDM channels. XPM, in particular, is severe in long-haul WDM networks, and the acceptable norm in system design to counter this effect is to take into account a power penalty that can be assumed equal to the negative effect posed by XPM. A 0.5-dB power margin is typically reserved to account for the effects of XPM in WDM fiber systems.

Four-Wave Mixing
FWM can be compared to the intermodulation distortion in standard electrical systems. When three wavelengths (1, 2, and 3) interact in a nonlinear medium, they give rise to a fourth wavelength ( 4), which is formed by the scattering of the three incident photons, producing the fourth photon. This effect is known as four-wave mixing (FWM)and is a fiber-optic characteristic that affects WDM systems. The effects of FWM are pronounced with decreased channel spacing of wavelengths and at high signal power levels. High chromatic dispersion also increases FWM effects. FWM also causes interchannel cross-talk effects for equally spaced WDM channels. FWM can be mitigated by using uneven channel spacing in WDM systems or nonzero dispersion-shifted fiber (NZDSF). A 0.5-dB power margin is typically reserved to account for the effects of FWM in WDM systems.

Stimulated Raman Scattering


When light propagates through a medium, the photons interact with silica molecules during propagation. The photons also interact with themselves and cause scattering effects, such as stimulated Raman scattering (SRS), in the forward and reverse directions of propagation along the fiber. This results in a sporadic distribution of energy in a random direction. SRS refers to lower wavelengths pumping up the amplitude of higher wavelengths, which results in the higher wavelengths suppressing signals from the lower wavelengths. One way to mitigate the effects of SRS is to lower the input power. In SRS, a low-wavelength wave called Stoke's wave is generated due to the scattering of energy. This

wave amplifies the higher wavelengths. The gain obtained by using such a wave forms the basis of Raman amplification. The Raman gain can extend most of the operating band (C- and L-band) for WDM networks. SRS is pronounced at high bit rates and high power levels. The margin design requirement to account for SRS/SBS is 0.5 dB.

Stimulated Brillouin Scattering


Stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) is due to the acoustic properties of photon interaction with the medium. When light propagates through a medium, the photons interact with silica molecules during propagation. The photons also interact with themselves and cause scattering effects such as SBS in the reverse direction of propagation along the fiber. In SBS, a low-wavelength wave called Stoke's wave is generated due to the scattering of energy. This wave amplifies the higher wavelengths. The gain obtained by using such a wave forms the basis of Brillouin amplification. The Brillouin gain peaks in a narrow peak near the C-band. SBS is pronounced at high bit rates and high power levels. The margin design requirement to account for SRS/SBS is 0.5 dB.

Propagation Modes
Fiber-optic cable has two propagation modes: multimode and single mode. They perform differently with respect to both attenuation and time dispersion. The single-mode fiber-optic cable provides much better performance with lower attenuation. To understand the difference between these types, you must understand what is meant by "mode of propagation." Light has a dual nature and can be viewed as either a wave phenomenon or a particle phenomenon that includes photons and solitons. Solitons are special localized waves that exhibit particle-like behavior. For this discussion, let's consider the wave mechanics of light. When the light wave is guided down a fiber-optic cable, it exhibits certain modes. These are variations in the intensity of the light, both over the cable cross section and down the cable length. These modes are actually numbered from lowest to highest. In a very simple sense, each of these modes can be thought of as a ray of light. For a given fiber-optic cable, the number of modes that exist depends on the dimensions of the cable and the variation of the indices of refraction of both core and cladding across the cross section. The various modes include multimode step index, single-mode step index, single-mode dual-step index, and multimode graded index.

