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CC2413

Fundamental
Psychology for
Health Studies
Lecture 7
Motivation (動機
動機 /
驅動力)
驅動力
& Emotion (情感)
情感)

Lecturer:
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Emotion
Definitions
(動機)
Motivation(動機)
the process which starts, directs, and continued
behavior (引發、導向及持續行為)
so that our physical or psychological needs and
wants are met
it makes our behavior more vigorous and energetic (令行為變
得更積極和有活力)
it changes one’s preferences/choices (改變優先選擇)
(情感)
Emotion(情感)
feelings that generally have both physiological and
cognitive elements and that influence _____________
(具有生理及認知元素的感受,它能影響人的行為)
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Emotion
Lesson Plan
(A) Motivational Concepts &
Theories
(B) Motivation behind Hunger &
Eating
(C) Emotional Experiences
(D) Emotional Theories
(E) Conclusion
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Emotion
(A) Motivational Concepts & Theories
1) Key concepts
動機)
動機
 Motives(動機
i.e., needs, wants, desires leading to
goal-directed behavior
Biological vs. Social motives

內在動機)
內在動機 vs.
 ________ motivation (內在動機
外在動機)
外在動機
Extrinsic motivation (外在動機
engage in the behavior as an end
or as a mean (tool) to an end ?

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Emotion
(A) The diversity of human motives

Source: p. 384, Weiten, W. (2004).

What are the differences between these two types of


motives?
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Emotion
(A) Motivational Concepts & Theories
2) Approaches to understanding motivation
a) Biological
Drive-Reduction theory (驅力降低論)
b) Psychosocial
Incentive theories (誘因論)
McClelland’s 3 Types of Needs
c) Humanistic
Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs (需求階層)

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Emotion
(A) Motivational Concepts & Theories
• 2a) Biological: Drive-Reduction Theory
驅力降低論)
驅力降低論
(驅力降低論
Need – a requirement of some material that is
essential for survival of the organism
驅力)
驅力
Drive (驅力
i.e., an internal state of _________ or arousal
that energizes behavior in order to fulfill some
needs
When people lack some basic biological
requirements such as water, a drive to obtain
that requirement (e.g., the thirst drive) is
produced.
體內平衡)
體內平衡
Seeking homeostasis (體內平衡
The maintenance of an optimum level of
biological conditions within an organism
a state of equilibrium (平衡)
平衡
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Emotion
(A) Motivational Concepts & Theories
誘因
• 2b) Psychosocial: Incentive Theories (誘因
論)
 Incentives – things that attract people into action
 External stimuli directing and energizing behavior
 e.g., food, money, approval from friends
 Expectancy-value theories – 2 factors
 probability of success
 incentive value

 Comparison of Drive vs. Incentive Theories


 Push vs. _______
 Biological (internal) vs. _______________
(external)

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Emotion
(A) Motivational Concepts & Theories
• 2b) Psychosocial: McClelland’s 3
Types of Needs
 Need for achievement (_________):
成就/成功需要
成就 成功需要)
Striving for Success (成就 成功需要
a need that involves a strong desire to
succeed in attaining goals

 Need for affiliation(nAff): Striving for


聯繫需要)
聯繫需要
Friendship (聯繫需要
the need for friendly social interactions
and relationships with others.

 Need for power(_________): Striving


權力需要)
權力需要
for Impact on Others (權力需要
the need to have control or influence
over others.

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Emotion
(A) Motivational Theories
• 2c) Humanistic: Maslow’s Hierarchy of
Needs (需求階層
需求階層)
需求階層
All people born with 5 innate needs
Low needs (levels 1,2,3, ‘deficiency’ – D -
needs) must be met reasonably well before
moving toward higher (levels 4,5 ‘being’ – B -
needs )
Only ________ need will
dominate at a time

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Emotion
2d) Humanistic: Maslow’s Hierarchy of
需求階層)
需求階層
Needs (需求階層
 individuals
progress
upward in the
hierarchy when
lower needs
are satisfied
reasonably well

 higher levels
in the pyramid
represent
progressively
less basic
needs
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Emotion
(B) Motivation Behind Hunger and Eating:
Why do/don’t we eat?
 1) Biological factors
胰島素)
胰島素 & glucagons (胰高血糖激素
 Insulin (胰島素 胰高血糖激素)
胰高血糖激素 –
regulate blood sugar (glucose) levels → feeling of
hunger
下丘腦)
下丘腦 ---> monitoring food
 the hypothalamus (下丘腦
intake and maintaining the _____________________.
basal metabolic rate (BMR)

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Emotion
(B) Motivation Behind Hunger and Eating:
Why do/don’t we eat?
 2) Social factors
 individual habits
個人習慣
 cultural influences
文化影響

What are the problems of too


motivated or too unmotivated to Eat?
痴肥), 飲食失調症
飲食失調症)
痴肥 Eating disorders (飲食失調
 Obesity (痴肥

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Emotion
(B) Why do/don’t we eat?
盲目瘦身易飲食失調 飲食習慣X生活模式
飲食習慣 生活模式 (明報)2008年12月
10日 星期三
註冊營養師黃潔兒指出,飲食模式特別容易被外在環境影響,情况包括﹕
1. 當路過麵包店、餅店、受其他食物或廣告引誘時,就算當時不感肚餓,亦
會有進食的衝動
2. 外出進餐或在派對、慶祝活動及特別場合時,食量會較平日多
3. 社交因素也會影響食慾,情况包括
社交因素
◆ 出外進餐時,會不好意思爭着點菜,而將點菜權利讓給別人,不會
主動點選一些健康或符合自己口味的菜式
◆ 當被其他人力勸進食時,會不好意思拒絕而令自己多吃了
◆ 與親友進餐時,因感覺溫暖開心,不自覺增加食量
4. 跟別人吵架後或有意見不合時,會藉飲食去紓解情緒

