Anda di halaman 1dari 13

Dynamika slovnej zsoby Dynamics of vocabulary Vocabulary

= slovn zsoba = storage, vocabulary system, lexicon = is stock of words in particular language MAIN TASK OF LANGUAGE: The main task of language is communication (exchanging of info). Rules of Eng.: S t y l i s t i c s Lexicology Grammar Phonetics The language is system of levels/subsystem which are interlinked. The lavels are phonetical, grammatical and lexical. Levels of Engl : => Phonetic level => Grammatical levels subsystem (independent) => Lexical levels vocabulary, items (semantics independent) How are differences between phonetic, grammatical and lexical levels? = > it is closed system => semantic level open system The language is system of lexical, semantic interdependent items: collcations, phrases, fixed expressions, idioms and multiword verbs. Items => stock of words (zsoba slov) phrase verbs, collocations (slovn spojenia) ( f.e. look forward to, idioms, multi-word verbs, ... and others ) Vocabulary => is open system (it means adapt to conditio n) (mme pritvori, zmeni, poprpade vytvori alie). Every language is constantly changing with compounding, derivations etc. All items are organized in special ways formally or semantically according to some rules into mirosystems. Formally word may be related to all other words which have the some root. F.e.: act actor active action acting activity actin create creative creation creativity creator Semantically word may be related to all other words which words its meaning is a part F.e.: woman female girl miss lady daughter mother husband wife girlfriend mistress - in this way each item may be the centre the special group. F.e.: If I say mother its react husband father or mother child son or daughter grandparents grandmother or grandfather siblings brother or sister grandchild grandson or granddaughter, uncles or aunts These words may be different from language to language. Word and its meaning Extra linguistic reality - is processed in its essential features by human consciousness as a concept(pojem) ( tzm. prebieha vo vaom udskom vedom).

The essential features => are those that I needed for an effective communication between users of a particular language. This mental capturing (zachytenie) of the reality the abstraction called concept forms nuclear (jadro) of the lexical meaning ( jadro vznamovho slovesa), in cognitive meaning also no as denotation (kognitvny pomenovan pojem). Concept changes development of means knowledge of the world. The range of the concept is different in the child and in the adult. ( F.e.: illeterative (negramotn)and educative) In its Essentials => the concept remains the same. f.e.: water is water for child and also for adult. Child understands by the water basically the same things as the scientist. While the concept of the unit of thinking is the term of psychology meaning (concept) is linguistic. Differences between the word and the item of extra linguistic reality and between the form and its content: - is no direct relationship. - Words are not named (nepomenovva). - Other words do not signify the object, they only refer to them. - The word does not reflect reality, the acoustic form of the word is not the sound of image of object(zvukov stopa) to which refers, that is why the same thing can be called quite differently in the different languages. f.e.: obloha sky himmel, dom house Haus The naming of the object is based on the convention (dohoda), the naming is arbitrary. Some elements of the extra linguistic reality have no parallel in the other lang. community. f.e.: bryndzov haluky shipcheese, parenica, otipok, korbiky cheese, valaka, lango, There are cases taken the identical extra linguistic reality is analyzed and named various lang. communities differently. Languages rarely give up the world exactly same way f.e.: noha leg, foot cousin bratranec, sesternica ruka arm, hand prsty fingers, toes The range of the meaning of each word make cover concept in different way. f.e.: eat - We have 2 same word people eat meet = eat grass => HOMOPHONES/ HOMONYMS Definition of word (LEXEME) => as one of the fundamental unit of language, has many different aspect: - It is the sequence phonemes - It is the arrangements (higher unit-morpheme) of morpheme (morphological structure) Morphological structure of the lexeme - occurs several forms: - Lexeme = synonym of word - It may have one or more meaning - Word is an combination of sounds ( rarely single sounds) or its representation in writing that symbolize communicate meaning (graphical form in writing). - It is not the divisible (nedeliteln) unit of independent use, also linguistics would usually is it further morpheme. Lexeme also called lexical item, lexical unit. It can mean 2 differing: 1. The word realizes several morphological words are taken version of the one dictionary verb as forms verb do bare infinitive conventional situation (uvedenie).

