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BELT CONVEYORS - DESIGN, OPERATION AND OPTIMIZATION

CONVEYOR DESIGN AND DESIGN STANDARDS

P. Staples Pr.Eng BS . MSAIME Manag!ng D!re t"r C"n#e$"r %n"&le'ge an' In("r)at!"n Te *n"l"g$ +Pt$,Lt' +C%IT,

INDE-

1. 2. 3. 4.

INTRODUCTION JUSTIFICATION FOR A STANDARD PRESENT DESIGN STANDARDS PROPOSED STANDARD FORMAT 4.1 4.2 4.3 Se!e&%ion 4.4 4.* Dri+e S%andards Power P !!e" o$ and and (id%# Tension S#a$%s )e!o&i%" S%andards

'e!% Id!er

and

*.

CONC,USION

S.MMARY T#is -a-er #as .een -re-ared wi%# %#e in%en%ion o$ #i/#!i/#%in/ %#e -ro.!e0s $a&ed ." desi/n en/ineers w#o are $or&ed %o nder%a1e %#e desi/n o$ .e!% &on+e"or s"s%e0s sin/ a 0 !%i% de o$ desi/n s%andards w#i&# #a+e no% .een .ro /#% in%o !ine wi%# 0odern %e&#no!o/i&a! ad+an&e0en%s. To o+er&o0e so0e o$ %#ese -ro.!e0s2 a .asi& o %!ine o$ a ni+ersa! s%andard #as .een -ro-osed2 w#i&# &an easi!" .e ada-%ed %o s i% indi+id a! needs2 wi%#o % red &in/ %#e e$$i&ien&" o$ %#e desi/ner and #is %ea0. /. INTROD.CTION T#e desi/n o$ .e!% &on+e"or s"s%e0s #as .een one o$ %#e 0os% &o00on o&& rren&es in %#e So %# A$ri&an 0inin/ $ie!d $or o+er one # ndred "ears. Con+e"ors are seen on +ir% a!!" a!! 0inin/ ins%a!!a%ions2 and are %#e .i//es% -ro.!e0 $or %#e -!an% 0ain%enan&e en/ineer2 .ein/ %#e &a se o$ 0os% -!an% s# %downs. (#" do .e!% &on+e"ors &a se s &# -ro.!e0s3 I% 0 s% .e re0e0.ered %#a% 0inin/ #o ses s a!!" #a+e a se% o$ desi/n s%andards %o &on$or0 %o4 s%andards w#i&# are &!ai0ed #a+e .een de+e!o-ed o+er 0an" "ears %o s i% %#eir own needs in %#e 0a%eria!s #and!in/ $ie!d. 5owe+er2 as I &an nders%and %#e need $or so0e as-e&%s o$ a s%andard2 o%#ers &o0-!e%e!" .a$$!e 0e. I% a--ears %#a% #a+in/ s-en% a /rea% dea! o$ %i0e o+er &er%ain re6 ire0en%s o$ a desi/n s%andard2 0an" o$ %#e $ nda0en%a!s %o w#i&# I a0 re$errin/ are o$ &o rse %#e e$$e&%s o$ o+er-owerin/ on %#e w#o!e &on+e"or s"s%e0. A!so2 we 1now %#a% %o &on+e" 0a%eria! $ro0 one -oin% %o ano%#er re6 ires a s-e&i$i& a0o n% o$ -ower sin/ a .e!% desi/ned %o wi%#s%and a de$ini%e %ension2 so w#" is i% %#a% i$ a &on+e"or desi/n -ro.!e0 is se% %o a n 0.er o$ desi/ners2 %#e" wi!! &o0e - wi%# 0an" +aria%ions on a so! %ion2 e+en sin/ %#e sa0e desi/n s-e&i$i&a%ion. T#is o$ &o rse &o0es down %o %#e in%er-re%a%ion o$2 and %#e $a0i!iari%" wi%# %#e s%andard %o .e sed. 'asi&a!!" I a0 s //es%in/ %#a% %#e s%andards as a+ai!a.!e %o7da"2 !ea+e a !o% %o .e desired $ro0 %#e -oin% o$ +iew o$ &o0-!e%eness2 and ease o$ a--!i&a%ion.

0. 1.STI2ICATION 2OR A STANDARD Do we need a s%andard a% a!!3 and i$ so2 w#a% $or0 s#o !d i% %a1e3 To answer %#is 6 es%ion !e% s !oo1 a% a %"-i&a! desi/n o$$i&e se% -. On an" -ro8e&% %#ere are %#ree 1e" &a%e/ories o$ s%a$$2 %#e desi/ners2 #is dra /#%s0en and a /ro - o$ -eri-#era! s%a$$2 9-!anners2 . "ers2 s%r &% ra!2 &i+i! and e!e&%ri&a! en/ineers:. T# s we #a+e a se% - w#i&# !oo1s as $o!!ows;7 2!g3re /. T$p! al pr"4e t Eng!neer!ng 2l"& S*eets

T#e desi/ner is /i+en a .asi& s-e&i$i&a%ion w#i&# wi!! in&! de 0a%eria! %"-e and 6 an%i%" %o .e &on+e"ed $ro0 A %o '. T#is #e 0 s% %rans$or0 in%o drawin/s $or 0an $a&% re and $a.ri&a%ion2 desi/n da%a $or &i+i!2 e!e&%ri&a! and s%r &% ra! en/ineers2 .i!!s o$ 6 an%i%ies $or . "ers and a&%i+i%" ne%wor1s $or -!anners. (i%# %#e e<&e-%ion o$ %#e -!annin/ in$or0a%ion w#i&# is on!" rea!!" re!e+an% $or %#e &ons%r &%ion -#ase o$ %#e -ro8e&%2 %#e desi/ner #as a -ro.!e0 w#i&# #e wi!! $ind +er" di$$i& !% %o o+er&o0e2 and %#a% is %o s --!" a!! %#e ne&essar" in$or0a%ion %o ea&# dis&i-!ine on %#e -ro8e&% w#en %#e" re6 ire i%. T#ere$ore #a+in/ o.%ained a s&o-e o$ wor1 $ro0 %#e &!ien% in 6 es%ion2 %#e desi/ner #as %o 6 i&1!" -rod &e %#e desi/n da%a2 . % .e$ore #e is a.!e %o -ro&eed #e 0 s% o.%ain in$or0a%ion $ro0 #is drawin/ o$$i&e re!a%in/ %o %#e !a"o % o$ %#e &on+e"ors in %#e s"s%e0. Now %#e -ro.!e0s .e/in; Prior %o nder%a1in/ an" &a!& !a%ions w#a%soe+er %#e desi/ner 0 s% &#e&1 %#e s-e&i$i&a%ions %o w#i&# #e 0 s% &on$or0. As +ir% a!!" a!! &!ien%s #a+e %#eir own o-inion on %#e s .8e&% o$ &on+e"or desi/n2 we &an res% ass red %#ere wi!! .e so0e $or0 o$ &!ien% in- %2 w#e%#er i% .e a %wo +o! 0e 0an s&ri-% or si0-!" an2 =A!! dri+es s#a!! ........= do& 0en%. T#e desi/ner is &on$ron%ed wi%# &on$or0in/ %o %#e said s-e&i$i&a%ion2 . % 0 &# worse2 #e 0 s% ens re %#a% #is drawin/ o$$i&e s%a$$ are aware %#a% %#ere is a s-e&i$i&a%ion %o wor1 %o. Consider %#a% %#e -re+io s wee1 %#e" 0a" #a+e .een wor1in/ on ano%#er -ro8e&% and #ad %o &on$or0 %o a &o0-!e%e!" di$$eren% s-e&i$i&a%ion. (#a% does %#e desi/ner do3 Does #e &ir& !a%e 0 !%i-!e &o-ies %o #is drawin/ o$$i&e wi%# %#e ins%r &%ion %#a% i% 0 s% .e read -rior %o an" wor1 .ein/ s%ar%ed. I$ so2 #e wi!! -ossi.!" no% 0ee% #is dead!ine on %#e s --!" o$ da%a %o %#e -eri-#era! dis&i-!ines. Does #e %r" %o &#e&1 %#a% #is dra /#%s0en &on$or0 ." =!oo1in/ o+er %#eir s#o !ders= $ro0 %i0e %o %i0e 9w#i&# is %#e wa" 0is%a1es are / aran%eed %o o&& r:. A!%erna%i+e!" does #e ins%r &% #is drawin/ o$$i&e %#a% %#ere is a s-e&i$i&a%ion %o wor1 %o and %#a% i% is !"in/ aro nd so0ew#ere and %o =-!ease &#e&1 i% i$ "o are no% %o s re o$ #ow %o -ro&eed=. In a!! %#e o$$i&es in w#i&# I #a+e wor1ed2 %#e !as% %wo so! %ions #a+e .een a--!ied2 wi%# %#e res !% %#a%2 a!0os% wi%#o % e<&e-%ion2 %#e e<-erien&ed dra /#%s0en w#o 1now #ow %o 0a1e a s"s%e0 wor1 wi!! &on%in e wi%# +er" !i%%!e re$eren&e %o %#e said s-e&i$i&a%ion. T#e -ro.!e0 0a" .e %#a% on %#is -ro8e&% =%#e - !!e"s are 0 &# .i//er2 %#e %a1e7 - !en/%# 0 s% .e se!e&%ed sin/ an i!! de$ined $or0 !a and .asi&a!!" we don=% 1now #ow %o desi/n a &on+e"or an"0ore. I$ %#is -ro.!e0 is &a /#% ear!" eno /# we on!" #a+e %o &#an/e a 6 an%i%" o$ drawin/s and are %#en .a&1 on %#e ri/#% road. 5owe+er "o &an .e s re %#a% in -ra&%i&e i% wi!! .e %oo !a%e2 and %#e desi/ner #as %o /o %o %#e &!ien% and as1 $or a &on&ession .e&a se #e is no% a.!e %o &on$or0 %o %#e s-e&i$i&a%ion2 and %o 0a1e an" &#an/es %o %#e drawin/s now wi!! - % #i0 wa" .e#ind s&#ed !e. F r%#er0ore .e$ore %#e &!ien% wi!! a&&e-% de+ia%ions %o %#e -ro-osed $or0a%2 e+er" a+en e 0 s% .e e<-!ored2 and a re-or% on %#e de+ia%ion -re-ared. T#e desi/ner is now .e#ind w#e%#er #e !i1es i% or no% and %o 0a1e - %i0e #e 0 s% ne/!e&% %#e one $ n&%ion w#i&# &o0-!e%es %#e %o%a! &on+e"or desi/n2 %#a% o$ se&ondar" desi/n. '" se&ondar" desi/n2 I 0ean %#e desi/n w#i&# &o0es a$%er %#e &on&e-% a! or /enera! arran/e0en% !a"o %s are &o0-!e%e. T#is is %#e desi/n o$ %#e &# %es2 %#e !o&a%ion o$ .earin/s2 %#e .e!% &!eanin/ s"s%e0 %o .e e0-!o"ed and %#e a&&ess $or 0ain%enan&e. T#is is !e$% %o a dra /#%s0an wi%#o % an" en/ineerin/ s --or%. 5owe+er2 %#e se&ondar" desi/n s a!!" en&o0-asses %#e 0a8or -ro.!e0s o$ .e!% &on+e"or s"s%e0 desi/n. T#ese are areas wi%# +er" !i%%!e &o+era/e in s-e&i$i&a%ions2 wi%# &o00en%s s &# as2 =a!! &on+e"ors wi!! #a+e - !!e"s a% %er0ina! -oin%s=2 .ein/ %#e !i0i% %o s &# s-e&i$i&a%ions. I -ose %#e 6 es%ion a/ain2 do we need a desi/n s%andard3 T#ose w#o a/ree wi%# %#e s&enario I #a+e se% wi!! -ro.a.!" sa"2 =A!!ow %#e desi/ner %#e $reedo0 %o do %#e 8o.=. 5owe+er 1 $ee! %#a% a s%andard is essen%ia!. T#ere are +er" $ew s-e&ia!is% &on+e"or desi/ners and %# s so0e $or0 o$ / idan&e 0 s% .e /i+en. 5owe+er %#ere s#o !d

.e on!" one s%andard2 wi%# one .asi& se% o$ -ara0e%ers and w#i&# &an &a%er $or %#e needs o$ e+er" 0inin/ and -ro&ess -!an% a--!i&a%ion. (i%#o % !essenin/ %#e e$$i&ien&" o$ %#e desi/ner and #is %ea0 s &# a s%andard wi!! $a&i!i%a%e %#e e$$i&ien&" %#e o+er&o0in/ o$ %#e -ro.!e0s o&& rrin/ in se&ondar" desi/n. (e 1now %#is #as .een %ried re-ea%ed!" in %#e -as%2 . % a!wa"s in iso!a%ion $ro0 %#e 0ain s%rea0 o$ desi/n and s a!!" wi%# %#e s%a%e0en%2 =. % i% &a%ers $or o r own indi+id a! needs=2 as 8 s%i$i&a%ion. 5a+in/ .een &on$ron%ed wi%# &on+e"or desi/n s%andards $or a n 0.er o$ "ears2 I #a+e s%i!! %o $ind a %r e s-e&ia!is% need2 I 1now %#a% so0e &!ien%s re6 ire !ess &a-a&i%" on a .e!%2 o%#ers re6 ire !ar/er - !!e"s and %#i&1er .e!%s2 re6 irin/ %#e se o$ &o0-!i&a%ed $or0 !a %o arri+e a% a so! %ion2 . % %#is &an no% .e 8 s%i$i&a%ion $or de+isin/ &o0-!e%e!" indi+id a! s-e&i$i&a%ions2 w#i&# &o !d 0ore s i%a.!" .e &o+ered in a sin/!e -ara/ra-# o$ a &o0-re#ensi+e s-e&i$i&a%ion. 5. PRESENT DESIGN STANDARDS ,e% s !oo1 a% a% %#e Con+e"or desi/n s%andards a+ai!a.!e2 and in -ar%i& !ar %#e $o r 0os% &o00on!" sed2 C.E.M.A.2 GOOD >EAR2 ISCOR and A.A.C. I$ we &onsider %#e -ower and %ension +aria%ion -redi&%ed ." sin/ %#ese s"s%e0s2 as in Ta.!e 12 we see 6 i%e a wide ran/e o$ -ossi.i!i%ies. T#e reason $or %#is is in %#e se!e&%ion o$ %#e ro!!in/ resis%an&e $a&%or2 9&oe$$i&ien% o$ $ri&%ion2 resis%an&e %o $!e< re or o%#er &o00on!" sed %er0s: w#i&# +aries .e%ween ?2?1@ and ?2?3* as sed in %#e a.o+e s%andards. Ta6le / P"&er an' Tens!"n al 3lat!"ns. /+a, 6ase' "n 6elt apa !t$ "( 788t"ns per *"3r, 6elt &!'t* "( 988)) an' a 6elt #el" !t$ "( 0,0):se . Lengt* L!(t C.E.M.A. P"&er ) 3? 2?? 1??? 1??? ) ? @? ? 4? ;< @ 1?1 B1 132 Tesn ;N A @* 4? C2 GOOD YEAR P"&er ;< 1* AA BA 143 Tesn ;N 1@ @4 43 CC ISCOR P"&er ;< 1@ 1?4 113 1@C Tesn ;N 1A @@ *4 BB A.A.C. P"&er ;< 12 1?2 1?4 1*B Tesn ;N 1B @@ *? B4

/+6, 6ase' "n 6elt apa !t$ "( 0888t"ns per *"3r, 6elt &!'t* "( /788)) an' a 6elt #el" !t$ "( 5):se . Lengt* L!(t C.E.M.A. P"&er ) 3? 2?? 1??? 1??? ) ? @? ? 4? ;< 1B 3CB 221 43A Tesn ;N 22 1@C B4 1C4 GOOD YEAR P"&er ;< 3@ 3B? 2@2 4CA Tesn ;N 41 1@B AB 1BB ISCOR P"&er ;< 3B 4?3 34A *@C Tesn ;N 42 1C@ 12C 21C A.A.C. P"&er ;< 3C 3A1 31* *33 Tesn ;N 42 1C2 11@ 2?@

On %#e s#or%er s"s%e0s %#is di$$eren&e is 6 i%e insi/ni$i&an%2 e<&e-% %#a% %#e .e!% !en/%# $a&%or -!a"s an i0-or%an% -ar%. 5owe+er on %#e now &o00on !ar/e o+er!and %"-e s"s%e0s2 %#ese +aria%ions are nsa%is$a&%or" %o sa" %#e !eas%. Are we a.!e or -re-ared %o a&&e-% s &# +aria%ions3 A.!e2 I wi!! sa" "es2 -ro+ided we %a1e &o/nisan&e o$ %#e e$$e&%s o$ o+er-owerin/. 5owe+er I a0 no% &on+in&ed we s#o !d .e -re-ared %o a&&e-% %#ese +aria%ions2 a-ar% $ro0 %#e o+er-owerin/ $a&%or %#ere are - re!" e&ono0i& &onsidera%ions %o a&&o n% $or. T#is -oin% is +er" no%i&ea.!e w#en one .e&o0es in+o!+ed in e&ono0i& e+a! a%ions 9$easi.i!i%" s% dies: o$ +ario s a!%erna%i+e so! %ions %o a s-e&i$i& 0a%eria!s #and!in/ -ro.!e0. For ins%an&e2 #ow &o0-e%i%i+e wo !d a -ne 0a%i& &on+e"in/ s"s%e0 or &a.!e .e!% s"s%e0 .e i$ desi/ned %o si0i!ar se%s o$ s%andards as %#e &on+e"or. 5owe+er as %#ese s%andards are as "e%2 no%

a+ai!a.!e2 %#e 0an $a&% rer o$ &o0-e%i%i+e s"s%e0s #as $ar rea&#in/ ad+an%a/es o+er %#e &on+e"or 0an $a&% rers. I a0 no% $or one 0o0en% s //es%in/ %#a% %#e &o0-e%i%i+e s"s%e0s are is no% !i0i%ed %o desi/nin/ wi%#in a &onser+a%i+e s-e&i$i&a%ion. nder desi/ned2 si0-!" %#a% %#e desi/ner

Too o$%en we see e<a0-!es o$ &on+e"or s"s%e0s $eedin/ -ro&ess -!an%s2 w#ere %o &on$or0 %o s-e&i$i&a%ion %#e w#o!e &on+e"or ne%wor1 is desi/ned $or a !ar/e a0o n% o$ e<&ess &a-a&i%". 5owe+er2 %#is -#i!oso-#" is no% %rans$erred %o %#e re!a%ed e6 i-0en% in %#e res% o$ %#e -!an%. =. PROPOSED STANDARD 2ORMAT =./ P"&er an' Tens!"n (i%# -ower and %ension &a!& !a%ions %#ere e<is%s %#e -ossi.i!i%" $or a &o0.ina%ion o$ a!! $o r o$ %#e a.o+e s%andards ." %i!iDin/ a sin/!e $ri&%ion $a&%or $or %#e s#or%er .e!%s2 . % e!i0ina%in/ %#e .e!% !en/%# $a&%or w#i&# &an easi!" .e &o0-ensa%ed $or wi%# %#e o+erra%in/ $a&%or o$ %#e 0o%or. In -ro/ressin/ %o %#e !on/er &on+e"ors %#is $a&%or &o !d .e +aria.!e2 as ad+o&a%ed ." C.E.M.A.2 on!" now .e si0-!" a $ n&%ion o$ .e!% !en/%# and &a-a&i%". T#en we &o !d se a si0-!i$ied $or0 !a as $o!!ows;7 A.B1 < ,.)991FG1>9(0G(.:G2?1*(.:G 95.(0:: 1???

