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Basic Engine Oil Info

Excerpts from Castrol Website The oil used in your car has two primary ingredients: base oil and additives. The base oil allows the motor oil to perform its vital function - lubricating the engines moving parts to protect them against wear and tear caused by friction. The additives provide additional engine protection by helping to prevent the oil from deteriorating under the engines extreme temperature conditions. The base oil is refined from crude (oil in its natural state when pumped from the ground). The crude must undergo a variety of refining processes before yielding base stock suitable for use in engine oil. ndesirable components such as wax! sulphur and nitrogen compounds must be removed. nsaturated hydrocarbons must be extracted or converted into more stable molecules. "rude is first separated by vacuum distillation into a series of fractions or viscosity ranges. The fractions intended for base oil production are processed further using various combinations of refining processes. Check out this Castrol basic oil information webpage for a discussion of the various processes such as 'hydrotreating', 'solvent extraction', 'hydrocracking'. Knowing these terms will help you better understand the terms used in engine oil product sheets.

Oil Base Stocks


#il base stocks are divided into five general categories! as defined by the $merican %etroleum &nstitute ($%&): 'roup & - "onventional - (ineral oil derived from crude oil 'roup && - )ydroprocessed - )ighly refined mineral oil 'roup &&& * +evere hydroprocessed - ltra refined mineral oil 'roup &, * %olyalphaolefins (%$#) 'roup , - #ther base stocks not included in 'roup &! &&! &&&! or &, (e.g. ester-based oil) 'roups &! && and &&& base stocks are derived from crude oil! differentiated by various levels of processing. 'roups &, and , are base stocks chemically synthesi-ed from other sources such as ethylene gas. +ome important points to remember about base stocks and product labeling:

&t has been common practice for manufacturers to label their products based on 'roup &&& as ./ully +ynthetic. even though the base stocks are made from crude oil. 'roup &, or , based synthetic oil is not necessarily better than 'roup &&& based oil. The additives (anti-wear! anti-oxidant! detergent! etc.) that manufacturers use play an integral part in the overall 0uality of engine oil. +ome 'roup &&& based 1fully synthetic1 oil can and do outperform some 'roup &, or , products. The term .+emi-+ynthetic.! .+ynthetic 2lend. or .+ynthetic Technology. are marketing words that do not indicate how much synthetic oil vs mineral oil a manufacturer puts in

its product. $ semi-synthetic oil may contain half! or even 3ust 45 synthetic base stocks and still be called semi-synthetic. (ineral oil technology has improved greatly over the years. (ost of todays $%& +6 or +( rated oil! and $"7$ certified oil will outperform the best oil! mineral or synthetic! produced two decades ago.

aking sense of a !ungle of oil terms and acronyms

Oil Viscosity (SAE Grade)


Excerpts from Castrol Website #il thins when heated and thickens when cooled. "hoosing the proper motor oil viscosity grade for the ambient temperature of your geographic location is therefore vitally important. &n a monograde oil the motor oil viscosity is defined at only one temperature! either high or low. $ multigrade must keep a viscosity that will protect the engine effectively at both high and low temperatures. This makes multigrades an easy and popular year-round choice for drivers who experience hot summers and harsh winters. (ultigrades are easily recogni-ed by the dual viscosity rating (i.e. 89:-;9 where the 89: is the low temperature or winter designation and the ;9 is the high temperature designation). &t is the motor oil viscosity modifier additive that produces a thickening effect at high temperatures but is dormant at low temperatures. #il is graded by viscosity! which by definition is the physical property of a fluids resistance to flow. ,iscosity is only one part of the e0uation in choosing the correct oil. The +$7 viscosity grade <#7+ =#T involve testing other chemical properties and more importantly! performance.