f.e.: do did done, go goes going gone 2. The words composed in structure f.e.: tei sa look forward to Another classification of words is: 1. Full meaning words (all content words) 2. Grammatical words (function word, structure, form words) BASIC FEATURES OF LEXEME (Word) ( 2. Prednka, 26.02.09) A, Its conventional character (bene zauvan) B, A tendency to words universality A, Its conventional character The conventionality of the naming unit - by this term which mean that the phonic structure of a warning unit is not conditioned by the items (prvok) of extra linguistic reality to which it refers (ku kt. sa viae) ; it is matter of agreement and convention excepted by the members of given community and then obligatory for all members of they want to understand another. Different language communities may have different conventions and stressing different features of an object. The conventional character of lexeme is not completly arbitrary, the structural composition of any new lexeme is also determined by the structural make up of the lexeme semantically related to it and already existing in the language ; everybody note write-writer-writing-writing paper play-player-playing-play card er pod. name er gerundium, 2 word = new word play card, writing paper, swimming pool, As rule only those new words are admitted in to the language. In such forms which do not contradict the regularities of the language. Sometimes conventional character may be limited, it especially in the expression which imitated natural sounds of noises and influenced by the extra linguistic reality. f.e.: imitate of the noise burr,buzz . But it is not uniform in all languages: Koht kikirik in Englisch chachadododo/cock-doodle-do, Pes h h bou bou, Zvon bim bam ding dong MOTIVATION In there exist relationship between phonic and structural. Make up of a word (lexeme) and its meaning we speak about motivation. It there is no relation and can say speak about nonmotivated. If there are the same similarities between the sound of the fact of reality and the word we speak phonetical motivation. If the morphematic structure suggests the idea or meaning of the word we speak about of morphological motivation. f.e.: reorganization, rethink, rewrite, retell = same prefix prefix re - = suggest the idea of doing something again In Cs the meaning is based on individual meaning of the compound. f.e.: room-class = classroom, country-side = countryside

Air-port = airport, play-ground = playground Sepriword greenhouse hothouse, glasshouse = same If there are relationship between newer or transform meanings and older or direct meaning we speak about semantic motivation. f.e.: stie rieky mouth of the river, Hodinov ruika head of the clock/watch, Hlvkov kapusta head of cabbage B, A tendency to words universality As a rule lexeme cannot name individual facts or the objects. We must do certain abstraction based on principals so as to correspond approximately universal concepts. f.e.: chair object 4 legs kind of shop furniture shop, function for sitting, irrespective bez ohadu na vekos, material, shape, color, size, Universal name is allways result of abstraction of the sound level, which can be different in various languages. f.e.: leg of term for some abstraction need of necessarily is qualified for the fact. In some languages (some fiels) but they leg in some others meal, food, sport, To lexeme include may be regards as the sign which conventionally determined in arbitrarily, by the hole process of its development and build up according to (lexeme may be) existing patterns of elements already existing in language. 2 TYPES OF WORD MEANING 1. Grammatical meaning (non-morphological meaning) 2. Lexical meaning Grammatical meaning Part of speech ( slovn druhy in English ) is component express by inflectional endings (obbacie prpony)grammatical devices. f.e.: word order slovesn druh, the words houses, pens through denoting different object have something in common. This common element of the word (expressed by the endings s is plural) grammatical meaning of plurality. It is part of meaning which varies from one inflectional form to another, the meaning by the word forms the meaning of the relationship manifested not in the word itself but in its formal grammatical part.
We have named plural es: 1. Plural 2. Simple press

