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BANDINGBEZA ANTARA KAEDAH PERBINCANGAN, DEMONSTRASI, EKSPERIMEN DAN KAJIAN LAPANGAN.

PERBEZAAN DEMONSTRASIEKSPERIMENKAJIANLAPANGANPERBINCANGAN DEFINISI Menggalakkan muridbertukar-tukar fikiran dari segi idea dan berkongsi maklumat. Melibatkan penerangan guru, pendengaran, penglihatan dan perubahan murid. Membuat kajian melalui aktiviti penyiasatan melibatkan proses sains. Murid melihat sesuatu denganmata sendiri samada hubungan yang wujud dalam alam semulajadi mahupun persekitaran yang direka P-Mengemukakan pandangan dan membuat rumusan sendiri D-Melihat dan mendengar keterangan guru. E-Melakukan eksperimen untuk mengkaji sesuatu K-Merancang kesesuaian tempat,perbelanjaan , penginapan,pengangkutan dan makanan. P-Memberi panduan dan bimbingan. D-Mendemostrasikan sesuatu eksperimen yang sukar dilakukan dan menerangkan sesuatu prinsip. E-Menyediakan alatdan radas yangdiperlukan. Memberibimbingan semasa amali. K-Merancang keseragaman tempat, perbelanjaan,perbelanjaan, penginapan,pengangkutan dan makanan.PERANANMURIDPERANANGURU P-Menggalakkan murid berfikirsecara aktif untukmenghubungkaitkan idea masing-masing serta mendapatkan jawapan bagi sesuatu masalah. E-Membolehkan murid menyelesaikan sesuatueksperimen atau perbuatan yang murid sendiri tidak mampulakukan. D-Menguasai asas makmal dan perolehi pengalaman amali secara langsung. K-Memahami dan menghargai alam sekitar serta memupuk perasaan cintakan warisan alam semulajadi.A P-Sebarang lokasi. D-Di tempat yang sesuai agar jelas E-Dalam bilik sains agarselamat K-Diluar kawasan sekolah seperti zoo dan tasik.

JACOB KOUNIN Chapter Objectives


After reading this chapter, you should be able to: 1. Explain what Kounin meant by the term "instructional management" and why he thought teachers' behaviors contributed to positive student behaviors. 2. Define what Kounin meant by the following terms to refer to teacher behaviors: withitness, desists, overlapping, and satiation. 3. Explain how Kounin defined the term "movement management" and related aspects such as jerkiness, stimulus bound, thrust, dangles, flip-flops, and overdwelling. 4. Discuss whether Kounin's Instructional Management teaches or imposes discipline and whether his model can address behavior problems in contemporary schools. 5. Explain what Kounin meant by the term "group focus" and related terms such as group alerting and accountability. 6. Identify the advantages and disadvantages of Kounin's Instructional Management. 7. Discuss whether instructional management can address students' cultural, gender, and social class diversity. 8. Explain whether Kounin's Instructional Management can contribute to the effort to make contemporary schools safe.

SKINNER, GLASSER, GORDON Chapter Objectives


After reading chapter 2, you should be able to: 1. Identify and discuss the major theorists who laid the foundation for contemporary classroom management. 2. Describe the basics of their theories. 3. Explain the classroom management ideas that can be drawn from each model. 4. Discuss the ways in which the work of the foundational theorists influenced contemporary theories of classroom management and the movement for safe schools. 5. Identify the perceived criticisms of the work of each theorist. 6. Explain the impact that cultural and other forms of student diversity have on each of these theories.

LEE CANTER & MARLENE CANTER Chapter Objectives


After reading chapter 3, you should be able to: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Define Assertive Discipline. List and discuss its major concepts and the teachers' roles and responsibilities. Identify significant advantages and disadvantages of Assertive Discipline. Explain how Assertive Discipline can be translated into practical application. Explain how the practical applications reflect a teacher's philosophical and psychological belief.

6. Discuss how teachers can determine Assertive Discipline's propensity for addressing students' psychological or developmental needs. 7. Explain whether Assertive Discipline has the potential for addressing student misbehaviors in contemporary classrooms. 8. Discuss the ways in which Assertive Discipline addresses diversity perspectives, specifically students' diverse cultural, gender, and social class backgrounds. 9. Identify additional sources of information such as Internet sites, books, and journal articles on Assertive Discipline.

