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Aplikasi Teknik Nuklir

Bid Ki i Bidang Kimia


Pusat Pendidikan dan Pelatihan
Badan Tenaga Nuklir Nasional
Latar Belakangg
Perkembangan Teknologi Nuklir :
Industri
Kedokteran
Lingkungan
D k bid R di ki i Dukungan bidang Radiokimia
Tujuan Tujuan
Peserta bisa menjelaskan Aplikasi Teknik Nuklir
d l Bid Ki i dalam Bidang Kimia
Khusus :
Menjelaskan prinsip AAN
Menjelaskan prinsip Teknik Pengenceran Isotop
Menjelaskan prinsip Titrasi Radiometri
Menjelaskan prinsip nuclear dating
Menjelaskan aplikasi untuk analisis
radioaktivitas lingkungan
Sistematika Sistematika
Bab I : Pendahuluan
Bab II : Analisis Unsur
1. Analisis Aktivasi Neutron
2. Teknik Pengenceran Isotop
3. Titrasi Radiometri
Bab III : Nuclear Dating
Bab IV : Analisis Radioaktivitas LIngkungan
Bab II
Analisis Unsur Analisis Unsur
Prinsip AAN Prinsip AAN
Formulasi Aktivasi Formulasi Aktivasi
R = o. |.N
( )
ir
t
e N A

|o

= 1 ( ) e N A |o = 1
( )
ir
t
Av
e
M
mN
A

|o

= 1
Proses Aktivasi dan Peluruhan Proses Aktivasi dan Peluruhan
Tampang Lintang
T k N t Th l Tangkapan Neutron Thermal
Target o
(n,)
Target o
(n,)
23
Na 0,4
63
Cu 4.5
26
Mg 0.038
75
As 4.3
27
Al 0.23
81
Br 2.4
37
Cl 0.43
109
Ag 91
48
Ca 1 09
139
La 8 9
48
Ca 1.09
139
La 8.9
51
V 4.9
152
Sm 206
50
Cr 15.9
151
Eu 9200
55
Mn 13.3
186
W 37.9
58
Fe 1.28
191
Ir 954
59
Co 37.2
197
Au 98.7
Metode AAN
Metode Absolut
Metode Komparator Tunggal Metode Komparator Tunggal
Metode Relatif
Metode k
o
SpektrumGamma Spektrum Gamma
Sensitivitas / Limit Deteksi Sensitivitas / Limit Deteksi
Sensitivitas
picograms
Elements
g
1
Dy, Eu
1 - 10
In, Lu, Mn
10 - 100 Au, Ho, Ir, Re, Sm, W
100 - 1E3
Ag, Ar, As, Br, Cl, Co, Cs, Cu, Er, Ga, Hf, I, La, Sb, Sc, Se, Ta, Tb, Th,
Tm, U, V, Yb
1E3 - 1E4
Al, Ba, Cd, Ce, Cr, Hg, Kr, Gd, Ge, Mo, Na, Nd, Ni, Os, Pd, Rb,
Rh Ru Sr Te Zn Zr Rh, Ru, Sr, Te, Zn, Zr
1E4 - 1E5
Bi, Ca, K, Mg, P, Pt, Si, Sn, Ti, Tl, Xe, Y
1E5 - 1E6
F, Fe, Nb, Ne
1E5 1E6
F, Fe, Nb, Ne
1E7 Pb, S
Aplikasi AAN Aplikasi AAN
Lingkungan :
Analsis Pencemaran logam berat
Pemetaan Geokimia
K h t Kesehatan :
Analisis logam berat dalam makanan dan jaringan
P liti d l b b t kit Penelitian dalam pengembangan pengobatan penyakit
Pangan : kandungan unsur mikro dalam bahan makanan
Industri :
kualitas batu bara,
batuan dalam sumur
Teknik Pengenceran Isotop (TPI) Teknik Pengenceran Isotop (TPI)
pekat encer
| |
' S pekat encer
pengenceran
|
.
|