Power 91(: E

(#ere

, E 5oriDon%a! - !!e" &en%ers 90: 5 E )er%i&a! - !!e" &en%ers 90: ) E 'e!% +e!o&i%" 90Hse&.: (0 E Mass o$ 0a%eria! -er 0e%er r n 91/: (. E Mass o$ .e!% -er 0e%re r n 91/: ?2?1* E Re% rn .e!% resis%an&e 1F E 'e!% s!ide and Id!er ro%a%iona! resis%an&e and &an 1F E ?2???@B9(0G(.:G?2?229ro%a%in/ 0ass o$ %#e Id!er -er 0e%er: 91/H0: .e o.%ained $ro0;7

1> E Resis%an&e o$ %#e .e!% o$ $!e< re as i% 0o+es o+er %#e Id!ers2 and &an .e &onsidered %o .e %#e sa0e as %#e $ri&%ion $a&%ors /i+en in a!! %#e s-e&i$i&a%ions.

T"-i&a! +a! es o$ 1> are /i+en in %a.!e 2 .e!ow. Ta6le 0. Sele t!"n "( ;Y (a t"r 6ase' "n Belt lengt*, l!(t an' apa !t$. Lengt* ) 1?? 2?? 2?? 4?? 4?? B?? 1??? L!(t ) 2? 2? 4? 2? 4? 4? 4? ;Y 788t:*r. ?2?3* ?2?32 ?2?3? ?2?3? ?2?2@ ?2?22 ?2?2? ;Y /888t:*r. ?2?3? ?2?2@ ?2?22 ?2?22 ?2?2? ?2?2? ?2?2? ;Y 0888t:*r. ?2?2@ ?2?22 ?2?2? ?2?2? ?2?2? ?2?2? ?2?2? ;Y 5888t:*r. ?2?22 ?2?2? ?2?2? ?2?2? ?2?2? ?2?2? ?2?2?

To ena.!e %#e &!ien% %o 0ain%ain &on%ro! o$ %#e o %&o0e o$ %#e &a!& !a%ion2 i% is ne&essar" on!" %o s-e&i$" %#e 1> $a&%or %o .e sed in a si0-!e addend 0 %o %#e 0ain s-e&i$i&a%ion. 'e!% %ension &a!& !a%ion &an .e 1e-% s%rai/#%$orward2 -ro+ided %#e desi/ner s%ar%s ." &onsiderin/ %#e 0ini0 0 .e!% %ensions2 a% .o%# %#e dri+e and %ai! - !!e"s2 ." sin/ %#e $o!!owin/ $or0 !ae ;7

T0in E 422<A2B1H1??? si9(.G(0: 1N (#ere 422 E E Id!er s-a&in/20 Fa&%or .ased on a 3I .e!% sa/.

Si

and Ts!a&1 side E Te$$e&%i+e H e 71 (#ere T e$$e&%i+e is %#e ins%a!!ed dri+e e$$e&%i+e %ension and no% %#e e$$e&%i+e %ension &o0- %ed $ro0 %#e a.o+e -ower $or0 !a. T#e one -ro.!e0 %#a% is en&o n%ered is in %#e se!e&%ion o$ a &oe$$i&ien% o$ $ri&%ion $or %#e dri+e - !!e". A s%andard s &# as /i+en In Ta.!e 3 &o !d .e sed. Ta6le 5 C"e((! !ent "( 2r! t!"n ("r Dr!#e P3lle$s. T$pe "( Ta;e .p Plant Des r!pt!"n (e% Se0i7we% Dr" C"n#e$"r C"nstr3 t!"n Co+ered Un&o+ered Co+ered Un&o+ered Co+ered Un&o+ered A3t")at! Lagge' ?22* ?22? ?23? ?22* ?23* ?23? .nlagge' ?21? ?21? ?22? ?21* ?222 ?21B ?22? ?22? ?22* ?222 ?22* ?22* Man3al Lagge' .nlagge' ?21? ?21? ?21B ?213 ?22? ?21*

Ta.!e 3 #as .een &o0-i!ed $ro0 e0-iri&a! da%a s &# as %#a% /i+en in Ta.!e 4. I% s#o !d .e no%ed %#a% %#ese +a! es are %#e !i0i%in/ &ondi%ions 9w#en %#e .e!% is on %#e -oin% o$ s!i--in/:. T#e a&% a! &oe$$i&ien%s o$ $ri&%ion de+e!o-ed .e%ween s r$a&es are2 in -ra&%i&a!!" a!! &ases w#ere s!i--in/ does no% o&& r2 in e<&ess o$ %#ose !is%ed. T#ere$ore2 %#e &on+en%ion o$ sin/ %#ese +a! es does no% re$!e&% w#a% a&% a!!" o&& rs a% %#e dri+e - !!e". I$ one &onsiders a dri+e - !!e" nder o-era%in/ &ondi%ions %#en %#e #i/#er %ensioned .e!% se&%ion is s%re%&#ed 0ore %#an on %#e !ower %ensioned se&%ion2 %# s %#e .e!% en%erin/ %#e -osi%i+e dri+e wi!! .e %ra+e!in/ $as%er %#an w#en i% !ea+es i%. T#e e!as%i& re&o+er" o$ %#e .e!% o&& rs o+er on!" a -ar% o$ %#e %o%a! an/!e o$ &on%a&%2 and i% is a% %#is -oin%2 w#ere &ree- %a1es -!a&e2 %#a% %#e dri+in/ is done2 w#i!e 0a1in/ $ !! se o$ %#e &oe$$i&ien% o$ $ri&%ion. '" a--!"in/ %#e &!assi& %ension $or0 !a %o %#e w#o!e an/!e o$ wra- a $i&%i%io s &oe$$i&ien% o$ $ri&%ion is .ein/ sed Ta6le =. Re "))en'e' Dr!#e C"e((! !ent "( 2r! t!"n "( Var!"3s Stan'ar's. C"n'!t!"n 'are - !!e" ,a//ed Dr" ,a//ed (e% ,a//ed (e% J Dir%" C.E.M.A. ?22* ?23* ?23* ?23* ?23* STEVENS ADAMSON ?23* ?23* ?23* ?23* ?23* BRIDGESTONE ?22? 777 ?23* ?22* ?22? LINATE777 ?2@? ?2@? ?2B? ?24? REMA TIP TOP 777 ?24* ?24* ?23* ?22*

T#e ad+an%a/e o$ wor1in/ $ro0 0ini0 0 dri+e %ension .a&1 %o %#e 0a<i0 0 dri+e %ension2 &an .e .e%%er e<-!ained i$ one !oo1s a% %#e desi/n o$ - !!e"s and s#a$%s. O+er %#e "ears %#ere #as .een a !o% wri%%en a.o % %#e desi/n o$ a - !!e" s#a$%2 wi%# %#e ai0 o$ %r"in/ %o e!i0ina%e %#e #i/# $ai! re ra%e and %#e &os% asso&ia%ed wi%# s &# $ai! res. I $ee! %#a% %#ere are on!" %wo .asi& reasons $or - !!e" $ai! re2 $irs%!" %#e .ad 0an $a&% rin/ -ro&ed res2 and se&ond!"2 $ai! re owin/ %o an ina.i!i%" %o &a!& !a%e %#e 0ini0 0 dri+e %ension. T#e !a%%er &ase o$ in&orre&% desi/n

res !%s in %#e &o n%erwei/#% 0ass #a+in/ %o .e in&reased %o o+er&o0e dri+e s!i- on s%ar% -2 wi%# %#e res !% %#a% - !!e" s#a$%s are s .8e&%ed %o e<&essi+e !oads2 -rod &in/ e+en% a! $ai! re. '" &on%ras%2 i$ %#e 0ini0 0 dri+e %ension is sed as a desi/n .asis2 we &an o+er&o0e2 $ai! res in - !!e"s2 &a sed ." ina&& ra%e desi/n. T# s %#e 0a<i0 0 %ension wi!! .e o.%ained $ro0 ;7 T0a<i0
0

E T0ini0 0GTe$$e&%i+e

(#ere Te$$e&%i+e is &o0- %ed $ro0 s#a$% -ower and no% %#e ins%a!!ed -ower. No%e %#a% %#e $or0 !ae dis& ssed a.o+e are a--!i&a.!e %o A?I o$ %#e &on+e"or ins%a!!a%ions .ein/ desi/ned %o7 da". 5owe+er a !i%%!e 0ore ana!"sis is re6 ired $or so0e o+er!and and &o0-!e< s"s%e0s. =.0 P3lle$ an' S*a(t Stan'ar's T#ere are -resen%!" %wo 0a8or s%andards sed $or - !!e" and s#a$% se!e&%ion2 %#ese .ein/ %#e ISCOR and AAC s"s%e0s. I 1now 0 &# #as .een wri%%en a.o % %#e #i/# de/ree o$ o+ersiDin/ ado-%ed ." .o%# s%andards2 . % I $ee! %#a% as %#e - !!e" is one o$ %#e !eas% e<-ensi+e &o0-onen%s in a &on+e"or ins%a!!a%ion2 we s#o !d no% .e o+er &on&erned on %#e -oin%. E$$or%s s#o !d ra%#er .e dire&%ed a% red &in/ %#e a0o n% o$ +aria%ions %#ere are in %#e se!e&%ion o$ $a&e wid%# and .earin/ &en%ers. A% %#e 0o0en% .o%# ISCOR and AAC #a+e %wo siDes -er .e!% wid%#2 a!! di$$eren%. T#is s#o !d .e red &ed %o a sin/!e siDe -er .e!% wid%#2 and %#is siDe s#o !d .e as .i/ as -ossi.!e %o a!!ow eas" a&&ess and #en&e red &e %#e da0a/e %o &on+e"or .e!%s. A s%andard a!on/ %#e !ines o$ %a.!e * .ased on %#e ISCOR s-e&i$i&a%ion wo !d .e %#e 0os% a&&e-%a.!e. P !!e" and s#a$% dia0e%ers s#o !d .e 1e-% %o a 0ini0 0 o$ %wo -er &on+e"or2 wi%# as 0 &# s%andardiDa%ion as -ossi.!e .ein/ e0-!o"ed on %#e w#o!e &on+e"or s"s%e0. T#e se!e&%ion o$ - !!e"s and s#a$%s &o !d .e $ro0 a %a.!e si0i!ar %o %#a% s#own as Ta.!e @. Ta6le 7. P3lle$ 2a e <!'t* an' Bear!ng Centers Belt &!'t* )) 4*? @?? C*? A?? 1?*? 12?? 13*? 1*?? 1B?? 21?? =.5 Sele t!"n "( Belt <!'t* an' Vel" !t$ T#e se!e&%ion o$ .e!% wid%# and +e!o&i%" is -ro.a.!" %#e 0os% $r s%ra%in/ o$ -ro.!e0s $a&in/ %#e desi/ner. T#ere are a +arie%" o$ $a&%ors .ein/ sed2 $a&%ors s &# as ;7 %#e .e!% wid%# 0 s% .e %#ree %i0es %#e 0a<i0 0 ! 0- siDe2 %#e .e!% wid%# 0 s% .e s &# %#a% %#e s"s%e0 &an &a%er $or @@I e<&ess &a-a&i%"2 and i$ a %ri--er is sed %#e $a&%ors 0 s% .e in&reased ." a $ r%#er 3?I e%&. T#is %"-e o$ $a&%or $or0s %#e .asis $or 0os% s%andards in se %o7da"2 and %#ese &o !d %#ere$ore .e ra%iona!iDed in%o a sin/!e 0ore a&&e-%a.!e s%andard %o 0a1e %#e desi/ner=s %as1 easier. T#e $irs% ne&essar" s%e- is %#e re0o+a! o$ %#e a/e o!d .e!% s-eed res%ri&%ions2 a$%er a!! s-eeds in e<&ess o$ 40Hse& are now 6 i%e &o00on. 2a e &!'t* )) **? C?? A?? 1?*? 12?? 13*? 1*?? 1C?? 2??? 23?? Bear!ng enter )) BA? 114? 13C? 1*2? 1@C? 1B*? 2??? 23?? 2@3? 2A3?

I a0 no% ad+o&a%in/ %#a% %#e #i/#es% -ossi.!e .e!% s-eed .e sed $or a!! ins%a!!a%ions4 I si0-!" s //es% %#a% .e!% s-eeds s#o !d no% .e se!e&%ed on!" on %#e .asis o$ -as% e<-erien&e2 . % on %#e .asis o$ .e!% !en/%#2 %rans$er -oin% and e&ono0i& &onsidera%ions. I $ee! %#a% %o se %#e &ri%erion I #a+e se% o % wi!! a %o0a%i&a!!" res !% in %#e se!e&%ion o$ %#e 0os% s i%a.!e .e!% wid%# and s-eed. M" reasonin/ #ere is %#a%2 $or in-!an% ins%a!!a%ions .e!% wid%#s and s-eeds are a!0os% a!wa"s se!e&%ed on %#e .asis o$ s%andardiDa%ion and -ossi.!e %rans$er -oin% -ro.!e0s. '" &on%ras%2 %#e !ar/er o+er!and s"s%e0s are se!e&%ed on %#e .asis o$ &a-i%a! &os%s and %#e asso&ia%ed o-era%in/ and 0ain%enan&e &os%s2 .e&a se as .e!% s-eeds in&rease o-era%in/ and 0ain%enan&e &os%s s a!!" $o!!ow s i%. Consider %#e s //es%ed 0e%#ods o$ se!e&%in/ a .e!% wid%# and s-eed. Firs%!"2 %#e a0o n% o$ 0a%eria! on a .e!% 0 s% .e re!a%ed %o %#e e<-e&%ed %rans$er -oin% -ro.!e0s. A $!a% $eed -oin% $ed ." a &on%ro!!ed s"s%e0 wi!! .e $ar easier %o desi/n %#an an in&!ined $eed -oin% $ed $ro0 a &r s#er2 w#ere s r/es are +er" &o00on. T#ere$ore %o s //es% a si0i!ar s%andard $or .o%# a--!i&a%ions is no% -ra&%i&a!. (e o$%en are %o!d %#a% &on+e"ors s#o !d no% .e $ed a% an/!es o$ BK in&!ine $eed -oin%s and +er" %i/#% +er%i&a! & r+es2 wi%# %#e res !% %#a% %#e $eed -oin% s%a"s &!ean2 . % a% %#e & r+e %#e .e!% #as !i$%ed &a sin/ s-i!!a/e. I wo !d !i1e %o s //es% %#a% a .e!% &an .e easi!" $ed a% an/!es o$ - %o 1@K2 -ro+ided %#e .e!% wid%# and s-eed are &orre&%!" se!e&%ed. I% 0a" .e ne&essar" %o ins%a!! .e!%s wi%# %#i&1er &o+ers2 . % %#is &an $or0 %#e .asis $or a .e%%er desi/n. T# s %#e %"-e o$ s%andard %#a% &o !d .e sed is s#own in Ta.!e C. Ta6le > I)plant C"n#e$"r L"a' 2a t"rs L"a'!ng P"!nt T$pe 5oriDon%a! 5oriDon%a! In&!ine 5oriDon%a! Tri--er S# %%!e 2ee' T$pe Uni$or0 S r/e Uni$or0 S r/e ..... ..... O#erl"a' 2a t"r 122? 12*? 12*? 12C* 12C* 12*?

T#e o+er!oad $a&%or wo !d .e sed %o in&rease %#e desi/n %onna/e $or se!e&%ion - r-oses. For o+er!and &on+e"ors i% is &o00on %o se #oriDon%a! !oadin/ -oin%s2 and we are no% &on$ron%ed wi%# %#e sa0e -ro.!e0s. As 0en%ioned ear!ier i% is on!" ne&essar" %o &onsider %#e e&ono0i&s o$ %#e s"s%e02 wi%# %#e $o!!owin/ !i0i%a%ions as /i+en in Ta.!e B. Ta6le ?. O#erlan' C"n#e$"r M!n!)3) Belt <!'t*s an' Ma@!)3) Spee's Ter)!nal P3lle$ Centers +), 3?? %o *?? *?? %o 1??? o+er 1??? Belt <!'t* +)), @?? C*? A?? Belt Spee' +):se , 32*? 32*? C2??

T#e o+er!oad $a&%or sed s#o !d a!wa"s .e a 0ini0 0 o$ 122 %i0es %#e desi/n %onna/e. =.= I'ler Stan'ar's =.=./ Intr"'3 t!"n T#e in%rod &%ion o$ %#e SA'S Id!er s-e&i$i&a%ion wi!! ens re a 0ore ni$or0 se!e&%ion o$ id!ers. As a res !% %#e &#oi&e o$ %"-e and s-a&in/ $or Id!ers s#o !d .e on a 0ore s&ien%i$i& .asis. T#e %"-es o$ Id!er %o .e sed on &on+e"ors are4 %ransi%ion2 %ro /#in/2 i0-a&% and re% rn id!ers. A% %#is %i0e %#ere is no sa%is$a&%or" %rainin/ id!er a+ai!a.!e so %#e" s#o !d .e a+oided.