HAIM GINOTT

Chapter Objectives
After reading this chapter, you should be able to: 1. Explain why Ginott's work should be termed a theory rather than a model. 2. Define congruent communication and explain how this idea contributes to positive classroom management. 3. Explain what Ginott meant when he, as a young teacher, said, "I am the decisive element in the classroom" (Ginott, 1972a, p. 15). 4. Identify the behaviors Ginott would describe as "teachers at their best" and "teachers at their worst." 5. Explain "sane messages" and provide examples. 6. Explain why Ginott says that punishment should be avoided, and identify what he suggests as an alternative. 7. List Ginott's essential principles and explain how they can be implemented effectively. 8. Explain how diversity affects Ginott's theories of congruent communication.

Using Rewards
Skinner believed in the use of positive reinforcement to establish, reinforce, and maintain a desired behavior. Many educators use rewards in the classroom to manage student behavior. Visit some of the following websites to see how teachers use rewards in the classroom Teachers identify sample rewards that work for them http://www.teachnet.com/how-to/manage/freeday120100.html http://www.teachnet.com/how-to/manage/banana011999.html Tips for using rewards and an article on rewards http://www.education-world.com/a_curr/curr300.shtml Classroom reward ideas for primary teachers http://hometown.aol.com/mellettk/Webpage/behaviorplan2.html Suggested positive classroom rewards http://www6.tltc.ttu.edu/johnson/electronic_portfolios/students/mfogel/classroom_management.htm

Practicing Assertive Discipline


According to the Canters, teachers need to be "assertive" or "actively take charge." This includes using assertive statements. Visit the following website to find additional information on Assertive Discipline. http://maxweber.hunter.cuny.edu/pub/eres/EDSPC715_MCINTYRE/AssertiveDiscipli ne.html Then, using ideas from this website, the Canters' discipline hierarchy, and the five steps of Assertive Discipline, plan assertive responses for these behaviors (remember they should be developmentally appropriate for either elementary or secondary students). Elementary

A 1st grader grabs another student's crayons. A 4th grader constantly walks around the room but claims, "I am only sharpening my pencil." A 5th grader bullies weaker students and you overhear him threaten to "beat them up" after school.

Secondary

An usually well-behaved 8th grader uses obscenities during an argument with another student. A 10th grader "borrows" another student's calculator but never returns it. A 12th grader constantly interrupts the teacher and tells others there is nothing the teacher can do.

Establishing Rewards
In the Canters' Assertive Discipline model, teachers are to implement a system of positive assertions and to reward students for positive behaviors. There are a number of ways to do this. Read the article on rewards found at http://www.education-world.com/a_curr/curr300.shtml.

Preparing Yourself
Ginott talked about the teacher's personal approach which creates a climate in the classroom. Part of a teacher's preparation includes the professional presence of that individual in a classroom. Complete the following: 1. Identify the level on which you will be teaching. 2. List the instructional activities in which you will be participating while teaching (walking around the class, sitting on the floor for story time, demonstrating science experiments, leaning over student desks to correct seat work, etc.). 3. Using magazine pictures, pictures from the Internet, or other photographs, develop a teaching wardrobe. Explain how this wardrobe fits your instructional activities. 4. Have your instructor or another classmate review your choices.

