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GERUND

Pengertian gerund
Gerund adalah bentuk kata kerja -ing ketika digunakan sebagai kata benda. 1.1 sebagai sejenis kata benda. o Gerund sebagai subjek Learning foreign languages is hard work Swimming is hobby o Gerund sebagai objek Some people dont like flying He enjoys reading novel I finish writing letter o Gerund sebagai propositional phrase He is good at singing Ths land is good for farming o Gerund sebagai complement My fathers favourite sport is playing football Her hobby is telling story o Gerund sebagai noun modifier The waiting room is very large The reading books are on the table o Gerund sebagai larangan No smoking, no parking,no swimming.

1.2 Sebagai bagian kata kerja. Karena Gerund adalah bagian kata kerja, ia dapat menggunakan objek di belakangnya. Misalnya : o Objek langsung (dengan transitif) : He is clever at teaching mathematics = Ia pandai dalam mengajarkan matematika. o Objek Tak Langsung (dengan transitif) He is clever at teaching us mathematics = Ia pandai dalam mengajarkan matematika kepada kami. o Objek yang tetap dipertahankan dalam kalimat pasif (Retained object) She is pleased at being taught mathematics = Ia senang sekali terhadap matematika yang diajarkan kepadanya. o Objek yang artinya mirip dengan kata kerja itu sendiri = cognate object (dengan intransitif) She is proud of having sung a fine song = Ia bangga akan nyanyian merdu yang telah ia nyanyikan. o Objek refleksif (dengan intransitif) She is in the habit of oversleeping herself = Kebiasaannya sendiri bangun kesiangan (tidur terlalu lama). 1.3 Beberapa kata, seperti adjektives (kata sifat), prepositions (kata depan) dan verbs (kata kerja) harus diikuti oleh bentuk -ING (gerund). Penggunaan Gerund setelah adjectives (with preposition) Adjektives + preposisi berikut harus diikuti dengan bentuk -ING ( afraid of, angry about / at, bad at, busy, clever at, interested in, proud of, crazy about, disappointed about, excited about, famous for, fond of, sorry about, worried about ) Examples: a) b) c) d) e) Hes afraid of going by plane. I am interested in visiting the museum. He is clever at skateboarding. The girl is crazy about playing tennis. Im worried about making mistakes.

Penggunaan Gerund setelah preposisi Preposisi-preposisi yang diikuti dengan gerund : about, of, from, about, after, apart from, before, by, in, instead of, on, without, because of.

Examples: a) b) c) d) Before going to bed he turned off the lights. She avoided him by walking on the opposite side of the road. We arrived in Madrid after driving all night. He told the joke without laughing.

Penggunaan Gerund setelah verbs (kata kerja) verbs berikut harus diikuti dengan gerund: admit, advise, allow, appreciate, avoid, suggest, understand, miss, reject, consider, delay, deny, dislike, enjoy, resist, imagine, permit, practise.

Examples: a) b) c) d) e) I enjoy cooking. He admitted having driven too fast. Ralph is considering buying a new house. I delayed telling Max the news. They miss playing with their friends.

Selain itu, gerund juga harus mengikuti beberapa kata berikut: prefer, admit, delay, avoid, mind, like, enjoy, continue, fond, busy, etc.

Examples: a) b) c) d) I prefer singing to dancing She was busy writing a letter Donny is fond dancing We are looking forward to going back to school

INFINITIVE
The Infinitive with to After : 1) the first 2) the last 3) the next : Gagarin was the first to fly in a spaceship. : Peter was the last to watch the film. : He is the next to get his passport.

After : 1) adjectives : Im happy to be here, Its better not to smoke. After : 1) certain verbs(agree, choose, forget, hope, learn, promise, regret, want,) Example : I learn to drive a car. After : Question words : I dont know what to say. Can you tell me how to get to the bus stop ? After : 1) want or would like verb + object + to-infinitive : I want you to help me. : I helped my dad to clean the car.

The Infinitive without to after auxiliaries/modals


1) Can 2) Could 3) May 4) Might 5) Must 6) mustnt 7) neednt 8) Shall 9) Should 10) Will 11) Would : He can run very fast. : As a boy he could run very fast. : I may fly to Africa this summer. : I might fly to Africa this summer. : I must go now. : You mustnt smoke here. : You neednt go. : We shall sing a song. : We should sing a song. : She will cook a meal for his birthday. : She would cook a meal for his birthday.

After to do Do : I dont know. After the following expressions:


1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) had better would rather would why not why should why should : You had better clean up your room. : Susan would rather study for her exam tomorrow. : sooner I would sooner read a book than watch this film : Why not ask your neighbour for help? : we Why should we go by car? : we not Why should we not go by car?

