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Lajiman Janoory Mazyani Mat Nadiah Yan Abdullah Mohd Ridhuan Ismail Nur Qistina Abdul Razak Nurhafza Mohamad Mustafa

Faculty of Languages and Communication University Pendidikan Sultan Idris Tanjong Malim, Perak 2013


INTRODUCTION The course guide is to assist students to understand the course content and assessment. Students are advised to read this section carefully and take note of the course requirements so that they can complete the course successfully.

The course BIU3013 General English will cover 10 units. It is designed to help the students improve their ability to use basic English in a variety of situations. The module is written by taking into consideration the weakness of students at some or all skills of the English language. What this means is that to a certain extent this module attempts to fulfil all the listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills. In addition to these skills, each unit is integrated with vocabulary and grammar exercises. Therefore, the module is written in such a way that it is easier for students to follow through each unit which is arranged from the easy to more difficult levels. The main objective of this course is to assist the students in enhancing proficiency and confidence in using English. Most importantly, it serves as a way forward for the students to eventually master the de facto lingua franca of the world.

TARGET AUDIENCE This course is offered to all students undergoing the Bachelor of Education Programme at UPSI. However, this module has been specially designed for students pursuing the Distant Education Programme.

STUDENT LEARNING TIME Based on the UPSI and MQA Standards, every credit requires the students to allocate 40 hours of learning time. Therefore, for this course, students are required to spend 120 hours of learning time. The estimated time for the BIU3013 course is presented in Table 1.

Table 1 Estimated learning time for the BIU3013 course Learning Activity Reading the Module, revision and completing assignments Tutorial at centres On-line Tutorial (E-learning, for example via BigBlueButton, Skype, etc.) Forum (E-Learning via MyGuru3) Sub Total Total Learning Time Learning Time Face-to Face Independent 60 10 10 6 22 16 120 hours 12 104

COURSE LEARNING OUCOMES At the end of the course, students will be able to: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. demonstrate proficiency in English language skills. respond accurately to information heard. comprehend linear and non-linear texts. organise materials logically, coherently and cohesively in written form. cooperate effectively in group activities.

COURSE SYNOPSIS The course is designed to enhance students basic proficiency in the English language. It integrates vocabulary, grammar structures and the skills of Listening, Speaking, Reading and Writing. The course ensures that students have better ability to use basic English in a variety of context. (Kursus ini dirangka untuk meningkatkan penguasaan asas pelajar dalam Bahasa Inggeris. Ia mengintegrasikan perbendaharaan kata, struktur nahu dan kemahiran-kemahiran Mendengar, Bertutur, Membaca dan Menulis. Kursus ini memastikan pelajar-pelajar mempunyai keupayaan lebih baik untuk menggunakan Bahasa Inggeris asas dalam pelbagai konteks.

COURSE CONTENT To assist students in achieving the learning outcomes for this course, the course content is divided into 10 units.


CONTENTS COURSE GUIDE CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS PREFACE ASSESSMENT DESCRIPTION OF ICONS USED UNIT 1 HEALTH MATTERS! Reading Vocabulary Parts of Speech- Nouns and Pronouns Grammar in Focus- The Simple Present Tense and The Present Progressive Tense Grammar in Action Listening and Speaking Speaking in Action- Expressing Interest Writing- Writing A Memo Enrichment UNIT 2 GO GREEN! Reading Vocabulary Parts of Speech- Adjectives Grammar in Focus- The Simple Past Tense and The Past Progressive Tense Grammar in Action Listening and Speaking Speaking in Action- Requesting for More Information Writing- Descriptive Essay Enrichment UNIT 3 FOOD MARVELS Reading Vocabulary Parts of Speech- Comparison of Adjectives Grammar in Focus- The Simple Future Tense and The Future Progressive Tense Grammar in Action Listening and Speaking Speaking in Action- Expressing Disbelief Writing- Narrative Essay Enrichment 35 37 38 40 44 45 46 46 48 19 21 22 23 26 27 28 29 30 1 3 4 7 10 11 13 14 15 i iii vi vii viii viii



GOOD DEEDS Reading Vocabulary Parts of Speech- Adverbs Grammar in Focus- The Present Perfect Tense Grammar in Action Listening and Speaking Speaking in Action- Expressing Similar and Different Opinions Writing- Expository Essay Enrichment 53 55 56 57 59 60 61 62 63


LIVING Reading Vocabulary Parts of Speech- Gerunds and Infinitives Grammar in Focus- The Future Perfect Tense Grammar in Action Listening and Speaking Speaking in Action- Expressing Probability Writing- Process Essay Enrichment 67 69 69 70 72 73 75 76 78


TRAVELLING Reading Vocabulary Parts of Speech- Modals Grammar in Focus- The Present Perfect Progressive Tense Grammar in Action Listening and Speaking Speaking in Action- Asking for Information Writing- Paragraphs to Describe Graphs and Charts Enrichment 82 84 85 86 88 89 91 92 96


DANGERS FROM SPACE Reading Vocabulary Parts of Speech- Conjunction Grammar in Focus- The Past Perfect Progressive Tense Grammar in Action Listening and Speaking Speaking in Action- Recognising and Interpreting Views Writing- Definition Essay Enrichment 101 104 105 108 110 112 113 114 116



EDUCATION FOR ALL Reading Vocabulary Parts of Speech- Prepositions Grammar in Focus- The Future Perfect Progressive Tense Grammar in Action Listening and Speaking Speaking in Action- Asking for and Giving Recommendations Writing- Compare and Contrast Essay Enrichment 122 126 127 130 132 134 135 136 138


RECIPE FOR INSPIRATION Reading Vocabulary Parts of Speech- Revision Grammar in Focus- The Passive Voice Grammar in Action Listening and Speaking Speaking in Action- Making a Successful Presentation Writing- Cause and Effect Essay Enrichment 142 144 146 147 150 152 153 154 156


THE COBBLERS STITCH Reading Vocabulary Parts of Speech- Subject-Verb Agreement Grammar in Action Listening and Speaking Speaking in Action- Managing a Group Discussion Writing- Argumentative Essay Enrichment 161 164 165 168 170 171 172 174 179 180


The publication of this module is never the singular efforts of the writers alone. Therefore, we wish to express our heartfelt thanks, especially, to the former Dean of the Faculty of Languages and Communication, Associate Professor Dr. Hj. Nor Azmi Bin Mostafa, for his constant encouragement and support throughout the production of this module. We would also like to express our gratitude to all individuals whose small contributions have collectively coalesced into a significant assistance in ensuring that the module sees the light of day. We are indeed indebted to all.


This module is intended to be the teaching material for the General English course for Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris undergraduate students who wish to graduate but do not fulfil the MUET requirement of Band 3. Thus, in order for the students to graduate they are required to take and pass the course. The module is written by taking into consideration the weakness of students at some or all skills of the English language. What this means is that to a certain extent this module attempts to fulfil all the listening, speaking, reading and writing skills found in the MUET syllabus. However, the module is written in such a way that it is easier for weaker students to follow through each topic since the level of English used is lower than the actual MUET standard. This does not mean that this module is inferior in any way to books that cater to students who wish to take MUET. The module is also written under the philosophy that students learn more if the level of the language taught is slightly higher than their actual language level. Therefore, students will always strive to learn more because they understand most of the words used in the module. Whatever words that they do not understand can be comprehended through the context of their usage or through finding the meaning of those words in the dictionary. It is hoped that students proficiency in English is enhanced and this module serves as a way forward for students to eventually master the de facto lingua franca of the world.


ASSESSMENT Tasks Online Forum Assignment 1 (Speech presentation) Weighting (%) 20 20 Method and Task Outcome On-line via MyGuru3 Students record a speech they prepared individually. Hard copy of speech with CD of speech presentation (posted to on-line tutors) and soft copy of speech without video (uploaded in MyGuru3) Students write an essay based on a given topic.

Assignment 2 (Essay writing) Final Examination Total DESCRIPTION OF ICONS USED

20 40 100

A situation that requires you to think and reflect about. An activity that should be done to understand the concepts discussed. Activities include answering questions, filling in the blanks, sketching, and/or seeking information from the Internet, books, and other sources. On-line quiz to be taken that contributes to course work marks.

On-line forum to be participated that contributes to course work marks. Micro and macro teaching to be conducted and uploaded to be presented to the lecturers and other course mates. Exercises to develop understanding and apply concepts discussed. Sometimes the answers and feedback are included at the end of each unit.

Exercises that include answers and feedback.



LEARNING OBJECTIVES At the end of the unit, you should be able to: 1. identify the main idea of passages; 2. discuss on a given topic with a colleague about the dangers of smoking; 3. complete exercises on nouns and pronouns and grammar; 4. read and answer comprehension questions; and 5. write a memo to inform colleagues about an important meeting in your school. READING A. Getting started Task 1. 1 How do you take care of your health? Check ( ) statements that are true to you. 1. I eat healthy food every day. 2. I exercise regularly. 3. I rarely take junk food. 4. I drink a lot of plain water. 5. I never smoke. Tips Skimming is used to quickly identify the main ideas of a text. You might read the title, subtitles, subheading, and illustrations. Consider reading the first sentence of each paragraph. This technique is useful when you are seeking specific information. B. Read Task 1.2 Skim the article and identify the main idea. Circle your answer. A. Smoking is harmful. B. Third-hand smoke is dangerous. C. Cigarette smoke is bad to humans health. D. Third-hand smoke is the biggest threat to children.

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

A New Cigarette Hazard: Third-Hand Smoke 1 Parents who smoke often open a window or turn on a fan to clear the air for their children, but experts now have identified a related threat to childrens health that is not as easy to get rid of: third-hand smoke. That is the term being used to describe the invisible yet toxic brew of gasses and particles clinging to smokers hair and clothing, cushions and carpeting, that lingers long after second-hand smoke has cleared from a room. The residue includes heavy metals, carcinogens and even radioactive materials that young children can get on their hands and ingest, especially if they are crawling or playing on the floor. Everyone knows that second-hand smoke is bad, but they dont know about this, said Dr. Jonathan P. Winickoff, the lead author of the study and an Assistant Professor of Paediatrics at Harvard Medical School. When their kids are out of the house, they might smoke. Or they smoke in the car. Or they strap the kid in the car seat in the back and crack the window and smoke, and they think its okay because the second-hand smoke isnt getting to their kids, Dr. Winickoff continued. We needed a term to describe these tobacco toxins that arent visible. Third-hand smoke is what one smells when a smoker gets in an elevator after going outside for a cigarette, he said, or in a hotel room where people were smoking. Your nose isnt lying, he said. The stuff is so toxic that your brain is telling you: Get away. The study reported on attitudes toward smoking in 1,500 households across the United States. It found that the vast majority of both smokers and non-smokers were aware that second-hand smoke is harmful to children. 95 percent of non-smokers and 84 percent of smokers agreed with the statement that inhaling smoke from a parents cigarette can harm the health of infants and children. But far fewer of those surveyed were aware of the risks of third-hand smoke. Since the term is so new, the researchers asked people if they agreed with the statement that breathing air in a room today where people smoked yesterday can harm the health of infants and children. Only 65 percent of non-smokers and 43 percent of smokers agreed with that statement, which researchers interpreted as acknowledgement of the risks of third-hand smoke. The belief that second-hand smoke harms childrens health was not independently associated with strict smoking bans at homes and in cars, the researchers found. On the other hand, the belief that third-hand smoke was harmful greatly increased the likelihood the respondent also would enforce a strict smoking ban at home. The central message here is that simply closing the kitchen door to take a smoke does not protect the kids from the effects of that smoke, he said. There are carcinogens in this third-hand smoke, and they are a cancer risk for anybody of any age who comes into contact with them.
(Adapted from







C. Read again Task 1.3 Scan the article and answer the questions below.

1. What is third-hand smoke? ______________________________________________________________________________ 2. How does it threaten children? ______________________________________________________________________________ 3. How many percent of non-smokers agreed that inhaling smoke from a parents cigarette could harm the health of infants and children? _____________________________________________________________________________ 4. The residue of third-hand smoke includes ___________________________________________ 5. Explain the phrase but they dont know about this (line 9-10). ____________________________________________________________________________

6. How do you protect yourself and your children from third-hand smoke? Explain. ____________________________________________________________________________ 7. What can we do to promote an environment that is free from third-hand smoke? ____________________________________________________________________________ 8. If you are a smoker, do you wish to stop smoking? Give your reason. ____________________________________________________________________________ VOCABULARY A. Identify Task 1.4 Find the meanings of these words. 1. threat 2. brew 3. particles 4. ingest 5. harm 6. enforce 7. strict 8. ban ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________

B. Practice Task 1.5 Construct sentences using the words given in Task 1.4. 1. ________________________________________________________________________ 2. ________________________________________________________________________ 3. ________________________________________________________________________ 4. ________________________________________________________________________ 5. ________________________________________________________________________ 6. ________________________________________________________________________ 7. ________________________________________________________________________ 8. ________________________________________________________________________ PARTS OF SPEECH NOUNS AND PRONOUNS

NOUNS A noun is a word used to name a person, animal, place, thing, and abstract idea. A. Identify Task 1.6 Underline nouns in the excerpt below. Third-hand smoke is what one smells when a smoker gets in an elevator after going outside for a cigarette, he said, or in a hotel room where people were smoking. Your nose isnt lying, he said. The stuff is so toxic that your brain is telling you: Get away. The study reported on attitudes toward smoking in 1,500 households across the United States. It found that the vast majority of both smokers and non-smokers were aware that second-hand smoke is harmful to children. 95 percent of nonsmokers and 84 percent of smokers agreed with the statement that inhaling smoke from a parents cigarette can harm the health of infants and children.

B. Practice Task 1.7 Complete the sentences with nouns in the plural forms. 1. How many ____________ (cinema) are there in Kuantan? 2. How many ____________ (fly) have you swatted? 3. How many ____________ (house) are there in your neighbourhood? 4. Is your cat catching ____________ (mouse)? 5. How many ____________ (goose) do you have on your farm? 6. Where do ____________ (moose) live? 7. How many ____________ (fish) are there in the sea? 8. How many ____________ (abbey) are there in the UK? 9. How many ____________ (pencil case) do we have in stock? 10. How many ____________ (sheep) do you have on your farm?