Multimode Step Index


Consider the illustration in Figure 3-8. This diagram corresponds to multimode propagation with a refractive index profile that is called step index. As you can see, the diameter of the core is fairly large relative to the cladding. There is also a sharp discontinuity in the index of refraction as you go from core to cladding. As a result, when light enters the fiber-optic cable on the left, it propagates down toward the right in multiple rays or multiple modes. This yields the designation multimode. As indicated, the lowest-order mode travels straight down the center. It travels along the cylindrical axis of the core. The higher modes, represented by rays, bounce back and forth, going down the cable to the left. The higher the mode, the more bounces per unit distance down to the right. Figure 3-8 Multimode Step Index The illustration also shows the input pulse and the resulting output pulse. Note that the output pulse is significantly attenuated relative to the input pulse. It also suffers significant time dispersion. The reasons for this are as follows. The higher-order modes, the bouncing rays, tend to leak into the cladding as they propagate down the fiber-optic cable. They lose some of their energy into heat. This results in an attenuated output signal. The input pulse is split among the different rays that travel down the fiber-optic cable. The bouncing rays and the lowest-order mode, traveling down the center axis, are all traversing paths of different lengths from input to output. Consequently, they do not all reach the right end of the fiber-optic cable at the same time. When the output pulse is constructed from these separate ray components, the result is chromatic dispersion. Fiber-optic cable that exhibits multimode propagation with a step index profile is thereby characterized as having higher attenuation and more time dispersion than the other propagation candidates. However, it is also the least costly and is widely used in the premises environment. It is especially attractive for link lengths up to 5 kilometers. It can be fabricated either from glass, plastic, or PCS. Usually, MMF core diameters are 50 or 62.5 m MMF propagates only 300 modes as compared to 1100 modes for 62.5Furthermore, 50m fiber. The 50supports 1 Gbps at 850-nm wavelengths for distances up to 1 kilometer versus 275 meters for 62.5meters for 62.5- m MMF. This makes 50multitenant unit (MTU) applications. m. Typically, 50m MMF m MMF.

m MMF supports 10 Gbps at 850-nm wavelengths for distances up to 300 meters versus 33 m MMF the fiber of choice for low-cost, high-bandwidth campus and

Single-Mode Step Index


Single-mode propagation is illustrated in Figure 3-9. This diagram corresponds to single-mode propagation with a refractive index profile that is called step index. As the figure shows, the diameter of the core is fairly small relative to the cladding. Because of this, when light enters the fiber-optic cable on the left, it propagates down toward the right in

just a single ray, a single mode, which is the lowest-order mode. In extremely simple terms, this lowest-order mode is confined to a thin cylinder around the axis of the core. The higher-order modes are absent. Figure 3-9 Single-Mode Step Index Consequently, extremely little or no energy is lost to heat through the leakage of the higher modes into the cladding, because they are not present. All energy is confined to this single, lowest-order mode. Because the higher-order mode energy is not lost, attenuation is not significant. Also, because the input signal is confined to a single ray path, that of the lowest-order mode, very little chromatic dispersion occurs. Single-mode propagation exists only above a certain specific wavelength called the cutoff wavelength. The cutoff wavelength is the smallest operating wavelength when SMFs propagate only the fundamental mode. At this wavelength, the second-order mode becomes lossy and radiates out of the fiber core. As the operating wavelength becomes longer than the cutoff wavelength, the fundamental mode becomes increasingly lossy. The higher the operating wavelength is above the cutoff wavelength, the more power is transmitted through the fiber cladding. As the fundamental mode extends into the cladding material, it becomes increasingly sensitive to bending loss. Comparing the output pulse and the input pulse, note that there is little attenuation and time dispersion. Lower chromatic dispersion results in higher bandwidth. However, single-mode fiber-optic cable is also the most costly in the premises environment. For this reason, it has been used more with metropolitan- and wide-area networks than with premises data communications. Single-mode fiber-optic cable has also been getting increased attention as local-area networks have been extended to greater distances over corporate campuses. The core diameter for this type of fiberoptic cable is exceedingly small, ranging from 8 microns to 10 microns. The standard cladding diameter is 125 microns. SMF step index fibers are manufactured using the outside vapor deposition (OVD) process. OVD fibers are made of a core and cladding, each with slightly different compositions and refractive indices. The OVD process produces consistent, controlled fiber profiles and geometry. Fiber consistency is important, to produce seamless spliced interconnections using fiber-optic cable from different manufacturers. Single-mode fiber-optic cable is fabricated from silica glass. Because of the thickness of the core, plastic cannot be used to fabricate single-mode fiber-optic cable. Note that not all SMFs use a step index profile. Some SMF variants use a graded index method of construction to optimize performance at a particular wavelength or transmission band.

