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Course CHP592 - FOX515

2012-09-17

Sec 09-1 Teleprotectin Fundamentals

Course CHP592 - FOX515

2012-09-17

The subjects of these basics are: -The different protection schemes used in Power Systems -The parameters used in Teleprotection Systems

Sec 09-1 Teleprotectin Fundamentals

Course CHP592 - FOX515

2012-09-17

Teleprotection is: A discipline between protection and telecommunication. Sometimes under responsibility of the protection organization, sometimes under the responsibility of the communication organization. Sometimes a barrier between the communication engineer and the protection engineer (on customers and on suppliers site !) Teleprotection is used: Mainly at production and transport level where the distances of the transmitted power and short-circuit currents are much larger than at the distribution level. The requirements for network stability are also much more in the transport power systems. At low and medium voltage levels (distribution level) distance protection is usually used without Teleprotection. Arguments for Teleprotection: Minimization of material damage and reduction in time and extent in case of failures Keeping up the supply and distribution of electric power as long and as well as possible under all circumstances

At the production and transport level, clearance of line faults must be absolutely selective and faults must be cleared within the shortest possible time, so called zone 1 time of the Protection Device.

Sec 09-1 Teleprotectin Fundamentals

Course CHP592 - FOX515

2012-09-17

A Protection System in a Power Network includes the following elements: The Circuit Breaker to isolate the faulty part The Protection Device to detect the fault via Current- and Voltage Transformer and to give the order to trip the Circuit Breaker The Telecommunication and the Teleprotection equipment to transfer the trip to the other end of the Power Line A Teleprotection equipment is: The interface between Protection Device and telecommunication system A converter of the signal from the Protection Device into a signal suitable to transmit over a telecommunication link

For analog channels FSK modulation is used, for digital channels CODING of different models is applied. The Teleprotection Unit is also multiplexing several command signals into one telecom channel.

A Telecommunication System is: A PLC, an optical Multiplexer, a Microwave or a direct link using a copper wire or an optical fiber

Sec 09-1 Teleprotectin Fundamentals

Course CHP592 - FOX515

2012-09-17

On this slide the two different signal families used in Teleprotection are listed: Continuous signals are: Longitudinal current differential Phase comparison

Command type signals on/off are: permissive tripping direct intertripping blocking directional comparison

Sec 09-1 Teleprotectin Fundamentals

Course CHP592 - FOX515

2012-09-17

Here you see different protection schemes which are using telecommunication COMMUNICATION IS ESSENTIAL in the following Protection schemes using quantitative signal information: Phase comparison Longitudinal current differential These applications are absolutely selective

COMMUNICATION IS ESSENTIAL in the following Protection schemes using ON/0FF information: Permissive overreach distance Blocking Distance These applications are relatively selective

COMMUNICATION IS SUPPLEMENTARY in the following Protection schemes using ON/0FF information: Permissive underreach distance Accelerated distance

Sec 09-1 Teleprotectin Fundamentals

Course CHP592 - FOX515

2012-09-17

The distance line Protection Devices use different zones to detect line faults. The stepped time and distance characteristic of the line protection system provides main protection of the line section in Zone 1 as well as back-up protection of the adjacent Busbars in Zone 2. At the production and transport level, clearance of line faults must be absolutely selective and faults must be cleared within the shortest possible time ,so called ZONE 1 TIME. For example with the underreaching mode, without command transmission, the distance protection cannot clear all faults in the protected line section within the zone 1 time. Faults near the ends of the line section will be cleared at zone 2 time, with additional delay. This is often acceptable at the distribution level, where fast reclosure is not required. Fast coordinated tripping at the ends of the protected line section reduces the effect of short circuit current on network stability as well as the stressing of the plant and finally permits fast auto reclosure. Absolutely selectivity and fast fault clearance for any fault position on the protected line section requires Teleprotection between the ends of the line. Consequently, the reliability of the line protection depends largely on the reliability of the communication link. Protective communication links are often duplicated on important lines to improve the reliability of tripping on internal faults.