PRONOUNS A pronoun can replace a noun or another pronoun. You use pronouns like "he," "which," "none," and "you" to make your sentences less awkward and less repetitive. When the Subject and the Object in a sentence refer to the same person or thing we use a Reflexive Pronoun. It is the only area of English grammar that is reflexive. If you are using YOU in the plural, the reflexive pronoun is yourselves. Examples of sentences using reflexive pronouns: My daughter likes to dress herself without my help. I taught myself to play the guitar. My cat always licks itself.

Subject Reflexive Pronouns Pronouns I you he she it we you (pl) they myself yourself himself herself itself ourselves yourselves themselves

A. Identify Task 1.8 Write the pronouns that are available from the reading passage in Task 1.2. 1. ___________________ 2.___________________ 3.___________________ 4.______________________ 5.______________________ 6.______________________ 5

B. Practice Task 1. 9 Replace the words in brackets by the correct personal pronouns. Note that Sue is the person speaking. The (*) means that you are asked a question. 1. My name is Sue. (Sue) ________ am English. And this is my family. 2. My mum's name is Salmah. (Salmah)________ is from Johor. 3. Abu is my dad. (My dad) ________ is a waiter. 4. On the left you can see Kasim. (Kasim) ________ is my brother. 5. (Sue and Kasim) ________ are twins. 6. Our cat is a female, Mimi. (Mimi) ________ is two years old. 7. (Sue, Kasim, Salmah and Abu) ________ live in Subang Jaya. 8. (Subang Jaya) ________ is not far from Shah Alam. 9. My grandparents live in Shah Alam. (My grandparents) ________ often come and see us. 10. What can (*)________ tell me about your family? Task 1. 10 Fill each blank with a suitable Reflexive Pronoun. 1. He rewarded ___________ with an ice-cream. 2. They agreed amongst ___________ that they would not tell anyone. 3. I taught ___________ to draw. 4. You must explain ___________ more clearly. 5. He has a bad temper so he must learn to control ___________. 6. We thoroughly enjoyed ___________ at the party on Sunday. 7. That monkey is scratching ___________. 8. One must defend ___________ against bullies. 9. My brother and I bought ___________ some apples. 10. She cooks for ___________ every day.

GRAMMAR IN FOCUS THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE AND THE PRESENT PROGRESSIVE TENSE The Simple Present, Third Person Singular 1. he, she, it: in the third person singular the verb always ends in -s: he wants, she needs, he gives, she thinks. 2. Negative and question forms use DOES (the third person of the auxiliary DO') + the infinitive of the verb. He wants. Does he want? He does not want. 3. Verbs ending in -y : the third person changes the -y to -ies: fly flies, cry cries f Exception: if there is a vowel before the -y: play plays, pray prays 4. Add -es to verbs ending in:-ss, -x, -sh, -ch: he passes, she catches, he fixes, it pushes Examples: Third person singular with s or -es

He goes to school every morning. She understands English. It mixes the sand and the water. He tries very hard. She enjoys playing the piano. The Simple Present form Affirmative I think You think Interrogative Do I think? Do you think? Does he, she, it think? Do we think? Do you think? Negative I do not think. You don't think. He, she, it doesn't think. We don't think. You don't think.

he, she, it thinks we think you think

The Simple Present is used: 1. to express habits, general truths, repeated actions or unchanging situations, emotions and wishes: I smoke (habit); I work in Kuala Lumpur (unchanging situation); Kuala Lumpur is a large city (general truth) 2. to give instructions or directions: You walk for two hundred metres, then you turn left. 3. to express fixed arrangements, present or future: Your exam starts at 09:00. 4. to express future time, after some conjunctions: after, when, before, as soon as, until: He will give it to you when you come next Saturday. Examples: 1. For habits He drinks tea at breakfast. She only eats fish. They watch television regularly. 2. For repeated actions or events We catch the bus every morning. It rains every afternoon in the hot season. They drive to Port Dickson every weekend. 3. To express future time His mother arrives tomorrow. Our holiday starts on the 26th March. 4. For general truths Water freezes at zero degrees. The Earth revolves around the Sun. Her mother is Malaysian. 5. For instructions or directions Open the packet and pour the contents into hot water. You take the No.6 bus to Jalan Silang and then the No.10 to Old Klang Road. 6. For fixed arrangements His mother arrives tomorrow. Our holiday starts on the 26th March. 7. With future constructions She will see you before she leaves. We will give it to her when she arrives.

The Present Progressive Tense The present continuous of any verb is composed of two parts - the present tense of the verb to be + the present participle of the main verb. (The form of the present participle is: base + ing, e.g. talking, playing, moving, and smiling) Affirmative Negative Interrogative Example: to go, present continuous Affirmative I am going. You are going. He / She / It is going. We are going. You are going. They are going. Negative I am not going. You aren't going. He / She / It isn't going. We aren't going. You aren't going. They aren't going. Interrogative Am I going? Are you going? Is he/ she / it going? Are we going? Are you going? Are they going? Subject + to be + base +ing She is talking. Subject + to be+ not + base +ing She is not (isn't) talking. to be + subject+ base+ing Is she talking?

Note: alternative negative contractions: I'm not going, you're not going, he's not going, etc. A. Practice Task 1. 11 Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs given. 1. Ali ____________ (like) to listen to English songs late at night. 2. Two of my housemates usually ____________ (sweep) the floor while the other hardly ____________ (do) anything. 3. Look! The cats ____________ (eat) our fish. 4. Adults ____________ (spend) most of their life working. 5. Hanif and his brother ____________ (leave) for Australia this Sunday. 6. Mrs. Chong ____________ (have) 12 chidren and 50 grandchildren. 7. We ____________ (work) five days a week but my father ____________ (work) nearly every day. 8. Siti now ____________ (live) with her grandmother in Kulai. 9. The students in the school ____________ (clean) the mess left by the flash flood. 10. I ____________ (drop) by at the supermarket today. 11. Salina ____________ (choose) her friends so carefully that she hardly ____________ (get) any. 12. My youngest sister ____________ (love) to sing whenever she ____________ (feel) happy. 9

GRAMMAR IN ACTION A. Practice Task 1. 12 Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verbs given. 1. I ____________ (read) a very interesting book now. 2. Julia ____________ (work) eight hours a day. 3. Tonight we ____________ (watch) a play at the theatre. 4. Who ____________ they ____________ (speak) to now? 5. I ____________ (not know) him very well. 6. What will you do if she ____________ (come) late? 7. My wife ____________ (like) coffee for breakfast. 8. What ____________ Arif usually ____________ (have) for breakfast? 9. Your train ____________ (leave) at 17:25 from platform 3. 10. What ____________ Mas usually ____________ (do) in the evening? 11. My family _______________ (go) for a movie once a week. 12. My wife and I _________________ (go) to the beach during the weekend. 13. Listen! The phone ________________ (ring) in the other room. 14. Rain seldom ________________ (fall) in the Sahara. 15. He is thirteen years old now, and his voice ____________ (change). 16. Let's change the conversation. It _________________ (get) too serious. 17. Leap year __________________ (come) every four years. 18. My grandfather _____________ (grow) tomatoes in his garden. 19. He ________________ (water) the plants every day. 20. The children ______________________ (leave) for school right now. B. Read and Write Task 1. 13 Complete the paragraph using the Simple Present Tense or the Present Progressive Tense. Ramu (1) _____________ (not take) a vacation this holiday, because he (2) _____________ (think) that he (3) _____________ (have) other more important things to do. He (4) _____________ (teach) English to secondary school students, so he (5) _______________ (get) two months of holiday, but he (6) _______________ (feel) that teachers (7) _______________ (have) a special responsibility. So he (8) _______________ (look) for a temporary volunteer position for the period of his school break. He (9) _______________ (try) to find work as an English teacher in relief centres for underpriveleged communities around the world. He (10) _______________ (get) excited at the prospects of making a real difference in the lives of other people. 10

LISTENING AND SPEAKING A. Discuss Task 1.14 Describe a health problem that you have experienced. B. Listen Task 1. 15 Listen to these six people talking about their health problems at the hospital. While listening, answer the questions below. 1. What did Patient 1 hurt? A. His feet. B. His wrist. C. His hand. D. His elbow.

2. Patient 2 cut her hand___________________. A. with a knife. B. with broken glass. 3. Patient 3 should___________________. A. get help now. B. sit and wait for a doctor. 4. Patient 4 got sick ___________________. A. B. C. D. staying outside. waiting for help. eating leftover food. taking cold medicine. C. sit down and relax. D. come back if he is nauseous. C. while wiping some dishes. D. while wiping the window pane.

5. Which part of his leg did Patient 5 injure? A. His foot. B. His knee. C. His thigh. D. His ankle.

6. Patient 6 accidentally ___________________. A. touched a hot pipe. B. put her hand on the stove. C. put her hand on a hot pipe. D. put her hand in boiling water.

7. How many people will see a doctor or nurse immediately? A. One. B. Three. C. Two. D. Four.

8. What was the most common injury or hurt area? A. Hand. B. Head. C. Leg. D. Stomach. 11

C. Listen

Task 1. 16 Listen to the conversation on making an appointment. Circle the correct answer for each question.

1. Ryan is making an appointment to see a ___________________. A. doctor. B. dentist. C. lawyer. D. chiropractor. 2. The first appointment the receptionist offers to Ryan is not suitable because he ____________. A. has to fetch his daughter. B. has another appointment. C. has an important meeting. D. is going to be out of town. 3. The doctor only works late on ___________________. A. Friday. B. Sunday. C. Monday. D. Wednesday. 4. Why is Ryan seeing the dentist? A. He needs a check up. B. He needs a tooth filled. C. He has an important meeting. D. He is taking his daughter to the dentist. 5. When is Ryan's appointment? A. October 5th at 10:00 a.m. B. October 27th at 7:30 p.m. C. September 5th at 3:00 p.m. D. September 3rd at 10:00 a.m.



SPEAKING IN ACTION EXPRESSING INTEREST A. Practice Task 1. 17 Read the following conversation, then practice using other phrases.

Lin Man Lin Man Lin Man Lin

: Man, how are you? You look amazing! : Thanks, but do I really look amazing? Maybe because I workout every day. : Really? Thats awesome. *Thats great. : But, it wasnt that easy at first. I almost hurt myself. : Oh, thats too bad. *Im sorry to hear that. : I guess you should join me sometime. : Sure. *Looking forward to.

Task 1. 18 Continue the following conversations with your partner. Use phrases from Task 1.17 to express interest. 1. A: Your paintings are awesome! B: Really? Thanks, Ive been painting since I was 9 years old. A: . 2. A: You look stressed out. B: Yes, I am. Ive to work overtime for the whole week. C: 3. A: You look energetic. Whats your secret? B: Thanks. I exercise regularly. A: . 4. A: Im exhausted!! B: ..


WRITING WRITING A MEMO A memorandum or memo is a document or other communication that helps the memory by recording events or observations on a topic that is normally used in a business office. A memorandum may be in any format, or it may have a format specific to an office or institution. In law specifically, a memorandum is a record of the terms of a transaction or contract, such as a policy memo, memorandum of understanding, memorandum of agreement, or memorandum of association. Alternative formats include memos, briefing notes, reports, letters or binders.

A. Practice Task 1. 19 Read the memo. Underline the important information available in the memo.


Craftston Solutions Inc. Level 4, Centre Court Atrium Plaza 53000 Kuala Lumpur 03-20333212

To: Department Heads From: Ms. Lin Date: December 10, 2010 Subject: Annual Bonus Leave for Employees with Outstanding Performance

Starting January 1, 2011 we will introduce the following modification in our company policy with regard to annual leave: every year one employee from each department will be awarded special annual bonus leave for outstanding performance. The eligible employees will have additional five (5) days of annual leave credited on January 15. The bonus leaves will be accounted for separately and will remain available until used, notwithstanding any other limitation of the total number of days of annual leave that may be carried forward. We will have a meeting on December 15 at 10:00 a.m. to discuss the results of the 2010 performance evaluation and approve the final list of employee eligible for the bonus. The announcement to the employees will follow the meeting. If you have any questions or comments, please let me know before the meeting. B. Write Task 1. 20 Write a memo to your colleagues informing them about an urgent meeting to be held in your school.


ENRICHMENT LISTENING Task 1. 21 Monica talks about the increasingly popular exercise of Tai Chi. Circle the BEST answers. 1. Monica joined Tai Chi ___________________ it is slow. A. B. C. D. because although moreover meanwhile

2. What does Monica explain? A. B. C. D. The origins of Tai Chi. The Tai Chi she does. The reasons why people do Tai Chi. The reasons why Tai Chi is important.

3. After Tai Chi she feels ___________________. A. B. C. D. tired focused numbed balanced

4. She says Tai Chi is good for___________________. A. B. C. D. flexibility strength balance energy

5. Tai Chi helps atletes to___________________. A. B. C. D. be stronger be motivated maintain speed maintain balance


SPEAKING Task 1. 22 Tell your colleague, who is a discipline teacher who has caught many students smoking in school, about the dangers of smoking. READING Task 1. 23 Read the passage carefully. Circle the best answers.

When the liver is overloaded and cannot remove toxins, the toxins can deposit in the body. That will cause health (1) __________. Liver cleansing herbs such as milk thistle, dandelion (2) __________ grape seed can all work together to support liver function and (3) __________ detoxification. The intestines are a prominent part of our immune (4) __________. There are enzymes to neutralise many of the pathogens, preventing (5) __________ from entering the blood and lymph. In other words, the lining (6) __________ our intestines is not meant only to absorb food, but it also acts as (7) __________ barrier to keep out invading pathogens. To regain balance in the gastrointestinal tract, we can start (8) __________ a diet that is high in dietary fibre. Fibre can help remove undigested food (9) __________ and waste from the body. Insoluble fibre will act as a brush to scrape away waste build-up (10) __________ the colon whereas soluble fibre will absorb water and act as a sponge to absorb toxins and waste.
(Adapted from The Star January 31, 2010.)