Managing a Classroom With Instructional Activities


Kounin believed that instructional behaviors are a very important part of classroom management. With careful planning, teachers can often use effective instructional activities to prevent behavior problems or to correct misbehaviors. Here are some additional tips: Elementary 1. Arrange classroom furniture (and a seating chart, too) in such a way that all children know they are seen at all times. Such an arrangement will help you readily know potential behaviors and also help younger students feel they are under your constant care and supervision. 2. Provide younger students with a visible means of letting you know when they are confused or bothered by a situation. 3. Make sure all children know the location of materials and supplies, e.g., drawing paper, crayons, and resource materials. 4. Avoid grouping students in such a way that might lead to too much talking and goofing off. 5. Demonstrate withit behaviors (e.g., "eyes in the back of the head"), so students will know you are aware of their behaviors. 6. Teach children routines and procedures for going to lunch, recess, and other special activities. Secondary 1. Use overlapping to avoid too much "down-time" during transitions from one activity to another. 2. Plan clubs and extra-curricular activities as you would actual classroom instruction (e.g., remember Kounin's movement management), so students will have neither the time nor inclination to engage in undesirable behaviors. 3. Discuss misbehaviors and their effects in discussion groups, e.g., advisory sessions and exploratory programs. 4. Watch students for signs of satiation, which can lead to misbehaviors and boredom. 5. Teach appropriate behavior skills (including name-calling and using slurs) during homeroom periods or during home-based guidance, so middle and secondary students will be sure to know your expected behaviors. 6. Be on the lookout for signs or indications of violent behaviors or any behaviors that will make a student feel physically or psychologically unsafe. Visit several Internet sites in Reaching Out With Technology for information on Kounin's Instructional Management. After visiting these and other Internet sites, make a list of ways you can "manage behavior through instruction" in the following specific situations: Elementary 1. A first-grade teacher wants to manage loud behaviors on the way to and from lunch. 2. A third-grade teacher wants to manage children and has difficulty during times in the library media center. 3. A fifth-grade teacher wants to manage the talking and general lack of civility during advisoradvisee groups. Secondary

1. An eighth grade teacher wants to manage talking, goofing off, and walking around during remedial math class. 2. A tenth-grade teacher wants to manage derogatory remarks and slurs about other people. 3. A twelfth-grade chemistry teacher wants to manage students playing carelessly with potentially dangerous chemicals.

Avoiding Overdwelling
Teachers are always warned that they need to have backup ideas that they can use any time students finish a lesson in a shorter time than planned. However, it is also important to plan activities that students can do when they have finished their assigned work. Saying "if you finish early, just review your answers" is an invitation to management problems. One suggestion is to post a bulletin board headed: When I finish my work early I can.... On this bulletin board, you can list activities that students can do, such as: Elementary Draw a picture. Create a card to send to parents. Work at a center. Secondary Begin work on homework. Work on an extra credit project (that you have explained in advance). Both Read a library book. Complete a worksheet of brain teasers (that you keep in a file in the room for such occasions). Listen to an audio book of short stories from the classroom library. Make a list of the activities that you could put on the "When I finish my work early I can" bulletin board for your own classroom.

Using Beginning and Ending Routines


Kounin believes in consistency in the classroom. One way to maintain consistency is to develop routines for many of the common events that happen in a classroom. In chapter 2, we discussed some routines. Another time when routines are necessary is at the beginning and end of the day in elementary school and the beginning and end of class in high school. In particular, all teachers need to develop routines for keeping attendance. Taking attendance means that you need to identify: 1. Students who are present in class (P) 2. Students who are absent. In addition you may need to be able to note a. An excused absence (E)

b. An unexcused absence (U) 3. Students who are late for class (tardy) (P/T) 4. Students who left class early (P/L-minutes/hours early) Here is a sample attendance book using the table feature in a word processor.

Some teachers prefer not to mark students who are present so that absences and lateness show up better.

Use a search engine and visit some websites to look at commercial grade books. Can you find an attendance book that will work for you? Why or why not? How would you set up your attendance book?

1. The Kounin Model Jacob S. Kounin Book: Discipline and Group Management in Classrooms 2. Main idea .Organization + Planning = Good Classroom Management 3. Jacob Kounin. Focuses on preventive discipline -- techniques and strategies designed to prevent the occurrence of discipline problems in the first place. Good classroom management depends on effective lesson management. The ways teachers handle misbehavior once it occurs are not the keys to successful classroom management. 4. Kounins Principle Teachings. Teachers need to be attentive to all aspects of the classroom. Effective teachers keep students attentive and actively involved. Teachers should be able to attend to two activities at the same time. Activities should be enjoyable and challenging. 5. Kounins Key Ideas .The Ripple Effect Withitness Overlapping Effective Transitions Group Focus Satiation 6. The Ripple Effect .The "ripple effect" occurs when the teacher corrects a misbehavior in one student, and this positively influences the behavior of other nearby students. 7. Withitness .Awareness of what is going on in all parts of the classroom at all times. 8. Overlapping Being able to attend to two or more issues at the same time. 9. Effective Transitions Keeping lessons moving with avoiding abrupt changes. Smoothness Momentum of the lesson

10. Group Focus The ability to keep members of the class or group paying attention to the task 11. Satiation Being satisfied or having enough 12. Teachers can reduce satiation by: Providing a feeling of progress Offering challenges throughout the lesson Being enthusiastic Adding variety to the lesson 13. Teachers need Lesson Movement Emphasized a strong relationship between Effective Management and Effective Teaching!

