Anda di halaman 1dari 8

A/ 0iolog$ 1eading 2uide 6red and Theresa 7olt8claw

3hapter %45 iruses Name ________________________ MOD _______ DATE____________

Chapter 19: Viruses


Overview Experimental work with viruses has provided important evidence that genes are made of nucleic acids. iruses were also important in working out the molecular mechanisms of DNA replication! transcription! and translation. iruses have "een important in the development of techni#ues of manipulating and transferring genes. As $ou learn a"out viruses in this chapter! $ou will "uild on the foundation necessar$ for an understanding of the molecular techni#ues of "iotechnolog$.

Concept 19.1 A virus consists of a nucleic acid surrounded by a protein coat

%. &hat was some earl$ evidence of the existence of viruses' &h$ were the$ difficult to stud$'

(.

&hat was &endell )tanle$*s contri"ution to our knowledge of viruses'

+.

&hat are the four forms of viral genomes'

,.

&hat is a capsid' &hat are capsomeres' &hat different shapes ma$ capsids have'

-.

As $ou see! all viruses consist of a nucleic acid enclosed in a protein coat. )ome viruses also have a mem"ranous envelope. &hat are the components of a viral envelope' &hich component is derived from the host cell! and which is of viral origin' Viral Component Derived From

.. &hat is the role of an envelope in animal viruses'


Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

9%9

A/ 0iolog$ 1eading 2uide 6red and Theresa 7olt8claw

3hapter %45 iruses

:. 6or the virus shown "elow! la"el the protein capsid, tail fibers, head, tail sheath, and genome. a. ". c. d.
&hat t$pe of virus is this'

&hat does its name mean'

&hat is its host' ;s the genome of this virus DNA! or

1NA' Concept 19.2 Viruses reproduce only in host cells

<. &hat propert$ of a virus determines its attachment to a host cell mem"rane'

4. iruses are obligate intracellular parasites. &hat does this mean'

%=. &hat is meant "$ host range' Distinguish "etween a virus with a "road host range and one
with an extremel$ limited host range! and give an example of each.

%%. 3ompare the host range for the ra"ies virus to that of the human cold virus.

%(. &hat components of the host cell does a virus use to reproduce itself' %+. 7ow does a DNA virus reproduce its genome'
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

9(9

A/ 0iolog$ 1eading 2uide 6red and Theresa 7olt8claw

3hapter %45 iruses

%,. 7ow do most 1NA viruses replicate their genome'

%-. On this figure of a simplified viral reproductive c$cle! la"el arrows to show these processes5
transcription, translation, infection, replication, and self-assembly. Annotate $our la"els to explain the process of viral reproduction.

%.. & hat are bacteriophage s' Distinguish "et ween virulent and temperate phage.

%:. & hat portion of a phage enters the host cell' 7o w does it do this'

%<. & hat are restriction enzymes ' & hat is their role in "acteria'

%4.

&h$ don*t restriction en8$mes destro$ the DNA of the "acterial cells that produce them' 9+9

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

A/ 0iolog$ 1eading 2uide

3hapter %45 iruses

6red and Theresa 7olt8claw (=. &hat are three wa$s "acteria ma$ win the "attle against the phages'

(%.

&hat is a prophage'

((.

)ince cells that have incorporated phage DNA into their genome ma$ continue to divide and propagate the viral genome! this might "e considered somewhat like the Tro>an horse. &hat might trigger the switchover from lysogenic to lytic mode'

(+.

?a"el the following elements of the figure "elow5 lysogenic phage, lysogenic cycle, lytic cycle, prophage, phage DNA, bacterial chromosome, and self assembly.

(,. Descri"e the lytic and lysogenic modes of "acteriophage reproduction.

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

9,9

A/ 0iolog$ 1eading 2uide

3hapter %45 iruses

6red and Theresa 7olt8claw (-. There are some general differences "etween "acteriophages and animal viruses. &hat are two elements that nearl$ all animal viruses have'

(.. &hat is a retrovirus' 7ow do retroviruses! such as 7; ! replicate their genome'

(:. 7ere is a sketch of 7; . ?a"el these parts5 envelope, reverse transcriptase, RNA, and capsid.

(<. 3ompare and contrast a prophage and a provirus. &hich one are you likel$ to carr$'

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

9-9

A/ 0iolog$ 1eading 2uide5 3hapter %4 iruses 6red @ Theresa 7olt8claw

(4. This sketch shows the infection of a cell "$ 7; . Extend la"el lines to give a complete
explanation of the process. 1efer to $our text 6igure %4.< for details.

+=. The final section in this concept is titled AEvolution of iruses.B 6rom this part! descri"e the
two possi"le sources of viral genomes. Cou will see each of these important mobile genetic elements again. Description of the Mobile Genetic Element Plasmids Transposons

Concept 19. Viruses! viroids! and prions are formidable patho"ens in animals and plants
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. iruses 9 . A/ 0iolog$ 1eading 2uide 3hapter %45

A/ 0iolog$ 1eading 2uide5 3hapter %4 iruses 6red @ Theresa 7olt8claw

+%.

&hat are three wa$s that viruses make us ill' &h$ do we recover completel$ from a cold "ut not from polio'

+(.

&hat tools are in the medical arsenal against human viral diseases'

++.

Emerging viruses such as 7; ! E"ola! and )A1) seem to "urst upon the human scene. &hat are three processes that contri"ute to this sudden emergence'

+,.

The current flu pandemic is H1N1. &hat does this name mean'

+-.

Distinguish "etween horizontal transmission and vertical transmission in plants.

+..

7ow do viruses spread throughout plant "odies'

+:.

&hat is a viroid' &hat important lesson do the$ teach' Name one viroid disease.

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. iruses 9 :

A/ 0iolog$ 1eading 2uide 3hapter %45

A/ 0iolog$ 1eading 2uide5 3hapter %4 iruses 6red @ Theresa 7olt8claw

!"

#rions strike fear into carnivores ever$where. &hat are the$' 7ow are the$ transmitted' &hat do the$ do'

$"

Name four diseases caused "$ prions.

%&"

&hat are two alarming characteristics of prions'

%1"

Two No"el /ri8es have "een awarded for the stud$ of prions. One went to 3arlton 2ad>usek! who worked with the 6ore people of /apua New 2uinea in the %4.=s to determine the cause of a kuru epidemic. &ho got the second No"el /ri8e in this area! and when'

'esting (our )no*ledge+ ,elf--uiz Ans*ers Now $ou should "e read$ to test $our knowledge. /lace $our answers here5 %. (. +. ,. -.

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. iruses 9 <

A/ 0iolog$ 1eading 2uide 3hapter %45