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Task 1. 24 Read the passage and complete the table below. 1 Many people today are concerned about the development of medicine and health care. People are not only interested in modern medicine. There is also a growing trend towards the holistic approach. What does holistic approach mean? 2 Holistic literally means whole. Therefore, in term of health care, it means looking at the body as a whole, or the person as a whole, before treating them. The 5 holistic approach differs from modern medicine in that it takes into account not only the symptoms, but also the age, habits, emotions and lifestyles of the individual. Modern medicine, on the other hand, treats patients as a series of parts that are all isolated. Doctors merely treat the part of the body which is not functioning well and try to make symptoms go away. This means, of course, that the cause of the illness may remain with 10 only the pain taken away. The holistic approach, unlike modern medicine, sees health as a balance and seeks to harmonise the body and mind. The person becomes ill when there is an imbalance and this causes the symptoms. Western medicine prescribes medicine to arrest these symptoms whereas holistic medicine refrains from doing this. It is important to 15 understand that holistic medicine tries to prevent illness rather than cure it. A good diet, with lots of fresh food, i.e., not processed food which contains preservatives and chemicals, is essential; a healthy lifestyle, without too much pressure and worry, and lots of exercise and rest, not too much, not too little these are things that will prevent illness. That is the theory of the holistic approach as opposed to western medicine. Differences between the holistic approach and _______________________(1) Holistic approach A. Takes into consideration the _____________ (2) symptoms __________________(3) __________________(4) emotions lifestyle B. Main consideration is to ________________(6) body and mind. C. Treatment is to ____________(8) illness with a good diet. ___________________(9) ___________________(10) Western approach A. Takes into consideration ________________(5)

B. Main consideration is to make symptoms _____________(7). C. Treatment is to cure illness by __________________ (11) medicine. __________________ (12) symptoms.


Task 1. 25 Read the passage below. Then, write (T) for True statements and (F) for False statements. Catching Cold 1 Many people catch a cold in the springtime or fall. It makes us wonder, if scientists can send a man to the moon, why can't they find a cure for the common cold. The answer is easy. There are literally hundreds of kinds of cold viruses out there. You never know which one you will get, so there isn't a cure for each one. 2 When a virus attacks, your body works hard to get rid of it. Blood rushes to your nose and brings congestion with it. You feel terrible because you can't breathe well, but your body is actually "eating" the virus. Your temperature rises and you get a fever, but the heat of your body is killing the virus. You also have a runny nose to stop the virus from getting to your cells. You may feel miserable, but actually your wonderful body is doing everything it can to kill the cold. 5

Different people have different remedies for colds. In the United States and some other 10 countries, for example, people might eat chicken soup to feel better. Some people take hot baths and drink warm liquids. Other people take medicines to stop the fever, congestion, and runny nose. There is one interesting thing to note - some scientists say taking medicines when you have a cold is actually bad for you. The virus stays in you longer because your body does not 15 have a way to fight it and kill it. Bodies can do an amazing job on their own. There is a joke, however, on taking medicine when you have a cold. It goes like this: It takes about one week to get over a cold if you don't take medicine, but only seven days to get over a cold if you take medicine.
(Adapted from

1. There is a cure for the common cold. 2. There are twenty two different cold viruses in the world. 3. Heat in your body kills viruses. 4. Congestion means your head feels hot. 5. Some people eat chicken soup to feel better when they have a cold. 6. Scientists always think taking medicine is good when you have a cold. 7. Bodies work hard to try to get rid of viruses.

( ( ( ( ( ( (

) ) ) ) ) ) )


LEARNING OBJECTIVES At the end of the unit, you should be able to: 1. identify the main idea of passages; 2. present a talk on the importance of conserving the environment during the school assembly; 3. complete exercises on adjectives and grammar; 4. read and answer comprehension questions; and 5. write a descriptive essay. READING A. Getting started Task 2.1 Read the title. What is the article about? B. Read Task 2.2 Scan the article quickly and answer the questions below. 1. What does the latest weapon refer to? __________________________________________ 2. Where can you find this type of article? __________________________________________ The Latest Weapon against Global Warming 1 Is your refrigerator the solution for greener energy? Not entirely, but giving your fridge the ability to think for itself is an excellent first step when it comes to preventing future power blackouts, according to results from a pilot project led by the Department of Energy and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. 2 In the project, called GridWise, everyday appliances like washers and dryers were 5 equipped with small electronic circuit boards and installed in more than 200 homes in Washington and Oregon. These circuit boards are programmed to detect changes in the alternating-current frequency coming into the appliance. When the device senses a lower frequency, signalling less available electricity on the grid, it reacts by turning off certain functions of the appliance: a dryer might keep tumbling clothes but switch the heating coil off; a fridge light could stay on while the 10 cooling motor takes a break. These responses happen in less than half a second, last for only around 10 seconds, and are nearly undetectable by homeowners. While powering down the appliances in one home would not do much, if every home in New York or Los Angeles were equipped with the GridWise system, it could be enough prevent serious blackouts like the one in 2003 that paralysed the Northeast. The key is that the circuit 15 board can react to conditions on the grid instantaneouslysomething humans cannot do.


Along with clever appliances, some homes in the GridWise project received computer systems to monitor the real-time price of power and limit consumption when the price spiked. The system is described as a mini energy marketplace in the home that works as a second buffer when the grid is overloaded. When demand for energy is high, so is the price. Homeowners can 20 programme their thermostats, for instance, to automatically take a break if the price of energy skyrockets. The real-time price of electricity is updated and processed in homes every five minutes. In the case of an impending blackout, a dryer and refrigerator respond first, quickly shutting off and temporarily decreasing power consumption. Then the second-tier price-driven system 25 kicks in. That allows time for power suppliers to react to the overload by turning on backup generators or redistributing power throughout the gridthe final step in the process. Fewer blackouts and money savings aside, equipping homes with smart energy systems could allow electric companies to switch to use more energy from renewable sources like wind and solar. Today, wind and solar power are considered too unreliable to be used on a mass scale, 30 unable to supply energy when the sun sets or the wind stops. In a price-responsive system, however, rainy days could mean slightly higher energy prices, which could cause homeowners to scale back on energy consumption, says Ron Ambrosio of IBM Energy Research, a branch of the company researching new energy strategies. There are no technical hurdles; Ambrosio says policy and market acceptance are the 35 biggest roadblocks to adoption of smart appliances. His estimation for widespread use of this type of energy system: 10 to 15 years, if manufacturers, consumers, and governments get behind the idea.
(Adapted from

A. Read again Task 2.3 Read the passage carefully and answer the questions below. 1. 2. What is the purpose of the project? ___________________________________________________________________________ What is the function of the small electronic circuit boards installed in some electrical appliances? ___________________________________________________________________________ What is the expected outcome of installing GridWise at home? ___________________________________________________________________________ Why does the author call the appliances clever (line 17)? ___________________________________________________________________________ Name the electrical appliances that can be installed with GridWise system. ___________________________________________________________________________

3. 4. 5.


6. 7.

What will happen to a dryer or refrigerator when impending blackouts happen? ___________________________________________________________________________ According to the author, why are the wind and solar power considered too unreliable to be used on a mass scale? ___________________________________________________________________________ What can you understand from this statement policy and market acceptance are the biggest roadblocks to adoption of smart appliances. (line 35-36)? ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ Do you think people will opt for GridWise? Why? ___________________________________________________________________________ Do you practice energy-saving at your home? Explain. ___________________________________________________________________________


9. 10.

VOCABULARY MEANING A. Identify Task 2. 4 Choose the words from the passage which mean the following. To help you, the paragraph numbers are given in brackets. Example: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. the capacity to do something (paragraph 1) ability ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________

Keeping something from happening or arising (paragraph 1) Unable to be seen, noticed or discovered (paragraph 2) Cut-offs of electrical power (paragraph 3) Something small of its kind (paragraph 4) An action resulting from a response (paragraph 5) The points of origin (paragraph 6)

People who purchase goods and services for personal use (paragraph 7) ________________

B. Practice Task 2.5 Write a sentence for each of the word in Task 2.4. 1. _____________________________________________________________________________ 2. _____________________________________________________________________________ 3. _____________________________________________________________________________ 4. _____________________________________________________________________________ 5. _____________________________________________________________________________ 6. _____________________________________________________________________________ 7. _____________________________________________________________________________ 21

PARTS OF SPEECH ADJECTIVES Different usage of adjectives: 1. To tell the quality of the noun. Examples: the blue chair, a big box, a square vase, a cold night. 2. To tell the quantity of the noun. Examples: He has many books. The printer has not much toner left. 3. To tell the ownership of the noun. Examples: That is my umbrella. / Those are their cars.



Adjectives are words that describe or modify nouns (people, animals and things).

4. To pose question in an interrogative manner. Examples: Which school did you attend? / Whose laptop is this? 5. To specify a noun. Examples: This man is a school teacher. / That girl is my daughter. *Some adjectives end with 1. ing. Examples: an interesting film, an amazing player, an annoying habit 2. ed. Examples: the damaged goods, the escaped prisoners, improved version A. Identify Task 2. 6 Find ten adjectives from the passage The Latest Weapon against Global Warming. Write them in the spaces provided. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________

B. Practice Task 2. 7 Complete the sentences below with suitable adjectives. Use the words given in the parentheses as clues. 1. Do not touch the ______________ (poison) flowers. 2. Adam feels tired after having a ______________ (length) journey. 3. My sister is a ______________ (talk) person. 4. Last night was a ______________ (wind) night. 5. I will not forget this ______________ (enjoy) moment. 6. I have known her for five years. For me, she is a ______________ (help) friend. 7. That hen laid a ______________ (gold) egg! 8. ______________ (harm) bacteria may cause diseases. 22


The simple past tense is used to talk about actions that happened at a specific time in the past. You state when it happened using a time adverb. You form the simple past of a verb by adding ed onto the end of a regular verb but, irregular verb forms have to be learned. It can be used to describe events that happened over a period of time in the past but not now. For example: I lived in South Africa for two years." The simple past tense is also used to talk about habitual or repeated actions that took place in the past. For example: When I was a child we always went to the seaside on holidays." Affirmative I was. He was. She was. It was. You were. We were. They were. Regular Verb (to work) Statements (Affirmative) I worked. He worked. She worked. It worked. You worked. We worked. They worked. Negative I wasn't. He wasn't. She wasn't. It wasn't. You weren't. We weren't. They weren't. Interrogative Interrogative Was I? Was he? Was she? Was it? Were you? Were we? Were they? Short answer (Affirmative) Yes, I did. Yes, he did. Yes, she did. Yes, it did. Yes you did. Yes we did. Yes they did. Short answer (Negative) No, I didn't. No, he didn't. No, she didn't. No, it didn't. No, you didn't. No, we didn't. No, they didn't.

Regular Verb (to work) Statements (Negative) I didn't work. He didn't work. She didn't work. It didn't work. You didn't work. We didn't work. They didn't work.

Did I work? Did he work? Did she work? Did it work? Did you work? Did we work? Did they work?


The Past Progressive Tense The Past Progressive Tense indicates continuing action, something that was happening, going on, at some point in the past. This tense is formed with the helping "to be" verb, in the past tense, plus the present participle of the verb (with an -ing ending):

I was riding my bike all day yesterday. Joe was being a terrible role model for his younger brother.

The past progressive indicates a limited duration of time and is thus a convenient way to indicate that something took place (in the simple past) while something else was happening:

Chin lost his watch while he was running.

The past progressive can express incomplete action.

I was sleeping on the couch when Bala smashed through the door.

(as opposed to the simple past, which suggests a completed action)

I slept on the couch last night.

The past progressive is also used to poke fun at or criticise an action that is habitual in nature:

Jeffry was always handing in late papers. My father was always lecturing my brother.

Singular I was walking Akmal was walking he/she/it was walking Singular I was sleeping the man was sleeping he/she/it was sleeping Singular I was being you were being he/she/it was being

Plural we were walking you were walking they were walking Plural we were sleeping you were sleeping they were sleeping Plural we were being you were being they were being


A. Practice Task 2.8 Complete the paragraph below using the Simple Past Tense of the verbs in brackets. In the early fall, folks in town began (begin) talking about a large, pure-white deer that was seen roaming the woods near Brookhaven at night. Several hunting parties were gathered to go after the large animal, but it (1) _______________ (seem) to be impervious to bullets, and folks began saying it (2) _______________ (be) a phantom deer. Around about that time, several women in the town began having trouble with their churning and a number of cows and pigs began to sicken and die. Folks (3) _______________ (blame) the incidents on the phantom deer, though each of the people afflicted with the trouble had crossed Aunty Greenleaf at some time in the last month. The men of Brookhaven (4) _______________ (set) up a hunting party to chase down the animal. They (5) _______________ (be) gone all day, and well into the night. Finally, they (6) _______________ (spot) the white deer. It was the largest deer any of them had ever seen, and was fast too. They (7) _______________ (can) not keep up with it. The men got several good shots in, and (8) _______________ (swear) that at least one of them hit the deer, but it just (9) _______________ (keep) running. They (10) _______________ (return) home empty-handed.
(Adapted from

Task 2. 9 Construct sentences using the Past Progressive Tense.



(he / cook) ____________________________________________________________________________

2. (she / play cards)?

3. (what / you / do)?

4. (he / not / watch a film at 3 p.m.)