API Service Categories and ACEA Oil Seq ences


&n the 8>?9s! the $merican %etroleum &nstitute ($%&) established standards and certifications on engine oil. The $%& categories do involve performance and chemical tests. +o to simplify it a bit! while the +$7 grade specifies the most basic oil property which is viscosity! the $%& rating describes its 0uality. $%& tests include but are not limited to:

anti-wear tests evaporation loss viscosity change shear stability deposit and sludge resistance anti-foaming performance chemical limits of various substances

#il containers have marks of +'@"<! +6@"/! +(@"/ and so on. The + categories are for gasoline engines! while the " are for diesel. The latest standards are +( for gasoline and "&A@"B-A for diesel. The categories are rated alphabetically! meaning an +( oil has been tested to meet the latest performance standards! so presumably has much better 0uality than an +' oil. +) was adopted in 8>>C! +B in 8>>D! +6 in C998! +( in C99A. $"7$ ratings are the 7uropean counterpart of the $%& service categories! with slightly different re0uirements and tests. $"7$ ($ssociation des "onstructeurs 7uropeens d$utomobiles) was formed by 7uropean car manufacturers to try to standardi-e test re0uirements for oil approval. 7ngine oil is classified by $"7$ according to similar tests as the $%&. /or gasoline engines ($) and light duty diesel engines (2)! the current classifications are $8@28! $;@2;! $;@2A! and $4@24. /or further reading! please check the official $%& and $"7$ publications: $%& 849>! 7ngine #il 6icensing and "ertification +ystem - 8;; pages describing $%& service symbols tests and re0uirements $"7$ 7uropean #il +e0uences C99D - 84 pages describing $"7$ tests and re0uirements or search for more information in the $%&s or $"7$s respective websites: $%& 7ngine #il %ublications $"7$ %ublications $n important thing to understand is that both $%& and $"7$ classifications <# =#T care what base stock is used! whether its mineral or synthetic. &t is the performance in their tests that matter.

!ocally Available Engine Oil Prod cts

2elow is a list of locally available engine oil products and their current prices. :e will continue to expand the list and update the information as we gather them. "ast updated #$#%$#&''. (lease visit this page often.
2rand %roduct 'rade Type 2ase #il $pplicati %rice@liter 'roup on (typical) 'asoline % ??9 'asoline % ??9 'asoline % ;;9 'asoline % ;;9 'asoline % C9A 'asoline % 8?? <iesel <iesel <iesel <iesel <iesel <iesel % CGC % 8>> % 8G> % 8?; % 8;D % 8;C Eatings $%& $"7$ +6@"/ +(@"/ +(@"/ +6@"/ +6@"/ +'@"< "/ "/ ")-A "<@+7 ""@+7 +(@"/ ,iscosity (c+t) <ata +heets A9F" 899F" &ndex %<+ (+<+ 8C.C 8;.8 8A.A 8A.A 8>.9 8D.G 8A.> H 8A.; 8A.9 8A.4 8A.A 8A.4 H H H H 8;D 8;? 8?4 H 8C4 8;? 8A> 899 8D;

)elix ltra 4:-;9 7 )elix ltra 4:-A9 )elix )ID 4:-A9 )elix %lus 89:-A9 )elix +uper C9:-49 (yellow) )elix (red) C9:-49 )elix 89:-A9 <iesel %lus )elix <iesel 84:-A9 +uper Eimula I 84:-A9 Eimula < Eimula " Eotella I )avoline /ully +ynthetic )avoline +emi+ynthetic )avoline /ormula )avoline +/ 84:-A9 84:-A9 +$7-A9 4:-A9

+ynthetic &&& +ynthetic &&& +emi&&@&&& synthetic +emi&&@&&& synthetic (ineral && (ineral &@&& +emi&&@&&& synthetic (ineral && (ineral && (ineral && (ineral &@&& (ineral &@&& +ynthetic &&& +emi&&@&&& synthetic (ineral && (ineral && +emi&&@&&& synthetic (ineral && +ynthetic &&& +emi&&@&&& synthetic (ineral && (ineral && (ineral && +ynthetic &, +ynthetic &, +emi&&@&&& synthetic +emi&&@&&& synthetic (ineral &&

$;@2;@2A ?G.C $;@2;@2A DA.A $;@2;@2A GC.4 $;@2A $C $;@2A 2C 7;@74 >C.8 84D 8A4 >4 H 884 89A 899 8;>

+hell

"/-A@+' -

'asoline % ?>A

$;@2;@2A GD.4

89:-A9 C9:-49 C9:-A9

'asoline % ;GG 'asoline % C4C 'asoline % 8G4 <iesel <iesel % A;C % C;8

+6@"/ +6@"/ +/@"<

H 8DA H 88C 884

H 8>.8 H 84.8 84.8 H 8A.4 H H H 8A.9 8D.A 8A.A 8A.4 8A.4

H 8C4 H 8A9 8;D H 8A> H H H 8G? 8GA 84A H 8;?