閱讀雜誌也會影響飲食模式?2007年港島的一項研究發現,經常閱覽美容雜
誌的中學生,患飲食失調風險高出近5倍。研究又發現,有吸煙習慣
吸煙習慣、、
吸煙習慣、、成績
、、成績
較差及經常閱讀潮流或美容雜誌,是患飲食失調的高危因素;經常接觸美容
較差及經常閱讀潮流或美容雜誌
雜誌的受訪中學生,患飲食失調風險較其他人高出高出 倍;至於有濫藥習慣
高出4.8倍 濫藥習慣的
濫藥習慣
受訪中學生,風險更高出
高出 倍。
高出12倍

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Emotion
(C) Emotional Experiences
1) Elements of Emotional Experience
認知)
認知 component
 ___________(認知
 Subjective conscious experience
 Subjective feelings or appraisals (評價)
Physiological 生理)
生理 component
 _______________(生理
 Autonomic nervous system (ANS)
 Hormonal responses
行為)
行為 component
 ____________(行為
 Body language or nonverbal behavior
 Facial expressions
 Display rules – determining when, where, how to express
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Emotion
(C) Emotional Experiences
2) Emotional Experience vs. Emotional
Expression
 Universal (innate 與生俱內) VS. Culture-specific
(learned 後天學習)?
 Can you identify emotions based on people’s facial
expressions?

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Emotion
Can you distinguish the 7 Emotions based
on the following people’s facial expressions?

 Answers from left:

Source: Metro Daily Oct 29, 2004 p.24

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Emotion
(C) Emotional Experiences
3) Universal Emotions

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Emotion
(D) Emotional Theories
1) Common Sense Theory
Emotional sequence
stimulus → conscious feeling → autonomic (ANS)
arousal
e.g. snarling dog (狗吠) → I feel afraid → pulse raises

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Emotion
(D) Emotional Theories
詹姆士-朗格情緒說
詹姆士 朗格情緒說)
2) James-Lange Theory (詹姆士 朗格情緒說
autonomic arousal
 Emotion results from perception of _________________
 i.e., a reaction to bodily events occurring as a result of an
external situation
 Emotional Sequence
stimulus → autonomic (ANS) arousal → conscious feeling
e.g., snarling dog → pulse raises → I feel afraid
情緒行為產生情緒,
情緒行為產生情緒,例如哭引起悲哀,
例如哭引起悲哀,而不是悲哀引起哭。
而不是悲哀引起哭。知覺
直接刺了反應,
直接刺了反應,當反應發生後,
當反應發生後,情緒才隨之而來

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Emotion
(D) Emotional Theories
嘉農-巴持理論
嘉農 巴持理論)
3) Cannon-Bard Theory (嘉農 巴持理論
 Different emotions have identical patterns of
autonomic arousal
 Thalamus sends signals simultaneously to the cortex
(creating __________ experience) & the autonomic
physiological response)
nervous system (creating ______________
 Emotional Sequence
 stimulus → subcortical brain activity → conscious feeling
+ ANS arousal
 e.g., snarling dog → thalamus send signals → I feel afraid
+ pulse raises
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Emotion
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Emotion
(D) Emotional Theories
4) Schachter’s Two-Factor Theory
Look at ______________ cues to decide
what to feel
i.e., emotions are determined jointly by a
nonspecific kind of physiological arousal and its
interpretation based on environment cues
stimulus → ANS arousal + cognitive appraisal →
conscious feeling
e.g., snarling dog → pulse raises + dangerous
situation → I feel afraid

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Emotion
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Emotion
(D) Emotional Theories
5) Facial-feedback hypothesis
 The notion that facial expressions are
involved in ____________ the experience
of emotions and in labeling them
 Emotional Sequence
 stimulus → subcortical centers automatically
evoke facial expression → facial muscles send
signal to the cortex → conscious feeling
 e.g. FeiFei → smiles → I feel happy

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Emotion
(D) Emotional Theories

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Emotion
(D) Emotional Theories

• Can you identify which theory of emotion this Yoga stress


reduction technique reflects?

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Emotion
(E) Conclusion
1) The interplay between emotion and
motivation?
If you are intrinsically motivated to learn, would you
feel more positive right now? or

If you are feeling during the classes, will you be


more motivated to learn this subject?

2) Applications to Health and Wellness?

3) Focus of the Next Topic


記憶力)
記憶力
Memory(記憶力
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Emotion
(E) Conclusion
4) References
***Ciccarelli, S. K., & White, J. N. (2009).
Psychology (International edition, 2nd ed).
Upper Saddle River, N.J. :
Pearson/Prentice Hall.
Weiten, W. (2008). Motivation and emotion. In
Psychology: Themes and variations (Briefer version,
7th ed., pp. 272 – 279, 286 – 295, 302 -303). Belmont,
CA: Wadsworth/ Thomson Learning.
*** Assigned Readings: Ch 9 Motivation: pp.
356 – 378, Emotion: 378 – 393)
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Emotion
(E) Conclusion
5) Web Resources
1) Overview of Motivation Theories
http://chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/col/motivation/m
otivate.html
2) The Motivation Tool Chest
http://www.motivation-tools.com/
3) Mental Health Net - Eating Disorders
http://www.mentalhelp.net/poc/center_index.php?i
d=46
4) Emotional Intelligence Network
http://www.6seconds.org/
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Emotion