5. (she / eat dinner when we arrived)



GRAMMAR IN ACTION A. Practice Task 2.10 Complete the sentences using the Simple Past Tense of the verbs in brackets. 1. He _______________ (walk) to school yesterday. 2. They _______________ (do) their homework last night. 3. You _______________ (are) lazy last week. 4. That woman _______________ (buy) a new book this morning. 5. The janitor _______________ (clean) the blackboard yesterday. 6. This morning my teacher _______________ (teach) English. 7. The gardener _______________ (cut) the trees last month. 8. The birds _______________ (fly) in the sky this morning. 9. The farmer _______________ (grow) rice last year. 10. Two weeks ago the boy _______________ (has) a new bicycle. B. Read and Write Task 2.11 Study the diary entry below and answer the following questions. Use the Past Progressive Tense. SATURDAY 21 JULY 7:00 a.m. Woke up, bathed, had breakfast 8:00 a.m. Watched television 9:00 a.m. Visited my neighbour, Uncle Lim 10:30 a.m. Went to the Mall with my sister, Lili to shop for Rams birthday present 1:00 p.m. Had lunch with Lili at food court 3:00 p.m. Took a nap 5:00 p.m. Went for swimming lessons at the Municipal Pool 7:00 p.m. Took bath, then watched television 8:00 p.m. Had dinner 8.30 p.m. Revised lessons and did assignment 11.00 p.m. Surfed Internet 12:00 p.m. Went to bed 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. What were you doing at 7:45 a.m.? __________________________________________________ Whom were you visiting at 9:00 a.m.? ________________________________________________ What were you and Lili doing at the mall? _____________________________________________ What were you doing after taking a nap? ______________________________________________ What were you doing between 8:00 and 8:30 p.m.?______________________________________ What were you doing before going to bed?_____________________________________________ 26

LISTENING AND SPEAKING A. Discuss Task 2.12 Describe the things you can do to reduce global warming. B. Listen Task 2.13 You will listen to tips for a green bathroom. While listening, write T for True statements or F for False statements. 1. _____ There are a few water-saving opportunities in the bathroom. Smart usage of water will save hundreds of gallons of water each year. Forests are being destroyed to make toilet paper. Closing the lid when flushing will prevent the spread of bacteria. Ingredients that are available in the kitchen can be used to clean the bathroom. Conventional cotton is environmentally friendly. Cotton is good for the soil, irrigation and groundwater systems. Bamboo is one of the fastest growing plants and is also reputed to have antibacterial qualities when spun into linens. 9. _____ 10. _____ PVC plastics are bad for the environment and hazardous to health as well. PVC plastics can be recycled.

2. _____ 3. _____ 4. _____ 5. _____ 6. _____ 7. _____ 8. _____

B. Listen again Task 2.14 Listen to the recording on Tips for a Green Bathroom again. Based on the recording, complete the instructions below. Tips for a Green Bathroom 1. Mind the tap (a)____________ a low-flow showerhead or faucet aerator. Turn off the shower when you (b)____________ a call. 2. (c)___________________________ Use toilet paper created from (d)______________ sources. Install a (e)_____________ flush toilet. 3. Make your own Use (f)_____________ ingredients. Fill a (g)_________bottle with white (h)____________, 2 cups water with 2 (i)____________ of tea tree oil, and water and lavender (j)____________ oil. Use baking soda as a tub and sink (k)_______________. 4. (l)____________________________ Use towels made from (m)____________ like organic cotton and bamboo. 5. Shower safe curtain Avoid (n)__________________ plastic. You should use shower curtains made from organic cotton and (o)_________. 27

SPEAKING IN ACTION REQUESTING FOR MORE INFORMATION A. Practice Task 2.15 Read the following conversation. Then practice using other phrases.

Julia Ahmad Julia Ahmad Julia

: How do you go to work? : I commute. : Why dont you drive? You have a car, havent you? : Well, by using a public transport, we can reduce the number of vehicles on the road and save money on fuel too. : You are absolutely right. It promotes less pollution and less usage of natural resources.

Ahmad : Thats what I mean. Task 2.16 Continue the following conversations with your partner. Use phrases from Task 2.15 to request for more information. 1. A: You should set your computer to energy-saving setting. B: ..

2. A: We should use e-mail instead of sending a letter. B: 3. A: If you want to buy a shirt, perhaps get one made with organic or recycled fibres. B: .. 4. A: It is good to use a reusable container rather than a disposable one. B: .. 5. A: Lets carpool to work tomorrow. B: .....


WRITING DESCRIPTIVE ESSAY A descriptive essay describes something: an object, a person, a place or an event. The writer uses adjectives, adverbs and figurative language to explain how things look, sound, feel, taste or smell.

Example: On a foggy spring morning just before sunrise, 27 miles northwest of Cape Mendocino, California, a pimple of rock roughly a dozen miles below the ocean floor finally reaches its breaking point. Two slabs of the Earths crust begin to slip and shudder and snap apart. The first jolt of stress coming out of the rocks sends a shock wave hurtling into Northern California and southern Oregon like a thunderbolt. For a few stunned drivers on the back roads in the predawn gloom, the pulse of energy that tears through the ground looks dimly like a 20-mile wrinkle moving through a carpet of pastures and into thick stands of redwoods. Telephone poles whip back and forth as if caught in a hurricane. Power lines rip loose in a shower of blue and yellow sparks, falling to the ground where they writhe like snakes, snapping and biting. Lights go out and the telephone system goes down.
(Adapted from:

*Note that the sample of the essay above makes use of a rich vocabulary and varied expressions (underlined phrases) that appeal to the humans senses. A. Write Task 2.17 Write an essay on one of the topics below. Your essay should not be less than 350 words. 1. How paper is recycled 2. Malaysias Island Resorts 3. An Unforgettable Experience


ENRICHMENT LISTENING Task 2.18 Circle the BEST answers. 1. Some people do not recycle magazines because of their ________________. A. cover page B. illustrations C. colourful pages D. glossy quality 2. Which of the following can be made from old magazines? A. Dolls. B. Holiday gifts. C. Garbage bags. D. Colourful cookbooks. 3. Which of the following statements is NOT true? A. Old magazines can be recycled. B. Old magazines can be kept as trash. C. Old magazines can be used as gift bows. D. Old magazines can be turned into furniture. 4. Which of the following would be the best title for the article? A. Handling Old Magazines. B. Recycling Old Magazines. C. The Best Way to Discard Old Magazines. D. Ways to Reduce Old Magazines at Home. 5. What will you do with your old magazines at home? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________

SPEAKING Task 2.19 It is Earth Day. As the Advisor of the Environment Club in your school, you are invited to present a talk on the importance of conserving the environment during the school assembly.


READING Task 2.20 Read the article carefully and circle the BEST answers.

PETALING JAYA: The latest policy to set a temperature limit on air-conditioners in government offices has (1) ____________ the thumbs up from various organisations. Consumers Association of Penang president S.M. Mohamed Idris lauded (2)____________ move but called for the policy to be implemented in the private (3)____________ immediately instead of in 2013. There is no need to wait. The policy should be (4) ____________ to industries and the commercial sector while individuals should also practise energy-saving (5)____________ on their own accord, he said. He (6) ____________ that the people should also learn to switch off electrical appliances such as televisions (7) ____________ lights when they were not needed to avoid depleting the country's energy resources. Water & Energy Consumers Association Malaysia secretary-general Soon Weng Lian said the move (8) ____________ timely as there was a need to reduce energy consumption. Soon said the construction (9) ____________ future buildings must also take into consideration the need for natural ventilation and shade if the energy-saving move was to be (10) ____________ extended. Malaysian Employers Federation executive (11) ____________, Shamsuddin Bardan said the Government had to be mindful that there were certain operations, such as a company's server (12) ____________, that required the room temperature to be (13)____________ than 24C. He hoped the Government would study the policy carefully (14)____________ implementing it to ensure companies were not penalised (15)____________. Fomca president Datuk N. Marimuthu said individual consumers could also play a role by switching off electrical appliances when not in use instead of putting the items on stand-by mode.
(Adapted from The Star August 12, 2011.)


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A. lower B. higher C. C. upper D. D. greater A. B. C. D. needlessly necessarily unnecessarily unimportantly



Task 2.21 Read the passage carefully and answer the questions below.

The Joy of Recycling 1 Most of us don't like to think too much about rubbish. We put it in the bin or down the garbage chute in our apartment block and don't think too far beyond that. However, household waste is a major contributor to our planet's waste problem. Like it or not, it needs to be managed if we are to have a brighter green future. When it comes to being responsible for our own rubbish, the best way to 5 approach it is by following the three golden rules of waste management, or the 3 Rs' Reduce, Reuse and Recycle. ''The sequence is important, as waste reduction and reuse is usually the best way to minimise waste,'' says Eugene Tay, Director of Green Future Solutions in Singapore. ''Recycling still impacts on the environment and should be done 10 last after reduce and reuse.'' But, when our efforts to reduce and reuse still result in an overflowing rubbish bin, the merits of recycling cannot be ignored. ''Recycling reduces the use of raw materials and hence, protects our scarce natural resources,'' says Amy Ho, Managing Director of World Wide Fund for Nature in Singapore. ''The damage to our environment could then 15 be slowed down as a result.'' In fact, by recycling just one plastic bottle, you are saving not just the emissions to make a new one, but you also stop it from getting chucked into a landfill for up to 700


years and that's before it even starts to decompose. If every American household recycled just one out of every ten plastic bottles used, it would keep 90 million kilograms of plastic out of landfills. 5 Recycling in Malaysia is not as common, with the national rate of total waste recycled currently at 5 percent. The government aims to increase this to 20 percent by 2020 with the National Solid Waste Management and Public Cleansing Act 2007. This is expected to be enforced soon and will include recycling initiatives such as a mandatory source separation, take-back system and deposit refund system. In June, a private company took over waste collection in Kuala Lumpur and every household was provided with two rubbish bins. The first is for organic waste that is sent to a centre for decomposition and turned into fertiliser. The second is for materials that will be sent to a recycling centre. Alam Flora, the waste collection company implementing the initiative, has adopted a tough-love approach. Failure by someone to put rubbish correctly in the designated bins, results in their rubbish remaining uncollected. The appropriate sorting of rubbish isn't the only issue causing problems for waste collectors there is the problem of contamination. Throwing waste products that have traces of food or drinks in a recycling bin, renders them non-recyclable and can contaminate the rest of the bin. ''I think most people out there know that recycling is something that they should be doing,'' says Marcus Tay Guan Hock, from the Office of Environmental Sustainability at the National University of Singapore. ''However, there are still lots of people who are not educated on how to do it correctly.'' We see a bin and instinctively turn to toss our rubbish in, but taking a few seconds to think about whether it can be recycled will help the process run smoothly. For example, throwing an empty pizza box into the recycling bin could do more harm than good if it's still got traces of food on it. If that's the case, it can't be recycled and risks contaminating the rest of the bin's contents.
(Adapted from Readers Digest, November 2009)






1. According to the author, what is the major contributor to our planets waste problem? A. Waste collector. B. Household waste. C. Wastes from factories. D. Wastes from supermarket. 2. Paragraph 2 explains _________________________. A. the importance of recycling. B. the impacts of recycling on the environment. C. the measures that can be taken to minimise waste. D. the way Singaporeans reduced waste in their country.


3. Which of the following statements is NOT true? A. Most of the wastes come from home. B. Reduce and reuse cannot minimise waste. C. Recycling can reduce the use of raw materials. D. Waste need to be managed properly in order to protect the environment. 4. The word scarce in line 13 can be replaced with _________________________. A. rare. B. limited. C. sufficient. D. adequate. 5. What is the main idea of Paragraph 4? A. Plastic bottles take a long time to decompose. B. One plastic bottle can be trapped in the landfill for over 700 years. C. The practice of recycling will reduce 90 million kilograms of plastic in America. D. By recycling plastic bottles, we can cut the production cost and save our environment. 6. List down two effects of throwing wastes that have traces of food. a. ________________________________________________________________________ b. ________________________________________________________________________ 7. In your own words, give two ways to encourage people to practice recycling. a. _______________________________________________________________________ b. _______________________________________________________________________



LEARNING OBJECTIVES At the end of the unit, you should be able to: 1. identify the main idea of passages; 2. state your opinion on the banning of soft drinks and low nutritional snack items in schools; 3. complete exercises on comparison of adjectives and grammar; 4. read and answer comprehension questions; and 5. write a narrative essay. READING A. Getting started Task 3.1 What is your favourite food? Discuss with your friends. B. Read Task 3.2 Scan the article quickly and answer the questions below. 1. What is the main idea of the passage? ___________________________________ 2. Where can you find this type of article? __________________________________

Benefits of Chocolate on the Brain 1 As if people needed another excuse to like chocolate, new studies suggest a specially formulated type of cocoa may boost brain function and delay decline as people age. 2 Scientists speaking at the annual meeting of the American Associate for the Advancement of Science in San Francisco presented results from early studies testing the 5 effects on the brain of flavanols, an ingredient found in cocoa. Funded by Mars, which provided a specially formulated liquid cocoa concoction for the research, the studies suggest that flavanols increase blood flow to the brain and may hold promise for treating some vascular impairments. Mars, a private company, has made a study of the health benefits of cocoa. Its CocoaVia line of chocolates, made with a process that retains 10 flavanols, have been shown in clinical trials to have benefits for the heart. The latest research also suggests benefits for the brain. Ian Macdonald of Britain's University of Nottingham Medical School, conducted a small brain imaging study on young, healthy women to see whether flavanol-rich cocoa helped boost cognitive function during challenging mental tasks. 35

Although the beverage did not improve their performance on the tests, it did increase 15 blood flow to their brains for a two to three-hour period, Macdonald said. He believes more research might show that increased blood flow could benefit older adults and those who have cognitive impairments, such as fatigue or even mini-strokes. A US study of healthy adults over 50 also found a marked rise in blood flow. It was conducted by Harvard Medical School researcher Dr. Norman Hollenberg, who has studied 20 the effects of cocoa and flavanols on Panama's Kuna Indian population. Hollenberg believes that, while promising, the brain benefit needs to be verified. "The only way we can prove something is working is a large clinical trial," he said. Meanwhile, the researchers cautioned against rushing out to binge on the special 25 Mars line of chocolates. "It is a modest calorie load but it is a calorie load," Macdonald said. "As long as you are doing something to earn that 100 calories, then that's fine."