=.=.0 Tr"3g*!ng I'ler Spa !ng Two %"-es o$ %ro /#in/ id!er are sed $re6 en%!"2 $i<ed and s s-ended ro!!. T#ere is +er" !i%%!e di$$eren&e .e%ween %#e %wo2 e<&e-% %#e %rainin/ &#ara&%eris%i&s and -ossi.!e &os% sa+in/s asso&ia%ed wi%# %#e s s-ended ro!!. T#e 6 es%ion o$ id!er s-a&in/ needs .e &onsidered 0ore &are$ !!". T#e res%ri&%i+e s%andards as a--!ied %o7da" do 0ore #ar0 %#an /ood %o a &on+e"or s"s%e0. Id!ers are %#e #i/#es% 0ain%enan&e &os% i%e0 on a &on+e"or ins%a!!a%ion and %#e .i//es% &a se o$ .e!% da0a/e2 %#ere$ore =%#e $ewer %#e .e%%er. Id!er s-a&in/ 0 s% .e se!e&%ed on %#e /ro nds o$ a+ai!a.!e .e!% %ension2 $a%i/ e !i$e o$ %#e id!er .earin/s2 and s%r &% ra! &onsidera%ions. T#e --er s-a&in/ !i0i% s#o !d .e se% a% 22??00. A&&o n% s#o !d .e %a1en o$ $o r and $i+e ro!! se%s2 . % no si/ni$i&an&e &an .e a%%a&#ed %o %#e &!ai0 %#a% $o r and $i+e ro!! id!ers /i+e .e%%er .e!% !i$e. =.7 Dr!#e stan'ar's T#e s%andardiDa%ion o$ dri+es is %#e 1e" %o 0os% s &&ess$ ! &on+e"or s"s%e0s. T#e -ro.!e0 is #owe+er %#a% so0e dri+es #a+e %o .e dras%i&a!!" o+ersiDed %o o.%ain so0e de/ree o$ &on$or0i%". '" &onsiderin/ %#is -oin% a% an ear!" s%a/e in %#e desi/n -ro&ess. i% is s a!!" -ossi.!e %o o+er&o0e %#e -ro.!e02 %#ere$ore si0-!e &os% ana!"ses o$ a!! %#e -ossi.!e so! %ions &an 6 i&1!" de&ide on %#e dri+e siDes %o .e ado-%ed. A!so i% is a% %#is -oin% in %i0e w#en a $ina! se!e&%ion o$ .e!%s &an .e &arried o %2 .e&a se %#ere is o$%en s&o-e %o &#an/e .e!% s-eeds %o %#e re6 ired de/ree o$ s%andardiDa%ion2 and we s#o !d no% .e a$raid %o %o %#is. 7. C"n l3s!"n To &on&! de I wo !d !i1e %o rei%era%e %#e need $or a sin/!e desi/n s%andard2 w#i&# &o !d .e a--!ied %o an" &on+e"or ins%a!!a%ion. 5owe+er2 %#is s%andard 0 s% .e s &# %#a% i% a!!ows %#e &!ien% a s0a!! a0o n% o$ indi+id a!i%" and $!e<i.i!i%". T#e desi/n s"s%e0 as o %!ined in %#is -a-er &an o$$er %#is $!e<a.i!i%"2 ." a!!owin/ %#e &!ien% %#e $reedo0 %o se!e&% %#e 1> $a&%or2 %#e dri+e &oe$$i&ien% o$ $ri&%ion and %#e !oad $a&%or $or se!e&%in/ %#e .e!% wid%# and s-eed. Co -!ed wi%# %#is we &an #a+e a +er" e$$i&ien% s"s%e0 es-e&ia!!" i$ i% is ada-%ed %o &o0- %erised &a!& !a%ion %e&#ni6 es. I 1now %o7da" %#a% 0an" s &# desi/n -ro/ra0s are a+ai!a.!e2 . % .e&a se o$ %#e +aria%ions in s%andards %#a% 0 s% .e in&or-ora%ed2 %#eir &redi.i!i%" is n8 s%!" 0ade s s-e&%2 $or&in/ %#e desi/ner %o re+er% %o %#e !on/winded n 0.er &r n&#in/ e<er&ises w#i&# o.+io s!" red &e #is e$$e&%i+eness in %#e drawin/ o$$i&e. MA-IM.M SAA2T SAA2T BEARING SAA2T BEARING SAA2T BEARING PLY STEEL LOAD CLASS CORE <IDTA DIA.D DIA.' DIA.'/ DIA.' DIA.'/ DIA.' DIA.'/ ;N 4*? 3?? 4?? *?? @3? A? 1?? 12* 14? C* C* 1?? 11? C* C* 1?? 11? *? *? C* A? 7 7 C* A? 7 7 *? C* 2?? 2*? @3? B?? 1B 22 *@ C2 BELT P.LLEY AEAVY D.TY MEDI.M D.TY LIGAT D.TY BELT TYPE

@??

4?? *?? @3? C1? 4?? *?? @3? C1? B?? 4?? *?? @3? C1?

11? 12* 14? 1@? 12* 14? 1@? 1B? 2?? 14? 1@? 1B? 2??

A? 1?? 11? 12* 1?? 11? 12* 14? 1@? 11? 12* 14? 1@?

A? 1?? 11? 12* 1?? 12* 14? 1@? 1B? 11? 14? 1@? 1B?

C* C* A? 1?? C* 1?? 11? 12* 14? 11? 14? 12* 14?

C* A? 1?? 11? C* A? 11? 12* 14? A? 11? 12* 14?

*? C* A? A? *? C* A? 1?? 11? A? 11? 1?? 11?

2*? @3? B?? 12*? 2*? @3? B?? ST*?? 12*? ST@3? 12*? ST12*? 2*? @3? B?? 12*?

3? C* A* 1*? 3* A* 12? 1A? 2B? 4* 11? 14* 22*

C*?

A??

ST*?? ST@3?

B??

22?

1B?

2??

1@?

1@?

12* IN PU,,E>

12*? ST12*?

34?

A!! DIMENSIONS MAFIMUM ,OAD FIGURE E PERMISSI',E ,OAD ON 5EA)> DUT> E 1??I MEDIUM DUT> E @?I ,IG5T DUT> E 3?I DENOTES RATING 'ASED UPON FOR A,,O(A',E ,OAD ON 'EARING SEE 'EARING RATING TA',ES

MI,,IMETRES E T(ICE 'E,T TENSION MAFIMUM ,OAD MAFIMUM ,OAD MAFIMUM ,OAD STEE, CORE 'E,T

BELT RATING CAART, Ta6le Ba BELT P.LLEY AEAVY D.TY MEDI.M D.TY LIGAT D.TY BELT TYPE MA-IM.M SAA2T LOAD ;N 13? 1C? 2@? 3A* *?* AB* 1*? 1A? 3?? 4*? *C* 113? 1C? 21* 34? *?* @*? 12C? 24? 3C* *@? C2? 14?? 1B?? 4*? @C? B@* 1C?? 21?? 2C?? *2* CA? 1?1? 1A?? 2*?? 31??

SAA2T BEARING SAA2T BEARING SAA2T BEARING PLY STEEL <IDTA DIA. D DIA. ' DIA. '/ DIA. ' DIA. '/ DIA. ' DIA. '/ CLASS CORE 1?*? *?? @3? C1? B?? 1??? 12*? *?? @3? C1? B?? 1??? 12*? *?? @3? C1? B?? 1??? 12*? @3? C1? B?? 1??? 12*? 14?? C1? B?? 1??? 12*? 14?? 1*?? C1? B?? 1??? 12*? 14?? 1*?? 1B? 2?? 22? 24? 2*? 3@? 1B? 2?? 22? 24? 2@? 3@? 2?? 22? 24? 2B? 3?? 3@? 24? 2B? 3?? 32? 3@? 4?? 3?? 32? 34? 3B? 41? 43? 3?? 32? 34? 3B? 41? 43? 14? 1@? 1B? 2?? 22? 34? 14? 1@? 1B? 2?? 22? 34? 1@? 1B? 2?? 24? 2@? 32? 2?? 24? 2@? 2B? 32? 3B? 2@? 2B? 3?? 34? 3B? 4?? 2@? 2B? 3?? 34? 3B? 4?? 14? 1@? 1B? 2?? 22? 2@? 14? 1@? 1B? 2?? 22? 3?? 1B? 2?? 22? 24? 2@? 3?? 2?? 22? 24? 2@? 2B? 32? 2@? 2B? 3?? 32? 34? 3@? 2@? 2B? 3?? 32? 34? 3B? 11? 12* 14? 1@? 1B? 22? 11? 12* 14? 1@? 1B? 2@? 14? 1@? 1B? 2?? 22? 2@? 1@? 1B? 2?? 22? 24? 2B? 22? 24? 2@? 2B? 3?? 32? 22? 24? 2@? 2B? 3?? 34? 11? 11? 12* 14? 1@? 1B? 11? 12* 14? 1@? 1B? 22? 14? 1@? 1B? 2?? 22? 24? 14? 1@? 1B? 2?? 22? 24? 1B? 2?? 24? 2@? 3B? 3?? 1B? 2?? 24? 2@? 2B? 3?? C* A? 1?? 11? 12* 14? A? 1?? 11? 12* 14? 1B? 11? 12* 14? 1@? 1B? 2?? 11? 12* 14? 1@? 1B? 2?? 1@? 1B? 2@? 22? 24? 2@? 1@? 1B? 2?? 22? 24? 2B? @3? B?? ST*?? 12*? ST@3? 12*? ST12*? 1@?? ST1@?? 2??? ST31*? @3? B?? ST*?? 12*? ST@3? 12*? ST12*? 1@?? ST1@?? 2??? ST31*? @3? B?? ST*?? 12*? ST@3? 12*? ST12*? 1@?? ST1@?? 2??? ST31*? B?? 12*? 12*? 1@?? 2??? 2*?? 12*? 12*? 1@?? 2??? 2*?? 12*? 12*? 1@?? 2??? 2*?? ST*?? ST@3? ST12*? ST1@?? ST31*? ST4??? ST@3? ST12*? ST1@?? ST31*? ST4??? ST*??? ST@3? ST12*? ST1@?? ST31*? ST4??? ST*???

12??

13*?

1*??

1B??

21??

SEE GENERA, NOTES ON S5EET 1

BELT CONVEYOR DRIVES - A CONSIDERATION O2 SOME DESIGN ASPECTS

1.A. Rall Pr.Eng., BS Eng., MSAIME Aansen Trans)!ss!"ns +Pt$, lt' P. Staples Pr.Eng BS , MSAIME Manag!ng D!re t"r C"n#e$"r %n"&le'ge an' In("r)at!"n Te *n"l"g$ +Pt$,Lt' +C%IT,

S3))ar$C T#is is a s#or% re+iew o$ -ar% o$ %#e !in1 .e%ween %#e e!e&%ri& -ower /rid and $!a% r ..er &o+ered .e!%s sed $or %rans-or%in/ !ar/e +o! 0es o$ /ran !ar 0a%eria!. I% is &on&erned wi%# #i/# +o! 0e 0a%eria! &on+e"in/ and no% wi%# s-e&ia! &ases s &# as $eed or 0e%erin/ &on+e"ors2 s%ee- in&!ined &on+e"ors e%&. I% &onsiders 0ain!" %#e s-eed red &er .e%ween 0o%or &o -!in/ and dri+e - !!e"2 ra%in/s2 .earin/ !i$e2 ser+i&e $a&%ors2 s%o--in/ and an%i7 r n.a&1 de+i&es. /. GeneralC T#e e+er in&reasin/ ra%e o$ &ons 0-%ion o$ ear%#=s raw 0a%eria!s #as .ro /#% wi%# i% a need $or $as%er 0o+e0en% o$ %#ese 0a%eria!s $ro0 %#e -oin% o$ e<%ra&%ion %o %#e -oin% o$ -ro&ess or sa/e and %rans-or%in/ %#ese 0a%eria!s %#ro /# %#e -ro&ess -!an% and dis-osin/ o$ %#e was%e in %#e s#or%es% -ossi.!e %i0e. Man" 0e%#ods o$ 0a%eria! #and!in/ are e0-!o"ed $ro0 w#ee! .arrows %o d 0- %r &1s or s# %%!e &ars2 %o -ne 0a%i& d &%s &arr"in/ - !+erised -ar%i&!es in an air s%rea0. In %#is !ine o$ 0o+e0en%2 .e!% &on+e"ors -!a" a +er" i0-or%an% -ar% in %#e re!ia.!e &arr"in/ o$ 0a%eria! o+er !on/ dis%an&es a% a &o0-e%i%i+e &os%. Ea&# 0e%#od o$ 0a%eria! &on+e"in/ #as i%s ad+an%a/es and disad+an%a/es. One o$ %#e -ro.!e0s wi%# .e!% &on+e"ors is %#a% so$% $ria.!e 0a%eria! &an .e de/raded2 -ar%i& !ar!" in !oadin/ and n!oadin/. I$ %#e 0ain%enan&e o$ ! 0- siDe is i0-or%an%2 %#is &an -resen% di$$i& !%ies on a &o0-!i&a%ed &on+e"or s"s%e0. Con+e"or s"s%e0s #a+e .e&o0e !ar/er and 0ore &o0-!e< and dri+e s"s%e0s #a+e a!so .een /oin/ %#ro /# a -ro&ess o$ e+o! %ion and wi!! &on%in e %o do so. 'i//er .e!%s re6 ire 0ore -ower and #as .ro /#% %#e need $or !ar/er indi+id a! dri+es as we!! as 0 !%i-!e dri+es s &# as 4 dri+es o$ 1??? 1( ea&# on one .e!%. S#a$% 0o n%in/ o$ %#e &o0-!e%e dri+e ni% is ano%#er &#an/e w#i&# #as .ro /#% wi%# i% %#e re6 ire0en% $or 0ore &o0-a&% and !i/#%er dri+e ni%s. T#is %ends %o $a+or a ri/#% an/!e dri+e &on$i/ ra%ion wi%# %#e 0o%or ne<% %o %#e .e!% and #ardened /ears %o red &e %#e di0ensions and 0ass o$ %#e dri+e. 0. Dr!#e Rat!" an' Belt spee'sC De-endin/ on %#e 6 an%i%"2 siDe2 dis%an&e and &#ara&%eris%i&s o$ %#e 0a%eria! %o .e &on+e"ed2 %#e a.sor.ed -ower2 wid%#2 %ensi!e re6 ire0en%s and %o- &o+er %#i&1ness o$ %#e .e!% wi!! .e de&ided. ,ar/e +o! 0e &on+e"or .e!%s r n in %#e ran/e o$ 2 %o @ 0e%reHse&ond and %#e a!!owa.!e .end radi s o$ %#e .e!% de%er0ines - !!e" dia0e%ers w#i&# $or !ar/e .e!%s is o$ %#e order o$ ?2B %o 12* 0 /i+in/ - !!e" s-eeds .e%ween *? and 12* r-0. Ass 0in/ %#a% 4 -o!e 0o%ors are sed2 %#is /i+es a red &%ion ra%io re6 ired .e%ween 12;1 and 3?;1. Mos% 0odern /ear 0an $a&% rers do no% se a #i/#er ra%io -er s%a/e %#an *;12 w#i&# 0eans %#a% s-eed red &ers wi!! .e ei%#er 2 or 3 s%a/e red &%ion. 9E<&e-% $or s0a!! -owers w#ere wor0 red &ers2 or %or6 e ar0s and ) .e!% dri+es 0a" .e sed:. T#ere is a 0is&on&e-%ion %#a% one &an red &e %#e &os% o$ %#e /ear7s-eed red &er ." sin/ a @ or B -o!e 0o%or2 . % e+en an B -o!e 0o%or on %#e #i/#er s-eeds wo !d re6 ire a red &%ion a.o+e @;1 and a 2 s%a/e ni% wo !d s%i!! .e re6 ired. T#e . !1 o$ %#e &os% o$ a /ear.o< is re!a%ed %o %#e !ow s-eed s#a$% %or6 e and %#ere$ore #a+in/ de%er0ined %#is2 %#ere is /enera!!" no e&ono0i& ad+an%a/e a% a!! in sin/ an"%#in/ . % a 4 -o!e 0o%or. T#e 0o%or 0an $a&% rers2 .e&a se o$ siDe and +o! 0e2 /enera!!" s --!" 4 -o!e 0o%ors a% %#e !owes% -ri&e2 and as a r !e %#ere$ore2 a 4 -o!e 0o%or is %#e .es% &#oi&e wi%# a /ear.o< o$ %#e a--ro-ria%e ra%io %o arri+e a% %#e desired &on+e"or s#a$% s-eed. (#ere .a!! and ro!!er .earin/s are s-eeds $or 0o%ors o+er 1??? 1(. sed in %#e e!e&%ri& 0o%ors so0e 0an $a&% rers -re$er @ -o!e or e+en B -o!e

5./ C*"! e "( S!ngle "r M3lt!ple Dr!#e.

