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Annotated Bibliography

Primary Sources: "A Far Cry from the Progressive Era."Has Television Become the Propaganda Machine for Conservative Values? | Nomadic Politics. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Mar. 2014. <http://nomadicpolitics.blogspot.com/2014/01/has-television-becomepropaganda.html>.
This is a picture of two very young children working in a factory during the Progressive Era and this was consider child labor.

"AHTC - Cunningham Children's Home images." AHTC - Cunningham Children's Home images. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Jan. 2014. <http://www.usd116.org/ProfDev/AHTC/images/Cunningham-ChildrenHome/cch.html>.
Cunningham Childrens Home was a place for abandoned or homeless kids. They are well fed, clothed, raised in this building they now call home.

Bogar, TJ. "Street Arabs Iconic Photo."Through The Haze. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Mar. 2014. <http://tjbogar.wordpress.com/2012/10/05/street-arabs-iconicphoto/>.
This is a picture of three homeless young boys sleeping on the streets.

Bogue, Mary. "Administration of mothers' aid in ten localities, with special reference to health, housing, education, and recreation." USA Government Documents. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2014. <https://archive.org/details/administrationof00bogu>.
This document shows how much Illinois provide to families each month and what are the requirements for this treatment.

Breckinridge, Sophonisba. "The administration of the aid-to-mothers law in Illinois." USA Government Documents . N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2014. <https://archive.org/details/administrationof00abbo>.
This document is the whole entire packet of information of the Mothers Pension Act in Illinois, showing how it started, how was it presented, the requirements of this act and more.

Carstens, Christian . "Public pensions to widows with children; a study of their administration in several American cities." USA Government Documents. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2014. <https://archive.org/details/publicpensionsto00carsrich>.
This document shows information of the Mothers Pension Act, focusing more closely in cities like Chicago inside of state.

Egger, Emilie. "Emma-Lathrop Image 1 |." Revisionist. N.p., 6 Dec. 2012. Web. 18 Feb. 2014. <http://revisionistslc.com/2012/12/10/mothers-pensions-a-casestudy-in-perceptions-of-low-income-mothers/emma-lathrop-image-1/>.
This picture shows Julia Lathrop (second to left), the first Chief of the Childrens Bureau, planning an event to raise charity for poor mothers that gave birth to infants called Baby Week in 1916. The Childrens Bureau is the pension of preventing families from breaking up when the father of the house had died or has a disability that causes them to not be able to bring home any money.

Egger , Emilie. "Emma-Childrens Bureau-Image 2 |." Revisionist. N.p., 6 Oct. 2012. Web. 18 Feb. 2014. <http://revisionistslc.com/2012/12/10/motherspensions-a-case-study-in-perceptions-of-low-income-mothers/emma-childrensbureau-image-2/>.
This is a propaganda that shows that children will be the future of the nation and that the government should provide them education and be responsible of their health statuses.

"Frequent Traveler Ancestry." : A Mother's Pension Application. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Jan. 2014. <http://jonesandrelated.blogspot.com/2012/12/a-mothers-pensionapplication.html>
Mary Gass Thornhills application for a mothers pension after her son died was found at t he National Archives, although her request and claim was rejected. (images in link)

"GACS History." Guardian Angel Community Services Joliet Illinois. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Mar. 2014. <http://www.gacsprograms.org/gacs-history/>.
This is a picture of the Guardian Angel Home, an orphanage where many homeless children found shelter and warmth in.

"LEE COUNTY GENEALOGY ILLINOIS GOSSIP COLUMNS." LEE COUNTY GENEALOGY ILLINOIS GOSSIP COLUMNS. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Jan. 2014. <http://genealogytrails.com/ill/lee/leecitynachusaorphanage.html>
The Nachusa Lutheran Orphanage homed many children and provided services for families around the area for more than a century.

"Hull House." History of the University of Illinois at Chicago. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Mar. 2014. <http://www.uic.edu/depts/uichistory/hullhouse.html>.
This is a picture of children working on art outside of the Hull House, showing that even when poor, some children still tried their best to learn from what they are given.

Leff, Mark. "JSTOR." JSTOR. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Jan. 2014. <http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/30021515?uid=3739656&uid=2&uid=4&ui d=3739256&sid=21103415769853>
(Journal/Article published by The University of Chicago Press) The mothers Pension movement took place in 1911 and states quickly approved. Only a few objected to giving the government welfare responsibilities. This movement addressed the concern for children, widowed women, and having a home during the Progressive Era.

Lundberg, Emma. "Public aid to mothers with dependent children, extent and fundamental principles." USA Government Documents. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2014. <https://archive.org/details/publicaidtomothe01lund>.
This document provided information of who this law was showed to and what was the cause of this law being presented.

"Midnight at the glassworks." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Mar. 2014. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Midnight_at_the_glassworks2b.jpg>.
This is a picture of two young boys working in a factory.

"Mothers' Pensions." Mothers' Pensions. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Jan. 2014. <http://www.larrydewitt.org/SSinGAPE/mothers.htm>
The image shows a mother and children and emphasizes the importance of motherhood.

"Ms. Balogh's Archives Lesson Two (Feb. 8/9): Rising Tide of Immigration."Ms Baloghs Archives . N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Mar. 2014. <http://msbaloghsarchives.edublogs.org/lesson-two-feb-89-rising-tide-ofimmigration/>.
This is a picture of hundreds of immigrants on boat who arrived in the United States during the Progressive Era.