7 8 9

C. Read again Task 3.3 Read the passage carefully. Write T for True statements or F for False statements. 1. ____ The new studies have suggested that cocoa may enhance brain function. 2. ____ The studies found that flavanol only benefits brain. 3. ____ Flavanol may increase the blood flow to the brain and treat the vascular impairment. 4. ____ Ian Macdonald studied the effects of cocoa and flavanols on Panama's Kuna Indian population. 5. ____ Studies on flavanol need large clinical trials. 6. ____ The researchers encourage people to eat more Mars line of chocolates. 7. ____ Those studies involved small samples only. 8. ____ CocoaVia line of chocolate contains flavanols. 9. ____ The subjects of the studies were those who were unhealthy. 10. ____ Ian Macdonald believed that more studies might benefit older adults.


VOCABULARY ANTONYMS A. Identify Task 3.4 Match each word in Column A to its antonym in Column B. Column A 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. B. Write Task 3.5 Construct sentences by using the words given below. like delay boost liquid benefit retain small fatigue improve effect Column B a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. large harm worsen accelerate hate cause drop release energetic solid


Antonyms are words that have opposite meanings. Example: happy - sad

1. delay: __________________________________________________________________ 2. boost: __________________________________________________________________ 3. liquid: __________________________________________________________________ 4. benefit: __________________________________________________________________ 5. retain: __________________________________________________________________ 6. fatigue: __________________________________________________________________ 7. effect: __________________________________________________________________ 8. improve: __________________________________________________________________ 37

PARTS OF SPEECH COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES Positive form To show the similar degree/ability. Example: Karen is as tall as Kent. Adjective One syllable words Examples: small, fast, rich Two-syllable words that end in -y, -le, and er Examples: pretty, noble, clever Words of more than two syllables Examples: difficult, beautiful, comfortable Past participles used as adjectives Example: damaged Comparative form To compare two things. Example: Karen is taller than Kent. Superlative form To compare three or more things. Example: Karen is the tallest. Superlative form Add est Examples: smallest, fastest, richest Add est Examples: prettiest, noblest, cleverest

Comparative form Add er Examples: smaller, faster, richer Add er Examples: prettier, nobler, cleverer

Use more in front of the adjective. Examples: more difficult, more beautiful, more comfortable Use more in front of the adjective. Example: more damaged

Use most in front of the adjective. Examples: most difficult, most beautiful, most comfortable Use most in front of the adjective. Example: most damaged

The comparative form of adjective must be followed by than. o Example: His house is bigger than mine. The superlative form of adjective must have the in front of it. o Example: She is the youngest in the family.


A. Practice Task 3.6 Complete the table below with comparative and superlative forms of adjectives. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. Positive angry happy much/many good ugly handsome adorable glamorous light long bad annoyed busy helpful creepy horrible quiet freezing smooth tired outrageous careful rude Comparative angrier Superlative angriest

Task 3.7 Fill in the blanks with the correct forms of adjectives in the brackets.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

This box is ________________________ that one. (light) Langkawi Island is ________________________ in Malaysia. (beautiful) A bicycle is ________________________ a car. (slow) Salim is ________________________ student in the class. (thin) This couch is much ________________________ the other one. (big) The weather was ________________________ yesterday. (cold) Happiness is ________________________ money. (important) The bracelet is ________________________ the necklace. (expensive) This joke is ________________________ joke that I have ever heard. (funny) The cover page of this magazine is ________________________ of all. (attractive) This movie is ________________________ movie that I have ever watched. (interesting) The chocolate cake tastes ________________________ the orange cake. (good) 39

GRAMMAR IN FOCUS THE SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE AND THE FUTURE PROGRESSIVE TENSE Use the Simple Future Tense if you want to talk about an action that will happen at one particular time in the future. Examples: He will ask his friends to wait for him. (singular) They will write the letter. (plural) Note: The same rule applies for both singular and plural. Forms of the Simple Future Tense: Verb type Positive Be Have will + be will + have He/They will be here tonight. He/They will have a workshop in the computer lab tomorrow. Other verbs will + base verb He/They will lock the door tonight. Statements Negative will + not + be He/They will not be here tonight. will + not + have He/They will not have a workshop in the computer lab tomorrow. will + not + base verb He/They will not lock the door tonight.

Verb type Yes / No will + subject + be + question? Will he/they be here tonight?

Questions Wh-questions Wh-question + will + subject + be + question? When will he/they be here? Wh-question + will + subject + have + question? Where will he/they have the workshop tomorrow? Wh-question + will + subject + base verb + question? When will he/they lock the door tonight?

Be Have

will + subject + have + question?

Will he/they have a workshop in the computer lab tomorrow? Other verbs will + subject + base verb + question?

Will he/they lock the door tonight?

Use the Future Progressive Tense to talk about an action that will be in progress at one particular time in the future. E.g: Shamsul will be sleeping at 10 p.m. tonight. (singular) They will be strolling at the lake at 5.00 p.m. this evening. (plural)

Note: The same rule applies for both singular and plural. 40

Forms of the Future Progressive Tense Statements Positive will + be + verb with -ing Negative will + not + be + verb with -ing He/They will not be coming tonight.

He/They will be coming tonight.

Questions Yes / No will + subject + be + verb with ing + question? Wh-questions Wh-question + will + subject + be + verb with ing + question? When will he/they be studying at the library?

Will he/they be studying at the library tonight?

There are time expression used with the Future Progressive Tense, such as: at 2.00 p.m. today/tomorrow/next week/etc. at this time tomorrow/this weekend/next Monday/etc. between 2.00 to 3.00 p.m. today/tomorrow/etc. A. Practice Task 3.8 Fill in the blanks with the correct Simple Future Tense form of the verbs in the parentheses. 1. Amanda ______________ (buy) the book for her brother next Sunday. 2. My father ______________ (arrive) soon at the airport. 3. My friend ______________ (be) in that room this afternoon. 4. That lady ______________ (undergo) an operation this evening. 5. The students ______________ (submit) their assignments next week. 6. All lecturers ______________ (attend) the seminar this weekend. 7. The cat ______________ (not, jump) into the pond. 8. That boy ______________ (not, return) the book to the library. 9. My grandfather ______________ (not, meet) us next week. 10. Justin ______________ (not, sing) a song tonight. 11. We ______________ (not, give) you the money! 12. He ______________ (not, read) the newspaper. 41

13. How _______ she _______ (find) the place? 14. What _______ they _______ (tell) the lecturer? 15. When _______ he _______ (wash) his clothes? 16. _______ you _______ (cook) for the dinner tonight? 17. _______ your boss _______ (be) at the Charity Dinner tomorrow? 18. _______ she _______ (invite) her boss for the wedding? 19. _______ you _______ (be) there with her tomorrow? 20. _______ he _______ (apologise) to me?

Task 3.9 Correct the errors in the passage. The first has been done for you.

Next Sunday, Adam will meets his childhood friend, Norman. They will went to the cinema to watch their favourite movie and then they will had their lunch in one of the famous restaurants in Ipoh. After lunch, they will visited their primary school teacher, Mr Nasir. Mr Nasir will leaves this country for Australia. Adam and Norman will buys some fruits before they go to Mr Nasirs house. Adam will invites his teacher for his sisters wedding next month. Adam and Norman used to study in the same class before Adams family moved to Teluk Intan. Soon, they will enrolled in the same university to further their studies. Adam will taking Computer Science Course while Norman will took Information Technology Course. In the future, they hope that they will worked at the same company. A. Practice Task 3.10 Fill in the blanks with the correct Future Progressive Tense form of the verbs in parentheses. 1. Emma ______________________(not, come) here at this time tomorrow. 2. Jack ______________________(have) a meeting from 2.00 p.m to 3.30 p.m this afternoon. 3. At 1.00 p.m. tomorrow, Sheila ______________________(sing) her new song. 4. The First Lady ______________________(give) her talk during the opening ceremony. 5. This time next Thursday, the Prime Minister ______________________(visit) the old folks home in Batu Pahat. 6. Take your umbrella with you. It ______________________(rain) when you reach there. 7. What _______ you _______________(study) in your research? 8. Who ______________________(accompany) her during the conference? 9. Where _______ the club _______________(organise) the secretary week next month? 42

10. When ________ the company ______________(impose) the new regulations? 11. The baby ______________________(not, sleep) yet at this time tonight. 12. They ______________________(not, watch) television when their parents come home after work. 13. ______ she ________________(swim) between 5.00p.m. to 6.00 p.m.? 14. _______ they _______________(meet) during the fasting month? 15. _______ your father _______________(send) you the money next month?

Task 3.11 Correct the errors in the following sentences. The first one has been done for you.

1. She will not be learns Spanish between 12.00 p.m. to 1.00 p.m. tomorrow. 2. Will Alan be wait for us at the airport when we arrive there soon? 3. Will Karen be played tennis at 6.00 p.m. next Monday? 4. While you are cooking, I will washing the clothes. 5. Where will he be stays during the summer camp? 6. Who will waiting us at the subway when we arrive tomorrow? 7. What will she be wears during the ceremony? 8. Khairul will meeting his pen pal from Australia at the airport between 3.00 p.m to 4.00 p.m. 9. Harry be watching the movie at this time this weekend. 10. Carol will be attended the meeting this morning because the boss cannot make it.


GRAMMAR IN ACTION A. Practice Task 3.12 Fill in the blanks with the Simple Future Tense of the words in the box below. Some of the words can be used more than once. go give buy write do translate send

1. A: When _______ you _______ the package? B: I ______________ it tomorrow. 2. A: This letter is in Spanish, and I dont speak Spanish. Can you help me? B: Sure. I ______________ it for you. 3. A: Do you need anything? I ______________ them for you once I finish my work. B: No, thank you. I ______________ to the groceries across the street by myself. 4. A: What ______ you ________ if you found an envelope full of money? B: I ______________ it to the police. 5. A: ______ you ________ the letter for me? B: Sure. I ______________ it once I arrive at home. Task 3.13 Fill in the blanks with the Future Progressive Tense of the words in the box below. prepare stand deliver do send

1. When _____ he ________________ his speech? 2. Sarah ___________________ dinner when we arrive at her home tomorrow. 3. I have no idea what I ____________________ at work today. 4. They ____________________ at the corner during the closing ceremony. 5. Aisyah ______________________ her homework between 3.00 p.m. to 5.00 p.m. tomorrow.


LISTENING AND SPEAKING A. Listen Task 3.14 You will listen to an article entitled The Miracle of Green Tea. While listening, write T for True statements or F for False statements. 1. _____ The Chinese have known about the medicinal benefits of green tea since a long time ago. 2. _____ Green tea is rich in EGCG, which is a powerful antioxidant. 3. _____ Green tea can kill cancer cells without harming healthy tissue and can lower the cholesterol levels in blood. 4. _____ Drinking green tea reduced the risk of esophageal cancer in Chinese men and women by nearly forty percent. 5. _____ A research shows that drinking green tea can improve the percentage of good cholesterol. 6. _____ University of Purdue researchers recently concluded that a compound in green tea reduced the growth of cancer cells. B. Listen again Task 3.15 Listen to the recording again. Based on the article, complete the sentences below. Your answers should not be more than three words. 1. Since ancient times, the Chinese have been using green tea to treat everything from ______________________________. 2. ECGC is effective in inhibiting the abnormal formation _______________________ _____________. 3. Today, scientific research in both Asia and the West is ______________________ for the health benefits long associated with drinking green tea. 4. Green tea is different from any other teas because of the way ________________ _______________. 5. Other Chinese teas do not have the similar _____________________________ as green tea. 6. _________________________ are steamed, which prevents the EGCG compound from being oxidised.


SPEAKING IN ACTION EXPRESSING DISBELIEF A. Practice Task 3.16 Read the following conversation. Then, practice using other phrases.

Azman : You look so happy. What happened? Amy : Oh, youre not going to believe this. I won a holiday package yesterday.

Azman : What? Really? Is it? Amy : Its a lucky draw. The company even gives me a sum of $3000 for pocket money.

Azman : Thats unbelievable! You are so lucky. Thats amazing! Amy : I guess its a once in a lifetime luck.

Task 3.17 Continue the following conversations with your partner. Use phrases from Task 3.16 to express disbelief. 1. 2. 3. A: Last night I saw a UFO! B: .. A: I saw our friend, Gopal on TV just now! B: .. A: You know, the teller in that bank said I look like an actress! B: ..

WRITING NARRATIVE ESSAY A narrative essay tells a story from a defined point of view, such as a writers personal experience, recurring activities or an observation. The writer includes a lot of feeling and specific details in order to ensure the readers will be actively involved in the sequence of the story. In the essay, the writer should put all the conventions of storytelling; namely plot, setting, characters, climax and ending. The writer uses this type of writing to tell a story or an important event that changes someones life or an autobiography of someone.


Unexpected Teacher One cold, rainy evening last October, I was in the neurology ward desperately hunting for the final three patients I needed to complete my study. The records showed that there was a 43-year-old stroke patient, whom I will call Ms A, in the ward. Holding a patient questionnaire, I walked towards her room. I didnt see any doctors or nurses; the ward was quiet. Ms A was lying on bed 4B, clearly still weak as she was still recovering from her recent stroke. There were no relatives or friends with her. I sat down on a chair next to her bed, and in a low voice I introduced myself and asked how she was doing. She softly replied that she was getting better but the left side of her body was still weak. When I told her that I wanted to gather some additional information from her, she agreed. The questionnaire consisted of three simple yes-or-no questions. After I finished, I prepared to leave so I could go through more medical records. Before I could stand up, Ms A spoke up in her weak voice. I havent seen you here before, doc. Are you new? Not really, Maam. Its just that I dont come here every day, I replied. Doc, do you think I can get back my normal life? Ms A asked at one point. Deep in my heart, I thought, God, I wish I was your doctor so I could answer you properly. I replied that while I didnt know much about her case, I could tell her what I had learned about the recovery of stroke patients. Depending on the severity of the stroke, quite a number respond well to rehabilitation. I was reluctant to go into too much detail as I was only a medical student. Ms A started talking about herself. She told me that she had three children in primary school, who were staying with a neighbour. My husband died a year ago and Im the sole breadwinner of my family. We are not rich and my pay as a cleaner is exactly enough for me and my kids. I didnt know what to say. Without realising it, I had begun holding Ms As hand. Since I didnt have anything to say, I just sat quietly while she talked. Thats when it occurred to me that she was not expecting any reply from me. She just wanted me to listen. The conversation went on like this for about 20 minutes. She shared her difficulties and sufferings, talked about her husband, who was killed in a car accident, and her struggles to earn money. She also expressed her fear about what would become of her children if something bad happened to her. All I did was nodding my head as a way of showing my sympathy. Finally, Ms A stopped talking. Thank you, doc, thank you so much. She let go of my hand. I stood up, covered her with a blanket, waved goodbye and left her alone in her bed. A few days later, when I returned to the ward, I discovered that Ms A had been discharged as her condition had improved, though she would still need rehabilitation. Ms A taught me one of the most important lessons a doctor can learn. Sometimes patients do not need expensive medicine or state-of-the-art technology. They just need someone with the patience and willingness to lend an ear and spare a little of their time. For me, that is one of the best things a doctor can do for a patient.
(Adapted from:



Write Task 3.18 Write a narrative essay on one of the topics below. Your essay should not be less than 350 words.

