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Daniel Walvin, Physics Group B, Sussex Downs Lewes College, Candidate Num er !"#$%!

Physics Case Study: Using Geophysics to Investigate Ground Areas


Introduction
&n this case study & will e tal'ing a out two methods used in geophysics to o tain in(ormation on the earth elow its sur(ace ) electrical resistance surveying *+,-S., hence(orth/ and ground penetrating radar *GP-/ ) and the purposes o( using them0 & will also tal' rie(ly a out the epistemological *to do with 'nowledge/ and ethical *to do with moral values/ context o( these methods0

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Caption on site1 +Wenner electrode array geometry and apparent resistivity. *2#3/0 4his is the Wenner array o( pro es0 5ne method o( using this array is 6ertical ,lectrical Sounding *6,S/, in which an electrical current is sent into the ground via pro e 7 or B and (lows etween oth through the earth, and measurements o( potential di((erence and current are ta'en at increasing values o( a, with a (ixed central point0 Depth is ased on the value o( a0 A is the +apparent resistivity. o( the relevant section o( ground underneath the sur(ace *the resistivity assuming certain ideal conditions, which can e used to estimate the true resistivity/, V is the potential di((erence etween pro es 8 and N, and I is the current (lowing etween pro es 7 and B0 -esistivity is an intensive property o( a material, measuring how strongly the material is opposed to the (low o( current through it0 7 graph o( A vs0 a can e plotted, and used to derive a graph o( vs0 a *or vs0 depth/, which can e used to learn what di((erent materials are underneath the sur(ace and at what depths they occur0 ,-S is a non-invasive and non-destructive method o(, (or example1 aiding in determining whether water (rom wells near land(ills would e contaminated and there(ore unsa(e to drin', y calculating that there is a drop in resistivity which would correspond to this *see
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Source o( image *e9uation is part o( image/1 website: http1;;en0openei0org;wi'i;DC<-esistivity<Survey< =>$Wenner<7rray=>?: accessed "?;"%;#!0

Daniel Walvin, Physics Group B, Sussex Downs Lewes College, Candidate Num er !"#$%! (ollowing images/: and mapping the archaeological (eatures eneath earth@s sur(ace to help study historical human activity0

Caption on site1 +Aigure #!1 *a/ Sounding > and * / layered inversion model0 Water ta le is indicated, as is the possi le leachateBcontaminated layer0 C >"#> Nature ,ducation 7ll rights reserved0. *2>3/0

Caption on site1 +Aigure #1 Conceptual diagram o( a groundwater contamination plume (rom a land(ill0 Contours represent concentrations o( a generic contaminant0 C >"#> Nature ,ducation 8odi(ied a(ter http1;;www0groundwateru'0org0 7ll rights reserved0. *2>3/0
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Source o( oth images1 science article;we site: http1;;www0nature0com;scita le;'nowledge;li rary;identi(yingB groundwaterBcontaminationBusingBresistivityBsurveysBatB$DEEF"#>: +Carpenter, P0 G0, Ding, 70 H Cheng, L0 *>"#>/ &denti(ying Groundwater Contamination Ising -esistivity Surveys at a Land(ill near 8aoming, China0 Nature ,ducation Jnowledge %*D/1>".: accessed #?;"%;#!0

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Daniel Walvin, Physics Group B, Sussex Downs Lewes College, Candidate Num er !"#$%! 4he practical & will e doing relates to ,-S ecause oth involve (inding resistivity in order to o tain 'nowledge: in the practical & will e (inding the identity o( the metal o( which a wire is made y (inding its resistivity0 4o do this, in short, one (inds the wire@s resistance * R, measured in ohms, K/ y measuring its potential di((erence and current ) these measurements are also ta'en in ,-S ) at various lengths o( the wire *l/, and the wire@s crossBsectional area *A/0 R L V ; I is used0 4hen one plots a graph o( R M A versus l and (inds the gradient, which is the resistivity1 R L *resistivity/ M l ; A 2%3, so L R M A ; l0 5nce the resistivity is determined, the identity o( the metal can e (ound (rom a ta le o( resistivity values o( metals0

GPR
&n GP-, electromagnetic radio waves are sent via a transmitting antenna into the earth, then re(lected o(( di((erent oundaries underneath the earth, and the amplitude re(lected is ased on the ratio o( the +*a solute/ permittivity. *, measured in Aarads per meter, A mB#/ o( the two materials on each side o( the oundary0 +7 solute permittivity is the measure o( the resistance that is encountered when (orming an electric (ield in a medium. 2!30 &n one (orm o( GP-, the re(lected radio waves are then received y a di((erent antenna at a near y location on the earth@s sur(ace0 Depth o( oundary is related to wave velocity and time etween sending and receiving the wave0 8oving the antennae allows data to e recorded which can e represented on twoB or threeBdimensional graphs with colour representing amplitude0 4hese graphs can then e used to identi(y the materials and o Nects underneath the sur(ace0

Context
4he purposes o( geophysical methods lead into the context1 +4o remain alive, he 2man3 must act. *ethics/, +and e(ore he can act he must 'now the nature and purpose o( his action0. *epistemology/ 2F30 4ools such as geophysical methods were developed to, in essence, provide man with methods o( o taining the speci(ic knowledge that he re9uires in order to ta'e the speci(ic actions re9uired to gain and 'eep his own values ) (or example, the maintenance o( his railroad y using GP- to 'now where its (laws are ) and thus to continue living0 Word count *excluding sources and image captions/1 E?$0 *5ther sources used in this case study given elow *[6]).)

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Source o( e9uations R L V ; I and R L M l / A1 boo : 8ichael Benn and Graham George: >""$: O,dexcel Physics (or 7SO: Podder ,ducation: p0 #%F and p0 #!! respectively0 * L R M A ; l is also included on p0#!!, ut this is easily deriva le (rom R L M l / A0/ !23 Source1 we site: http1;;en0wi'ipedia0org;wi'i;Permittivity: un'nown when (irst accessed, 9uote used on #D;"%;#! F23 Source o( 9uote *split into two parts (or demonstrative purposes/1 oo' *(iction/: 7yn -and: #?FD: +7tlas Shrugged.: original pu lisher is -andom Pouse: pu lisher o( my QF"th 7nniversary ,dition. copy is Signet, an imprint o( New 7merican Li rary: Part 4hree, Chapter D: paragraph ! on page ?>E in my copy0 E23 5ther sources1 & have used many other internet pages (or research, including many pages on Wi'ipedia0 +GC, Physics B Guidance (or the 7S practical assessment B Septem er >""$ 4utor support. pu lished y Edexcel! exe"plar su""ary o# Geophysics$based visit0