5a+in/ &a!& !a%ed %#e -ower re6 ired %o dri+e %#e .e!% and #a+in/ &onsidered %#e .e!% %ension and an/!e o$ &on%a&%2 a de&ision &an .e %a1en on w#e%#er %#e .e!% s#o !d .e $i%%ed wi%# sin/!e or 0 !%i-!e dri+e. T#is de&ision is o$%en in$! en&ed ." o%#er e6 i-0en% ins%a!!ed in a -!an% and 0 !%i-!es o$ o%#er s0a!!er dri+es are o$%en sed. Dri+e siDe 0a" a!so .e de%er0ined ." %#e neares% s%andard 0o%or a+ai!a.!e. (#ere a dri+e -oin% is si% a%ed so0e &onsidera.!e dis%an&e $ro0 %#e 0ain -ower so r&e2 a !on/ &a.!e 0a" .e in+o!+ed %o s --!" e!e&%ri& -ower %o %#e dri+e. In %#is &ase2 %#e &a.!e siDe and &os% o$ %rans$or0ers 0a" -!a" an i0-or%an% -ar% in %#e se!e&%ion o$ n 0.er and siDe o$ 0o%ors sed. (i%# dire&% on !ine s%ar%in/2 %#e -ea1 & rren% %#e 0o%or wi!! draw is !i1e!" %o .e o$ %#e order o$ @ < $ !! !oad & rren% and %#e &o0.ina%ion o$ r nnin/ & rren% o$ a 0o%or or /ro - o$ 0o%ors wi%# %#e s%ar%in/ & rren% o$ %#e !as% 0o%or %o s%ar% wi!! #a+e a s%ron/ in$! en&e on %#e dri+e &#oi&e. 5.0 Met*"' "( L"& Spee' S*a(t C"nne t!"ns. Dri+e $ro0 %#e red &er %o %#e .e!% - !!e" s#a$% is ei%#er ." L$!e<i.!eL &o -!in/ $ro0 a dri+e -a&1 0o n%ed on a $o nda%ion ne<% %o %#e s%r &% re or ." s#a$% 0o n%ed dri+e ni% #an/in/ on %#e - !!e" s#a$%. (#en s#a$% 0o n%ed2 %#e dri+e ni% &an .e ei%#er #o!!ow s#a$%2 dri+in/ %#ro /# a $ri&%ion !o&1in/ e!e0en% or so!id s#a$% a%%a&#ed ." a ri/id &o -!in/ %o %#e &on+e"or s#a$%. So0e %"-i&a! a%%a&#0en%s are s#own in %#e s1e%&#es. 9See a--endi< A:. =./. C*"! e "( Start!ng )et*"', 'r!#e s!De an' Pr"te t!"nC D rin/ s%ar% - o$ &on+e"or .e!%s2 a &onsidera.!e 0ass is s a!!" in+o!+ed w#i&# re6 ires a&&e!era%ion2 and %o red &e %#e !en/%# o$ %i0e %#a% %#e 0o%or draws s%ar%in/ & rren%2 a Ls!i- &o -!in/L is $i%%ed .e%ween %#e dri+e 0o%or and s-eed red &er. A!%erna%i+e!"2 s!i- rin/ 0o%ors are sed %o a&#ie+e a 6 i&1 . % /en%!e s%ar% - wi%# &on%ro! o$ %#e -ea1 & rren%. On s0a!! .e!%s .e!ow 1?1( dire&% on !ine s%ar%in/ dire&%!" &o -!ed is 6 i%e nor0a! and on .e!%s2 sa" .e!ow 1?? 1( D.O.,. s%ar%in/ wi%# Ls!i-L &o -!in/s is 0os% &o00on2 and -ro.a.!" %#e si0-!es% and 0os% &os% e$$e&%i+e. On !ar/er dri+es wi%# -ower a% i%s -resen% &on%in o s!" in&reasin/ &os%2 s!i- rin/ 0o%ors 0a" .e a%%ra&%i+e2 d e %o %#e -re+en%ion o$ %#e -ea12 -ar%i& !ar!" w#ere 0a<i0 0 de0and -!a"s a -ar% in %#e e!e&%ri&i%" %ari$$. T#ere is a 0 !%i% de o$ s!i- &o -!in/s on %#e 0ar1e% $or se wi%# D.O.,. s%ar% 0o%ors2 . % $or !ar/er .e!%s %#e 0a8ori%" in se are !i6 id %"-e &o -!in/s2 ei%#er s%rai/#% %ra&%ion or %ra&%ion wi%# de!a"ed $i!! or &on%ro!!a.!e $i!! 9s&oo- %"-e:. A $! id &o -!in/ wi!! a!wa"s Ls!i-L a s0a!! a0o n% and wi!! #e!- 0 !%i-!e dri+es %o s#are !oad2 -ro+ided %#e &o -!in/ L$i!!L #as .een &are$ !!" ad8 s%ed. As a r !e2 ea&# &o -!in/ #as a s!i/#%!" di$$eren% &#ara&%eris%i& and i$ ad8 s%ed %o s#are !oad &orre&%!" nder $ !! !oad &ondi%ions wi!! 0ore %#an !i1e!" no% s#are -ro-er!" nder !i/#% !oad &ondi%ions. Mo%or &#ara&%eris%i&s a!so +ar" a !i%%!e and &an a!so &on%ri. %e %o -oor !oad s#arin/ on 0 !%i-!e dri+es. Dri+e s"s%e0s &o00on!" /o - %o 4 0o%ors -er .e!%2 . % rare!" 0ore. =.0 M"t"r Start!ngC +D.O.L. &!t* (l3!' "3pl!ng,. On 0 !%i-!e dri+es a&&e-%ed -ra&%i&e is %o s%ar% %#e 0o%or on %#e se&ondar" dri+e $irs% and sa" 37* se&onds !a%er one o$ %#e -ri0ar" dri+e 0o%ors and %#en %#e ne<% -ri0ar" 0o%or sa" *71? se&onds !a%er. In -ra&%i&e2 #owe+er2 %#e o.ser+ed s%ar%in/ -ro&ed res and de!a" %i0es +ar" a /rea% dea!. A +er" &o00on si/#% is %o see %#e se&ondar" dri+e 0o%or r nnin/ and d e %o &onser+a%i+e &o -!in/ se!e&%ion2 %#e s%ar%in/ & rren% dro-s so0ew#a%2 . % s%ar%s risin/ 6 i&1!" a/ain d e %o %#e de!a"ed $i!! &o -!in/ in&reasin/ i%=s s!i- %or6 e2 w#i!e %#e .e!% re0ains s%a%ionar". I$ a -ri0ar" dri+e is s%ar%ed a% %#e &orre&% %i0e .e$ore %#e &o -!in/ %or6 e #as in&reased %oo $ar2 %#e .e!% is .ro /#% in%o 0o%ion 0 &# 6 i&1er wi%# a !ower o+era!! & rren%. T#e re!a%i+e s!i- o$ %#e &o -!in/ a$$e&%s i%=s %or6 e and so %#e 0o%or & rren%2 and %#e sooner %#e .e!% &an .e 0o+ed2 %#e sooner %#e & rren% -ea1s wi!! dro-. In %#e &ase o$ s&oo- &on%ro!!ed $! id &o -!in/s a!! 0o%ors are s%ar%ed in 6 i&1 s &&ession and %#en a!! &o -!in/s $i!!ed s!ow!". A si0i!ar -ro&ed re is $o!!owed wi%# s!i- rin/ 0o%ors and %#ese %wo 0e%#ods are ndo .%ed!" %#e 1indes% %o %#e .e!%2 - !!e" and !a//in/ e%&. T#e &#oi&e o$ s&oo- %"-e $! id &o -!in/s or s!i- rin/ 0o%ors is !i1e!" %o !ead %o %#e sa$e%" and -ossi.!e sa+in/s on swi%&# /ear 0ain%enan&e. =.5 Ot*er Dr!#e Met*"'sC (#ere a +aria.!e &on+e"in/ ra%e is re6 ired2 D.C. dri+es &an .e sed as we!! as s6 irre! &a/e 0o%ors wi%# $re6 en&" &on%ro!. Ano%#er 0e%#od is ." #"dro7s%a%i& dri+e4 a/ain idea! $or +aria.!e s-eed2 . % o+era!! r nnin/ and 0ain%enan&e &os%s on .i/ -owers are !i1e!" %o .e #i/#er %#an a $! id &o -!in/ dri+e2 wi%# S.C. 0o%or or s!irin/ 0o%or. se o$ s0a!!er 0o%ors wi%#

=.= Belt Pr"te t!"nC 'e!% -ro%e&%ion a/ains% o+er!oad and s%a!!in/ is &o00on!" done ." a &en%ri$ /a! swi%&# dri+en ." a ro!!er on %#e nderside o$ %#e .e!%. T#is2 #owe+er2 is no% +er" sensi%i+e and 0ore so-#is%i&a%ed 0e%#ods are now sed. One 0e%#od &onsis%s o$ $i%%in/ a - !se /enera%or %o %#e dri+e /ear.o< !ow s-eed s#a$% and si0i!ar - !se /enera%or %o a ro!!er dri+en ." %#e .e!%. A 0oni%orin/ ni% &o0-ares %#e - !se $re6 en&ies &on%in o s!" and i$ %#e" /o o %side se% !i0i%s2 an a!ar0 is /i+en or %#e .e!% s%o--ed. On s%ar% -2 .e!% s!i- &an .e 1e-% %o a 0ini0 0 ." sin/ %#e 0oni%orin/ ni% %o &on%ro! %#e s%ar% - on s!i-rin/ 0o%ors. T#e 0oni%orin/ ni% &an &on%ro! %#e ro%or resis%an&e and so %#e s%ar%in/ %or6 e. A!%erna%i+e!"2 %#e L$i!!L o$ a +aria.!e $i!! $! id &o -!in/ &an .e &on%ro!!ed ." %#e &o0-ari%or. 7. St"pp!ng a Belt C"n#e$"r 7./ 2"r&ar' st"pp!ng. As a /enera! r !e2 $ri&%ion wi!! red &e %#e nor0a! $orward s-eed o$ %#e .e!% and !oad and .rin/ i% %o res% in a re!a%i+e!" s#or% %i0e. T#e a!!owa.!e %i0e $or s%o--in/ de-ends 0ain!" on %#e dis&#ar/e end &ondi%ions. (#ere one .e!% $eeds on%o ano%#er2 %ri--in/ &ondi%ions2 %rans$er . n1er siDe and .e!% !a"o % 0a" indi&a%e a need $or a .e!% %o .e s!owed down ." o%#er 0e%#ods %#an nor0a! $ri&%ion. On a down#i!! se&%ion o$ a &on+e"or dis&#ar/in/ on%o a !e+e! or -#i!! .e!% is /enera!!" %#e -!a&e w#ere .ra1in/ is re6 ired. I$ one .e!% r ns on !on/er %#an %#e res% o$ a s"s%e0 o$ &on+e"ors2 . n1ers or %rans$er &# %es &an .e o+er!oaded and 0a" e+en .e a #aDard2 . % %#is is /enera!!" a +er" rare &ondi%ion. Considerin/ a &on+e"or !a"o % as -er s1e%&# 9see a--endi< ': $i%%ed wi%# a .ra1e on %#e /ear.o< #i/# s-eed s#a$%2 i% &an .e seen %#a% w#en s%o--ed nder !oad %#e iner%ia o$ %#e !oad wo !d %end %o -i&1 - %#e /ra+i%" %ensioner and re!ease %#e %ension in %#e .e!% .e%ween dri+e and #ead - !!e" and 0a" e+en /o s!a&1 ." %#e %i0e %#e !oad &o0es %o res%. T#e !oad assis%ed ." %#e /ra+i%" %a1e - wo !d %#en a&&e!era%e %#e .e!% in %#e re% rn dire&%ion w#i!e %#e dri+es are s%a%ioner" wi%# .ra1es on. (#en %#e .e!% .e%ween dri+e and #ead - !!e" .e&o0es %i/#% i% #as %o re%ard %#e !oad in a $ra&%ion o$ %#e dis%an&e in w#i&# i% #ad .een a&&e!era%ed. Under %#is s dden s%o--in/ o$ %#e !oad %#e dri+e is s .8e&%ed %o #ea+" s#o&1. In %#is &ase2 a .ra1e is no% on!" nne&essar"2 . % #i/#!" ndesira.!e. A .ra1e $i%%ed on a down#i!! .e!% dri+e wo !d a/ain re!ease %ension .e%ween dri+e and #ead - !!e" and -i&1 - %#e %a1e -2 . % %#is wo !d %end %o re!ease %ension on %#e dri+in/ 9or s%o--in/: - !!e"s and a!!ow %#e .e!% %o s!i-. T#is &an da0a/e %#e .e!% and - !!e" !a//in/ and &an a!so .e dan/ero s. T#e -ro-er 0e%#od o$ s%o--in/ a .e!% !i1e %#is is on %#e %ai! - !!e" or o%#er - !!e" on %#e re% rn .e!% a$%er i% !ea+es %#e %a1e -. Ano%#er a--!i&a%ion w#ere .ra1es are so0e%i0es sed is on .e!%s r nnin/ %#ro /# a 0o.i!e s%a&1er2 %o red &e %#e ris1 o$ %#e .e!% sna//in/4 s#o !d %#e s%a&1er .e 0o+ed w#i!e %#e .e!% is s%a%ionar". 5ere a/ain a .ra1e wo !d .e $i%%ed %o %#e %ai! - !!e" and a #o!d.a&1 %o %#e dri+e or #ead. 7.0 Re#erse St"pp!ngC U-#i!! &on+e"ors nor0a!!" on!" need an an%i7r n.a&1 de+i&e. T#is &an .e $i%%ed %o %#e #ead - !!e" or on one o$ %#e dri+e - !!e"s or %o %#e /ear.o<. I$ $i%%ed %o %#e /ear.o<2 %#e %or6 e w#i&# %#e #o!d.a&1 is re6 ired %o resis% is red &ed ." %#e ra%io o$ %#e /ears .e%ween %#e #o!d.a&1 and dri+e - !!e". 9See a--endi< C:. Considera.!e sa+in/s &an %#ere$ore .e 0ade on %#e siDe o$ #o!d.a&1 $i%%ed %o %#e /ear.o< &o0-ared %o %#a% re6 ired on %#e #ead or dri+e - !!e". 5owe+er2 on 0 !%i-!e dri+es %#ere &an .e -ro.!e0s wi%# !oad s#arin/. On nor0a! r nnin/ and s%ar% -2 %#e dri+in/ !oad is s#ared .e%ween %#e +ario s dri+es ." ei%#er $! id &o -!in/s or s!i-7rin/ 0o%ors as -re+io s!" 0en%ioned. (#en .ein/ #e!d ." a #o!d.a&1 $i%%ed %o %#e /ear.o<2 %#e s"s%e0 is %orsiona!!" 0 &# 0ore ri/id %#an in %#e dri+e dire&%ion and i% is #i/#!" n!i1e!" %#a% 0ore %#an one /ear.o< H .a&1s%o- &o0.ina%ion wo !d #o!d %#e .e!% n!ess s-e&i$i& -ro+ision is 0ade $or !oad s#arin/. On a &on%in o s!" in&!ined .e!%2 9w#i&# is %#e wors%2: a% %#e 0o0en% o$ &o0in/ %o res%2 %#e $ri&%ion !oad &an .e &onsidered no% %o -!a" an" si/ni$i&an% -ar% in #o!din/ %#e .e!% .a&1 and %#e $ !! dri+in/ %or6 e #as %o .e &onsidered a&%in/ in %#e re+erse dire&%ion. On a 0 !%i-!e dri+e in %#is si% a%ion2 i$ %#e s%ren/%# o$ one /ear.o< is s $$i&ien% %o resis% %#e r n.a&1 %or6 e2 %#en a #o!d.a&1 on one /ear.o< wi!! .e ade6 a%e. A!%erna%i+e!"2 0ore %#an one /ear.o< #as %o .e $i%%ed wi%# a #o!d.a&1 and so0e 0eans o$ !oad s#arin/ -ro+ided. 9See a--endi< D $or #o!d.a&1 s1e%&#es:. In 0an" &ases .ra1es are $i%%ed %o/e%#er wi%# #o!d.a&1s. I$ .o%# %#e .ra1e and #o!d.a&1 #a+e ea&# .een se!e&%ed $or a %or6 e so0ew#ere near %#e dri+in/ %or6 e2 %#en &!ear!" on r n.a&1 &ondi%ion wi%# .ra1e and #o!d.a&1

wor1in/ %o/e%#er2 %#eir &o0.ined %or6 e is !i1e!" %o .e &onsidera.!" #i/#er %#an %#e /ear.o< ra%in/. Re% rnin/ %o %#e s1e%&# o$ %#e &on+e"or 8 s% dis& ssed2 %#e .ra1es wi!! .rin/ %#e dri+e - !!e"s and /ear.o<es %o res% !on/ .e$ore %#e !oad. Consider %#e /ear.o< #i/# s-eed s#a$% $i%%ed wi%# .ra1e dr 0 and #o!d.a&1 .o%# !o&1ed a/ains% re+erse 0o%ion. (#en %#e .e!% s dden!" a--!ies re+erse dri+e %o %#e - !!e"2 %#e #o!d.a&1 and .ra1in/ %or6 e #as %o .e o+er&o0e and %#e .ra1e dr 0 a&&e!era%ed %#ro /# %#e /ear.o< as s-eed in&reases. In %#is si% a%ion2 an in&redi.!e s%ress is -!a&ed on %#e dr 02 !ow s-eed &o -!in/ and /ear7%rain. B. Ser#! e 2a t"rsC 9See a--endi< E $or ser+i&e $a&%ors re&o00ended ." AGMA:. B./ Gear Rat!ngC T#e se o$ a ser+i&e $a&%or is o$%en re/arded as a $a&%or o$ i/noran&e ." %#e end i/noran&e o$ %#e dri+e s --!iers o$ %#e %r e &ondi%ions. ses. I% 0a" we!! re-resen% %#e

In .road %er0s2 /ears ra%ed a&&ordin/ %o %#e AGMA 0e%#od o$ &a!& !a%ion wi!! %rans0i% %#e ra%ed !oad &on%in o s!"2 wi%# a ris1 o$ %oo%# $ai! re o$ !ess %#an 1I d e %o s r$a&e d ra.i!i%" or s%ren/%# -ro+ided %#a% no s#o&1 !oads are a--!ied2 no .earin/s $ai!2 no 0a%eria! de$e&%s e<is%2 !oad .earin/ is -er$e&% and ! .ri&a%ion is -er$e&% e%&. In -ra&%i&e2 a s%ead" !oad is no% +er" &o00on2 nei%#er are .earin/s w#i&# do no% wear or a.so! %e!" ri/id #o sin/s2 s#a$%s e%&. A ser+i&e $a&%or s#o !d %#ere$ore .e se!e&%ed wi%# d e &onsidera%ion o$ %#e a&% a! &ondi%ions and no% in Li/noran&e $ro0 a %a.!eL B.0 L"a' C"n'!t!"ns "n Teet* an' "t*er C")p"nentsC T#e !oadin/ and s%ress on an" one /ear %oo%# wi!! +ar" $ro0 Dero %o 0a<i0 0 on&e -er re+o! %ion %ensi!e on one $!an1 and &o0-ressi+e on %#e o--osi%e as !on/ as i% r ns and dri+es in one dire&%ion. I$ %#is sa0e dri+e ni% is sed on a re+ersi.!e dri+e2 %#e +aria%ion o$ s%ress on a %oo%# is %#ere$ore in&reased as .o%# $!an1s o$ %#e %ee%# are s .8e&%ed %o %ensi!e and &o0-ressi+e s%ress and %#e ran/e $ro0 0a<i0 0 %o 0ini0 0 near!" do .!ed and %#e $a%i/ e !i$e o$ %#e %ee%# &onsidera.!" red &ed. E+en nder s%ead" !oad &ondi%ions in .o%# dire&%ions2 %#e 1I &#an&e o$ $ai! re wi!! no !on/er a--!". Ano%#er -o%en%ia! -ro.!e0 area on re+ersi.!e dri+es is 1e"s and 1e"wa"s. Me"s in+aria.!" #a+e a +er" s0a!! a0o n% o$ side &!earan&e w#i&# wi!! 0o+e $ro0 one side o$ %#e 1e" %o %#e o%#er on re+ersa!. T#e e$$e&% %#is #as wi!! 0ain!" de-end on %#e a0o n% o$ &!earan&e and %#e s#o&1 w#i&# is a--!ied. T#is is nor0a!!" a 0a<i0 0 nder s%ar% - w#en .a&1!as# .e%ween %#e %ee%#2 &o -!in/2 e!e0en%s e%&.2 are !i1e!" %o .e o-en -ar%i& !ar!" on %#e re+erse s%ar% - &ondi%ion. Re+ersa! o$ s%ress in dri+e &o0-onen%s &an a!so o&& r on .ra1es are $i%%ed %o s!ow %#e .e!% down. ni%s r nnin/ on!" in one dire&%ion2 $or ins%an&e2 w#ere