Single-Mode Dual-Step Index


These fibers are single-mode and have a dual cladding. Depressed-clad fiber is also known as doubly clad fiber. Figure 3-10 corresponds to single-mode propagation with a refractive index profile that is called dual-step index. A depressed-clad fiber has the advantage of very low macrobending losses. It also has two zero-dispersion points and low dispersion over a much wider wavelength range than a singly clad fiber. SMF depressed-clad fibers are manufactured using the inside vapor deposition (IVD) process. The IVD or modified chemical vapor deposition (MCVD) process produces what is called depressed-clad fiber because of the shape of its refractive index profile, with the index of the glass adjacent to the core depressed. Each cladding has a refractive index that is lower than that of the core. The inner cladding a the lower refractive index than the outer cladding. Figure 3-10 Single-Mode Dual-Step Index

Multimode Graded Index


Multimode graded index fiber has a higher refractive index in the core that gradually reduces as it extends from the cylindrical axis outward. The core and cladding are essentially a single graded unit. Consider the illustration in Figure 3-11. This corresponds to multimode propagation with a refractive index profile that is calledgraded index. Here the variation of the index of refraction is gradual as it extends out from the axis of the core through the core to the cladding. There is no sharp discontinuity in the indices of refraction between core and cladding. The core here is much larger than in the single-mode step index case previously discussed. Multimode propagation exists with a graded index. As illustrated, however, the paths of the higher-order modes are somewhat confined. They appear to follow a series of ellipses. Because the higher-mode paths are confined, the attenuation through them due to leakage is more limited than with a step index. The time dispersion is more limited than with a step index; therefore, attenuation and time dispersion are present, but limited.

In Figure 3-11, the input pulse is shown on the left, and the resulting output pulse is shown on the right. When comparing the output pulse and the input pulse, note that there is some attenuation and time dispersion, but not nearly as much as with multimode step index fiber-optic cable. Figure 3-11 Multimode Graded Index Fiber-optic cable that exhibits multimode propagation with a graded index profile is characterized as having levels of attenuation and time-dispersion properties that fall between the other two candidates. Likewise, its cost is somewhere between the other two candidates. Popular graded index fiber-optic cables have core diameters of 50, 62.5, and 85 microns. They have a cladding diameter of 125 micronsthe same as single-mode fiber-optic cables. This type of fiber-optic cable is extremely popular in premise data communications applications. In particular, the 62.5/125 fiber-optic cable is the most popular and most widely used in these applications. Glass is generally used to fabricate multimode graded index fiber-optic cable.

Digital Modulation
Figure 1 - Block Diagram of a Basic Digital System

Digital transmission requires converting the analog inputs to digital pulse-code modulation (PCM) data signals. The PCM data is "line coded" such as scrambled NRZ to simplify time synchronizing, critical to digital television (DTV) transmission, as well as providing error monitoring and economic use of the available bandwidth. This line-coded PCM signal modulates the light source. This conversion use precision analog-to-digital circuits. Figure 1 illustrates a basic diagram of a digital transmission system. Some variants of PCM are listed below. The first three describe analog-to-digital modulation, and the last two are strictly digital modulation schemes. Pulse-amplitude Modulation (PAM): Information is encoded by a stream of pulses with discrete amplitudes. Delta Modulation (DM): Pulses are sent at a constant rate with duration determined by the first derivative of the input signal. Adaptive Delta Modulation (ADM): Similar to DM with the ability to adjust the slope of the tracking signal. Phase-shift Keying (PSK): Information is sent over a constant carrier frequency. The phase of the carrier is shifted between two levels as determined by the digital bit to be sent. Differential-phase Shift Keying (DPSK): A variant of PSK that allows for more straightforward decoding. Pulse-code modulation, as the name implies, involves the assignment of a sequence of pulses (or a code) to represent a portion of a signal. Two representations of amplitude include the actual analog voltage and a 4-bit binarydigital voltage. Four bits is defined as the resolution or accuracy of the code, allowing up to 15 voltage increments to be represented. These voltages and 4-bit codes are listed in Table 1. Table 1 - Amplitude Coding Voltage (Voltage Increment = 0.066 Volts) 0 Volts ------0.46 Volts 0.53 Volts ------1.0 Volts