1. MODELS OF CLASSROOM DISCIPLINE The Skinners Model of Discipline. The Kounins Model of Discipline. In this section, we will be going to look into two models of classroom discipline, and they are: 2. SUMMARY 3. THE KOUNIN MODEL WITH-IT-NESS, ALERTING AND GROUP MANAGEMENT. Optimal learning takes place when teachers keep pupils alert and held accountable for learning Smooth transitions between activities and maintaining momentum are key to effective group management The teacher needs to be with it to know what is going on everywhere in the room at all times. The ripple effect: when you correct a students behavior, it tends to change the behavior of others. 4. KEY IDEAS Boredom [satiation] can be avoided by providing variety to lessons, classroom environment and by pupils awareness of progress.5. Most powerful in childhood/primary levels. Makes students aware of the consequences of completing/not-completing their tasks. E.g. Good, I see a lot of you are almost done with your tasks, and I see a few people who may have to stay after school to finish, Teacher issues encouragement and at the same time gives reprimands. 6. THE RIPPLE EFFECT Handling the correct deviant on time is more important than firmness, or clarity of desist students are less likely to misbehave. Teachers need to assert this trait verbally, as students are only convinced that teachers really know what is going on if they give responses to classroom goings-on. Describes teachers knowing what was going on in all areas of the classroom all the time. 7. WITH-IT-NESS Teacher must be able to handle one thing without affecting the other, for example: Students are playing while the rest are doing tasks in small groups. Teacher should have the small group continue while addressing the deviants from a distance, instead of stopping the small group activity, handle the deviants and reestablishing the small group work. Ability to attend to two issues at the same time. 8. OVERLAPPING Teachers must be able to move smoothly from one activity to the next and maintain momentum within every activity keeps students attention on task on hand. Smooth transition is important. 9. MOVEMENT MANAGEMENT However, not effective (almost no help) in corrective facet of discipline, wherein misbehaviors must be dealt with and redirected positively. Very effective in preventive facet of discipline, maintaining a good learning environment and preventing misbehavior. 10. EFFECTIVENESS OF KOUNINS MODEL

11. NEO- SKINNERIAN MODEL BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION Can be easily modified with students of all ages and backgrounds. Once learning achieved, best maintained through intermittent reinforcement. Behavior weakens if no reinforcement follow-up and punishment. Systematic use of reinforcement (rewards) can shape pupils behaviors in desired manner. Behavior is shaped by its consequences what happens to the individual immediately afterward. 12. KEY IDEAS Numerals, checks, happy faces and special symbols. Words, gestures and facial expressions. GRAPHIC 13. TYPES OF REINFORCERS SOCIAL Real objects that students can earn as rewards for desired behaviors. In the form of activities that students prefer in school, e. g. playing games, decorating classroom, free reading etc. TANGIBLE 14. ACTIVITY However, there are concerns over free will of students Skinner rejected free will in principle, an essential human trait. Powerful effect, as systematic attention and reinforcing becomes natural parts of the teaching act. 15. EFFECTIVENESS OF NEO- SKINNERIAN MODEL 16. THANK YOU 17. REFERENCES Kaufman, M., et. al. (1993). Managing classroom behavior: A reflective casebased approach. Massachusetts: Allyn and Bacon. Marzano, R. J., et. al. (2005). A handbook for classroom management that works. Virginia: ASCD Alexandria.

