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Under the Guidance of Mr. Ashutosh Kumar Kushwaha

Department of Electrical Engineering G. H. Raisoni Polytechnic, Jalgaon Gat No. 269, Near B. G. S. High School, At Post Savkheda (BK) Jalgaon 2013-2014

G. H. Raisoni Polytechnic, Jalgaon Gat No. 269, Near B. G. S. High School, At Post Savkheda (BK) Jalgaon, 425001

This is to certificate Swapnil Subhash Patil has successfully completed his project on Two Axis Solar Tracking System for the partial fulfillment of the diploma in the Electrical Engineering during academic year 2013-2014

Mr. Ashutosh Kumar Kushwaha (Project Guide)

Ms. Tanvi Mahajan (H.O.D)

Principal ( Prof. T. M. Patil)


This is to certify that Swapnil Subhash Patil has successfully completed his project on Two Axis Solar Tracking System for the partial fulfillment of the Diploma in the Electrical Engineering during academic year 2013-14




Two axis solar tracking system In this system make screw mechanism to move solar panel at the direction of north to south and at the direction of east to west optic sensors are used to detect direction of sun at east to west and direction of solar at north to south Third optic sensor is used to sense day and night Here at night motion of solar panel totally stops and at day optic sensor detect the place of sun and which solar panel move at that direction. Here 3.5 RPM two gear motors are used for the motion of solar panel and 12 volt rechargeable battery is used to store electrical energy which is obtained from solar panel and supply of battery connected to fan to operate. Emergency tube light circuit is used to operate CFL tube light at 12 volt battery this system is very useful to give more power from solar power Solar energy is rapidly gaining notoriety as an important means of expanding renewable energy resources. As such, it is vital that those in engineering fields understand the technologies associated with this area. My project will include the design and construction of a microcontroller-based solar panel tracking system. Solar tracking allows more energy to be produced because the solar array is able to remain aligned to the sun. This system builds upon topics learned in this course. A working system will ultimately be demonstrated to validate the design. Problems and possible improvements will also be presented.

Sr. No. Abbreviation List of Figures List of Photographs 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 2 Introduction Necessity Theme Organization Name of Topic Page No. i ii iii 1 1 1 2 3 4 4 4 5 5 6 8 8 8 Types Of Cell 9 10 11 12 13 14 14 14 16 17 19

LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 2.2 2.3 History Model Of 2-Axis Solar Tracking System Component Description 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 2.3.4 2.4 Battery 2.4.1 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 PCB Drawing Etching Of PCB Soldering Placing In The Cabinet And Miscellaneous

Toggle Switch Light Intensity Sensor LED Mechanical Fan

SYSTEM DESIGN 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 Block Diagram Working Of System Circuit Diagram Solar Panel 3.4.1 Design Of The Proposed Solar Tracking

System 3.4.2 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 Theory And Construction 20 21 23 24 24 24 24 25 26 Features Of IC89C51 27 28 28 29 30 31

Resistor Relay Transistor Capacitor Diode

3.10 Crystal Oscillator 3.11 CFL 3.12 Ic89c51 3.12.1 4

CONCLUSIONS 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.5 Conclusion Feature Application Limitation



[1] B. L. Theraja, Electrical Technology, S. Chand publication, vol.2, 2005, page no 996 to 998, 1116 to 1119. [2] Ashpak husen, Electrical Machine, Dhanpatrai publication, edition 2, 2002, page no 49 to 51. [3] Theodore wildi, Electrical Machine, drives and power system, Pearson publication, edition 3, 2006, page no 197 to 199. [4] Mohammad h, Rashid, Power Electronics, Pearson publication, 2003, page no 68 to 72, 122 to 127, 226 to 228, 431 to 434. [5] [6]
[7] [8] [9]


COMPONANT SPECIFICATION Sr. no. 1 Components Resistance R1, R2, R3 R4, R5, R6, R12 to R16, R22
R7 to R11



100 K 10K 1K 10 K

0.50 0.50

0.50 0.50

R17to R21 2 Capacitor C1 C2 C3 C4 , C5 3 Diode D1 D2 to D4

1000MF 0.1 F 4.7 f 22 PF

13 1 2 2


1 2

D5 to D9 4 Transistor Q1 to Q3, Q9 to Q13 Q4 to Q8 5 Integrated Circuit IC1 IC2




IC 7805 89C51

20 140

6 7 8

Solar Panel RL1 to RL4 GM1 , GM2

12 V, 12 W 12 V 12V,3.5 RPM

1800 25 200

9 10

Battery Switch S1

12V, 8Ah


Push on switch


L1 to L4

Limit Switch




12MHZ Crystal



I would like to express profound gratitude to my guide Mr. Ashutosh Kumar Kushawaha for his invaluable support, encouragement, supervision and useful suggestion throughout this seminar work. His moral support and continuous guidance enable me to complete my work successfully. I am grateful for the corporation and constant encouragement from my honorable head of department Ms. Tanvi Mahajan. Her regular suggestion made my work and proficient. I wish to express my appreciation to Prof. Tushar Patil who helped me to overcome dough in doing this project. Last but not the least, i am thankful and indebted to all those who helped me directly or indirectly in completion of this seminar report. Swapnil Subhash Patil