Increment

Binary Code

0 ------7 8 ------15

000 ------0111 1000 ------1111

The pulse code uses four separate pieces of information to convey a single data stream. 0.53 Volts has become 1000. More specifically, the analog signal has been sampled and a series of voltage measurements have been converted to the code shown Table 1. Notice that the voltage does not break cleanly at 0.50 Volts. In reality, there is no 4-bit digital code for 0.50 Volts, only 0.46 Volts and 0.53 Volts. (A longer bitword would be required to accurately code 0.50 Volts.) The inability of the 4-bit word to accurately describe 0.5 Volts is called quantization. Quantizing is dynamically related to the slope of the sampled signal. In quiet, unchanging portions of the video picture, the effects of quantizing are not apparent. In fact, the quantizing effects actually mask random noise components which are less than 1 least significant bit. Quantizing and the resultant pulse codes that are generated "freeze" the signal in a form that is very tolerant of subsequent transmission or processing.
Figure 2 Time-division Multiplexing

Once the analog information has been put into a digital form, the digital channels are time-division multiplexed (TDM) and sent to the laser transmitter. The digital signal is converted into light pulses; the laser is on for a "1" and off for a "0." Timedivision multiplexing is used by digital systems to either combine multiple video signals on to one fiber or to create subchannels for digitized audio and/or data signals. TDM allows signals to be added to or removed from a system without system degradation Figure 2 illustrates the process of TDM. At the receiving end, the light pulses are converted back into electrical pulses. The pulses are time-division demultiplexed (TDD) and sent through a network digital-to-analog (D/A). This converts the information back into a baseband video signal. As in all digital modulation systems, sample rate and accuracy affect the end-to-end signal performance of the system. However, unlike analogsystems, the performance is not further affected by transmission distance, light source noise, or distortion. Digital modulation does not require a linear light source, allowing the light source of a digital system to have a wide range of non-critical operating parameters. Digital modulation is noise immune, so system performance will not degrade over very long ranges, eliminating the need for repeaters. Digital signals can also tolerate losses and reflections from connector, splices, and optical devices such as splitters and wavelength-division multiplexers (WDM). The accurate transmission of a digitally modulated signal ultimately relies on the optical receiver's ability to detect the transition between a "1" and a "0" in the data stream, a function called a decision circuit. To assure this ability, the data stream is "conditioned," or line encoded, using one of several methods known collectively as scrambling. Scrambling rearranges the "1's" and "0's" of the data stream into a predetermined manner, depending on the structure of the input data. Line coding also ensures that the incoming data to the receiver clock recovery subsystem is balanced in bit sequence to allow the phase shifts, caused by uneven data patterns, to be avoided.

Frequency Modulation
Frequency modulation, called FM, is a more sophisticated modulation scheme than AM modulation. It is well-suited to the inherent properties of optical fiber since proper recovery of the encoded signals only requires measurement of timing information, one of fiber's strengths. FM is also immune to amplitude variations caused by optical loss, one of fiber's weaknesses. The heart of the FM modulator revolves around a high-frequency carrier. Now, instead of changing the amplitude of the carrier, the frequency of the carrier is changed according to differences in the signal amplitude. Part of the advantage of FM systems is buried in mathematical analyses that show that the signal-to-noise ratio at the receiver can be improved by increasing the deviation of the carrier. FM also has the advantage of eliminating the need for highly linear optical components that are required for AM systems. Often optical systems employing FM encoding refer to the technique as pulse-frequency modulation (PFM). This simply means that the FM signal is limited (converted to digital 0's and 1's) before it is transmitted over the fiber. The result is the same. In multiplechannel FM systems, each video signal is modulated on a separate carrier. These carriers are then combined to modulate one light source. Each FM video modulator is adjusted to balance distortion products, achieve best signal-to-noise/bandwidth plus compensate for the non-linearity of the light source. As more video channels are added, the overall modulation index of the combined signal increases, which degrades the per channel signal-to-noise ratio (i.e., there is less optical power available per channel.) FM optical systems almost always require more complex electronic circuitry than AM optical systems, but often the total cost is comparable since lowercost optical components can be used in the FM system. Figure 1 shows the block diagram of an FM video link. Assume that a transmitted video signal has a 5 MHz bandwidth. Using a 70 MHz carrier frequency and applying the video signal to produce a 5 MHz deviation, the receiver achieves about a 5 dB enhancement in its signal-to-noise ratio, compared to an AM system. If we increase the deviation of the carrier frequency to 10 MHz, then the improvement increases to 15.6 dB. Unlike AM, FM eliminates the need for highly linear optical components, another important advantage.
Figure 1 - FM Video Link

Three techniques for FM video transmission include sine wave FM, square wave FM, and pulse-frequency modulation. The presence of harmonics yields the notable difference between sine wave FM, square wave FM, and pulse-frequency modulation, as shown in Figure 2. The square wave FM spectrum signal contains only odd-order harmonics. The pulsefrequency modulation spectrum contains all odd- and even-order harmonics yielding a cluttered spectrum poorly suited for multiple-channel stacking; however, it retains its value as a single-channel transmission scheme.