1. Classroom Management Barbara A. Bieniemy , M.A. National Board Certified Teacher Training Wheels.Ink Educational Consultation Services, LLC 2. 3. What is classroom management? Classroom management is the process of gaining and maintaining a positive learning environment. The term implies the prevention of disruptive behavior. Classroom management is closely linked to issues of motivation, discipline, and respect. 4. Importance of Effective Classroom Management Effective Classroom management will increase instructional and learning time Effective Classroom management will increase student achievement Effective Classroom management will foster an environment of productivity and community Effective Classroom management will allow students to become active participants in their educational outcome 5. Classroom Management will Allow: for meeting student needs for the use of different strategies for the proper assessment of student ability instruction to adequately and accurately take place 6. Management Vs Discipline Discipline is a pattern of behavior, it is a code of conduct. Discipline is a manner in which one behaves. Management is a process which fosters certain behavior of discipline 7. Key Concepts in Effective Classroom Management; Lesson planning and organization Structured class time Clear Expectations Student engagement Student motivation Student interest 8. Planning: Look at lesson planning

9. Reflect on one or two specific strategies youve used :Did it work or not work; if it did not work what could you have done differently? If you have one or two that worked discussed how the students related to them. Share out 10. Create a Management Plan: List classroom routines. Classroom Code of Conduct: Must be Positive. List Consequences for disruptive behavior Methods of positive reinforcement 2. What classroom management IS... 9Staging appropriate interventions 8Stating simple and clear expectations for rules 7Wellpracticed routines 6Consistent and fair discipline Presenting engaging instruction 5Promoting a love for learning and success 4Understanding the multi-culltural and individual differences within a classroom 3 Understanding the unique adolescent body and mindset 2Building strong, positive relationships with students 1Creating a safe, inclusive environment for all students

1. WILLIAM GLASSERChoice (Control) Theory and Reality Therapy "If you want to change attitudes, start with a change in behaviour." 2. William Glasser : 1925- Born in Cleveland, Ohio He became a Chemical Engineer at age 19, a Clinical Psychologist at age 23 and a Physician at age 28. He also received Psychiatric Training at the Veterans Administration Centre in UCLA. Dr.Glasser founded The Institute for Reality Therapy in 1967 He has devoted his life to educating people about his beliefs and working directly with school counsellors, administrators and teachers Knowledge and the ability to think are required to achieve the feeling of self worth These two needs must be met so that students can find an identity for themselves Students that fail to meet these needs, and thus not find their identity, will suffer, withdraw from society, be lonely and frustrated Schools provide a loving atmosphere 3. Reality Therapy The idea behind this type of therapy is that people need to meet the basic needs of love (giving and receiving) and the need of finding selfworth Glasser believes that success comes with giving and receiving love throughout ones life Schools are responsible for helping students to fill these needs: 4. Application of Reality Therapy: Students BehavioursSTEP 1: Establish involvement with the studentsSTEP 2: Focus on behaviourSTEP 3: The student must accept responsibility for the behaviourSTEP 4: The student should evaluate the behaviourSTEP 5: Develop a planSTEP 6: The student must make a commitment to follow the planSTEP 7: Follow up and follow throughCan be found in Classroom Management for Elementary Teachers text on pages 182-183. 5. Choice (Control) Theory This theory of motivation proposed by William Glasser states that behavior is never caused by a response to an outside stimulus (situation or person). The control theory states that behavior is a constant attempt to satisfy one or more of our five basic needs (to be described shortly). These basic needs are thought to be innate (we are born with them). We choose all that we do and we are responsible for the choices we make. 6. Choice Theory: thebasic needs that drive us all1. To survive (and be secure)2. To belong and be loved3. To gain power (to gain and keep respect)4. To be free5. To have fun

7. Quality Schoolwork Based on the Choice Theory, Glasser created six specific conditions that teachers can use to guide your teaching. If these conditions become a part of a teachers daily classroom management, then students will begin to produce Quality Schoolwork. The students will enjoy school. Glasser realizes that this may not be an easy task and that the students may not accept that they will understand the importance of these conditions. However, it is worth it! 8. The Six Conditions of Quality Schoolwork1. There must be a warm, supportive classroom environment.2. Students should be asked to do only useful work.3. Students are always asked to do the best that they can do.4. Students are asked to evaluate their own work and improve it.5. Quality work always feels good.6. Quality work is never destructive. 9. Learning Pictures Everything we do is initiated by a satisfying picture of that activity in our heads as a pleasant memory When we learn anything that satisfies one or more of the basic needs, we use all of our developing senses like a multi-sensory camera and take a picture of this needsatisfying situation Personal picture album