3Genitive (possesive case) f.e.: Monikas mother, students room Number, tense, possessive case Lexical meaning ( 3. Prednka, 05.03. 09) Grammatical meaning of practical point of view: Comparing word forms of one or the same word we find out that there is another component of meaning- identical in all forms of the word i.e. the meaning of the base or root. In a set of inflectional forms e.g. go- goes- going- gone- went- in this case component denoting the process of movement. (do- process of activity) this is the lexical meaning= the component of meaning proper to the word as a linguistic unit, i.e. recurrent in all forms of

this word. The lexical and grammatical meanings make up the word meaning as neither can exist without the other. Lexical meaning may be traditionally analyzed further or including denotational and conotational components. Denotation sometimes called cognitive meaning, semantic nuclear, sense. One of the function of words is to denote things, concepts, etc. To denote means to serve as a name for an object. This reference to identical objects making communication possible and based under relation of the word to extra- lingual reality (not depending on the context) is known as denotative meaning or denotation. It is the basic dictionary meaning of a word. It is relatively stable and usually consists of a finite set of described features of meanings. The 2 component of lexical meaning is connotative meaning- connotation- supplementary meaning, i.e. optional, attitudinally and emotional factors that a word suggests or implies. It includes the associations and emotions that surround a word- emotive charge and element of emotive evaluation, expressing emotional expressive evaluative overtone which may be neutral, positive and negative. DENOTATION AND CONOTATION Denotational and conotational meaning (zkladn a vedaj vznam slo va) Denotation sl. Denote, sometimes called . of the function of the words meant to denote meanings, to serve as a name for a object. This reference to identical object making communicate possible, and based on the relation of the word to extralinguliar reality (not depending on the context). Denotation as denotive meaning or denotation - it is based dictionary meaning of the word. It is relatable stable. Usually consist of finite set (konen) of the concrete features of meanings. f.e.: do dose did Connotation - The second component of the lexical meaning also supplementary meaning (dodatkov, doplkov). Optional attitudinal and emotional features a word suggest or implies. Conotational meaning include dissociation (we are human, dog doggy prifarben slov) and its emotion that surround. Emotive charge (nboj) and element of emotive evolution (expressing emotional expressive evaluative overtone) which may be neutral, positive and negative. Words differ not only in their emotive charge but their stylistic characteristic. Some words are used in certain situation distinct identical denotational meaning. May be, words are neutral bookish but some are stylistically maged. Their stylistic value may be formal, informal, poetic, slang, taboo and special stylistic branches technologies, areas special word technical words. Question of word meaning is connected also re --- to combine whit other words. Word can be all usually collocating only with certain words. If we want master a language property we should know what words language are mostly likely occur together, ai what are the typical collocation.

Phrasal verbs: prepositions, adverbs, articles, pronouns, f.e. afraid of, graduate from, keen on, found of, good at, interested in, COLLOCATIONS Some linguistic speak about semantically, lexical, grammatical collocations. 1. Grammatical C consists of dominant (lexical words) grammatical words. Content words full meaning words f.e.: graduate from promujem na graduated from promovala som interested in, good, bound at dobr v nieom ferned of, keen on horliv na nieo We can express why 2. Lexical C consist of at least (prinajmenom, aspo) 2 equal lexical components f.e.: do shopping make a call getting tired do homework make a mistake getting married do washing up make a noise getting dark do me a fave The tendency to co-occurans (opatovn, vzjomn) ai. The way in some words are equally collocate so we have f.e.: blond hair, blond girl Great Britain, great story, great amount of something Tall boy, tall building High mountain, High Tatra, high salary Some Cs are predictable, other are so widely usded that have predictable collocate at all. Cs. F.e.: have, get, be Language differ Cs f.e.: in E we can say have a spoke have a rain, have a traffic, but not strong Siln prudk dd heavy rain, heavy traffic Sarcastic utipan Shallow skin deep povrchn susficial Catch a straw chytat sa slamky A drop in the bucket kvapka v mori Point where with goes to height foot of hik Cronys buddy kamo Diminicatice tiny, drobn RELATION, MEANING AND WORD HOMONYMS (Hs) OR POLYSEMANTIC WS Hs or polysemantic words > words have more than one meaning > multiple meaning. In these term we use describe symbol word with several different but closely relative meaning or the relation among different meanings of one lexeme. The majority of words are polysemantic words. f.e.: a polysemi is adj. big : big town na pamati space, spacious- rozahl, Tall tree high tree (aj do vky aj do rky), Adult boy big boy, Populative numerous , Big boss chief Considerable difference jedn sa o velk rozdiel. (5.prednka 19.03. 09)