1. 2. 3.

Achieving a Goal A Blessing in Disguise An Unforgettable Experience

ENRICHMENT LISTENING Task 3.19 Listen to the article entitled The Benefits of Apples. While listening, circle the best answers. 1. Apple is good for ones health because it can _____________ in the body. A. B. C. D. discard the toxin prevent antioxidant strengthen the viruses lower the amount of fibre

2. What happens if you take too many apple seeds? A. B. C. D. It can be toxic. It will help digestion. It can clean the teeth. It will cure constipation.

3. Which of the following is TRUE about apples? A. B. C. D. Eating grated apple will cure gout. Eating two apples a day will prevent diarrhoea. Eating apples before meals will prevent indigestion problem. Drinking a glass of apple juice a day will lower the cholesterol level.

4. Apples that have not been kept cold can ______________ in a few days. A. decay fast B. be over-ripe C. be dented with finger D. be changed into brown colour 5. Which of the following statements is NOT TRUE about the research conducted by the Canadian? A. B. C. D. The researchers analysed eight popular varieties of apples. Red Delicious is one of the apple varieties that has been studied. Eating 100 grams of apple is equal to taking 1,500 milligrams of vitamin C. It is found that Red Delicious and Northern Spy contain more disease fighting antioxidants. 48

SPEAKING Task 3.20 The sale of soft drinks and low nutritional snack items should be banned in schools. Do you agree to this suggestion? Discuss with your friend. READING Task 3.21 Read the article carefully and circle the BEST answers. LONDON: It is hardly the most appetising vegetable side dish. But tucking into a clump of seaweed (1) __________ dinner time could help stave off heart attacks, said researchers. (2) __________ have discovered key ingredients in (3) __________ plant that helped lower blood pressure, similar to commonly (4) __________ drugs. According to a major study, seaweed is a (5) __________ source of proteins known as bioactive peptides, which are also found in milk. (6) __________ chemicals have similar effect to ACE inhibitors drugs, which are widely prescribed to help (7)__________ blood pressure and prevent heart attacks and strokes. Seaweed is a staple of Japanese diet (8) __________ centuries. Popular varieties include wakame, used in miso soup, kombu (9) __________ nori, which is dried and used to wrap sushi. Seaweed is low in (10) __________ and some scientists (11) __________ it helps weight loss by preventing the absorption of fat. Japanese researchers recently found that rats fed a certain (12) __________ of seaweed lost ten percent of their weight. Dr Maria Hayes, of the Teagasc Food Research Centre in Dublin, said seaweed known as macroalgae was an untapped source of these healthy ingredients. The research, (13) __________ in the American Chemical Societys Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemis try, looked at (14) __________ from 100 other studies. It called for more (15) __________ to exploit the bioactive compounds and their potential for use and delivery to consumers in food products.
(Adapted from New Sunday Times, July 24, 2011 p.47.)


A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D.

at in on of A An The full rich wealth loaded


A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D.

Their They Theirs Theyre arranged approved assigned prescribed This That These Those 49






A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D.

lower upper higher greater A. c. so for but and claim argue dispute demand published publicised advertised announced try aim effort attempt


A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D.

to as for from fat energy calories stamina type form style brand subject sample evidence population








Task 3.22 Read the passage carefully and circle the BEST answers.

The Benefits of Honey 1 This wonderfully rich golden liquid is the miraculous product of honey bees and a naturally delicious alternative to white sugar. The fascinating process of making honey begins when the bees feast on flowers, collecting the flower nectar in their mouths. This nectar then mixes with special enzymes in the bees' saliva, an alchemical process that turns it into honey. The bees carry the honey back to the hive where they deposit it into the cells of the 5 hive's walls. The fluttering of their wings provides the necessary ventilation to reduce the moisture's content making it ready for consumption. 2 In addition to its reputation as Nature's nutritive sweetener, research also indicates that honey's unique composition makes it useful as an antimicrobial agent and antioxidant. Honey is composed of sugars like glucose and fructose and minerals like 10 magnesium, potassium, calcium, sodium chlorine, sulphur, iron and phosphate. It contains vitamins B1, B2, C, B6, B5 and B3 all of which change according to the qualities of the nectar and pollen. Besides the above, copper, iodine, and zinc exist in small quantities; several kinds of hormones are also present in it.


The health benefits of honey - like all foods - depend on the quality of the honey. 15 But in this case, the situation is even more extreme, because the pollen that collects on the bees' legs as they move from plant to plant is only as healthful and as diverse as those plants. In addition, the processing of honey often removes many of the phytonutrients found in raw honey as it exists in the hive. Raw honey, for example, contains small amounts of the same resins found in propolis. Propolis, sometimes called "bee glue," is actually a 20 complex mixture of resins and other substances that honeybees use to seal the hive and make it safe from bacteria and other micro-organisms. One of the greatest pleasure and fascination in using honey is the different floral varieties of honey, their appearance and quality, and experimenting with each of their unique taste and distinct flavour, and being able to know which floral variety of honey is 25 most perfect for which kind of foods. The uses and benefits of honey in foods are as diverse as its floral varieties and places of origin. The fact is, honey is far better than what most people perceive. Researchers are turning up more and more new evidence of honey's medical benefits in all directions. The benefits of honey don't just stop at satisfying the palate; honey also offers incredible 30 antiseptic, antioxidant and cleansing properties for our body and health, hot beauty and skin care tips for ladies, and amazing healing properties as a head-to-toe remedy, from eye conjunctivitis to athlete foot. Its powerful healing attributes have long been used thousands of years ago and known to promote healing for cuts, cure ailments and diseases, and correct health disorders for generations after generations. In addition, it is often used for 35 treating digestive problems such as diarrhea, indigestion, stomach ulcers and gastroenteritis.
(Adapted from

Process of making honey Bees collect the flower nectar in their 1. _________. Nectar mixes with special 2.__________. Honey Bees carry the honey to the 3.__________.


A. B. C. D.

feet legs wings mouths



A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D.

cells minerals enzymes hormones hive wall plant resin



Which of the following exists in small quantities in honey? A. B. C. D. Iodine. Sodium. Calcium. Chlorine.


The word diverse in line 27 can be replaced with __________________. A. B. C. D. unlike mixed varied similar


The following are the benefits of honey EXCEPT __________________. A. B. C. D. honey is a head-to-toe remedy honey can be used for beauty and skin care honey can treat cuts, cure ailments and diseases honey is rarely used for treating digestive problems



LEARNING OBJECTIVES At the end of the unit, you should be able to: 1. identify the main idea and supporting details of passages; 2. present your view about the best way to show love to your country; 3. complete exercises on adverbs and grammar; 4. read and answer comprehension questions; and 5. write an expository essay. READING A. Getting started Task 4.1 Discuss these questions in pairs. 1. How do you describe an act of kindness? 2. Tell your friend about an act of kindness you have seen or done before. B. Read Task 4.2 Provide a suitable title for the following article. ___________________________________________________________________

Although I love my life, it hasnt been a lot of fun being sick for 28 years. At 16, I had glandular fever and almost died. Later on in life, I was diagnosed with chronic fatigue syndrome and diabetes. Its like having the flu all the time, and some days I cant even make it out of bed. Music has always been a passion of mine and, in my 20s, when my sickness was 5 more manageable, I enjoyed ten years as a professional singer in restaurants, playing and singing ballads. Unfortunately, that was years ago and times have definitely changed. Now, I live with my mother on a country farm. Two years ago, I decided that I would need to have some kind of extra work to keep my spirits up and to supplement my disability pension. As I need to sleep in the 10 afternoons, I was limited in my choices. I decided that I would look into going back to singing in restaurants.


My family are all musicians, so I was recognised when I went into our local music store. I explained that I wanted to sing again but using recorded karaoke music. I didnt have a lot of money to get started and I was aware of how expensive karaoke discs were. 15 Often you find only three to four songs out of ten on a disc that you can actually use. When I told the owner of the shop about my idea, he gave me a long, thoughtful look. This means a lot to you, doesnt it? he said. Come with me. He led me through the crowded shop and to a bench with a large professional karaoke box on it. He placed his large hand lovingly on it and said, I have 800 karaoke 20 songs in here. You can take your pick and Ill record them for you. That should get you started. I could have cried. Thanking him, I made a time with him to listen to all the songs and choose the ones that I could sing. I have come full circle with his help. His kindness still warms my heart and makes me do just that bit extra, when I have the chance. My stage 25 name is Karma in memory of the music shop owners generosity. (Adapted from:

5 6

C. Read again Task 4.3 Write T for true statements or F for false statements.

1. _______ The writer had glandular fever and almost died at the age of 18. 2. _______ In her 20s, the writer had been singing as a professional singer in restaurants, playing and singing ballads. 3. _______ She decided to look into going back to singing in restaurants for her leisure. 4. _______ The writers family are all musicians and she was recognised when she went to the local music store. 5. _______ Her stage name is Karma in memory of the music shop owners generosity. D. Pair work Task 4.4 Discuss the following questions with your partner.

1. Do you think the owner of the music store has done an act of kindness to the writer? 2. If you were the owner of the music store, would you have done the same?


VOCABULARY DEFINITION A. Practice Task 4.5 Find the definition of these words in your dictionary.

Words 1. diagnosed 2. passion 3. supplement 4. pension 5. aware


T a

Task 4.6 Construct sentences using the words given above.

1. diagnosed - _____________________________________________________________ 2. passion - _______________________________________________________________ 3. supplement - ____________________________________________________________ 4. pension - _______________________________________________________________ 5. aware - _______________________________________________________________


PARTS OF SPEECH ADVERBS TIPS: An adverb tells us more about a verb, an adjective or another adverb. There are 4 types of adverb: 1. Adverbs of manner - describe how an action is done. Adverbs of manner are normally formed by adding ly to an adjective. Examples: soft - softly quick - quickly 2. Adverbs of place - shows where an action happens or is done. Examples: Ali is waiting inside. I saw Syafiqah in the office. 3. Adverbs of time/frequency - tells us when or how often an action happens or is done. Examples: It rained last night. She always comes early to class. 4. Adverbs of degree/quantity - tells us the degree and quantity of an action happens or is done. Examples: Afifah is very sad. They eat too much at the party.

A. Identify Task 4.7 In the table below are verbs taken from the passage. Write the appropriate adverbs for each verb. Examples: went slowly (Adverb of Manner), into the class (Adverb of Place) No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Verb love changed live decided keep sleep look explained cried sing Adverb


B. Pair work Task 4.8 Ask and answer questions with a partner using the adverbs in Task 4.7.

Example: A: Where did you keep the money? B: I kept it safely in the safety box. GRAMMAR IN FOCUS THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE

The Present Perfect Tense Forms: Affirmative Subject + has/have + Past Participle She has tried it many times. Negative Subject + has/have + not + Past Participle They have not decided the date yet. Interrogative Has/Have + Subject + Past Participle Has he left for the interview? The Present Perfect Tense explains a connection between the present and the past. It has the following functions: FUNCTION To show an action just completed To show an action that began in the past and is continuing up to the present, usually used with since or for To show an action which happen or did not happen at an unspecified time in the past EXAMPLES She has completed her homework. They have not lived here since last year. We have known each other for almost a year now. He has written her a letter. They have not cooked dinner.


A. Practice Task 4.9 Check ( ) sentences in the Present Perfect Tense.

1 ______ We have seen the movie. 2 ______ I have finished my work for today. 3 ______ She saw him and she liked him. 4 ______ We had a great time in Switzerland. 5 ______ They have given us their full support. 6 ______ She had already eaten before she arrived. 7 ______ We have to achieve our targets. 8 ______ Since July, the company has lost an ernomous amount of money. 9 _____ You are advised to go for a medical check-up. 10 _____ The doctor has advised me to eat healthily. 11 _____ They bought three loaves of bread. 12 _____ The boys had played well in the tournament. 13 _____ They have bought three loaves of bread. 14 _____ All my friends have already seen that play. 15 _____ Many people have commented on my blog. B. Read Task 4.10 Fill in the blanks with the Present Perfect Tense of the verbs in brackets.

Julia (1)_______________(be) my friend for over 15 years. We (2)_______________ (know) each other since we were in primary school. Recently, Julia and her family (3)________________ (move) to a house in the same neighbourhood as me, and now our children play together almost every day. For the last ten years, Julia and I (4)__________________(play) for the same volleyball team every weekend. Julia is a better player than I am, but in the last few months she (5)__________(have) some trouble with her knees, and she (6)_____________(find) it hard to play a full game. She (7)__________(see) the doctor many times regarding her knees, but the doctor (8)__________(not, able) to find the cause of her pain. Julia (9)_____________(decide) to take a break from volleyball for a while. She (10)_____________(stay) at home for a month now to enable her knees to recover.


GRAMMAR IN ACTION A. Practice Task 4.11 Change these sentences into question forms.