SIMPLE FORM
Simple form biasa digunakan untuk kata kerja utama dan kata kerja bantu didalam simple present tense ketika subject nya he,she,it. For be, the Simple form is is. For have, it is has. For other verbs, 1. Add - s to the base form. Ini biasa digunakan untuk ejaan simple form dan is digunakan untuk ejaan kata kerja. Khusus nya s ditambahkan ketika bentuk dasar diakhir dalam satu atau beberapa consonat + e : aches, bakes, breathes, cares, caches, dives, edges, fiddles, files, glares, hates, hopes, jokes, lives, makes, notes, pastes, races, spares, surprises, tastes, types, writes. Dan s juga ditambahkan ketika bentuk dasar diakhir dalam satu atau beberapa consonant tapi tanpa e : adds, bets, beats, calls, claps, cheats, cleans, digs, drops, eats, fills, finds, fits, gets, grabs, hops, kills, knits, links, lists, means, needs, opens, puts, quits, robs, rings, rips, sends, stops, tells, trusts, voids, wants, works, zips.

2. Add - es to the base form. Ini terjadi dalam dua situasi. a. ketika bentuk dasar diakhir vowel o : does, goes, soloes b. ketika bentuk dasar diakhir ss,sh,(t)ch,zz, and x : assesses, blesses, caresses, fusses,kisses, misses, passes, tosses; blushes, dashes, flashes, gnashes, hushes, lashes, mashes, pushes, rushes,splashes, stashes, washes, wishes;catches, ditches, etches, flinches,hitches, itches, marches, mooches,patches, reaches, searches,scratches, teaches, touches, watches;buzzes, fizzes;

CAUSATIVE
Causative adalah kalimat yang digunakan untuk memerintah seseorang untuk membuat atau melakukan sesuatu. Disini kita akan membahas Causative dengan kata Make, Let, Have dan Get. Namun sebelumnya alangkah baiknya kita memahami lebih mendalam tentang Causative terlebih dahulu.

1. LET [Let+ Person + Verb] Kegunaan dari kata "Let" adalah untuk memungkinkan seseorang untuk melakukan sesuatu. Contohnya : John let me drive his new car. Will your parents let you go to the party? I don't know if my boss will let me take the day off.

2. MAKE [ Make + Person + Verb] Kegunaan dari kata "Make" adalah memaksa seseorang untuk melakukan sesuatu. Contohnya : The teacher always makes the students stay in their own seats. Bob made his son be quiet in the library. She made her children do their homework. 3. HAVE [ Have + Person + Verb] Kegunaan dari kata "Have" adalah untuk memberi seseorang tanggung jawab dalam melakukan sesuatu. Contohnya Yesterday,she had the woman wash the shirt. Mary has goerge climbs the tree. You must have susie study hard 4. GET [Get + Person + to + Verb] Kegunaan dari kata "Get" adalah untuk meyakinkan melakukan sesuatu" atau "untuk mengelabui seseorang untuk melakukan sesuatu. Contohnya : Yesterday,he got the woman to wash the shirt. He gets john to brush the shoes. They get me to wash the clothes.

VERB OF PERCEPTION
The verbs of perception atau dalam bahasa Indonesia adalah kata kerja persepsi, yaitu kata-kata kerja yang berhubungan dengan indera kita; yaitu; look at>melihat, hear>mendengar, listen to>mendengarkan, watch>menonton, see>melihat, smell>membau, notice>melihat/memperhatikan, observe>mengamati, feel>meraba/merasa. Kata-kata kerja tertentu yang tersebut di atas, bisa diikuti oleh simple form atau base verb, atau kata kerja dasar-tanpa to, s/es-, bias juga diikuti oleh ing-form/ V-ing, yang menjadikan sedikit ada perbedaan di dalamnya, dalam hal pelaksanaanya. Contoh: We heard you leave. (Okay. Emphasis on our hearing.) We heard you leaving. (Okay. Emphasis on your leaving.) We heard you to leave. (Incorrect!)

a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j.

I saw her go. I saw my friend running down the street. I heard a famous opera star sing at the concert last night. When I walked into the apartement, I heard my roommate singing in the shower) Look at that man run! Sylvester listened to the canary sing. We watched them play basketball. We watched them playing basketball. Trudy can feel the wind blowing against her skin. Mr. Todd sensed the lion approaching.

verbs indicate that the perceiver is "focusing" on a specific object. They can be used in the progressive. a. He is listening to the radio. b. They are looking at the picture. c. She is smelling the flowers. a. b. c. verbs indicate general perception and are non-progressive. He hears a noise. >>(Not: He is hearing) They see flames. >>(Not: They are seeing...) She smells smoke.

a. b. c.

verbs indicate appearance. (It "seems") They are non-progressive. That sounds like thunder. >> (describes the object, not the perceiver) This looks terrible. It smells fishy.

When feel is used to describe emotions, the progressive is sometimes used. a. I feel great today. >>I am feeling great today. b. I feel cold today. >>(physical feeling is usually non-progressive) See can sometimes be used in expressions in the progressive. a. She is seeing the doctor. b. He is seeing another woman.