Rodgers, Daniel. "The Progressive Era to the New Era, 1900-1929." The Gilder

Lehrman Institute of American History. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Mar. 2014. <https://www.gilderlehrman.org/history-by-era/essays/progressive-era-new-era1900-1929>.
This is a picture showing a few women who are protesting about women suffrage during the Progressive Era.

"Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand."Widows' pension, 1911 Family welfare . N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Jan. 2014. <http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/cartoon/26075/widows-pension-1911>.
The cartoon/image shows flocks of women dressed in black, which means they are widowed, swarming a man who represent the government, giving him lots of affection.

"The Progressive Era (1890 - 1920)."About Eleanor Roosevelt. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Mar. 2014. <http://www.gwu.edu/~erpapers/teachinger/glossary/progressiveera.cfm>.
This is a picture of a very young girl who is working in a factory, which was considered child labor during the Progressive Era.

Thompson, Laura . "Laws relating to "Mothers' pensions" in the United States, Denmark and New Zealand ." USA Government Documents. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2014. <https://archive.org/details/lawsrelatingtomo00unit>.
This document shows charts and tables of how information was labels, information about the Mothers Pension Act in Illinois and more.

"UNCENSORED." ICPHusa.org. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Jan. 2014. <http://www.icphusa.org/index.asp?page=20&uncensored=9&story=67&pg=138>


A poster showing a mother a child plus a map and text saying in the US, over 20 states are helping children and sheltering them until they are qualified for work.

Secondary Sources: Bortz, Abe. "Mothers Aid." Social Welfare History Project. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Jan. 2014. <http://www.socialwelfarehistory.com/programs/mothers-aid/>.
This website gave our group information on how states helped widow women with dependent children, the process of passing the Mothers Pension law, and when and which state was the

Mothers Pension law first passed.

Bullock, Edna D. Selected Articles on Mothers' Pensions. 1915. Goodwin, Joanne L. Gender and the Politics of Welfare Reform: Mothers' Pensions in Chicago, 19111929. 1997. Leff, Mark. Consensus for Reform: The Mothers' Pension Movement in the Progressive Era. Social Service Review 47 (1973): 397417. <http://www.encyclopedia.chicagohistory.org/pages/845.html>
This is about the Mothers Pension law, when it was passed and how mothers had to give up their children. However, thanks to the Mothers Pension law, mothers were able to keep their children by their side and have them fed.

Cmiel, Kenneth. A Home of Another Kind: One Chicago Orphanage and the Tangle of Child Welfare. 1995. Harwood, Naomi. The History and Care of Dependent Children in Cook County until 1899. Field Study, School of Social Service Administration, University of Chicago. 1941. McCausland, Clare. Children of Circumstance: A History of the First 125 Years of the Chicago Child Care Society.1976. <http://www.encyclopedia.chicagohistory.org/pages/280.html>
This is about dependent children, how they became dependent and what was life like for them.

"H-Net Reviews." H-Net Reviews. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2014. <https://www.hnet.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=61>.
This is about how advertisers made the truth much more emotional and made the women seem more depressing in order to gain public appeal, and male organizers used propaganda to strike up the readers emotions. Women who was supposedly the benefiters of this, was simply pitied and the men who helped got public attention for their work.

Hopkins, June. "Widows Pensions: Part One." Social Welfare History Project. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Jan. 2014. <http://www.socialwelfarehistory.com/programs/widows-pensions-part-one/>. Hopkins, June. "Widows Pensions: Part Two." Social Welfare History Project. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Jan. 2014. <http://www.socialwelfarehistory.com/programs/widows-pensions-part-two/>.
These 2 websites gave my group a very detailed story of the mothers pensions law, how it was passed and how much money was given to families.

LIBBA GAGE MOORE, "MOTHERS' PENSIONS: THE ORIGINS OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WOMEN AND THE WELFARE STATE" (January 1, 1986). Electronic Doctoral Dissertations for UMass Amherst. Paper AAI8622700. <http://scholarworks.umass.edu/dissertations/AAI8622700/>

This website gave my group a little information about how a original family of father, mother and children became a mother with dependent children and the state.

"Mothers' Pensions (United States)." : SAGE Knowledge. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2014. <http://knowledge.sagepub.com/view/socialwelfarehistory/n97.xml>.
This website informed me about how before the mother's pension law, there were only a few attempts to improve the conditions and combined with the efforts of the juvenile justice system, this welfare act was a quick-spread throughout the country.

"Mothers' Pensions: A Case Study in Perceptions of Low-Income Mothers |." RE/VISIONIST. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2014. <http://revisionistslc.com/2012/12/10/mothers-pensions-a-case-study-in-perceptions-oflow-income-mothers/>. This is about how the mothers pension law is state-specific, meaning it slightly varies for different states and the biggest reason for this reform was because Americans felt pity for mothers who had to be separated from their child.

"Project MUSE - The Citizenship of Mothers in the United States." Project MUSE - The Citizenship of Mothers in the United States. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2014. <http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/journal_of_womens_history/summary/v011/11.4mu ncy.html>
This is about how after some research, authors noticed that women were never actually the main reformers and supporters for womens pension. They simply had representatives.

"Social Security." History. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Feb. 2014. <http://www.ssa.gov/history/childb1.html>.


This is about the Childrens Bureau, who was formed in 1912 with the purpose of investigating all matters relating to the welfare of children among all classes of people. Along with the pensions law, this helped dependent children and families who doesnt receive a stable income to support themselves.