T#e a.o+e $or ins%an&e2 a--!ies e6 a!!" %o %#e !ow s-eed s#a$% &o -!in/s w#ere a s-rin/ e!e0en% on a re+ersin/ &on+e"or 0a" $ai! in $a%i/ e w#ere an iden%i&a! dri+e on a nidire&%iona! &on+e"or s#ows no si/n o$ $a%i/ e. T#e &#oi&e o$ .ra1es on &on+e"or dri+es a--ear %o .e se!e&%ed %o s i% %#e dri+e 0o%or %or6 e or 0ore. On a &rane2 %#is 0a" .e a +a!id s%ar%in/ -oin% $or .ra1e se!e&%ion2 . % on a &on+e"or w#i&# 0a" #a+e - as we!! as down#i!! se&%ions2 %#e 0o%or %or6 e is !i1e!" %o !ead %o %#e se!e&%ion o$ 0 &# %oo !ar/e a .ra1e. On %#e se o$ ser+i&e $a&%ors2 i% is &o00on -ra&%i&e %o se!e&% a /ear.o< wi%# a 0ini0 0 ser+i&e $a&%or &a!& !a%ed on ins%a!!ed 0o%or -ower. T#e 0o%or -ower is o$%en arri+ed a% ." doin/ +er" e<%ensi+e and &are$ ! &a!& !a%ions o$ %#e -ower re6 ired %o dri+e %#e .e!% w#i&# in si0-!e %er0s wi!! &onsis% o$ -ower %o o+er&o0e $ri&%ion -! s -ower %o !i$% %#e !oad. In .o%# &ases2 an a.so! %e 0a<i0 0 &an .e %a1en and %#en a &on%in/en&" $a&%or added. T#e e$$i&ien&" o$ %#e $! id &o -!in/ &an %#en .e es%i0a%ed2 %o .e e<%re0e!" !ow and so a!so %#e /ear.o< e$$i&ien&". A--!" a ser+i&e $a&%or on %o- o$ %#is2 %#en se!e&% %#e ne<% .i//er s%andard 0o%or and %#e dri+e 0o%or wi!! .e a.!e %o &o-e wi%# %#e 0os% ad+erse $rea1 &ondi%ion wi%# -ower %o s-are2 . % do a $air a0o n% o$ da0a/e %o %#e .e!%2 - !!e"s e%&. T#e !as% %#in/ one wan%s %o do is se!e&% a dri+e ni% %oo s0a!!2 . % i% is essen%ia! %o do a!! %#e &a!& !a%ions a&& ra%e!" and %#en a--!" a L&on%in/en&"L $a&%or on!" on&e. T#e &onse6 en&es o$ se!e&%in/ a /ear.o< or a !ow s-eed s#a$% &o -!in/ on dr 0 s#a$% %oo !ar/e wo !d -rod &e an ne&ono0i& so! %ion2 . % wo !d /i+e a +er" !on/ e<-e&%ed !i$e. 5owe+er2 se!e&%in/ %oo !ar/e a 0o%or wi!! #a+e 6 i%e %#e o--osi%e e$$e&% on %#e !i$e o$ a .e!%2

- !!e"s2 /ear.o<es e%&.2 o+er an e<%ended -eriod o$ %i0e. As an e<a0-!e2 &onsider a &on+e"or dri+e &a!& !a%ed %o re6 ire C? 1( %o dri+e i% and add a *?I &on%in/en&" $a&%or. indi&a%in/ an a.so! %e 0a<i0 0 1?* 1(. T#e ne<% .i//er siDe o$ 0o%or is sa" 132 1(. On s%ar% - %#e dri+e %rain 0a" .e s .8e&%ed %o a %or6 e e6 i+a!en% %o 2N < 132 Mw E 33? 1( w#i!e ori/ina!!" one se% o % on!" needin/ C? 1(. On s%ar% -2 %#e 0e&#ani&a! &o0-onen%s o$ %#is dri+e wi!! &er%ain!" re&ei+e a .ea%in/. Re% rnin/ %o %#e &a!& !a%ed ra%in/ o$ %#e dri+e ni%4 %o ens re %#a% one 0ain%ains %#e &#an&e o$ $ai! re a% %#e &orre&% !e+e!2 %#e o-era%in/ &ondi%ions #a+e %o .e ana!"sed and a S.F. se!e&%ed %o ens re %#a% s#o&1 and o%#er n$orseen &ondi%ions do no% /o o %side %#e $a&%ors %a1en in%o %#e &a!& !a%ion. I% is a&&e-%ed %#a% %#e &a!& !a%ed ra%in/ o$ a /ear &an .e e<&eeded $or s#or% -eriods wi%#o % da0a/e. For ins%an&e2 i% a!!ows $or a s%ar%in/ %or6 e o$ %wi&e %#e AGMA ra%in/ o$ %#e /ear wi%#o % i!! e$$e&%. B.5 Bear!ng L!(eC T#e nor0a! 0e%#ods o$ ra%in/ a .a!! or ro!!er .earin/ in a /ear.o< is %o ass 0e a '1? !i$e o$ *??? #o rs and &a!& !a%e %#e ra%ed -ower o$ %#e /ears $or %#is .earin/ !i$e w#i&# is %#en %a1en as %#e .earin/ ra%in/. T#e 1( ra%in/ $or .earin/s wi!! %#ere$ore nor0a!!" .e #i/#er %#an %#e ra%in/ o$ %#e /ears. T#e /enera!ised re!a%ions#i- .e%ween %#e !i$e o$ ro!!er .earin/2 %#e o-era%in/ !oad and ra%ed &a-a&i%" is e<-ressed as;7 ,i$e E Cons%an% O Ra%ed !oad &a-a&i%" P
323

O-era%in/ s-eed O A&% a! o-era%in/ !oad P (#en %#e .earin/ ra%in/ a% a s-e&i$i& s-eed is &a!& !a%ed as s%a%ed a.o+e in %er0s o$ 1( $or *??? #o rs '1? !i$e and %#e a+era/e a.sor.ed -ower o$ %#e dri+en 0a&#ine is 1nown2 %#en %#e e<-e&%ed '1? .earin/ !i$e wi!! .e;7 *??? Q O 1( ra%in/ o$ .earin/ P P
323

5o rs

O A.sor.ed a+era/e -ower in 1(

S%a%is%i&a!!" 0ore %#an A?I o$ a!! .earin/s o-era%in/ nder %#ese &ondi%ions wi!! #a+e a !i$e a% !eas% e6 a! %o %#e &a!& !a%ed $i/ re or %#e &#an&e o$ $ai! re is !ess %#an 1?I in %#is -eriod o$ r nnin/ %i0e. T#is is a s%a%is%i&a! -ro.a.i!i%" .ased on %#e ass 0-%ion %#a% %#e a&% a! !i$e wi!! .e nor0a!!" dis%ri. %ed and %#e 1?I $ai! res in&! de %#e -ossi.i!i%" o$ a $ai! re in %#e $irs% 0in %e o$ o-era%ion. !i1ewise %#e A?I w#i&# wi!! e<&eed %#is &a!& !a%ed !i$e wi!! in&! de so0e w#i&# wi!! #a+e in$ini%e !i$e as %#e %ai!s o$ %#e nor0a! dis%ri. %ion & r+e s%re%&# $ro0 Dero %o in$ini%". For o%#er &#an&es o$ $ai! re2 %#e .earin/ 0an $a&% rers /i+e %#e $o!!owin/ $a&%ors wi%# w#i&# %o 0 !%i-!" %#e '1? !i$e %o &a!& !a%e %#e e<-e&%ed !i$e $or %#e &orres-ondin/ &#an&e o$ $ai! re. Pro.a.i!i%" o$ $ai! re 1?I *I Fa&%or 1 4I 3I 2I 1I

?2@2 ?2*3 ?244 ?233 ?221

T#e &a%a!o/ e ra%in/ $or a /ear ni% is %#e ra%in/ in 1( o$ %#e wea1es% e!e0en% in %#e /ear ni%. Ass 0in/ %#e . "er re6 es%s a S.F. o$ 12* on %#e a.sor.ed -ower2 and %#a% a .earin/ is %#e wea1es% e!e0en%2 %#en %#e e<-e&%ed .earin/ !i$e wi!! .e a--ro<i0a%e!" 1A??? #o rs $or a 1?I &#an&e o$ $ai! re or 4??? #o rs $or 1I &#an&e o$ $ai! re. T#e re!a%ions#i- .e%ween !oad and !i$e is e<-onen%ia! and a s0a!! &#an/e in !oad wi!! #a+e a si/ni$i&an% in$! en&e on e<-e&%ed .earin/ !i$e2 %#ere$ore2 i% is essen%ia! %#a% %#e a+era/e a.sor.ed -ower o$ %#e .e!% .e &a!& !a%ed. >. C"n l3s!"nC To -ro+ide a $irs% &!ass so! %ion %o a 0a%eria!s &on+e"in/ -ro.!e0 an i0-or%an% -oin% is a /ood in%e/ra%ed .a!an&ed desi/n o$ w#i&# %#e dri+e is one e!e0en% w#i&# re6 ires &!ose and o-en &o!!a.ora%ion .e%ween %#e &on+e"or desi/ner and %#e dri+e s --!ier. To %#is end2 0a" we s //es% %#a% w#en -!a&in/ an en6 ir" $or &on+e"or dri+es o$ sa" o+er 1?? 1(2 %#a% %#e $o!!owin/ in$or0a%ion .e /i+en;7

1. 2.

3. 4. *. @. C.

A si0-!e s1e%&# o$ %#e &on+e"or !a"o %. Ca!& !a%ed a.sor.ed -ower in so0e de%ai! s &# as;7 a. Power %o o+er&o0e a!! $ri&%ion !osses. ........... ... 1( .. Power %o !i$% !oad. 9I$ !i$% is in+o!+ed:. ........... ... 1( &. Power %o 0o+e !oad on !e+e!. 9(#ere !e+e! and !i$% in+o!+ed:. RRRRRRRRRR1( d. a G . G & E Ca!& !a%ed nor0a! %o%a! a.sor.ed -ower. EEEEEEEE1( e. Con%in/en&" $or o+er!oad and $re6 en&" e<-e&%ed 9or &#an&e o$ o+er!oad in I:. ................1( $. To%a! 0a<i0 0 &a!& !a%ed a.sor.ed -ower. EEEEEEEE1( /. Addi%iona! %or6 e re6 ired %o a&&e!era%e !oad ............ .... N0 I$ %#is is 0ore %#an C*I o$ %#e e6 i+a!en% %or6 e O$ 9$:2 %#en i% needs &onsidera%ion in re!a%ion %o %#e 0o%or &#ara&%eris%i&s. #. For - r-oses o$ .earin/ !i$e &a!& !a%ion2 %#e e<-e&%ed a+era/e &on%in o s a.sor.ed -ower. Me%#od o$ s%ar%in/ and e<-e&%ed s%ar% - %i0e. Me%#od o$ -re+en%in/ r n.a&1. SiDe o$ 0o%or 9I$ no% !ess %#a% =$= reason $or &#oi&e:. E<-e&%ed ser+i&e $a&%or and reason $or &#oi&e o$ S.F. E<-e&%ed .earin/ !i$e and a&&e-%a.!e &#an&e o$ .earin/ $ai! re.

T#e end ser re6 ires !ar/er o %- %s $or a s-e&i$i& &a-i%a! &os%s &o -!ed %o !ow ener/" &ons 0-%ion2 !ow 0ain%enan&e &os%s and #i/# re!ia.i!i%" o+er a !on/ o-era%in/ !i$e. One o$ %#e Le!e0en%s in %#is L0i<L is %#e s-eed red &er $or w#i&# %#e o-%i0 0 &#oi&e is a% %#e -resen% 0o0en% &er%ain %o .e a #e!i&a! /ear ni% wi%# s#a$%s r nnin/ on .a!! or ro!!er .earin/ wi%# #ardened %ee%# dri+en ." an a--ro-ria%e L0i<L o$ e!e&%ri& 0o%or and &o -!in/ E@ternal S*r!n; D"36le Taper. Appen'!@ A/

Internal 2r! t!"n L" ;!ng Ele)ents

E@ternal S*r!n; D!s S!ngle Taper Appen'!@ A0

Internal Stret *!ng Ele)ent Appen'!@ A5

S"l!' S*a(t R!g!' C"3pl!ng S*a(t M"3nt!ng ("r Gear6"@

C"n#e$"r Dr!#e &!t* 2r! t!"n Bra;es Appen'!@ B

N"r)al R3nn!ng

23ll l"a' tr!p Bra;es st"p 6elt an' l"a' arr!es "n p! ;!ng 3p gra#!t$ ta;e 3p a3s!ng sla ; 6elt. I( 6ra;es are reE3!re' F-F !s t*e pr"per pla e t" appl$ t*e). Gear6"@ Rat!" /BC/ T*en T"rE3e "n Ba ;st"p /:/Bt*. "( L.S.S. T"rE3e Appen'!@ C

L.S. Gearset Rat!" =C/ T"rE3e "n Ba ;st"p "n Inter)e'!ate S*a(t G "( L.S.S. T"rE3e

R"ller an' Ra)p T$pe A"l'6a ; Appen'!@ D/

Sprag T$pe A"l'6a ;

Centr!(3gal Release Sprag T$pe A"l'6a ; Appen'!@ D0

A H L" ;!ng D!re t!"n B H 2ree <*eel!ng D!re t!"n Ban' T$pe A"l'6a ;s Appen'!@ D5

APPENDI- E <ITA AC%NO<LEDGEMENT TO AGMA. AGMA STANDARD PRACTICE 2OR ENCLOSED SPEED RED.CERS OR INCREASERS .SING SP.R, AELICAL, AERRINGBONE AND SPIRAL BEVEL GEARS =. Ser#! e 2a t"rs 4.1 'e$ore a red &er &an .e se!e&%ed $or an" /i+en a--!i&a%ion2 %#e e6 i+a!en% #orse-ower is &o0- %ed ." 0 !%i-!"in/ %#e s-e&i$ied or a&% a! #orse-ower ." %#e ser+i&e $a&%or $or %#e -ar%i& !ar !oad &!assi$i&a%ion $or w#i&# %#e ni% is %o .e sed. I% is ne&essar" %#a% %#e ni% se!e&%ed #a+e a &a-a&i%" e6 a! %o or in e<&ess o$ %#is e6 i+a!en% #orse-ower. T#e re&o00ended ser+i&e $a&%ors $or +ario s !oad &!assi$i&a%ions and d ra%ion o$ ser+i&e are s#own $or se+era! %"-es o$ -ri0e 0o+ers in Ta.!e 1. 4.2 ,oad &!assi$i&a%ions $or +ario s a--!i&a%ions are /i+en in Ta.!e 2. T#e" are &!assi$ied in%o %#ree &o00on!" re&o/niDed !oad &!assi$i&a%ions ; Uni$or02 Modera%e S#o&12 and 5ea+" S#o&1. 4.3 Ser+i&e $a&%ors re-resen% %#e nor0a! re!a%ions#i- .e%ween /ear desi/n -ower ra%in/ and %#e &on%in o s -ower re6 ire0en%s. A--!i&a%ions in+o!+in/ n s a! or se+ere !oadin/ or re6 irin/ a #i/# de/ree o$ de-enda.i!i%" s#o !d .e &are$ !!" re+iewed wi%# %#e 0an $a&% rer .e$ore a ser+i&e $a&%or is a--!ied. 4.3.1 A--!i&a%ions wi%# #i/#7%or6 e 0o%ors and 0o%ors $or in%er0i%%en% o-era%ions and a--!i&a%ions w#ere e<%re0e re-e%i%i+e s#o&1 o&& rs or w#ere #i/#7ener/" !oads 0 s% .e a.sor.ed2 as w#en s%a!!in/2 re6 ire s-e&ia! &onsidera%ion and are no% &o+ered ." %#e ser+i&e $a&%ors /i+en in Ta.!e 1. Ta6le / Ser#! e 2a t"rs

Pr!)e M"#er

D3rat!"n "( Ser#! e O&&asiona! 1H2#r. -er da" In%er0i%%en% 3#rs. -er da" O+er 3#rs - %o and in&!. 1?#rs. -er da" O+er 1? #rs. -er da" O&&asiona! 1H2#r. -er da" In%er0i%%en% 3#rs. -er da" O+er 3#rs. - %o and in&!. 1?#rs. -er da" O+er 1?#rs. -er da" O&&asiona! 1H2#r. -er da" In%er0i%%en% 3#rs. -er da" O+er 3#rs. - %o and in&!. 1?#rs. -er da" O+er 1?#rs. -er da"

Dr!#en Ma *!ne L"a' Class!(! at!"n .n!("r) M"'erate S*" ; Aea#$ S*" ; ?.*? ?.B? 1.?? 1.2* ?.B? 1.?? 1.2* 1.*? 1.?? 1.2* 1.*? 1.C* ?.B? 1.?? 1.2* 1.*? 1.?? 1.2* 1.*? 1.C* 1.2* 1.*? 1.C* 2.?? 1.2* 1.*? 1.C* 2.?? 1.*? 1.C* 2.?? 2.2* 1.C* 2.?? 2.2* 2.*?