Polysemantic words may be viewed synchronically and diachronically. A, Synchronically -> we study and understand polysemi as the coexistence of various meaning of the same words as the certain period. Polysemi in general various meaning of the same words. All of the enterrelated possible meaning shades of meaning, emotional coloring and stylistic peculiarities (vlastnosti) of the polysemantic words of the language form is semantic structure which is rarely identical in different languages. B, Diachronically > polysemi is connected with changes in the semantci structure of the individual words. As the words may written its (podra, udrat si) its previous meaning at the same time acquire new one, we are considered here with the relation between the old and new meaning. Ai between primary and derived meaning (odveden). F.e.: head leader of group, part of the body primary meaning. Head expression as the head of the procession project derived meaning. Words are polysemantic only in the language. In actual utterance (in speech) they occur only in one meaning, and it is the context, that makes the concrete meaning of the word clear, f.e.: head : 1. It consist him his head. Part of body 2. The horse won by a head.measure 3. At the head of the page introductory Dean hic is head of faculty. As 5. the head of nail. top pact leader different language similaries At the head of the page. Who is the head of our faculty? Headline or bold introductory The head of the nail. Dekan deen, rektor rector, konenk rectom Some meanings are clear without any context swan as when words are used in isolation, others are determined by the context. Context may be linguistic, lexical or grammatical or C of speech situation. Lexical C or the meaning by colocation (zdruenie slov). The identification comes from groups elements with which word is used. 1. F.e.: Heavy with things of great weight. Heavy thing study heavy, hard studies difficulties 2.with natural phenomena storm cold , frost, rain strong weather, heavy weather 3.with a doer (initela) f.e.: chain, heavy = synonymum Pretty woman, teacher, mess Another word for face profile Handsome price prijaten suma Handsome sum of money prijateln cenika Tick sickline sick layer thick ice thick forest Hust dents Thick hair x neexistuje heavy hair Hair ako vlasy, vlas, chlp, chlpy Take take a pen, take a peace of paper, take a bus, take a car (In slovak podozrenie z krdee)

Different language communities may stress different features and used different context word such as: As like as two peases. Podoba sa ako vajce vajcu. In healthy as fit as a fidl. As bold as an egg. Pleat ako koleno. Drink like the fish. Pije ako dha. Grammatical and syntactical C is when the meaning determined by the syntactical structure, that is the grammatical structure of the C serves determine various meaning of a polysemantic word. f.e.: make synonym do, only in Slovak, in English create, produce (as process, to force someone) make their student behave correctly make use study I hope you will make good english teacher (as became) Shill make a good wife. Context of speech situation there are cases when the meaning is determined by the actual speech situations physical C. F.e.: 2 different definition give somebody a ring A, To call somebody Call me please. B, Wedding ring metal, gold, platinum ring. Important is SITUATION. Concreate polysemnantic words HOMONYM The problem of polysemi versus homonymi rises the question: f.e.: Where is the bold the line between the different meanings of the word and the meanings of two homonyms words (rovnovznamov). Pedagog uite, psycholg, rodi, len s dobrmi vzahmi Uite len uite When 2 or more words are identical in sound but different in meaning and distinction they are called words identical homonyms. - Rovnako znej, s inm vznamom The criteria neccesary to different sheet between different meanings of one word and the meaning of the two words may be : (6. prednka 26.03.09) 1. Graphical Hs if we have graphical Hs we can write, we have different spelling. f.e.: piece, peace bee to be die dye mail male night knight 2. Semantic Hs there is no connection between nouns meanings. f.e.: race as competion, as kind of people light opposite of heavy, as bright