Example: He has bought a pen. => What has he bought? 1. He has been to China. Where ___________________________________? 2. They have lived here for three years. How long ________________________________? 3. Salleh has taken your car. Who ____________________________________? 4. Vijay has known about it for a long time. How long ________________________________? 5. I have seen the movie three times. How many times __________________________? 6. We have chosen the red one. Which one _______________________________? 7. She has lost five kilogrammes. How many kilogrammes _________________________? 8. She has been here since July. How long ________________________________? 9. Johari has gone to Ayer Keroh. Where ___________________________________? 10. She has married Bala. Who ____________________________________?

B. Write Task 4.12 Provide the Past Participles of the following verbs.

1. give 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. grow know break think shut

_________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________


LISTENING AND SPEAKING A. Discuss Task 4.13 Look at the pictures below. Guess the story behind them.

(Source: B. Listen Task 4.14 Listen to the recording and write T for True statements or F for False statements. 1. ________ The man was waiting for his wife alone at KLCC. 2. ________ The man was pulling his digital camera from his pocket when he dropped the car key. 3. ________ When his wife returned, they walked towards a shop. 4. ________ The salesgirl of the shop gave back his car key. 5. ________ The man was thankful of the young girls act of kindness even though he was not able to thank her. C. Listen again Task 4.15 Based on the recording number the correct sequence of events.

a. _________ The man walked towards a shop with his wife and son. b. _________ A young woman run all the way from where the man had been seated earlier to hand over the car key to him. c. _________ A man was waiting for his wife at KLCC. d. _________ The young woman ran back to where she came from. e. _________ The man pulled out the digital camera from his pocket and dropped his car key. 60

SPEAKING IN ACTION - EXPRESSING SIMILAR AND DIFFERENT OPINIONS A. Practice Tasks 4.16 Read the following conversation. Then, practice using other phrases. Melissa Janet Melissa Janet : I love to cook. : Me too. I always cook for my family especially during weekends. Same here / Agreed. : Really? Thats very good of you. What do you think if we organise a cooking course in our residential college next month? : Well it is a good idea but I dont think so. The final exam is just around the corner. Maybe we can do it next semester. Perhaps...

B. Pair work Task 4.17 Continue the following conversations with your partner. Use the expressions from Task 4.16 to express similar and different opinions. Example: A: I like to surf the Internet during my free time. B: Me, too. I always surf the Internet to search for new information.

1. A.: I like to play football every evening. B: .. 2. A: I think online shopping is convenient. B: .. 3. A: I prefer to have normal class rather than virtual class. B: .. C. Group Work Task 4.18 There are many ways to show an act of kindness in our life. Share your opinions with your friends. Do they agree or disagree with you?


WRITING EXPOSITORY ESSAY The purpose of expository essay is to explain, describe or analyse information to inform or educate other people. Writing an expository essay requires a writer to think critically, analyse complex situation and present information clearly to the readers. This type of essay is also known as informative writing/essay. Steps to write an expository essay: 1. Select a topic and narrow it down. 2. Write a thesis statement and include it in the introductory paragraph. This sentence should contain the main idea of the whole essay. 3. Organise the essay. Provide a topic sentence for each of the paragraph which contains the main idea of the paragraph. Add supporting details to support the main idea as well as examples to explain more about the topic being discussed in the essay. Use transition words or phrases to show sequence or flow of the essay. 4. Restate the thesis and ideas of the essay in the concluding paragraph. Lead the essay to an appropriate and effective closure and end the essay with a statement that reinforces writers position in a meaningful and memorable way. Sample Essay Being kind has a profound impact in the lives of others. People who perform acts of kindness would agree that being kind to someone else makes them "feel good." Scientific research shows that it not only can make you feel good but being kind has a significant health benefit, both physically and mentally. When we do something kind for someone else, we feel good. On a spiritual level, many people feel that this is because it is the right thing to do and so were tapping into something deep and profound inside us that says, This is who I am. On a biochemical level, it is believed that the good feeling we get is due to elevated levels of the brains natural versions of morphine and heroin, which we know as endogenous opioids. They cause elevated levels of dopamine in the brain, so we get a natural high, often referred to as Helpers High. Acts of kindness are often accompanied by emotional warmth. Emotional warmth produces the hormone oxytocin in the brain and throughout the body. Of much recent interest is its significant role in the cardiovascular system. Oxytocin causes the release of a chemical called nitric oxide in blood vessels, which dilates (expands) the blood vessels. This reduces blood pressure, and therefore oxytocin is known as a cardio-protective hormone because it protects the heart (by lowering blood pressure). The key is that acts of kindness can produce oxytocin, and therefore, kindness can be said to be cardio-protective. Aging on a biochemical level is a combination of many things, but two culprits that speed the process are free radicals and inflammation, both of which result from making unhealthy lifestyle choices. But, remarkable research now shows that oxytocin (which we produce through emotional warmth) reduces levels of free radicals and inflammation in the cardiovascular system and thus, slows aging at its source. Incidentally, these two culprits also play a major role in heart disease, so this is also another reason why kindness is good for the heart.


In conclusion, kindness is something that everyone can engage in. It is not always easy but it is always possible. People may not fully realise it but every moment in our life we have the choice to choose to act in kindness. Thus, practicing acts of kindness will not make our life becoming less but it will be more meaningful and enjoyable.
(Adapted from:


Write Task 4.19 Write an essay on one of the topics below. Your essay should not be less than 350 words.

1. Precautions against Snatch Thefts 2. How can social harmony be maintained in any country? 3. Are multimedia resources better than the traditional classroom methods?

ENRICHMENT LISTENING Task 4.20 Listen to the story, Kindness Begets Happiness and circle the BEST answers. 1. What did the owner of the restaurant request from the boy? A. B. C. D. To find his favourite songs. To play his favourite songs for him. To buy a CD of his favourite songs for him. To burn some of his favourite songs for him.

2. What did the mother tell the boy to do? A. B. C. D. She told the boy to get a free meal at the restaurant. She told the boy not to go to the restaurant anymore. She told the boy to charge the owner of the restaurant for the CD. She told the boy not to charge the owner of the restaurant for the CD.

3. The waiter sent the boy a large ___________ with compliments from his boss. A. glass of float B. glass of fruit juice C. bowl of soup D. bowl of ice-cream


4. These words can be used to describe the owner of the restaurant EXCEPT ___________. A. happy B. grateful C. greedy D. generous

5. Which of the following statement is NOT true? A. B. C. D. SPEAKING Task 4.21 Present your view on the best way to show love for your country. You may share your view with your online friends. The boy was happy when he did not have to pay for his meal. The mother was not very happy with her sons act of kindness. The mother of the boy was very happy with his act of kindness. The mother had taught her son a very important lesson in life without realising it.

READING Task 4.22 Read the passage carefully and circle the BEST answers.

There is one choice you can make that will heal many of your relationship problems. This is the choice of kindness - to both yourself and others. This may sound simple, (1) ___________ for many people, there is one choice far (2)____________ important to them than kindness. This is the choice (3)____________ attempt to control others' feeling and behaviour, outcomes, and their own (4)____________ feelings. Kindness to yourself and to others (5)___________ from a desire to support your own (6)___________ good and the highest good of others. When your highest priority is to (7)______________ the highest good of all, you (8)_____________ naturally kind. You don't even (9)____________ to think about it. It flows easily when your (10)_____________ desire is to be a loving, (11)___________ person. But when your strongest (12)___________ is to protect yourself from getting hurt, then your automatic choice particularly in conflict, is likely to attempt to control - with anger, withdrawal, blame, judgment, compliance, or resistance.
(Adapted from:

1. A. yet C. and

B. but D. so

7. A. support C. unsupported

B. supports D. supported


2. A. more C much 3. A. for C as

B. most D. less B. to D. yet

8. A. are C. was 9. A. had C. have been

B. were D. is B. has D. have

4. A. painful C painless 5. A. comes C came 6. A. higher C highest

B. joyful D. stressful B. come D. coming B. high D. -

10. A. deep C. deeper 11. A. care C. caring 12. A. desire C. desired

B. depth D. deepest B. cares D. cared B. desires D. undesired

Task 4.23 Read the passage below and circle the BEST answers.

In one ten-week experiment, participants were invited to regularly practice random acts of kindness (Boehm, Lyubomirsky, & Sheldon, 2008). Engaging in kind acts (e.g. holding the door open for a stranger or doing a roommates dishes) was thought to impact happiness for a variety of reasons, including bolstered self-regard, positive social interactions, and charitable feelings towards others and the community at large. In this study, happiness was measured at baseline, mid-intervention, immediately post-intervention, and one month later. Additionally, two variables were manipulated: 1) the frequency with which participants practiced acts of kindness (either three or nine times each week) and 2) the variety with which participants practiced acts of kindness (either varying their kind acts or repeating the same acts weekly). Finally, a control group merely listed events from the past week. Interestingly, the frequency with which kind acts were performed did not affect well-being. The variety of the kind acts, however, influenced the extent to which participants became happier. Those from the experimental group who were asked to perform a wide variety of kind acts revealed an upward trajectory for happiness, even through the 1-month follow-up. By contrast, the control group showed no changes in their happiness throughout the 14 weeks of the study, and those not given the opportunity to vary their kind acts actually became less happy midway through the intervention, before eventually rebounding to their baseline happiness level at the follow-up assessment.
(Adapted from:http//


Title: 1. ________________


Control Group

show happiness



A. Types of kindness B. Better receive than give C. Better give than receive D. The effects of kindness A. Target Group B. Forced Group C. Selected Group D. Experimental Group A. show stress B. show sadness C. show no changes D. show enthusiasm




LEARNING OBJECTIVES At the end of the unit, you should be able to: 1. identify the main idea and supporting details of passages; 2. talk to a friend on how you can make your dreams come true; 3. complete exercises on gerunds and infinitives, and grammar; 3. read and answer comprehension questions; and 4. write a process essay. READING A. Getting started Task 5.1 In pairs, discuss three ways of saving energy at your home. B. Read Task 5.2 Read the article and answer the following questions. 1. Based on the following article, what is the name of the tool that can save energy at home? A. Chimney filters B. Chimney balloons C. Chimney heaters

2. How do Chimney Balloons save energy at home? A. Stop the warm air in the room. B. Can draw up to 17m of air per minute. C. Increase cold draughts coming down the chimney.

Chimney Balloons 1 Chimney Balloons are the simplest, easiest way to save energy and money in your home. The best ideas are often the simplest ones. A Chimney Balloon is the simple, cost-effective way to stop chimney draughts, reduce heat loss and noise in your home. The Chimney Balloon saves energy by preventing heat from going straight up your chimney.


Many houses, particularly older houses, have fireplaces for open fires, and there is nothing like sitting in front of a warm fire burning in the fireplace of your home on a cold winter night. Unfortunately, whichever fuel you choose to use in an open fire, as much as 90% of the heat will go straight up the chimney. Open fires also increase draughts in your 10 house - an open fire can draw up to 17 m3 of air per minute. Not a very efficient way to heat a room, or save money. Because they are so inefficient, many households have chosen not to use open fires. This effectively leaves a big hole in your roof. Even when a chimney is not in use, vast quantities of air are drawn up the chimney. 15 A Chimney Balloon not only stops cold draughts coming down your chimney, it also stops the warm air in your room disappearing up your chimney. Completely safe and is designed to be used again and again. The Chimney Balloon was invented by David Woodman, who was looking for a solution for gales blowing down his chimney. With the practicality one would expect of a design engineer, he developed an elegant, simple solution to improve the comfort of your home. The Chimney Balloon has been produced in England since 1990 and rapidly became a hit with home owners looking to improve their comfort and save energy in their homes. Chimney Balloons are a cheap, effective solution to save your time and money. 20


(Adapted from:

C. Read again Task 5.3 Read the following statements and write (T) for True statements and (F) for False statements. No 1 2 3 4 5 Statements Using any fuels in an open fire will cause almost 90 % of the heat to go straight up the chimney. The Chimney Balloon was invented by David Woodman. The Chimney Balloon has been produced in England before 1990. The Chimney Balloon saves energy by allowing heat from going straight up the chimney. One needs to spend lots of money to buy a Chimney Balloon. Answer


D. Pair work Task 5.4 Find a partner and discuss the following questions. 1. Based on the article, do you think the use of the Chimney Balloon is a wise decision? Why? 2. What are other ways to save energy at home? VOCABULARY MEANING Task 5.5 Find out the meaning of the following words and write a sentence for each word.

Words 1. reduce Meaning: Sentence: Meaning: Sentence: Meaning: Sentence: Meaning: Sentence:

Meaning and Sentence

2. increase

3. improve

4. efficient

PARTS OF SPEECH GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES A. Identify Task 5.6 Identify and underline the Gerunds and Infinitives from the passage Chimney Balloons.

B. Practice Task 5.7 Choose the best word from the following box and fill in the blanks. eating to help to work to establish to take meeting to cook passing fixing playing

1. Aliya has promised _______________ care of her parents while her brother is on study leave. 2. I hope _______________ my own company next year. 3. The football players practiced _______________ the ball at the stadium. 4. I dont know what Azman wants _______________ tonight. 69

5. Kamal offered _______________ his students to do their revision. 6. I think my son dislikes _______________the piano. 7. Marini decided _______________ at home. 8. Mei Lin recommended _______________ at the fast food restaurant before going home. 9. This broken notebook needs _______________ before you can use it. 10. Kak Limah recalled _______________ Usop for the first time when she was a child. C. Pair work Task 5.8 Read the statement below and discuss with a partner. 1. If you were given one million dollar, what would you do with the money? Will you keep it or spend it? 2. Explain the reasons for your decision. GRAMMAR IN FOCUS THE FUTURE PERFECT TENSE


1. Expresses the idea that something will occur before another action in the future. It can also show that something will happen before a specific time. Examples: a) By next September, I will have received my scholarship. b) By the time he gets home, his wife is going to have prepared for lunch.

2. To show that something will continue up until another action in the future. Examples: a) I will have been in South Korea for two years by the time I leave. b) By Sunday, Kak Limah is going to have had my book for a week.

FORMS Will will + have + past participle Examples Examples Affirmative: You will have finished your studies by the time you return from England. Be Going To am/is/are + going to + have + past participle Affirmative: You are going to have finished your studies by the time you return from England.