E!e&%ri& Mo%or2 S%ea0 T r.ine2 or 5"dra !i& Mo%or

M !%i7C"!inder In%erna! Co0. s%ion En/ine

Sin/!e C"!inder In%erna! Co0. s%ion En/ine

4.4 w#en dri+es are e6 i--ed wi%# .ra1es on %#e in- %2 and %#e %or6 e ra%in/ o$ %#e .ra1e e<&eeds %#e ra%in/ o$ %#e 0o%or2 %#e ra%in/ o$ %#e .ra1e di&%a%es %#e se!e&%ion o$ %#e /ear ni%. 4.* T#e re&o00ended ser+i&e $a&%ors $or Dr" Do&1 Crane a--!i&a%ions are /i+en in Ta.!e 3. D e %o %#e na% re o$ %#ese &rane dri+es2 %#e ser+i&e $a&%ors are %o .e sed $or an" d ra%ion o$ ser+i&e. 4.@ (#en a $! id &o -!in/ is sed .e%ween %#e -ri0e 0o+er and %#e /ear ni%2 %#e ser+i&e $a&%or /i+en in Ta.!e 1 $or 0odera%e or #ea+" s#o&1 0a" .e 0odi$ied .ased on %#e ni% 0an $a&% rer=s ana!"sis and re&o00enda%ion $or %#e a--!i&a%ion. 4.C T#e 0a<i0 0 0o0en%ar" or s%ar%in/ !oad 0 s% no% e<&eed 2?? -er &en% o$ ra%ed !oad 91 ?? -er &en% o+er!oad:. Ra%ed !oad is de$ined as %#e ni% ra%in/ wi%# a ser+i&e $a&%or o$ 1.?. 4.B T#e ser+i&e $a&%ors !is%ed $or -a-er 0i!! a--!i&a%ions are &onsis%en% wi%# %#ose s#own in TAPPI 9Te&#ni&a! Asso&ia%ion o$ %#e P !- and Pa-er Ind s%r": S%andard 4?@.?B2 LSer+i&e Fa&%ors $or Gears on Ma8or E6 i-0en% in %#e Pa-er and P 0- Ind s%r".L AGMA STANDARD PRACTICE 2OR ENCLOSED SPEED RED.CERS OR INCREASERS .SING SP.R, AELICAL, AERRINGBONE AND SPIRAL BEVEL GEARS Ta6le 0 Appl! at!"n Class!(! at!"n ("r En l"se' Spee' Re'3 ers Appl! at!"n AGITATORS P re ,i6 ids ,i6 ids and So!ids ,i6 ids7)aria.!e Densi%" L"a' Class!(! at!"n

Uni$or0 Modera%e S#o&1 Modera%e S#o&1

',O(ERS Cen%ri$ /a! ,o.e )ane 'RE(ING AND DISTI,,ING 'o%%!in/ Ma&#iner" 'rew 1e%%!es2 Con%. D %"

Uni$or0 Modera%e S#o&1 Uni$or0

Uni$or0

Uni$or0 Uni$or0 Coo1ers7Con%. D %" Mas# T .s7Con%. D %" S&a!e 5o--er2 Fre6 en% S%ar%s CAN FI,,ING MAC5INES CANE MNI)ES CAR DUMPERS CAR PU,,ERS C,ARIFIERS C,ASSIFIERS Uni$or0 Modera%e S#o&1 Uni$or0 SF E 1.*? 5ea+" S#o&1 Modera%e S#o&1 Uni$or0 Modera%e S#o&1

C,A> (ORMING MAC5INER> 'ri&1 Press 'ri6 e%%e Ma&#ine C!a" (or1in/ Ma&#iner" P / Mi!!

5ea+" S#o&1 5ea+" S#o&1 Modera%e S#o&1 Modera%e S#o&1

COMPRESSORS Cen%ri$ /a! ,o.e Re&i-ro&a%in/2 M !%i7C"!inder Re&i-ro&a%in/2 Sin/!e7C"!inder

Uni$or0 Modera%e S#o&1 Modera%e S#o&1 5ea+" S#o&1

CON)E>ORS7UNIFORMA,,> ,OADED OR FED A-ron Asse0.!" 'e!% ' &1e% C#ain F!i/#% O+en S&rew

Uni$or0 Uni$or0 Uni$or0 Uni$or0 Uni$or0 Uni$or0 Uni$or0 Uni$or0

AGMA STANDARD PRACTICE 2OR ENCLOSED SPEED RED.CERS OR INCREASERS .SING SP.R, AELICAL, AERRINGBONE AND SPIRAL BEVEL GEARS Ta6le 0 Appl! at!"n Class!(! at!"n ("r En l"se' Spee' Re'3 ers + "nt!n3e', Appl! at!"n CON)E>ORS75EA)> DUT> NOT UNIFORM,> FED A-ron Asse0.!" 'e!% ' &1e% C#ain F!i/#% Q,i+e Ro!! O+en Re&i-ro&a%in/ S&rew L"a' Class!(! at!"n

Modera%e S#o&1 Modera%e S#o&1 Modera%e S#o&1 Modera%e S#o&1 Modera%e S#o&1 Modera%e S#o&1

Modera%e S#o&1 S#a1er 5ea+" S#o&1 Modera%e S#o&1 5ea+" S#o&1

CRANES 9See Ta.!e 3 $or Dr" Do&1 Cranes: Main 5ois%s Q'rid/e Tra+e! QTro!!e" Tra+e!

Uni$or0

CRUS5ER Ore S%one S /ar

5ea+" S#o&1 5ea+" S#o&1 SF E 1.*?

Modera%e S#o&1 DREDGES Ca.!e Ree!s Con+e"ors C %%er 5ead Dri+es Ji/ Dri+es Mane +erin/ (in&#es P 0-s S&reen Dri+e S%a&1ers U%i!i%" (in&#es Modera%e S#o&1 5ea+" S#o&1 5ea+" S#o&1 Modera%e S#o&1 Modera%e S#o&1 5ea+" S#o&1 Modera%e S#o&1 Modera%e S#o&1 DR> DOCM CRANES See Ta.!e 3

Uni$or0 E,E)ATORS ' &1e%7Uni$or0 ,oad ' &1e%75ea+" ,oad ' &1e%7Con%. Cen%ri$ /a! Dis&#ar/e Es&a!a%ors Frei/#% Gra+i%" Dis&#ar/e QMan ,i$%s QPassen/er Modera%e S#o&1 Uni$or0 Uni$or0 Uni$or0 Modera%e S#o&1 Uni$or0

QQEFTRUDERS9P!as%i&: Fi!0 S#ee% Coa%in/ Rods Pi-e

Uni$or0 Uni$or0 Uni$or0

Uni$or0 Uni$or0 T .in/ '!ow Mo!ders Pre7-!as%i&iDers Uni$or0 Modera%e S#o&1 Modera%e S#o&1

QRe$er %o Fa&%or" QQTo .e se!e&%ed on .asis o$ 24#r ser+i&e on!". APPENDI- 2. Co0-arison o$ &a-i%a! &os% o$ s!i-rin/ 0o%or wi%# swi%&#/ear +ers s D.O.,. s%ar% S &a/e 0o%or wi%# s&oo- &o -!in/ and s"s%e0 !oses. For 323 Mw; 4*? Mw S!i-rin/ 1?B 3C* Mw 11B CI 22* Mw 1?A BI 2 Q $ !! !oad S%ar%in/ C rren%

To%a! Es%i0a%ed ,osses CI

D.O.,. s%ar%

1??

1??

1?? @ Q $ !! !oad

To%a! Es%i0a%ed ,osses BI %o 11I AI %o 12I 1?I %o 12I For *?? )o!%; S!i-rin/ 13? 11? CI 1?3 BI

2 Q F !! !oad

To%a! es%i0a%ed !osses CI

D.O.,. S%ar%

1??

1??

1??

@ Q F !! ,oad

To%a! es%i0a%ed !osses AI %o 11I AI %o 12I 1?I %o 12I P!ease no%e on!" one 0an $a&% rers -ri&es were sed $or 0o%ors2 $! id &o -!in/s and swi%&#/ear. No a!!owan&e is 0ade $or s --!" &a.!e siDe %o &a%er $or s%ar%in/ & rren%.

Screw Conveyor Engineering Guide


Introduction
The engineering section of this catalog was compiled to aid you in the design of a conveyor system, yielding optimum performance and efficiency, for your individual conveying function. Primary considerations for the selection of a screw conveyor are:

Type and condition of the material to !e handled, including ma"imum particle si#e, and, if availa!le, the specific !ul$ density of the material to !e conveyed. %. &uantity of transported material, e"pressed in pounds or tons per hour. '. The distance for which the material is to !e conveyed.

In the ne"t sections is the necessary information for the selection of a screw conveyor system, presented in a series of five steps. These steps are arranged in logical order, and are divided into separate sections for simplicity. The five steps are: . Esta!lishing the characteristics of the material to !e conveyed. (ocating conveyor capacity )conveyor si#e and speed* on capacity ta!les. '. Selection of conveyor components. +. Calculation of re,uired horsepower. Chec$ing of component tor,ue capacities )including selection of shaft types and si#es*. %.

-.

.ll necessary calculations are e"pressed in graphic and e,uation form, and use of all charts, graphs, etc. will !e e"plained fully at the end of each section. Engineering data regarding the design of screw feeders and their selection, is presented in a separate section, immediately following the screw conveyor data. .ny unusual applications, or special designs, should !e referred to /0S 1fg2s. Engineering 3epartment.

Screw Conveyor Engineering Guide


1aterial Characteristics
The 1aterial Ta!les on the following pages contain information regarding materials which may !e effectively conveyed, using /0S 1anufacturing Company2s screw conveyor systems. 4or information on unlisted materials, refer to the Engineering 3epartment of /0S 1anufacturing Company, Inc. 5Convey6a!ility5 data for unlisted materials can, when necessary, !e complied !y ma$ing a comparison of listed materials which have similar physical characteristics, such as weight and particle si#e. The following is a !rief description of the information presented in the 1aterials Ta!le.

1a"imum Particle Si#e


Conveyor si#e, speed, and horsepower re,uirements, are directly affected !y !ul$ density and internal friction, which are relative to the particle si#e of conveyed material,

.verage 0eight per Cu!ic 4oot


This section of the 1aterials Ta!le is supplied to ena!le you to convert the re,uired capacity in pounds or tons per hour to volume in cu!ic feet per hour. 7ote: Since most typical applications of screw conveyors receive slightly aerated, gravity fed products, the weights listed in this ta!le are averages and when possi!le, actual !ul$ densities should !e used.

Conveyor (oading

The recommended percentages of conveyor loading is a prime factor in determining the si#e of conveyor, and is !ased on the ma"imum depth at which materials will flow through the conveyor without causing undue wear. Considerations should !e made, for e"ample, for materials with a high a!rasiveness !ecause wear inde"es would normally !e higher due to a larger contact area with component parts.

8orsepower 4actor
The horsepower factor, representing the relative mo!ility of the material, is necessary for horsepower calculation.

9ecommended Component Series


This information is presented to assist in the selection of the proper materials of construction, component weights and other specifications !est suited for the material to !e conveyed. The alpha!etical code refers to general component series, and the numerical code gives !earing and shaft type recommendations. See component series ta!les

.!rasiveness, Corrosiveness .nd 54low6a!ility5


In addition to the a!ove information, the 1aterials Ta!le also presents graphically the relative a!rasiveness, corrosiveness and 5flow6a!ility5 of the materials listed. These characteristics, as well as other special aspects of materials, are given further treatment in the Component Selection Section. The values of the graphic presentation used in the 1aterials Ta!le are listed !elow.
Description Abrasiveness Corrosiveness Flowability To ':; I 7ot .!rasive 7ot Corrosive 4ree 4lowing ll 1ildly .!rasive 1ildly Corrosive 9elatively 4ree 4lowing .ngle of 9epose ':; 6 +-; <eyond +-; III 8ighly .!rasive 8ighly Corrosive Sluggish

7ote: Some materials, while they are not corrosive under 5normal5 conditions= may !ecome corrosive under certain other conditions, such as when heated or in the presence of moisture.

Special Characteristics 7otes


7ota!le unusual material characteristics are fisted !y numerical codes in the last column of the ta!le where applica!le. .n e"planation of these numerical codes is given !elow. Contains e"plosive dust %. 4luidi#es easily '. .!sor!s moisture. +. >sage or value affected !y contamination. -. Emits to"ic fumes or dust. ?. >sage or value affected !y material degradation. @. E"ceptionally light or fluffy. A. Tends to pac$ under pressure. B. 4i!rous material which tends to mat. .

1aterials Ta!le

. C < C C C 36G C 86( C 16D C P69 C S C T6E Ta!les are in alpha!etical order. Clic$ a!ove to navigate to different sections. Ta!le $eys and e"planations are located in the 51aterial Characteristics5 Section.
Maximum Avera!e &.P. Component Abras' Corrosi' Flow' Particle Size "ei!#t Per $oa%in! Note Factor Series iveness veness ability (IN. Cu.Ft. F G% @:6A: ':< .? <+ II I II

Material .cetylenogen )Calcium Car!ide* .dipic .cid .lfalfa 1eal .lfalfa Seed .lmonds .lum .lum, lumpy .lumina .luminate Gell, dried .luminum Chips .luminum 8ydrate ).luminum 8ydro"ide* .luminum D"ide ).lumina* .luminum Dre )<au"ite* .luminum Silicate .luminum Sulfate ).lum* .mianthus ).s!estos * .mmonium Chloride, Crystalline .mmonium 7itrate .mmonium Sulfate .ndalusite ).luminum Silicate* .ntimony .pple Pomace, dry .rsenate of (ead )(ead .rsenate* .rsenic .rsenic D"ide ).rsenolite* .s!estos, Dre .s!estos, Shred

6 ::1 6 GA 6 GA 6 G% 6 GA F G% 6 ::1 6 ::1 6 G% 6 G%

+@ +A %A6': +-6-A -:6?: ?:6 %: +@6 '6 A

':. ':. ':< ':< ':. ':. ':< ':. ':.

:.A :.B :.:.B :.? .+ .A .@ :.A .+

3' <+ <+ <+ .% < C+ <+ .% .%

I II II II I I III II I I

II I I I I I I I I I

II III I II II II I II III III

' .@ ? H H %

6 ::1 6' 6 GA H 4i!ers 6 GA

?:6 %: @-6A+B H %:6+: -%

+H ':< ':.

.A .A :.A H .: :.A

C+ 3+ .% H <+ .%

III III I H II I

I I I H I I

I II II H III II

-,@,A

6 GA H 6 GA

+-6?% +:6-A +B

H H +-

H H :.A

H H .%

H H I

H H I

H III II

H .' H

6 ::1 6 G% 6 GA 6 ::1 H 6 G% 4i!ers

H @% ': ::6 %: A %:6+:

':< ':< ':. H H ':<

H :..: H H .% .:

<+ <+ .% H H C+ <+

II II I H H III II

I I I H H I I

II III III H H II III

H @ %, HH-, @, A

.shes, Coal, dry .shes, Coal, dry .shes, Coal, wet .shes, Coal, wet .sphalt, Crushed

6 G% 6' 6 G% 6' 6 G%

'-6+'-6++-6-: +:6-: +-

':< ':< ':< ':.

%.: %.: '.: +.: %.:

<+ <+ 3+ 3+ .%

II II II II I

I I II II I

III III III III II A A

Conveyor Capacity
. capacity ta!le is provided on the ne"t section to aid you in calculation of proper conveyor si#e. To use this ta!le, find the capacity at ma"imum 9P1, opposite the recommended percentage of conveyor loading, which e,uals or e"ceeds the capacity of material re,uired per hour. The recommended conveyor diameter will then !e found in the appropriate column on the same line, as will the ma"imum particle si#e recommended for the screw diameter. If the ma"imum particle si#e you plan to convey is larger than the ma"imum recommended particle si#e for the conveyor you2ve chosen from the ta!le, you must then select a larger conveyor, ade,uate to handle the ma"imum particle si#e you intend to use.

Calculation of Conveyor Speed


Conveyor speed can !e most conveniently calculated, !y use of the nomographs supplied on pages To use this nomograph first locate the two $nown values )screw diameter, and re,uired capacity, in cu. ft. per hour* then with a straight edge connect these two points, and the appropriate conveyor speed will !e the intersection point on the third value column mar$ed 5speed5. 1a"imum economical capacities will !e listed for reference opposite their respective conveyor diameters, and should not !e e"ceeded. .nother method of calculating conveyor speed is:
CS ( CF& CF& at )*PM

E,uation Sym!ols
CS I Conveyor Speed C48 I Capacity in Cu!ic 4eet per 8our

Capacity 4actors for Special Pitch or 1odified 4light Conveyors


Special conveyor types are selected in the same manner as standard conveyors, !ut the section capacity used for determining si#e and speed, must !e modified to compensate for different characteristics of special conveyors. Calculation of special screw conveyor capacities is as follows: SC ( CF& x CF

E,uation Sym!ols

SC I Selection Capacity C48 I 9e,uired Capacity in Cu!ic 4eet per 8our C4 I Capacity 4actor

Special Conveyor Pitch Capacity 4actors


Pitc# Standard Short 8alf (ong Description Pitch I 3iameter Pitch I %G' 3iameter Pitch I G% 3iameter Pitch I 6 G% 3iameters Capacity Factor .:: .-: %.:: :.?@

Special Conveyor 4light Capacity 4actors


+ype Cut flight Cut K folded flight Conveyor $oa%in! ),.B% J ./.-@ '.@0,.+' %.-+ 1,J J

7ot 9ecommended 4actors for Conveyors 0ith PaddlesJ


Pa%%les Per Pitc# Factor .:A % . ? ' .%+ + .'%

J Std. paddles at +-; reverse pitch

9i!!on Conveyor Capacity 4actors


Dia. ? B : % + ? A %: %+ 6 G% 6 G% % %6 G% %6 G% %6 G% ' ' ' *ibbon "i%t# Conveyor $oa%in! ),.'% .'+ .+.'% . .%@ .-.'' .?: %.:% ./.-% .-+ .?@ .-% .%@ .+.?B .-' .@%. + 0,.@B .A .B? .@B .-: .@ .B: .A: .B? %.%A

E"ample:

. conveyor is re,uired to transport : tons per hour of a material weighing ?% pounds per cu!ic foot and having a ma"imum particle si#e of :: mesh. To further complicate the pro!lem, we will re,uire that the material !e mi"ed in transit using cut and folded flights. Since the distance the material is to !e conveyed is relatively short, we want to use short pitch screws, to insure proper mi"ing of material. The materials ta!le recommends a loading percentage of ':L ..

.ctual calculated volume:


2/3/// lbs. 62 lbs. 5 cu. 4t. ( .2. cu. 4t.5#r.

4or proper calculation of si#e and speed, this volume must !e corrected, !y use of capacity factors, to compensate for cut and folded, and short )%G'* pitch flights. These capacity factors, ta$en from the preceding charts are: Cut and folded flights ':L loading I '.@Short pitch flights )%G' pitch* I .-: 0ith capacity factors included, capacity will now !e calculated: SC I '.@- J .-: J '%' SC I A @cu.ft. This selection capacity value will !e used in the capacity ta!le, for calculating correct si#e and speed. In the appropriate column, under ':L . loading, we find that a +5 conveyor, at the ma"imum recommended speed will convey % B+ cu. ft. per hr. or % . cu. ft. per revolution. To calculate actual conveyor speed, the following formula should !e used:
)7)8 cu. 4t. 5 #r. 2).) cu. 4t. 5 #r. at ) *PM ( 76.) *PM

This is the correct speed at which the +5 conveyor with cut and folded, and short pitch flights will convey the actual capacity of '%' cu. ft. per hour. Graphic selection of this conveyor could also !e accomplished !y use of the ':L . nomograph on page %% and the selection capacity of A @ cu. ft. per hour.