Sec 09-1 Teleprotectin Fundamentals

Course CHP592 - FOX515

2012-09-17

PUTT mode is used in Line Protection were the protected section is more than about 20 km long. . In PUTT mode the zone 1 of the Protection Device is set to underreaching for example 85 percent of the line section without delay. Zone 2 is set for example to 120 percent of the line section and is time delayed of for example 200 milliseconds The sequence of events for this example is:
A

fault occurs at point F in zone 1 of Protection Device RBC, zone 1 has no time delay. line is switched off without any delay by the Circuit Breaker in station B. equipment.

The At

the same time an permissive tripping command is sent to station C by means of the Teleprotection

The

Protection Device RCB in station C has already detected a fault in Zone 2 which is time delayed for example of 200 milliseconds
Additional

after a transmission time delay of typical 10 milliseconds the tripping command is received by Protection Device RCB in station C and the zone 2 time is accelerated to zone 1 time.
The

Circuit Breaker in station C is tripping the power line without any additional delay

In case the fault happens in the common part Zone 1 of both Relay protection, the relays trip the breakers without waiting for the command of the Teleprotection. Advantage: Faster than POTT und Blocking mode Disadvantage: Not selective for short lines Without Teleprotection the breaker in station C would be activated only in the zone 2 time after for example 200 millisecond and therefore auto reclosure of the power line is not assured. As the zone 2 is overreaching the section of the protected line, the selectivity would be not accurate without the communication.

Sec 09-1 Teleprotectin Fundamentals

Course CHP592 - FOX515

2012-09-17

POTT mode is used in Line Protection were the protected section is less than about 20 km long or on Power Lines where PUTT mode can not be set. In POTT mode the zone 1 of the Protection Device is set to overreaching for example 130 percent of the line section. It has a AND logic therefore both Protection Device must detect the fault in the first zone and must receive the trip from the opposite Teleprotection equipment. Only in this case tripping in first zone time is possible. The sequence of events of the example is: A fault F1 is detected by Distance Relays RBC and RCB. The trips are send to both ends of the line section via Teleprotection equipment. The Relays in station B and station C receiving the tripping command. As they are already started by the fault detection the AND logic is fulfilled and circuit breakers in station B and C trip in zone 1 time. A fault F2 is only detected by distance Relay RCB. Distance relay RBC is not sending a tripping signal to the Station C therefore relay RCB will not trip the Breaker C in zone 1 time.

Advantage: POTT mode has a high selectivity and prevents tripping of a healthy line section in zone 1 time. Disadvantage: It is slower than the PUTT mode because of any fault within the protected section will have the time delay of the Teleprotection equipment. Without telecommunication no tripping in zone 1 is possible.

Sec 09-1 Teleprotectin Fundamentals

Course CHP592 - FOX515

2012-09-17

The Blocking mode for Line Protection may work for any length of the protected line section. The Zone 1 time is delayed of for example 10 millisecond and is adjusted overreaching for example 130% of the protected line section. Reverse zone towards the Busbars is set for example to -40 percent. The sequence of events of the example is: The fault F1 is detected by Distance Relays RBC and RCB in there Zone 1. After countdown of the delay time both Protection Devices in Station B and C will trip the breakers. The fault F2 is detected by Distance Relay RBC in Zone 1, the delay counter starts counting down. The Protection Device RCB is detecting a fault in the reverse Zone and sends through Teleprotection link a blocking signal DO NOT TRIP to the Protection Device RBC. If this happens within the delay time of Zone 1, the relay will not trip the Breaker. Blocking mode was developed for PLC which is using the Power line to communicate. Advantage: Blocking command is only transferred if the line fault is out of the PLC section and the line for communication is clean. Disadvantage: The first zone is always time delayed for example of 10 milliseconds; if Teleprotection fails zone 1 is not selective any more In new projects the Blocking mode is not used

Sec 09-1 Teleprotectin Fundamentals

10

Course CHP592 - FOX515

2012-09-17

Breaker Failure Protection is needed to assure the function of the protection system in case of a Line Breaker failure . The local Protection Devices for Busbars, Earth fault and Distance Protection are connected to the Line Breaker. In case of a faulty Breaker the Substation can not be isolated from the power network. The sequence of events of the example is: The Breaker control system blocks the opening of the Breaker B if the SF6 gas pressure is low. Trips from the local Protection system are diverted by the breaker control to the Teleprotection equipment. Through the communication channel L the tripping command is transferred to the station C where the Line Breaker opens and isolates the power flow to station B.