\
|
= 1
'
'
S
S
m m
Radioisotop : memancarkan radiasi, mudah diukur
m =massa/volume zat radioaktif m massa/volume zat radioaktif
m = massa/volume bahan yang dianalisis
S = aktivitas jenis zat radioaktif
S = aktivitas jenis setelah pengenceran j p g
Aplikasi TPI Aplikasi TPI
Pengukuran Volume fluida di dalamtanah Pengukuran Volume fluida di dalam tanah
Kedokteran Nuklir
A li i K tit tif U Analisis Kuantitatif Unsur
Titrasi Radiometri Titrasi Radiometri
Merupakan analisis kuantitatif
Seperti titrasi biasa tetapi senyawa hasil mudah Seperti titrasi biasa, tetapi senyawa hasil mudah
dipisahkan
Titik akhir titrasi ditunjukkan oleh perubahan aktivitas
secara mencolok
Volume
Volume
Bab III
Nuclear Dating Nuclear Dating
Prinsip Nuclear Dating Prinsip Nuclear Dating
Umur batuan :
238
U/
206
Pb
Tidak mengandung uranium :
40
K/
40
Ar
40
K +
1
e

40
Ar (t
1/2
=13 10
9
tahun) K +
-1
e

Ar (t
1/2
1,3 . 10tahun )
Material yang berasal dari makhluk hidup :
14
C/
12
C
Preparasi Radiokimia untuk
Analisis Radioaktivitas Lingkungan Analisis Radioaktivitas Lingkungan
1. Analisis
137
Cs dalam Sampel Air Laut
2. Analisis
222
Rn dalam Sampel Air p
3. Analsis U dan Pu dalam Sampel
Tanah Tanah
4. Analisis
90
Sr dalam Sampel
Lingkungan Lingkungan
Radiochemical Preparation
for Analysis of
137
Cs in Seawater for Analysis of Cs in Seawater
Average Activity 2 Bq/m
3
Average Activity 2 Bq/m
Sample volume : 20 L
Radioactivity Measurement by Gamma Radioactivity Measurement by Gamma
Spectrometer
The purpose of preparation : The purpose of preparation :
to collect Cs from a large sample size
to avoid self-absorption to avoid self absorption
to make easier in radioactivity measurement
Radiochemical Preparation
for Analysis of
137
Cs in Seawater
Seawater 5 L
for Analysis of Cs in Seawater
Seawater 5 L
Add 100 mL of 3 M HCl
for washing the container
Add Cs carrier, 2 gr AMP
Stir for 30 minutes
St d th 12 h Stand more than 12 hours
Decantation
Filter Filter
precipitate* supernatant liquid** precipitate supernatant liquid
Radiochemical Preparation
for Analysis of
137
Cs in Seawater
precipitate*
y
precipitate
Add 2 MHCl Add 2 M HCl
(for washing)
precipitate (MnO
2
) precipitate (MnO
2
)
mix
G S t t Gamma Spectrometry
supernatant liquid** p q
Adjust pH 8.0-8.5 with NH
4
OH
Add 10 g MnO powder Add 10 g MnO
2
powder
Stir for 30 minutes
Stand for more 12 hours Stand for more 12 hours
Decantation
Filter Filter
precipitate supernatant
mix
Preparasi Radiokimia
t k A li i
222
R d l S l Ai untuk Analisis
222
Rn dalam Sampel Air
S l i Sampel air
+ xylene y
Ekstraksi
Fasa organik
+Sintilator
Pengukuran dengan LSC
+ Sintilator
Radiochemical Preparation for Analysis
of Actinides ( U and Pu) in Soil of Actinides ( U and Pu) in Soil
U Pu U Pu
Activity Level 0.2 mg/Kg 40 mBq/Kg
S l 10 50
Radioactivity Measurement by Alpha
Sample mass 10 g 50 g
Radioactivity Measurement by Alpha
Spectrometer
Th f ti The purpose of preparation :
to avoid self-absorption
to separate other radionuclides
Radiochemical Preparation
for Analysis of Pu in Soil for Analysis of Pu in Soil
Pretreatment
Solvent Extraction
Ion Exchange
Preparation for Electrodeposition Preparation for Electrodeposition
Electrodeposition Electrodeposition
Radiochemical Preparation
for Analysis of Pu in Soil for Analysis of Pu in Soil
P t t t Pretreatment
Soil
Heat at 105
o
C for 2 hours
Heat at 500
o
C for 4 hours
Add
242
Pu standard solution Add
242
Pu standard solution
Add 8 M HNO
3
Filter
Residue Filtrate Residue Filtrate
