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Prandtl Stress Function Summary

u x = u x ( y, z ) u y = z ( x ) u z = y ( x )

xz = G

u x + y z u xy = G x z y

(1)

satisfy equilibrium equation

xy y

xz =0 z

by taking

z xz = G y

xy = G

Prandtl stresss function ( l2 )

From (1)

2u x 2 2 G = G 2 G = G 2 + G yz y z
2 2 + 2 = 2 2 y z
Poissons equation

"compatibility"

bar cross section

2 2 + 2 = 2 2 y z
d =0 ds
on C

in A A C s

t n

xn = xy n y + xz nz = G

= constant = 0

Torque-twist

T = G J eff

J eff = 2 dA
n max on C

( nt )on C

T = J eff

n on C

( max )on C

T = J eff

For the warping displacement

u x = y z y u x = z + y z

u x = yz + dz y = yz + dy z

Thin rectangular cross section (neglect ends) z t

t2 = y2 4
y

y =+ t / 2

J eff = 2

1 3 bdy = bt 3 y = t / 2

max =

T J eff

3T = 2 y y = t / 2 bt

u x = yz

Membrane Analogy

p 2w 2w + = s y 2 z 2
w s

w=0

on the boundary

p s

=
t2 = y2 4

2s w p

For cross sections with holes we also need to satisfy

hole

du

=0

=0
=K
additional unknown

n ds = 2G A hole hole
or

hole

ds = 2G A

hole

supplementary condition to determine K

If one has multiple holes, this additional condition is applied at each hole to solve for the multiple unknown constants

Torsion of Thin, Closed Sections

a a K1 b b K2 c

b c c

= K1 a ta =0 a

= K1 b

=K

=K

b tb

c tc

a =

K1 K K2 K , b = 1 , c = 2 ta tb tc

q 1 =K 1

q1 q 2 q2 = K 2

shear flows

q1 = a ta = K1 , q = q1 q2 = b tb = K1 K 2 , q2 = c tc = K 2
shear flows into or out of a junction are conserved q1
-q q 2- q 1
2

out

=0

q 1 =K 1

q1 q 2

q2 = K 2

area enclosed by centerline of ith "cell'

Torque-shear flow

T = 2qi i
i

for each cell

hole

ds = 2G Ahole
max = K t
q max

1 2Gi

q ds = t ith cell

warping is generally small for closed sections

Torsion of a Thin Closed Section (multiple cells)

T = 21q1 + 2 2 q2
cell 1 cell 2

(1) (2) (3)

= =

1 q ds 2G1 C1 t 1 2G 2 q ds t C2

q1

q2

( the q in Eqs.(2) and (3) is the total q flowing in a given cross section, i.e it is q1 q2 flowing in the vertical section) 1. If the torque T is known, then q1 and q2 are first found in terms of the unknown ' from Eqs. (2) and (3). These qm 's are then placed into Eq.(1) which is solved for the unknown ' . Once ' is known in this manner, the qm 's are completely determined. 2. If ' is known, Eqs.(2) and ( 3) can be solved directly for the qm 's and then Eq.(1) can be used to find the torque, T

For a single cell, we can write these more explicitly = area contained within the centerline of the cross section

r
P

T=

qr ds
C

= q r ds = 2q
1 = 2G = T 4G 2

q=

T 2

max = = 2 t max 2tmin


(no stress concentrations)

q ds t

T = GJ eff
where J eff

ds t

4 2 = ds t C

Torsion of a Thin Closed Section (single cell) = area contained within the centerline of the cross section

q=

T 2

(1)

r
P

T = GJ eff
where

(2)

J eff

4 2 = ds t C

1. If T is known, q follows directly from Eq. (1), ' is found from Eq.(2) 2. If ' is known, T follows from Eq.(2), and q is then found from Eq. (1)

Torsion of a Thin Closed Section (single cell) The shear stress is not quite uniform across the thickness for thin closed sections yields uniform stress

t The difference looks much like that for an open section

t so as a small correction factor:

J eff

4 2 1 3 = + t ( s ) ds ds 3 C t C

Torsion of closed sections with fins

2 4 1 1 T = Tc + T f = G + t 3ds + t 3 ds ds 3 3 t
Jeff closed Jeff for a fin (allows varaiable thickness)

In the closed section

max =

Tc 2tmin

Tc = G ( J eff

closed

In a fin

max

Tt f = ( J eff ) fin max

T f = G ( J eff

fin

We can write this also in terms of the values since

J total = J f + J others Ttotal = T f + Tothers


so

T f = G J f Tothers = G J others Ttotal = G J total

(J )
eff

Tf

=
fin

Ttotal ( J eff )

= G

max

total

T t = total ( J eff ) total

max