"altex

<elo +ports 84:-A9 <elo 'old 84:-A9 (ultigrade 7dge 4:-A9 (agnatec "astrol 'TI 'TI <iesel "E2 Turbo (obil 8 (obil 8 (obil 89:-A9 C9:-49 84:-A9 84:-A9 9:-A9 4:-49

")-A@+B 7; ")-A@+6 7; +(@"/ +(@"/ +(@"/ ")-A "/-A +(@"/ +(@"/ +(@"/ +(@"/ +(@"/

'asoline % ?G9 'asoline % C>9 'asoline % CC9 <iesel % C89

$;@2;@2A H $;@2; 89C H H

<iesel % 8D9 'asoline % GD9 'asoline % DA9 'asoline % AD9 'asoline % AD9 'asoline % C89

H $;@2;@2A DG $;@2;@2A 894 $;@2; $;@2; $;@2; >C >4.G 89>

+uper C999 89:-A9 IC +uper + 89:-A9 %lus +uper 8999 84:-A9

IC +uper I)% 84:-A9 %lus +pecial C9:-49 )< +$7 A9 <elvac 8 4:-A9

(ineral && (ineral &@&& (ineral &@&& +ynthetic &&&@&, (ineral && (ineral &@&& (ineral &@&& +ynthetic , +ynthetic , +ynthetic , +ynthetic , +ynthetic , +ynthetic , +ynthetic , +ynthetic , +ynthetic , +ynthetic , +ynthetic , +ynthetic &&& +emi&&@&&& synthetic (ineral && (ineral &@&& +ynthetic &&& (ineral && (ineral && (ineral &@&& +ynthetic , +ynthetic ,

'asoline % C89 'asoline % 8D4 'asoline % 8D9 <iesel <iesel <iesel <iesel % G99 % CC4 % 8G9 % 8D9

+(@"/ +'@"< +7@"" "&AJ@+6 "&-A@+6 "/@+/ "<@+/ +6@"/ +6 +6 -

$;@2; 7D@74 7D -

89> H H 89C 88D 8A? 8A? 8D9 H G8 ?4 A9

8A.4 H H 8A.G 84.4 8A.? 8A.G C; H 8;.G 88 G.9 8A.9 H H 8C H H 84.8

8;? H H 848 8A9 >> >G 8?C H 8D? 8?C 8DD 8D; H H 8?8 H H H H H H H H H H 8?C 8AC

<elvac (I 84:-A9 <elvac +$7 A9 8;A9 <elvac +$7 A9 88A9 ;99, 6e C9:-?9 (ans ;99, "ompetitio 84:-49 n ;99, 4:-A9 %ower ;99, %ower 4:-;9 Eacing ;99, )igh 9:-C9 E%( (#T 6 G899 I4:-A9 cess )-Tech 899 89:-A9 )-Tech 899 4:-;9 +pecific 2(: 66- 4:-;9 98 +pecific 4:-;9 (2 CC>.4 +pecific "<Ei 89:-A9 <iesel ltron 4:-A9 Eace ltron 89:-A9 Eallye ltron C9:-49 Touring ltron C9:-A9 %etron 7xtra Eev-I $ll 4:-;9 Terrain Eev-I 84:-A9 Trekker Eev-I +$7-A9 )auler Eev-I )< +$7-A9 Eed 6ine 4:-;9 4:;9 Eed 6ine Eed 6ine 89:-;9 89:;9

'asoline % 8!849 'asoline % 8!849 'asoline % 8!849 'asoline % 8!849 'asoline % 8!849 'asoline % D49 'asoline % A>4 'asoline % A>4 'asoline % GC9 'asoline % GC9 <iesel % ?C9

$;@2;@2A G; H H D; H H

"&-A@+6 2A +6@"/ +6 +6 +/@"" ")-A "&-A "/@+/ ""@+< +(@"/ +(@"/

'asoline % ?A; 'asoline % ;49 'asoline % C8G 'asoline % 8DC <iesel <iesel <iesel <iesel % A4> % C9C % 8D> % 8AD