Radiochemical Preparation
for Analysis of Pu in Soil
Purification by Solvent Extraction
Filtrate Filtrate
Add TOA-xylene
Extract
Add 8 MHNO
aq
Add 8 M HNO
3
Extract
Add 10 MHCl
org
org
aq
Add 10 M HCl
Extract
org
aq Add NH
4
I.HCl
org
Extract
aq
Add Xylene
Extract
org
aq
org
aq
Radiochemical Preparation
for Analysis of Pu in Soil
Purification by Solvent Extraction
Filtrate Filtrate
Add TOA-xylene
Extract
Add 8 MHNO
aq
Add 8 M HNO
3
Extract
Add 10 MHCl
org
org
aq
Add 10 M HCl
Extract
org
aq Add NH
4
I.HCl
org
Extract
aq
Add Xylene
Extract
org
aq
org
aq
Radiochemical Preparation
for Analysis of Pu in Soil
Purification by Ion Exchange
8 MHNO
Filtrate
8 M HNO
3
10 M HCl
NH
4
I.HCl
4
C
Anion Colum
Dowex 1-X8,
100-200 mesh 100 200 mesh
Eluent
Radiochemical Preparation
for Analysis of Pu in Soil
Preparation for Electrodeposition
Eluent
(NH
4
I.HCl)
Heat to dry
Dissolve by 2 M H
2
SO
4
Add h l d
residue
Add methylred
solution (red)
Add NH OH until pH 4 Add NH
4
OH until pH 4
solution (yellow)
Add 2 M H
2
SO
4
until pH 2
2 4
p
solution (red)
Radiochemical Preparation
for Analysis of Pu in Soil
Electrodeposition
Pt anode
solution (red)
0.5 Ampere, 2 hours
Add NH
4
OH
Stainless steel
cathode
Radiochemical Preparation
for Analysis of Pu in Soil for Analysis of Pu in Soil
Radiochemical Preparation for
Analysis of
90
Sr Analysis of
90
Sr
Radioactivity Measurement through
90
Y by Radioactivity Measurement through
90
Y by
Counter (Low Backgroud Counter)
The purpose of preparation : The purpose of preparation :
To separate from other radionuclides
t i l t
90
Y to isolate
90
Y
Radiochemical Preparation
for Analysis of
90
Sr for Analysis of Sr
Pretreatment
Separation of Sr from Ca by Nitrate Precipitation
Scavenging to Separate Sr from existing Y
Determination of Chemical Recovery for Sr
Milking of
90
Y
Radiochemical Preparation
for Analysis of
90
Sr for Analysis of Sr
Pretreatment Pretreatment
Ashing the sample g p
Adding the carrier Adding the carrier
Dissolve Sr in the sample by HNO
3
Filtration
Radiochemical Preparation
for Analysis of
90
Sr for Analysis of Sr
Separation of Sr from Ca by Nitrate Precipitation Separation of Sr from Ca by Nitrate Precipitation
Carbonate Precipitation p
Oxalate Precipitation Oxalate Precipitation
Strontium Nitrate Precipitation
Barium Chromate Precipitation
Radiochemical Preparation
for Analysis of
90
Sr for Analysis of Sr
Scavenging to Separate Sr from existing Y Scavenging to Separate Sr from existing Y
Adding iron carrier (Fe
3+
) and NH
4
Cl g ( )
4
Adding NH OH Adding NH
4
OH
Filtration
Filtrate
Radiochemical Preparation
for Analysis of
90
Sr for Analysis of Sr
Determination of Chemical Recovery for Sr Determination of Chemical Recovery for Sr
Precipitation in strontium carbonate p
Filtration Washing Drying the precipitate Filtration, Washing, Drying the precipitate
Weighing the Precipitate
Dissolve by HCl
Add the carrier solution (Fe
3+
, Y
3+
)
Store for 2 weeks
Radiochemical Preparation
for Analysis of
90
Sr for Analysis of Sr
Milking of
90
Y Milking of Y
iron hydroxide precipitation
Filtration Acidify,
Dissolution by HCl
Precipitate
next milking
Filtration
Precipitate
Review Review
J elaskan Prinsip AAN dan Aplikasinya;
J elaskan Prinsip TPI dan Aplikasinya; J elaskan Prinsip TPI dan Aplikasinya;
J elaskan Prinsip Titrasi Radiometri;
J elaskan Prinsip Nuclear Dating; J elaskan Prinsip Nuclear Dating;
J elaskan Preparasi Radiokimia dalam Analisis
Sampel Lingkungan Sampel Lingkungan