seal animal, official mark on develops, tax spring prame, pruinka 3. Distributional Hs requires personal pronoun to prede them f.e.: saw a saw - plka, pli, to see vidie nose part of face, knows book resource, study can kind of, modal Traditionally we have 2 recognized types of Hs: 1. Hs proper identical in sound and spelling and different meaning. f.e.: fair blonde, trh mean meaning of W bank institution, part of the river 2. Homophones only sound, different meaning and different spelling. f.e.: girl are fair, low fair nzke nklady male - veobecne vetky graphical. They are similar to prepositional Hs. Some Ws are Hs in all their forms Full Hs. f.e.: race, races, spring, springs or in some Ws of the form Parcial Hs f.e.: to know, knows, sea, seas, sees - plural. podoba, aby to bolo s 3.osobou jednotnho slo - parcial len urit typ Acording to the types of meaning Hs can be classified: 1. Lexical Hs different in lexical meaning. f.e.: march as month, march walked sun in the sky, son for parents die, dye 2. grammatical Hs difference is can fined in grammatical meaning. f.e.: I asked. I was asked. 2. Lecixo-grammatical Hs (word-class Hs) f.e.: to play, a play - can be 2 types: a/ without any semantic relation between them. f.e.: to rose, a rose b/ difference in their grammatical meaning and partly different in their lexical meaning. f.e.: to love, a love meaning (odlin vznam, ale len troka) to answer, an answer In discussion of Hs we come across Ws. They are some related to Hs but called homographs, ai. Ws different in sound, phones and meaning but accidently identical in spelling.

f.e.: lead, to lead same spelling ld, lead spelling led tears trrs (slza) to tear te:r bow bou, bow bau klon row, row rau polish polish pouli Paronymy and Homonym Hs should not be confused with Ps. Ps words related (rozlin zmena zvuku, not identical) to some phoune and meanings but infect different in meaning and usage and only mistakenly interchangeable Ingenius domyseln udia Ingenous primn l. effeck ovplyvni inok, affect - zainkovat Lose hbat, lose SYNONYMS Semantically Ss are Ws that can be classified according to their meanings (mono, polysemantic Ws). Words may be also be related - >according to their similarities and differences between their meaning: synonyms, antonyms (opposites) Ws In addition of context: we are usually stylistic, emotional or their differences to consider. Thus in broader sense we can speak about similarity or identity of denotational meaning (vedaj vznam slova). Ss are Ws with the same or nearly the same denotational me aning and may be interchangeable at least in some context they often differ in their conotational meaning and collocations (ability to combine). It means that they are groups that share a general meaning, but on close of exception reveal stylistic, emotional or some conceptual differences and may be interchangeable only in limited number of contexts. Some linguists say that Ss occur partial never complete there are few absolute identical Ss. Most Ss are partial as we have said in the different meaning of synonymic Ws concern stylistic or emotional coloring they are termed as stylistic Ss groups of Ws having identical denotation but different connotation. f.e.: spinster single woman seek look for In their difference in shate of meaning, we speak about idiographics Ss. f.e.: stuck zdatn fat plound bacuat strange od kveer smile Sometimes Ws similar meaning are used in different grammatical patterns: f.e.: ro rob a bank vylpit banku, steel money from a bank ukradol peniaze answer the letter reply to me odpovedat -

recommend that odporui advised to me A common denotational meaning asociates Ws into synonymic pair or series (set of groups) Noun substatick Fit skinig, slim, under weight podvyiven, slander zothlen Ask require, question, interrogave, guing The number of Ws have a dominat W which is generraly the most important one. (7. prednka 2. 4.) In polysemi Ws each meaning has the different antonym and one W can have several synonys and antonyms. f.e.: wealth poverty (S), wond (ndza)(only proper nouns), distitution (bieda)

ANTONYMS Definition antonyms *in Greek* means also be defined in a narrow sense as words of opposite meaning or in a broader sense as words that are contrary in their denotational meanings: strong weak, long short. 3 types of antonyms: (In TEST) 1. gradable sometimes we called contrarily As, they can be graded and can be modified with at Ws very adverb - very much, slightly POZOR: mome poveda very cold very hot, Very proud- very shamed, Hamble proud to Cold hot , Good bad, High low, Tall short. They can be graded and can be modified with adverbs: very, much, slightly 2. Complementary also called contradictory, which express an either, or relationship. f.e.: father -mother natural artificial abowe - belowe Absent present absence presence Truth lie catch - miss 3. The denial is not only negative in sence, it can have a certain positive sence too. Smoker nonsmoker, party man non party man The derivatives with prefixes in an-, non-, dis-, are usually not ratid as antonyms but as negatives Ws. A mere denial of the word with the positive meaning appear dissapear, certain uncertain, finite infinite, safe unsafe In some cases there are available both a negative word and a real antonym easy uneasy difficult, Married unmarried - single Negation in E can also be express by means of 1. the noun lack (lack of something)