$;@2;@2A >;.D

$C@$;@2C@ >A.> 8A.; 2; $C@$;@2C@ 84D.4 8G.9 2; 7A@74 7C@7A@74 H DA.; 88? 8;> 8;G ?C D9 H 8C.8 84.8 8A.4 8A.4 89.? 89.D

'asoline % ?49 K 'asoline % ?49 K

Eed 6ine 4:A9 Eed 6ine 89:A9 Eed 6ine 84:49 Eed 6ine C9:49 Eed 6ine 84:A9 <iesel Luart>999 +( LuartD999 +( Luart4999 +( T#T$6 Luart;999 LuartC499 Eubia IT Eubia "

4:-A9 89:-A9 84:-49 C9:-49 84:-A9 4:-A9 84:-49 C9:-49 C9:-49 +$7-A9 84:-A9 +$7-A9

+ynthetic , +ynthetic , +ynthetic , +ynthetic , +ynthetic , +ynthetic &&& +emi&&@&&& synthetic (ineral && (ineral &@&& (ineral &@&& (ineral && (ineral &@&&

'asoline % ?49 K 'asoline % ?49 K 'asoline % ?49 K 'asoline % ?49 K <iesel 'asoline 'asoline % ;8? 'asoline % C;G 'asoline % 8AD 'asoline % 84A <iesel <iesel % C99 % 8>> % ?49 K

+(@"/ +(@"/ +(@"/ +(@"/

>A >; 8;G 8AG >D GD.; 8AD 84G 84A 849 8?> 844

84.8 8A.? 8>.? 8>.G 8A.4 8A.C 8>.9 8?.G 8D.9 84.4 8G.G 84.4

8D9 8?A 8?C 844 844 8?> 8AG 88A 88> 899 8C4 899

"B-A@+( +(@"/ +(@"/ +(@"/ +/@"" +/@"< $;@2; $C@2C $C@2C -

"/-A@+) 7C "<@+/ -

) price per *uart +,-. m"/ Disclaimer: 0he above information is only provided as a guide. We do not guarantee its accuracy. 1atings and viscosity data are gathered from product packaging and data sheets when available. 2ase 3il type is inferred from both product and material safety data sheets. 4ata for 1oyal (urple, E5E36 and others to follow shortly. (lease e7mail us if you have any *uestions, comments, additions or corrections about the data on this page. "ast updated #$#%$#&''. (lease visit this page often.

O r "eco##endations

/ollow the viscosity grade recommended by your vehicle owners manual. /or gasoline engines! use an $%& S! or S$ rated oil. The +6 service category was adopted by the $%& in C998! and +( was adopted in C99A. /or diesel engines! use an $%& CI%&' CI%&(' or C)%& rated oil. The ")-A was adopted by the $%& in 8>>G! and "&-A in C99A. &f using semi-synthetic or mineral oil! change the oil at most every *'+++ k# or , #ont-s! whichever comes first. &f using synthetic oil! change the oil at most every .+'+++ k# or . year! whichever comes first. Eegardless of what your vehicle manufacturer says about extended oil change intervals (i.e. CA!999 km for late model 2(:s)! it is best to stay on the safe side of changing your engine oil more regularly. &f you insist on following an extended oil change! please go ahead. :ell be glad to sell you more bottles of $uto-Ex when your mechanic gives you the news that your engine is sludged.

$lways use high-0uality oil filters! preferably #7(-supplied or from a proven manufacturer. "heck your oil level every week. <o a full $uto-Ex clean-and-rinse cycle every A9!999 km to remove deposits and maintain engine cleanliness. Mou can also do the (aintenance %lan of adding >9 m6 (; fl. o-.) of $uto-Ex at every oil change to keep your already treated engine clean.

Co#/atibility 0it- A to%"1

Mou can use any oil with $uto-Ex! whether synthetic or mineral-based. )owever! we recommend using 'roup && or 'roup &&& oil during the clean and rinse phases for more effective results. &f you want to start $uto-Ex treatment immediately but have 3ust changed your oil to a 'roup &, synthetic (Eoyal %urple! most (obil 8) or 'roup , synthetic (Eed 6ine! (#T 6 ;99, and G899)! 3ust pour $uto-Ex into your engine but extend the clean phase to 4!999 km. se a 'roup &&& synthetic for the rinse phase.