Conveyor Capacity Ta!le


+rou!# $oa%in! Screw Dia. + ? B : % + ? A %: %+ Max. $ump Size (In. G% 'G+ 6 G% 6'G+ % %6 G% ' '6 G+ '6 G% + Max. *PM ?B ?? ?% ?: -A -? -' -: +@ +% Capacity in Cu. Ft. Per &r. At Max. *PM +.+B.@' %%% 'AB -AA A'% , ',+?% %,%B' At ) *PM .% .@%.A '.@ ?.@ :.-.@ %%.@ ' . -+.?

+ ? B : % + ? A %: %+ + ? B : % + ? A %: %+ + ? B : % + ? A %: %+

G% 'G+ 6 G% 6'G+ % %6 G% ' '6 G+ '6 G% + G% 'G+ 6 G% 6'G+ % %6 G% ' '6 G+ '6 G% + G% 'G+ 6 G% 6'G+ % %6 G% ' '6 G+ '6 G% +

'B '% %% A :+ B@ B: A% ?A ?B ?? ?% ?: -A -? -' -: +@ +% B: A% @: ?-@ +A +: ' %% :-

-@ BA ?A' A+B ,+@? %, B+ ',:+? +,:A? -,:B% @,+%? %A BB '+@ +'% @@ , A% ,??+ %,%@: %,B B +,-A? ? + ' ,'?: ,@A% ',:': +,--A ?,-%+ A,?-B ,-B: @,-'-

.+ .-.? @.% '.' % . ' .+ +-.+ ?%. :B.% .+ .-.? @.% '.' % . ' .+ +-.+ ?%. :B.% .? %.%@ A.: :.A B.' ':.A +?.? ??. B-.: ?@.:

B-L (oaded Conveyors

Conveyor loadings may sometime e"ceed the recommended L of (oading, listed in the materials ta!le. Considerations as to the material characteristics may Mustify up to B-L loading of tu!ular or shrouded con6 veyors. The following ta!le lists ma"imum speeds limited with regard to the percentage of loading normally recommended for the specific listed materials.

Capacity Ta!le 4or B-L (oaded Conveyors


Max. *ecommen%e% *PM Screw Dia. Max. $ump Size (IN. + ? B : % + ? A %: %+ 6 G+ 6 G% 6'G+ % ' G+ 'GA 'G+ @GA Normal - $oa%in! 9 ), @? ?@ -A -+B +' 'A '% %? % ./A AB @A ?A ?-A +'A ' %./: A: @: ? -A -% +? +: '+ %A %' 0, B? A+ @' @: ?% -+A + '+ %A Capacity in Cubic Feet Per &our Normal - $oa%in! 9 ), B? ' A B@+ ,':B ./A ' '@: , +% ,-+@ ./: : ''% ,:%+ ,'A: 0, %% 'BB ,%%? ,??? A+ ) *PM .%@ +.@?.A %'.A +:.A ?-.% BB.: + .: %: .: '-+.:

,BBB %,'?? %, %% %,-': %,A:+ ','%- %,BBB ',-A? ',@?% +,+-- ',B?: +,@-% +,- % -,'-A +,@B+ -,@A -,%%? ?,%' -,?%A ?,A'+ @,+'+ A,A-: A, +% B,B %

<asic Conveyor 4light K Pitch Types

Standard Pitch, Single 4light


Conveyor screws with pitch e,ual to screw diameter are considered standard. They are suita!le for a wide range of materials in most conventional applications.

Short Pitch, Single 4light


4light pitch is reduced to %G' diameter. 9ecommended for inclined or vertical applications. >sed in screw feeders. Shorter pitch retards flushing of materials which fluidi#e.

8alf Pitch, Single 4light


Similar to short pitch, e"cept pitch is reduced to G% standard pitch. >seful for vertical or inclined applications, for screw feeders and for handling e"tremely fluid materials.

(ong Pitch, Single 4light


Pitch is e,ual to lN diameters. >seful for agitating fluid materials or for rapid movement of very free6flowing materials.

Oaria!le Pitch, Single 4light


4lights have increasing pitch and are used in screw feeders to provide uniform withdrawal of fine, free6 flowing materials over the full length of the inlet opening.

3ou!le 4light, Standard Pitch


3ou!le flight, standard pitch screws provide smooth, regular material flow and uniform movement of certain types of materials.

Tapered, Standard Pitch, Single 4light


Screw flights increase from %G' to full diameter. >sed in screw feeders to provide uniform withdrawal of lumpy materials. Generally e,uivalent to and more economical than varia!le pitch.

Single Cut64light, Standard Pitch


Screws are notched at regular intervals at outer edge. .ffords mi"ing action and agitation of material in transit. >seful for moving materials which tend to pac$.

Cut K 4olded 4light, Standard Pitch


4olded flight segments lift and spill the material. Partially retarded flow provides thorough mi"ing action. E"cellent for heating, cooling or aerating light su!stances.

Single 4light 9i!!on


E"cellent for conveying stic$y or viscous materials. Dpen space !etween flighting and pipe eliminates collection and !uildup of the material.

Standard Pitch 0ith Paddles


.dMusta!le paddles positioned !etween screw flights oppose flow to provide gentle !ut thorough mi"ing action.

Paddle
.dMusta!le paddles provide complete mi"ing action, and controlled material flow.

Conveyor Component Selection


Proper selection of components is very important in the design of conveyor system. This section of the Engineering Catalogue e"plains the different designs of primary components, and their principle uses. .lso, there is a list of special influencing factors for materials with special handling characteristics.

Conveyor (oading and 3ischarge


Conveyor loading should !e regulated to prevent the components from e"ceeding their design limits.

9egulated Dutput 3evices


0hen delivery to conveyor is from machinery with a regulated material output, the conveyor itself can !e designed to handle the anticipated material volume. 1aterial is sometimes stored and released intermittently. In this situation, surge loads sometimes cause the conveyor to operate !eyond its recommended capacity. Screw feeders are very effective in regulating these intermittent loads, and should !e used if at all possi!le. Dtherwise conveyors must !e designed for the ma"imum momentary or surge loads.

Static Storage (oading


0hen loading from static storage or from manually regulated inlets, a load indicating ammeter can !e attached to the meter control, as a simple and effective tool for accomplishing ma"imum design loading.

1ultiple Inlet (oading


0hen more than one inlet is feeding the screw conveyor, care must !e ta$en to insure the collective total of the inlets does not e"ceed the conveyors design limits.

(oading Through .utomatic Controls


.utomatic devices are availa!le to modulate inlet or feed devices to wor$ within design limits of the conveyor at all times.

3ischarge 1ethods
<elow are drawings of standard discharge components in a variety of designs. These configurations are listed for individual applications where the standard discharge spouts are not necessarily appropriate. Cautions are inserted when necessary for particular discharge components.

Standard 3ischarge Spout


This component provides a means of directly coupling most interconnecting spouts, processing machinery, other conveyors or storage facilities. .vaila!le with hand, rac$ and pinion or air actuated cut off gates.

4lush End 3ischarge

1echanically Dperated Gates )1anual or 9emote Controlled*


Caution: 7ot to !e used on last discharge.

Plain Dpening

Dpen <ottom 3ischarge

Trough End 3ischarge


Caution: To !e used with conveyor loadings of ':L or under only.

Dpen End 3ischarge

4actors Influencing 1aterials of Construction or Special 1echanical .rrangement of Screw Conveyor Components

Corrosive 1aterials
Corrosive materials, or materials which have a tendency to !ecome corrosive under certain conditions, may necessitate the use of corrosion6resistant alloys such as stainless steel.

.!rasive 1aterials
.!rasive materials which may cause e"cessive wear of components should !e conveyed at a nominal depth in the conveyor. It is often advisa!le to also specify /0S2s .!rasion69esistant Screw Conveyors or conveyors with flights formed of .9 steel plate. /0S2s .!rasion69esistant Screw Conveyors, which have a 9oc$well C hardness of ?A6@:, are covered in the Component Section. . ta!le listing the standard width of application of hard surfacing is included.

Contamina!le 1aterials
1aterials whose usefulness or value may !e altered !y contamination may re,uire the use of non6lu!ricated !earings, as well as a tightly sealed system.

8ygroscopic 1aterials
1aterials that readily a!sor! moisture re,uire a tightly sealed conveyor. It may !e necessary also to Mac$et the conveyor trough or housing with a circulating medium to maintain an elevated temperature. Purging the system with dry gas or air may !e necessary.

Interloc$ing 1aterials
1aterials which tend to mat or interloc$ are sometimes effectively conveyed !y using special devices to load the conveyor.

4luidi#ing 1aterials
Some materials tend to assume hydraulic properties when aerated or mechanically agitated. Such materials may 5flow5 in the conveyor much the same as a li,uid. These materials should !e referred to /0S2s engineering department for recommendations.

E"plosive 1aterials
3angerous e"plosive materials can !e handled !y sealing the system andGor the use of non6spar$ing components. It is also possi!le to utili#e e"haust systems for ha#ardous dust removal.

1aterials 0hich Tend to Pac$


1aterials that tend to pac$ under pressure can fre,uently !e handled !y using aerating devices )for fine materials* or special feeding devices )for large or fi!rous particles*.

Oiscous or Stic$y 1aterials


Oiscous or stic$y materials are transported most effectively !y ri!!on conveyors.

3egrada!le 1aterials
1aterials with particles that are easily !ro$en may !e effectively handled !y selection of a larger, slower conveyor.

Elevated Temperatures
1aterials handled at elevated temperatures may re,uire components manufactured of high6temperature alloys. If it is feasi!le to cool the material in transit, a Mac$eted trough used as a cooling device may also !e employed.

To"ic 1aterials
1aterials which emit harmful vapors or dusts re,uire tightly sealed systems. E"haust devices may also !e used to remove the vapors or dusts from the conveyor housing.

3escription of Components
Conveyor Screws
The recommended screws listed in the Component Series Ta!le are standard /0S helicoid and sectional screw conveyors. The use of helicoid or sectional conveyors is largely a matter of individual preference. It is advisa!le to use, whenever possi!le, standard conveyors in standard lengths. 0hen a special short length must !e used to ma$e up the total conveyor length, it is prefera!ly located at the discharge end.

Screw conveyors are structurally reinforced at the ends !y the use of end lugs which are welded to the non6 carrying side of the flights so that material flow will not !e o!structed. Screw conveyors which move material in a single direction should not !e turned end6for6end unless the direction of screw rotation is reversed. (i$ewise, the direction of rotation should not !e reversed unless the conveyor is turned end6for6end. 9e,uirements for reversi!le conveyors should !e referred to /0S2s Engineering 3epartment. 4lighting should !e omitted at the final discharge, so that material will not carry past the discharge point.

To assure proper material flow past hanger !earing points, flight ends should !e positioned to each other at A: degrees. The 5hand5 of a conveyor, in conMunction with the direction the conveyor is rotated, determines the direction of material flow. The diagram !elow illustrates flow direction for 5right6hand5 and 5left6hand5 conveyors when rotated cloc$wise or countercloc$wise. . right6hand screw conveyor pulls the material toward the end which is !eing rotated cloc$wise. The direction of flow is reversed when the direction of rotation is reversed. . left6hand conveyor pushes the material away from the end which is !eing rotated cloc$wise. .gain, the direction of material flow is reversed when the direction of rotation is reversed. To determine the hand of a conveyor, o!serve the slope of the near side of the flighting. If the slope is downward to the right, the conveyor is right6hand. If the slope is downward to the left, the conveyor is left6 hand. 9ight6hand conveyor is furnished unless otherwise specified.

Troughs and Tu!ular 8ousings


/0S troughs and tu!ular housings are availa!le in standard lengths. Special lengths are availa!le when re,uired. .ll conveyor troughs or tu!ular housings should !e supported !y flange feet or saddles at standard intervals. E"treme end flanges should !e supported with feet so that the conveyor ends may !e removed without distur!ing trough or housing alignment.

Inlets and 3ischarges


The proper methods of conveyor loading and discharge were covered previously in this section.

Shafts
The primary consideration in determining the type and si#e of coupling and drive shafts is whether the shafts selected are ade,uate to transmit the horsepower re,uired, including any overload. 7ormally, cold6rolled shafts are ade,uate. 8owever, high6tensile shafts may !e re,uired due to tor,ue limitations. .lso, stainless steel shafts may !e necessary when corrosive or contamina!le materials are to !e handled. Conveyors e,uipped with non6lu!ricated iron hanger !earings re,uire hardened coupling shafts, and hard6surfaced hanger !earings re,uire hard6surfaced shafts. Specific shaft si#e determination is covered in the Tor,ue Capacities Section.

Shaft Seals
Several conveyor end seal types are availa!le to prevent contamination of the conveyed material or to prevent the escaped of material from the system.

<earings
8anger <earings 6 The purpose of hanger !earings is to provide intermediate support when multiple screw sections are used. 8anger !earings are designed primarily for radial loads. .de,uate clearance should !e allowed !etween the !earings and the conveyor pipe ends to prevent damage !y the thrust load which is transmitted through the conveyor pipe. The hanger !earing recommendations listed in the Component Series Ta!le are generally ade,uate for the material to !e handled. Dften, however, unusual characteristics of the material or the conditions under which the conveyor must operate ma$e it desira!le to use special !earing materials. . list of availa!le special !earing materials is provided in this section. 4or specific recommendations regarding the use of special !earing materials, consult /0S2s Engineering 3epartment.

End <earings 6 Several end !earing types are availa!le, and their selection depends on two !asic factors: 9adial load and thrust load. The relative values of these loads determines end !earing types.

9adial load is negligi!le at the conveyor tail shaft. 8owever, drive ends )unless integrated with the conveyor end plate* are su!Mect to radial loading due to overhung drive loads, such as chain sproc$ets or shaft6 mounted speed reducers. Thrust is the reaction, through the conveyor screw or screws, resulting from movement of the material. Therefore, the end !earing must prevent a"ial movement of the screw which would allow contact with hanger !earings or ends. Thrust !earings should !e located at the discharge end of the conveyor. This places the conveyor in tension, preventing deflection in the screws when the system is heavily loaded. The following diagrams illustrate discharge and inlet end positions of the thrust !earing.

Component Series
The recommended Component Series for the material to !e conveyed may !e found in the 1aterials Ta!le at the !eginning of the Engineering Section. The alpha!etical code relates to the general component series, and the numerical code refers to !earings and coupling shafts. The Component Series Ta!le follows on the ne"t page. <earing and coupling shaft recommendations are listed in the ta!le !elow. The Component Series Ta!le lists the screw conveyor num!ers for !oth helicoid and sectional screws and gives the trough and cover thic$nesses. The <earing and Coupling Shaft Ta!le lists the recommended materials of construction.
Series % ' + Couplin! S#a4t Standard or 8igh Tor,ue Standard or 8igh Tor,ue Standard or 8igh Tor,ue 8ardened or 8ard Surfaced :earin! Material <a!!itt 0ood <ron#e <a!!itt 0ood <ron#e <all <a!!itt 8ard Iron 8ard Surfaced

Conveyor Component Series Ta!le


Dther <earing 1aterials .vaila!le

Graphite <ron#e Graphite6Impregnated Plastic 1achined 7ylon 1olded 7ylon Dil6Impregnated <ron#e Plastic, (aminated 4a!ric6<ase Teflon

Component Series Ta!le


Screw S#a4t Cover Dia. Dia. +#ic;ness

Series .
Screw Number &elicoi% Sectional ?S':B BS':B BS+:B :S':B :S+:B %S+:B %S-:B %S?:B +S-:B +S?:B ?S? % AS? % AS@ % %:S? % %:S@ % %+S@ % +ube or +rou!# +#ic;ness ? Ga. ? + + % &elicoi% +8%:? ?8':A B8' % B8+ % :8':?J :8+ % %8+ % %8- % %8? + +8-:A +8? + ?8? +

Series <
Screw Number Sectional ?S':B BS':B BS+:B :-' % :S+ % %S+ % %S- % %S? % +S- % +S? % ?S? ? AS? ? AS@ ? %:S? ? %:S@ ? %+S@ ? +ube or +rou!# +#ic;ness + Ga. + : : 'G ?5

+ ? B : % G% G% % G% % % % @G ? ' % @G ? ' ' ' ' @G ? ' ' @G ? ' @G ?

? Ga. ? ? ? +

+8%:+ ?8':+ B8':? B8+:? :8':? :8+ % %8+:A %8-:A %8? + +8-:A +8? + ?8? :

+ ? A %: %+

+ + + + %

% % % : :

'G ?5 'G ?5 'G ?5 'G ?5 'G ?5

Screw S#a4t Cover Dia. Dia. +#ic;ness

Series C
Screw Number &elicoi% Sectional ?S' % BS' % BS+ % :S' % :S+ % %S+ ? %S- ? %S? ? +S-%+ +S?%+ ?S? ? AS?%+ AS@%+ +ube or +rou!# +#ic;ness + Ga. + : : 'G ?5 &elicoi% +8%:?J ?8' % B8' % B8+ + :8':?J :8+ %J %8+ %J %8- %J %8? + +8-:AJ +8? +J ?8? +J

Series 3
Screw Number Sectional ?S' ? BS' ? BS+ ? :S' ? :S+ ? %S+%+ %S-%+ %S?%+ +S-%+ +S?%+ ?S?%+ AS?%+ AS@%+ +ube or +rou!# +#ic;ness : 'G ?5 'G ?5 G+5

+ ? B : % % % % @G ? ' % @G ? ' ' ' @G ? G% G% % G%

? Ga. ? ? ? +

+8%:? ?8' % B8' % B8+ + :8':?J :8+ % %8+ % %8- % %8? + +8-:AJ +8? + ?8? +

+ ? A

+ + +

'G ?5 'G ?5 'G ?5

G+5 G+5 G+5

%: %+

' ' @G ? ' @G ?

+ %

%:S?%+ %:S@%+ %+S@%+

'G ?5 'G ?5

%:S?%+ %:S@%+ %+S@%+

G+5 G+5

J8ard6Surfacing 9ecommended

8orsepower Calculation

Graphic 1ethod of Calculation


The total horsepower )TS8P* re,uired at the drive shaft to drive the loaded conveyor system may !e calculated graphically !y use of the nomographs at the end of this section. The friction horsepower )48P*, determined with the first nomograph, added to the 1aterial 8orsepower )18P*, determined with the second nomograph, e,uals the Total Shaft 8orsepower )TS8P*. 4riction 8orsepower 6 . straight edge placed at the first two $nown values, conveyor si#e )related to hanger !earing class as listed in hanger !earing factor ta!le* and length, will intersect a reference point on the centerline. . straight edge placed from this reference point to the third $nown value, conveyor speed, will intersect the un$nown value, 4riction 8orsepower, on the last line. 1aterial 8orsepower 6 . straight edge placed at the first two $nown values, conveyor capacity and 1aterial 8orsepower 4actor, will intersect a reference point on the centerline. . straight edge from the reference point to the third $nown value, conveyor length, will intersect the un$nown value, 1aterial 8orsepower, on the last line.