Figure 2 - Frequency Spectra of Three FM Modulation Techniques

Sine wave FM offers an effective means of transmitting multiple channels. In this technique, multiple channels are each assigned a separate carrier frequency, such as illustrated in Figure 3. In this example, four channels of video have been assigned frequencies of 70 MHz,90 MHz, 110 MHz, and 130 MHz.
Figure 3 - Four Channel Video Transmission Using Sine Wave FM Modulation

Often optical systems employing FM encoding refer to the technique as pulse-frequency modulation (PFM). This limits the FM signal by converting it to digital 0's and 1's before transmission. Generally the modulator is designed so that the pulse frequency increases as the input voltage increases. Regardless of the FM technique used, however, these optical systems almost always require more complex electronic circuitry than AM optical systems, but often the total cost is comparable since lower-cost optical components can be used in the FM system.

Amplitude Modulation
Amplitude modulation (AM) uses the same scheme as AM radio. This simple technique often requires very low-cost hardware. Two basic types of AM techniques include baseband and RF carrier. In a baseband system, the input signal directly modulates the strength of the transmitter output, in this case light. In the RF carrier AM technique, a carrier, with a frequency much higher than the encoded information, varies according to the amplitude of the information being encoded. In a fiber optic system, the magnitude of the voltage input signal directly translates into a corresponding light intensity. Figure 1 illustrates the operation of an AM system.
Figure 1 - AM System Operation

In order to use AM transmission over optical fiber, there must be compensation for optical link loss budget. This problem may be solved two ways: by taking advantage of some special property of the input waveform (for video, the sync pulse is an invariant that can be used to distinguish optical loss from signal level variation) or using a technique that allows the signal level to be interpreted independently from optical loss. To accomplish this, one could send a pilot tone at a high frequency that is above or below the frequency of the information being encoded. Three techniques for AM video transmission include baseband AM, RF carrier AM, and Vestigial-sideband AM. Studying the corresponding frequency spectra of these modulation schemes, illustrated in Figure 2, allows for a clearer understanding of their differences. Simple baseband AM occupies the region from DC to about 5 MHz and requires the least bandwidth (assuming we are talking about uncompressed digital encoding techniques). The RF carrier modulation spectrum is similar; it has been shifted to a non-zero frequency (F). This approach requires additional bandwidth and offers no advantage over baseband operation in a single channel per fiber system. However, it does allow multiple channels to be combined onto a single fiber. With vestigialsideband AM, the spectrum again shifts to a non-zero frequency (F), and filtering removes the lower sideband. It allows for more efficient use of the spectrum as compared to straight RF carrier AM, requiring half the bandwidth per channel.

Figure 2 Frequency Spectra of Three AM Transmission Techniques

AM modulation has two main drawbacks. First, the system requires highly linear components to prevent signal distortion as it travels through the communication link. Second, because varying the light intensity encodes the signal, the receiver cannot necessarily differentiate between intended signal level variations and the optical loss that occurs naturally in the fiber itself. For instance, providing a 100% maximum signal into the optical transmitter with 10 dB of optical loss between the transmitter and receiver, the receiver would indicate that the signal level is 10%. The receiver cannot readily distinguish between changes in signal level and changes in optical loss due to the fiber. Automatic gain control can compensate for these losses in an AM link. One approach uses a sophisticated circuit that analyzes the input waveform and sets the sync pulse level to the required 40 IRE units. Figure 3 illustrates this.
Figure 3 Sync Pulse Level AGC

The need for highly linear components can erase much of AM's advantage over other techniques because of the expense associated with obtaining highly linear LEDs. In spite of the difficulties mentioned above, AM systems represent the simplest and least expensive approach to encoding information for fiber optic transmission.