Remark: To assure high security and dependability the processing time in the direct tripping feature is longer. Therefore the total transmission time of the Teleprotection system is more than in the Distance Protection for Permissive and Blocking mode.

Sec 09-1 Teleprotectin Fundamentals

11

Course CHP592 - FOX515

2012-09-17

This a example for direct transfer tripping where the transformer is connected to the system without a Circuit Breaker: Line faults from station A up to connection of transformer at station B are protected by distance relay at station A in overreaching mode. Faults in station B within and beyond the transformer detected by a Buchholtz or a Busbar Protection Device are transferred to the circuit breaker at A by means of the Teleprotection direct tripping signal.

Sec 09-1 Teleprotectin Fundamentals

12

Course CHP592 - FOX515

2012-09-17

Configurable settings in the Teleprotection equipment are the followings: Security is the ability of a equipment to prevent interference and noise from producing unwanted commands Dependability is the ability of a equipment to issue and receive wanted commands in the presence of interference and noise Transmission time is the time elapsed between the instant of change of state at the transmitter input and the instant of the corresponding change of state at the receiver output. Bandwidth is the total frequency range or bit rate utilized by the Teleprotection equipment. In Permissive and Blocking schemes the processing time has to be short and therefore the overall transmission time is also shorter. In the Direct tripping applications the Security and Dependability must be high, therefore the processing and transmission time will be longer.

Sec 09-1 Teleprotectin Fundamentals

13

Course CHP592 - FOX515

2012-09-17

All these impairments may cause unwanted or missing commands In case of interference and noise, more processing time will be needed: feature adaptive transmission time will act in the Teleprotection equipment -The

In case of excessive interference and noise, processing time would be too long and commands not save. To prevent incidents the Teleprotection unit can take different actions: -Puts in operation the feature Unblocking -Activates Contact Freezing for continuous commands -Extends the zone 1 of distance Protection Device in PUTT mode from underreaching to overreaching with the help of the alarm contacts of the Teleprotection equipment Blocks the command outputs of the Teleprotection equipment

Sec 09-1 Teleprotectin Fundamentals

14

Course CHP592 - FOX515

2012-09-17

On this diagram the available transmission parameters of Teleprotection equipment are shown: The transmission time is the delay between the moment a command initiated on the input of Teleprotection equipment until this command is received at the output of the Teleprotection equipment on the other end of the protection system The Tx Input delay is used in direct tripping mode to make the system more save against EMC interference. With this parameter the command is sent delayed by the Teleprotection equipment at the input side. The Tx and Rx trip duration time can be limited in Permissive tripping applications. With this parameter, the duration of the command coming from the Protection Device can be increased, decreased or fixed by the Teleprotection command. The Rx trip prolongation time is the delay from the moment the transmission of a command from the input of the transmitting Teleprotection equipment stops until the receiver contacts of the receiving Teleprotection equipment are deactivated

Sec 09-1 Teleprotectin Fundamentals

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Course CHP592 - FOX515

2012-09-17

This example is valid for permissive tripping scheme and a Power Frequency of 50 Hertz The total fault clearance time is the sum of the Protection Device processing time, the Transmission Time of the Teleprotection equipment and the switching time from the Circuit Breaker.

Sec 09-1 Teleprotectin Fundamentals

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Course CHP592 - FOX515

2012-09-17

If the Teleprotection equipment is connected to a digital network the addressing facility has to be used. In the worst case mixed up cross connections without using addressing could cause tripping of a wrong Circuit Breaker and a wrong Power Line! In the example in place B, if by mistake of the administrator or the failure of the multiplexer the command of one of the protection devices goes over a wrong communication line, the remote breaker will not trip because of the addressing facility.

Sec 09-1 Teleprotectin Fundamentals

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Course CHP592 - FOX515

2012-09-17

This summary shows you the Teleprotection products from the ABB portfolio

Sec 09-1 Teleprotectin Fundamentals

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Course CHP592 - FOX515

2012-09-17

In this slide you see the layout of a protection system for an important transmission line. On this type of critical line, most of the protection equipment are doubled. We speak about Main 1 System and Main 2 System.

Sec 09-1 Teleprotectin Fundamentals

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Course CHP592 - FOX515

2012-09-17

Questions

Sec 09-1 Teleprotectin Fundamentals

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