Calculation !y E,uation
TS8P may also !e calculated !y e,uation using the following formulas:

4riction 8.P. Calculation:


F&P ( DF x &:F x $ x S )3///3///

1aterial 8.P. Calculation:


M&P ( CF& x " x MF x $ )3///3///

D9
M&P ( CP x MF x $ )3///3///

7ote: If calculated 1aterial 8orsepower is less than - it should !e corrected for potential overload. The corrected horsepower value corresponding to the calculated 1aterial 8orsepower will !e found on the lower scale of the 1aterial. 8orsepower Dverload Correction Chart.

Total Shaft 8.P. Calculation

+S&P ( F&P < M&P9 JCorrected if !elow - 8P. 7ote: The actual motor horsepower re,uired to drive the loaded conveyor system is dependent on the method used to reduce the speed the motor to the re,uired speed of the conveyor. 3rive losses must !e ta$en into consideration when selecting the motor and drive e,uipment.

E,uation Sym!ols
+S&P F&P M&P $ S DF &:F CF& " CP MF Total Shaft 8.P. 4riction 8.P. )8.P. re,uired to drive the conveyor empty* 1aterial 8.P. )8.P. re,uired to move the material* Conveyor (ength Conveyor Speed Conveyor 3iameter 4actor 8anger <earing 4actor Conveyor Capacity 0eight per cu. ft. Capacity, l!s. per hr. 1aterial 8.P 4actor )4rom the 1aterials Ta!le*

3iameter 4actors
Diameter + ? B : % + ? A %: %+ Factor % A ' '@ -@A :? '?%'-

8anger <earing 4actors


:earin! +ype <all <a!!it <ron#e JGraphite <ron#e Plastic, laminated fa!ric6!ase 7ylon J <ron#e, oil6impregnated 0ood JPlastic, graphite6 impregnated %.: III :earin! Factor .: .@ :earin! Class I II

J7ylon JTeflon J8ard Iron J8ard6Surfaced +.+ IO

J7on6(u!ricated

Conveyors 0ith 1odified 4lights


The procedure for calculation of horsepower for conveyors with special or modified flights is identical to that used for standard conveyors e"cept that the 1aterial 8orsepower must !e multiplied !y one or more of the following applica!le factors.

1odified 4light 4actors


Fli!#t +ype Cut 4light Cut K 4olded 4light 9i!!on 4light Conveyor $oa%in! ), . : J .:./ . .-: . + 0, .% .@ .%: 1, J J J

J7ot 9ecommended Conveyors 0ith PaddlesJ

Conveyors 0ith Paddles


Pa%%les Per Pitc# Factor % .%B .-A ' .A@ + %. ?

J Std. paddles at +-; reverse pitch Total Shaft 8orsepower )TS8P* is calculated !y adding 1aterial 8orsepower, multiplied !y the appropriate modified flight factor or factors, to 4riction 8orsepower. 7ote: Conveyors which have deviation in pitch only do not re,uire special consideration, and their horsepower calculations are as descri!ed for standard conveyors.

E"ample
. :6inch conveyor '- feet long with a capacity of : tons per hour at +- 9P1 has !een selected. 4rom the 1aterials Ta!le, a 8orsepower 4actor of :.A is found for the material to !e conveyed. The ta!le also indicates Series + hanger !earings and shafts. 8ard iron !earings and hardened coupling shafts have !een selected to suit this re,uirement. 4riction 8orsepower, the horsepower re,uired to drive the conveyor empty, is calculated as follows: 3iameter 4actor I '@ 8anger <earing 4actor I +.+

(ength I '9P1 I +F&P ( .8 x 0.0 x ., x 0, )3///3/// ( /.2,6

1aterial 8orsepower, the horsepower re,uired to move the material, is calculated !y the following e,uation: Capacity )in l!s. per hr.* I %:,::: 8orsepower 4actor (ength 9P1 I +.+ (ength I '9P1 I +M&P ( 2/3/// x /.7 x ., )3///3/// ( /.,6/

Since the calculated 1aterial 8orsepower is less than -, it is necessary to find the corrected horsepower value corresponding to :.-? horsepower on the Dverload Correction Chart !elow. This value is found to !e .'%: horsepower. Total Shaft 8orsepower )TS8P* is the sum of 4riction horsepower and the corrected 1aterial 8orsepower. Thus TS8P is calculated as follows: +S&P ( /.2,6 < )..2/ ( ).,86 &.P. .ssuming a drive efficiency of A-L resulting in a total drive horsepower of .A-', a standard % horsepower motor would !e selected for the drive input. The horsepower re,uired for the a!ove conveyor may also !e determined graphically !y the use of the two horsepower nomographs. The first nomograph determines 4riction 8orsepower. The second determines 1aterial 8orsepower. Total Shaft 8orsepower is determined !y adding the two values.

Friction &orsepower

Material &orsepower

Corrected 1aterial 8.P.

4riction 8orsepower 7omograph

:earin! Class 5 Conveyor Size

$en!t#

Spee%

Friction &.P.

1aterial 8orsepower 7omograph

Capacity Per &our

Material &.P. Factor

$en!t#

Material &.P.

Conveyor Tor,ue Capacities


.lthough a given conveyor may !e ade,uate insofar as material conveying capacity is concerned, the horsepower availa!le to operate the system may e"ceed the tor,ue capacities of standard components during overloaded or stalled conditions. To insure ade,uate tor,ue capacities without undue additional cost, means are provided in the Industrial standard series of conveyor components for more than one ma"imum allowa!le horsepower value. This is accomplished !y not only a choice of power6transmitting component si#es !ut also of the materials of construction.

.nalysis of a specific conveyor system with regard to component tor,ue ade,uacy may !e conveniently and ,uic$ly made !y use of the two following nomographs.

Car!on Steel Conveyors


The first nomograph covers car!on and high6tensile steel coupling !olts and shafts )drive and coupling* and conveyor pipe )in Schedule +: and for high capacity, Schedule A:*. These components are listed according to their associated standard conveyor shaft diameters. The following ta!le lists actual nominal pipe diameters corresponding to the standard conveyor shaft diameter.
S#a4t Diameter Nominal Pipe Size 6 G+ 6 G% % % %6 G% %6@G ? ' ' '6 G% '6@G ? +

Stainless Steel Conveyors


The second nomograph covers stainless steel coupling !olts, shafts and conveyor pipe. Coupling !olts are listed !y the corresponding standard conveyor shaft diameter with which they are used. Conveyor pipes are listed in !oth Schedule +:s and A:s !y their nominal pipe si#es. The pipe si#e selected should correspond to the standards listed for car!on steel pipe. 3eviations from this standard are sometimes possi!le, in sectional conveyors, !y the use of smaller pipe si#es )for economy* when the tor,ue rating is ade,uate. This procedure re,uires reaming of the pipe !ore for shaft insertion rather than the use of a !ushing. It is recommended that re,uirements for such conveyors !e referred to /0S2s Engineering 3epartment.

7ote:8igh starting tor,ue motors must not !e used without design verification !y /0S2s Engineering 3epartment. E"ample: . %6inch car!on steel conveyor has !een selected with a re,uired shaft horsepower of A.B and a speed of ?+ 9P1. The drive to !e used has an efficiency of A-L, thus re,uiring a drive input of :.+? horsepower. Therefore, a - horsepower motor must !e used. This total motor horsepower could !e transmitted to the conveyor components if overloaded or stalled.

Three standard shaft si#es are availa!le for %6inch conveyors. They are %5, %6@G ?5 and '5. . straight edge is placed from - horsepower on the left scale to ?+ 9P1 on the center scale. ProMect the straight line to the left vertical line of the chart at the right. . hori#ontal line from this point will pass through component groups suita!le for the tor,ue. 4or the conveyor under consideration, it is found that standard components will !e ade,uate, with the e"ception of coupling !olts which must !e high tensile.

Tor,ue Capacities for Car!on Steel

Drive Motor &.P.

Spee%

Component Size9

J(isted si#es !ased on conveyor shaft diameter

S I standard car!on steel 8 I high6tensile steel +: I pipe schedule )standard* A: I pipe schedule )high capacity*

Tor,ue Capacities for Stainless Steel

Drive Motor &.P.

Spee%

Component Size9

JCoupling !olt si#es !ased on conveyor shaft diameters. Conveyor pipe listed as nominal pipe si#e.

Conveyor 3rive .rrangements


/0S offers a complete line of power6transmission e,uipment. (ocal distri!utors provide us with a large stoc$ inventory.

7umerous com!inations and types of drives are availa!le for screw conveyor e,uipment. Some of the more fre,uently used drives and mechanical arrangements are descri!ed !elow:

Screw Conveyor 3rives

. screw conveyor drive consists of a standard single or dou!le reduction shaft6mounted speed reducer, a steel motor mounting !rac$et, an adapter with CE1. drilling containing shaft seals, and a remova!le steel shaft, all mounted on a screw conveyor trough end. The motor !rac$et is rigidly mounted with clearance over the trough end for easy trough cover removal without disassem!ling any part of the drive. . variety of mounting arrangements ma$es it possi!le to locate the drive to avoid interference with other e,uipment. Correct O6!elt tension can !e easily maintained !y simple adMustment of the motor mounting plate. The drive assem!ly can !e ,uic$ly removed !y removing the !rac$et mounting !olts.

Shaft 1ounted 3rives

The helical gear shaft mount speed reducer uses the screw conveyor drive shaft as an 5output shaft,5 ma$ing a mounting !ase and low speed coupling unnecessary. <ecause it does not mount to the trough end it offers several advantages. It can !e used in limited, higher temperature applications where damaging heat can !e dissipated !efore it affects the reducer. Pou have a greater variety of seals and !earings to choose from. Pou can utili#e heavy duty !earing for higher than usual !earing loads. The reducer can !e rotated in any position around the shaft.

O6!elt tension is maintained in the same manner as the screw conveyor drive when using the adMusta!le motor mount. . tie6rod turn!uc$le loc$s the shaft6mounted reducer into position. )0e !elieve this is !est accomplished in the field, conse,uently we do not normally support the tie6rod from the conveyor.*

Com!ination 1otor69educer

Integral motor6reducer drives consist of a com!ination motor and speed reducer which may !e mounted directly to the conveyor cover with an adapter !ase. The motor6reducer may also !e mounted in other positions, depending on availa!le space and accessi!ility. The motor6reducer output shaft is connected to the conveyor drive shaft through roller chain and sproc$ets. Speed changes in the field are possi!le !y replacement of one or !oth sproc$ets. Suita!le conveyor drive end !earings are re,uired for the overhung sproc$et loads.

Dther 3rives
Dther drive e,uipment which may !e re,uired includes varia!le speed units which allow manual or automatic adMustment of conveyor capacity !y speed deviation. Such drives are especially useful for regulating the flow of material into a process.

7ote
4luid, pneumatic or resilient couplings may !e used for starting heavily loaded conveyors and to prevent drive component damage due to heavy intermittent overloads.

/0S <elt Guards

Dur !elt guards are custom designed to meet your specific re,uirements. They are D.S.8... approved and will accent the !est of drives. Dur two piece construction provides you with the !est availa!le features. The !ac$ panel is designed to !e securely supported. The front panel with sides is easily remova!le !y loosening a hand $no!. This permits complete access to sheaves, !ushing and O6!elts. Standard 4eatures:

Painted D.S.8... yellow enamel

Slotted for !elt adMustment ? ga. steel construction 4ully enclosed Safe 6 rounded ends
9 I 3river, N5 P.3. F%5 S8 I Shaft 3iameters N5 0 I (ongest 8u!F%5 )min +5* C3 I Center 3istance 9 I 3river, N5 P.3. F%5 S8 I Shaft 3iameterF 5

Screw 4eeders

'.

Inlet opening matches !in or hopper discharge. %. Shroud cover prevents material flooding. Twin tapered, varia!le pitch Screw Conveyor permits even draw off of material. +. Twin tapered trough. .lso availa!le with drop !ottom feature. -. 3ischarge opening. ?. Solid shafting transmits rotary motion to driving gears. @. 3riving gears synchroni#e the action of the screw conveyors.

7ormally short in length, Screw 4eeders are designed to regulate the volumetric rate of material flow from a hopper, !in or storage unit. The inlet is usually flooded with material ) ::L load capacity* !ut !y incorporating changes in the construction of the flighting )diameter, pitch, etc.* and the speed of the feeder screw, the material discharge can !e governed to the desired rate. 4eeders can !e !uilt with varia!le diameter or stepped pitch or !oth in units )com6posed of one, two or a multiple num!er of screws )i.e., (ive <ottom <in* depending on the application. Screw 4eeders are normally e,uipped with a shroud )curved* cover for a short distance !eyond the inlet opening. This prevents flooding of the conveyor with material. 0hen handling very freely flowing materials, e"tended shroud covers, tu!ular housing construction or short pitch flights are occasionally re,uired for positive control. Screw 4eeders with uniform diameter and pitch normally convey the material from the rear of the inlet opening first. To draw off material evenly across the full length of the inlet, a tapered screw or stepped pitch conveyor screw is re,uired. 0hile Screw 4eeders are availa!le in many designs to fit your particular re,uirements, several commonly used types are descri!ed !elow.

1ultiple 3iameter 4eeder


This is a com!ination feeder and conveyor and the physical dimensions are varia!le on each. The small diameter feed end will operate at a full cross sectional load. 0hen the material reaches the larger section, the cross sectional load will !e at a controlled safe ma"imum.

Short Pitch 4eeder


This is also a com!ination feeder and conveyor. The short pitch end will handle full cross sectional loads. The material is then discharged into the standard section where the cross sectional load is reduced to the re,uired ma"imum !y the increase in screw pitch.

Oaria!le Pitch Twin6Tapered 4eeder


This feeder is popularly used to unload !ins or hoppers at a controlled rate. The feed opening under the !in is designed large enough to prevent material !ridging and accepts materials uniformly across the length and width of the opening. This eliminates dead areas in the !in and reduces the chance of material !ridging or spoiling.

(ive <ottom 4eeder


3esigned for use on straight sided !ins, this feeder is composed of a num!er of feeder screws in tandem which serve as the !ottom of the !in. 1aterial is, therefore, drawn out e,ually from the full width. The (ive <ottom 4eeder is used to its !est advantage on materials which tend to pac$ or !ridge easily.

Screw 4eeder Capacity


The capacity ta!le on pg. %: shows Screw 4eeder Capacities in cu!ic feet per hour per 9P1. This ta!le relates to full pitch or standard conveyors only. Shorter pitch flighting will convey a capacity in direct ratio to the capacity of the full pitch. 4or instance, a B5 conveyor with standard pitch )B5* flighting on a %6 G%5 standard pipe, will convey ?.A cu. ft.Ghr.G9P1. The same conveyor, !ut with '5 pitch, will convey G' this amount, or -.? cu. ft.Ghr.G9P1. The capacity figure is theoretical. .ctual capacity will often vary due to variation in head of material in the !in and variation in material characteristics.

Screw 4eeder Speed


The speed of the feeder screw can !e determined !y dividing the desired capacity in cu. ft. G hr. !y the figure found in Capacity Ta!le. 4or ma"imum efficiency, feeder screw speeds should !e slower than standard screw conveyor speeds and allowances must !e made for slippage of the material in the screw. 4actors .ffecting the 3esign Df . Screw 4eeder . The material class The material physical characteristics '. The capacity re,uired +. 1aterial factor 545 0eight of material resting on the 4eeder Screw ?. The dimensions of the feeder opening. %.

-.

In designing a Screw 4eeder, virtually every situation is uni,ue in one respect or another. 4or this reason, we recommend that you consult /0S Engineering 3epartment for proper recommendations concerning your particular needs.

Inclined Screw Conveyors


Screw Conveyors can !e operated with the flow of material inclined upward. 0hen space allows, this is a very economical method of elevating and conveying. It is important to understand, however, that as the angle of inclination increases, the allowa!le capacity of a given unit rapidly decreases. . standard Screw Conveyor inclined -; upward will carry @-L of its rated hori#ontal capacity. .t an inclination of %-;, a standard conveyor may only handle -:L of its hori#ontal capacity. These are estimated figures and will vary with the characteristic of the material !eing handled. Inclined Screw Conveyor capacities can !e increased over short distances, if no intermediate hangers are re,uired. Dther aids in conveying on an incline are the use of shorter than standard pitch andGor tu!ular housings or shrouded conveyor trough covers. Oery often it !ecomes necessary to use high speed to overcome the tendency of material to fall !ac$. The a!ove aids are resorted to in order to overcome the tendency of a screw conveyor to !ecome less efficient as the angle of incline increases. Oertical conveying !y Screw Conveyor, on the other hand, is ,uite successful and it remains that a +-; incline or angles approaching this figure, are the most difficult on which to achieve successful conveying. .dditional power is needed to convey on an incline. This added power is a function of the power re,uired to lift the material. Qudgment and e"perience in the art of conveying are re,uired.

Tu!ular Trough and 8alf Pitch Screw Conveyor

CD7OEPD9 C.P.CITP K SPEE3 C.(C>(.TID7:


Oisit the online engineering guide for assistance with using this calculator. D=SI>N C?NDI+I?NS . 4lowrate)m* : %. 3ensity : '. (oading )/* :
%:::: +':

SPC$. F$I>&+ +@P= 6 Place an 5"5 in the appropriate ! l!Ghr


l!G4tR'

@. A. B.

Cut 4light : Cut K 4olded 4lt.: 9i!!on Type:


:

:. Paddles per Pitch:

F$I>&+ PA*AM=+=*S +. 4light D3)3* : -. 4light I3)d* : ?. Pitch)P* :


'.% %

in. in. in.

CA$CA$A+I?NS : Shaftless 1ass 4low 4actor, C Spcl. 4light Type 4actor, C4% I I
.:: .::

Flowrate (v

m 3ensity

+++.+

4tR'G8r

Capacity per revolution

:.@A-+ ) 3S 6 dS * P / ?: I C @%A C4%

%.B'

4tR'G8rGrpm

*eBuire% Spee%3 N I

+++.+ %.B

4tR'G8r 4tR'G8rGrpm

'+.+

rpm

Minat Terkait