f.e.: lack of you interest 2. suffix less homeless, hopeless, painless 3. adjective free shop duty free, tax free, sugar free, cholesterol free, nuclear free, caffee free, ked free Missing positive Ws the positive item may be sometimes missing. (Nemme to v proch.) Dreamless sleep = bezsenn noc, Nameless = bezmenn. Tieto slov nemaj ako pr. - Trouble free, - Antonym to uknown is well know. In some context, a contrast can be formed by words that are not antonyms but memers of a series e.g. white red *to distinguish political opponents. We use krv voda, voda but krv is not voda. Semantic changes The vocabulary grows either by absorbing modern words or by giving a new, additional meaning to the existing lexical forms. The older meaning can be replaced completely or partly or which is the most frequent case, the old and the new meaning coexist side by side, so that the word becomes polysemantic. Semantics traded diachronically, studies the changes in meaning which words undergo. The change of meaning can be approached from the aspect of. A. logics there are registered the processes of widening or narrowing or branching of the meaning and transfer of meaning B. motivation there are distinguished Objective reasons for the change, e.g. a change in the extra linguistic reality or a change in the lexical system, subjective reasons: the change in the interpretation of the original meaning or social and psychological reasons, e.g. the need of a more fashionable or less worn-off expressions or of a more emotive word ore reversely, replacing a too emotional word by a more neutral one, the need of euphemism or a taboo word. Three changes took place during all stages of the historical development of the language.

Approach from the aspect of logics. 1. Widering of the meaning. Examples from the early or later stages of the development of English - Shrift from the young animal to the adult: - Bird (old English bird) pig or pigeon reffered to the young ones, in dialect i tis still said a hen and her birds. The adult bird was fowl, the adult pig was swine - Swift from a particular species to the animal in general: - Dog was originally a special dog breed, the general dog , the general word was hound

Shift from a small object to a large one: box was originally a small container (with a lid) for jewels or medicine or money.

From the 16th century it was any small container, after 1700 the limits on size disappeared, and now it can refer to any big box or chest. Pipe was a simple musical instrument, now it can be a water/gas/oil/sewer/pipe or a smoking pipe. Shift from one situation to several: awe, horror, terror, hate originally referred to very intensive emotions (now originally referred to very intensive emotions (now there is still watch in awe sledovat s hrozou), whereas the modern adjectives derived from them have nothing to do with strong emotions: terribly happy, awfully good, the sugar in tea. Go originally only meant walk, whereas for gtransport on wheels fare was used surviving in modern Enlgish only in farewell or fare. Ready originally was prepared for a ride now it is just prepared (for anything). Shift from one category to several: sir as a member of nobility, to sir as one who you are providing with a service or one who is in a position of authority, e.g. a form of address of the customer or the teacher (to sir with love panu ucitelovi s laskou). From lexical to grammatical meaning. Have originally implied ownership, possession, now it serves in various grammatical functions: have a smoke, have lunch, have sth. done, have to Cases when an English word has a wider meaning than its Slovak counterpart: bag - taka, saik, curtain zclona, opona, fat tuk, sdlo, hair vlasy, chlp, man lovek, mu, proud hrd, pyn Cases when a Slovak word has a wider meaning tha its English counterpart: noha leg, foot, ruka arm, hand, miesto place, job, pohyb movement, motion, bali pack, wrap, piec bake, roast The use of a hyperonym (a more general term) is an example of the contextual widening of the meaning, e.g. weapon instead of revolver, rifle, gun, knife or tree instead of a particular species, such as ash, maple, oak