Negative: You will not have finished your studies by the time you return from England.

Negative: You are not going to have finished your studies by the time you return from England. Question: Are you going to have finished your studies by the time you return from England?

Question: Will you have finished your studies by the time you return from England?

A. Practice Task 5.9 Complete the sentences below with correct forms of the verbs in the brackets. 1. By the time we get to Melaka this evening, we (drive) ________________ more than four hundred miles. We are going to be exhausted. 2. When Sofia goes on vacation next month, she (study) ________________ in Kelantan for over two years. She should be able to communicate fairly well while she is in Kuala Lumpur. 3. I have not travelled much yet; however, I (visit) __________________ the Grand Canyon and San Francisco by the time I leave the United States. 4. By the time you finish studying the verb tense tutorial, you (master) _________________ all twelve tenses including their passive forms. 5. Drive faster! If you don't hurry up, she (deliver) __________________ the baby by the time we get to the hospital. B. Practice Task 5.10 Complete the dialogue below with the correct forms of the verbs in the brackets. Halim Hakim Halim Hakim : How long have you been preparing for your new restaurant, Hakim? : By the end of this week I will have been working on it for a month. : For a month? And do you think you (1) ____________________ (open) it by the end of October? : If theres no big problem, I hope I can open it soon. Suppose, I (2) _______________________________ (promote) the restaurant through banners and facebook by then. : Why has it taken you so long to open it? : I needed a lot of preparation to make sure everything is ready. And I will have to set them up. Hopefully, I (3) ________________________________ (complete) it by the end of October. 71

Halim Hakim

GRAMMAR IN ACTION A. Read and listen Task 5.11 Listen to the following statements and fill in the blanks with the BEST answers. 1. In 2025, _________________________________________ from my university. 2. By the time Im 30, _______________________________ several countries in Europe. 3. Im doing my revision for my final semester exam tomorrow. _______________________________ in three hours. 4. In a few weeks, __________________________________ all the novels. 5. Before I graduate, ___________________________________ my project paper. B. Listen Task 5.12 Circle the BEST answers.

1. By the time I am thirty, _______________________. A. I will study here for four years. B. I will be studying here for four years. C. I will have studied here for four years. 2. If you want to buy the books, please come around four. I _______________________. A. will open my shop then. B. will be opening my shop then. C. will have opened my shop by then. 3. Kamal will have finished the assignment by Monday. The best statement to describe t he situation is: A. Kamal will finish his assignment on Monday. B. Kamal will finish his assignment after Monday. C. Kamal will finish his assignment before Monday. 4. Please see me after three- I will have had my lunch. The best statement to describe the situation is: A. You will have lunch at three. B. You will finish lunch after three. C. You will finish lunch before three. 5. Your computer has broken down and you take it to the nearest Computer Service Centre. You need it urgently to finish your assignment. Which feedback would you prefer the technician to say? A. I will fix it on Saturday. B. I will be fixing it on Saturday. C. I will have fixed it by Saturday.


Task 5.13 Construct sentences using the information given in the table below.

Time frame 1. Before marriage... 2. In ten years 3. By the time I am 45

Your Achievement Sentence buy a car and a E.g.: Before I am married, I will have bought house. a car and a house. have RM 500,000 in bank account. own a bakery.

LISTENING AND SPEAKING MAKING WISE DECISIONS A. Discuss Task 5.14 Study the pictures below. Which house would suit you best?




B. Listen Task 5.15 Listen to the article on ways to maximise the efficiency of lights used and write (T) for True statements and (F) for False statements. Statements 1. Select the lowest acceptable wattage for all lights. 2. Remember to turn the lights off whenever you leave a room. 3. Take note that a low-wattage light placed closer to where it is needed is more efficient than using a stronger light placed further away. 4. Avoid lights with multiple bulbs as they are inefficient. 5. Do not install light fittings that obscure the light. 6. Use timers or light or heat sensors to control outdoor lights. 7. Install contact switches in cupboards so that lights turn on when you open the cupboard and off when you close it. 8. Special light bulbs dimmed by 25 percent will use less energy. 73 Answer

C. Listen again Task 5.16 Listen to the conversation carefully and match the following dialogue with the best tone. Dialogue 1. Now, its already five years and I feel bad about this problem. 2. I feel sorry about it, Amy. 3. Ive lost my hope. Tone sad frustration sympathy

Skill Focus

Recognising Tone of Voice

Tone is the characteristic style or manner of expressing oneself orally. A tone of voice shows what the speaker feels. D. Pair work

Task 5.17 If you are given an opportunity to buy your dream house, do you prefer to buy a big and expensive house or a smaller house with lower price. Discuss the pros and cons. Big House i) E.g.: More living space. Small House i) E.g.: Lower maintenance charges. ii) _________________________ _________________________ i) ________________________ ii) ________________________

Pros ii) _________________________ _________________________ i) _________________________ Cons ii) _________________________


SPEAKING IN ACTION EXPRESSING PROBABILITY A. Listen and practice Task 5.18 Read the following conversation. Then, practice using other words and expressions. Amin Anis Amin Anis Amin : Hi Anis! Have you heard anything about our semester break? : No. They will probably inform us through the university portal. What are you going to do during the break? : I will definitely look for a part time job. What about you? : My family and I will probably go for a vacation. : Really? That sounds great.

B. Pair work

Task 5.19 Study the conversation below. Then, complete the dialogue with your partner using the words and expressions from the above activity.

1. A: Do you think he will pass the test? B: Yes. He will 2. A: Are you going to join the activity tomorrow? B: I will 3. A: Do you think our college will win the competition? B: C. Group work Task 5.20 Imagine that your friends and you have an opportunity to visit Japan. Discuss the possible activities that you can do during the visit. Use phrases that show probability.


WRITING PROCESS ESSAY A process essay explains how to do something or how something occurs. The purpose is to help readers understand how a process is carried out. In process writing, the writer should include instructions that enable readers to perform the process. Normally, the writer uses the pronoun you to give instructions to the readers. A process essay should have a clear thesis statement that identifies the process and tells why it is performed. To show the chronological order of the process, the use of transitional words is important. Some transitional words are as follows: immediately after that in beginning then firstly/secondly/thirdly at the end at the same time in the mean time meanwhile during later finally next soon after after a few seconds/minutes/hours

Structure of Process Essay: 1. Introduction introduce the process and include background information about it. Write a thesis statement to introduce the steps in the body of the essay. 2. Body - Start with the topic sentence and further explain it with supporting details. Repeat this process of first body paragraph in the rest of the body paragraphs of the process essay writing. 3. Conclusion - Restate the thesis statement in a rephrased manner and finally, summarise all the major steps or instructions of the complete process. Writing an Essay Many students immediately panic when they are faced with the task of writing an essay. While they may have many ideas when they discuss a topic, picking up pen and paper seems to dry up all ideas. Some students are not even sure what an essay is. Basically, an essay is an organized way to express an opinion and prove that it is valid. This can take a variety of forms, but the standard format starts with an introduction, has a body, and ends with a conclusion. There are a few simple steps to writing an essay. First, students must generate ideas. They have to think about what they know about a topic and what they want to write. Students do this in different ways. Some students do brainstorming. Some students just make a list of ideas. Other students find they need to do some prewriting because they think better when they are writing out their ideas. Some students just sit and think and get the ideas sorted out in their minds. One way is not better than another way. Everyone is different, so everyone writes in a different way.


Next, students need to organise their ideas. They need to make sure that they have a statement of opinion, and then, they need to put their supporting ideas into some kind of order. That is, they need to decide what will come first and so forth. For example, if students are writing about history, most of the time they will organise their ideas chronologically because that is the way that people usually think about history--from past to present. Finally, students need to write. This seems easy enough, but many students delay this part of the essay until the last minute. Students need to give themselves time, especially in the beginning to learn from their writing. If they wait until an hour before class, the essay becomes a burden instead of an opportunity to learn and share ideas. Students should just start writing and not expect a perfect product the first time, but even an imperfect essay is better than no essay. In conclusion, writing an essay is not so difficult. Students simply need to have a plan for writing. First, they need to find a way to generate ideas, and then they need to organise these ideas in some way that makes sense to them. Lastly, but most importantly, the students have to sit down and pick up their pencils and begin to write. The more students practice writing, the easier it will become because it's really only thinking and sharing ideas.
(Adapted from: ESSC/Handouts/sampleprocess.pdf)

A. Write Task 5.21 Write an essay on one of the topics below. Your essay should not be less than 350 words. 1. How to make your life less hectic 2. How to make someone forgive you 3. How to improve the place where you work


ENRICHMENT LISTENING Task 5.22 Listen to the following tips on how to save energy at home. Fill in the blanks with the information provided in the box. A) dripping hot water tap B) energy saving light bulbs C) not to leave laptops and mobile phones D) reducing your room temperature E) F) fill up the washing machine close your curtains

Statements E.g.: 1. Turn your thermostat down. _______________________________by 1C could cut your heating bills by up to and typically saves around 50 per year. 2. ______________________________at dusk to stop heat escaping through the windows and check for draughts around windows and doors. 3. Don't leave appliances on standby and remember _____________________________________ on charge unnecessarily. 4. If possible, ______________________________________, tumble dryer or dishwasher: one full load uses less energy than two half loads. 5. A _________________________________________wastes energy and in one week wastes enough hot water to fill half a bath, so fix leaking taps and make sure they are fully turned off! 6. Use________________________________________. They last up to 10 times longer than ordinary bulbs, and using one can save you around 45 over the lifetime of the bulb.

Answer D


SPEAKING Task 5.23 How do you make your dream come true? Talk to a close friend about it. READING Task 5.24 Read the passage carefully and circle the BEST answers.

Why We Love Who We Love Have you ever (0) known a married couple that just did not seem as though they should fit together, yet they are both happy in the marriage, and you cannot figure out why? I (1) _______________of one couple: He is a burly ex-athlete who, in addition to being a successful salesman, coaches Little League, is active in his Rotary Club and (2) _______________golf every Saturday with friends. Meanwhile, his wife is petite, quiet and a complete homebody. She (3) _______________not even like to go out to dinner. What mysterious force (4) _______________ us into the arms of one person, while pushing us away from another who might appear (5) _______________ desirable to any unbiased observer? Of the many factors influencing our idea of the perfect mate, one of the most telling, according to John Money, Professor Emeritus of Medical Psychology (6) _______________ Paediatrics at Johns Hopkins University, is what he (7) ______________ our "love map"; a group of messages encoded in our brains that (8) _______________ our likes and dislikes. It (9) _______________ our preferences in hair and eye color, in voice, smell, and body build. It also (10) _______________ the kind of personality that appeals to us, whether it is the warm and friendly type or the strong, silent type. In short, we fall (11) _______________ and pursue those people that most clearly fit our love map. And this love map is largely determined in childhood. (12) _______________ age eight, the pattern for our ideal mate has already begun to float around in our brains. When I lecture, I (13) _______________ ask couples (14) _______________ the audience what drew them to their dates or mates. Answers range from "She's strong and independent" and "I go for redheads" to "I love his sense of humor" and "That crooked smile, that's what did it." I believe what they say. I also know that if I were to ask those same men and women to describe their mothers, there would be many similarities between (15) _______________ ideal mates and their moms. Yes, our mothers; the first real love of our lives; write a significant portion of our love map.
(Adapted from:


A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D.

know knew knows knowing do did does doing


A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D.

play plays played playing drive drove drives driving





A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D.

equally partially regularly peculiarly call calls called calling show shows showed showing in at for since often never rarely sometimes his her our their


A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D.

if so but and describe describes described describing record records recorded recording By After Since Before in at on out










Task 5.25 Read the passage carefully and answer the questions below.

Simple Tips for the Morning 1 Keeping your nose to the grindstone creates adrenalin and cortisol surges in the body, and elevated levels of these stress hormones are clearly linked to coronary heart disease and other health problems. Even younger people are not immune. A close look at coronary patients under age 40 found that 70 per cent worked more than 60 hours a week, while 25 per cent held two jobs. Another analysis found that people who worked more than 48 hours a week were twice more likely to die from coronary heart disease than those who worked less than 40 hours. 2

Another danger: overwork is linked to several psychological conditions including, ironically, poor motivation to work. You may not even be getting as much done as you 10 think because the more you work without rest, the more your efficiency decreases. 80

Although not officially a psychological disorder, workaholism is recognised as a compulsive behaviour. Even in todays fast-paced workplace, theres a real difference between the conscientious employee who sometimes burns the midnight oil and the driven individual who never lets up. Workaholics typically rationalise taking on more and more work for a variety of 15 reasons, including pressure to earn money, get promoted or please a superior. According to experts, workaholics find personal relationships stressful and are more easily angered than others. They are also more likely to make themselves sick. The World Health Organisation reports that about 75 per cent of people who seek psychiatric help have symptoms that relate either to lack of job satisfaction or the inability to 20 relax. The International Labour Organisation estimates that health problems related to work stress cost employers worldwide more than $US200 billion a year.
(Adapted from:

25 1. What is the factor that causes coronary heart disease? ________________________________________________________________________ 2. Those who are overworked are at risk to suffer from several effects. They are: i. ii. iii. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

3. What are the reasons given by workaholics for taking more and more work? i. ii. iii. _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________

4. According to the World Health Organisation about 75 percent of people who seek psychiatric help have symptoms related to: i. ii. ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________


LEARNING OBJECTIVES At the end of the unit, you should be able to: 1. skim the articles for the main idea and supporting details; 2. state your opinion on travelling is a means of education; 3. complete exercises on modals and grammar; 4. read and answer comprehension questions; and 5. write a paragraph to describe graphs/charts. READING A. Getting started Task 6.1 Discuss in pairs. i) Have you visited any national parks before? ii) Do you think it is important to preserve the national parks? iii) What is the purpose of the government establishing national parks? B. Read. Task 6.2 Skim the article and write (T) for True statements or (F) for False statements. i) ii) iii) iv) The author pulls his Land Rover into a park campsite. He experiences earthquake when he wakes up after midnight. The Tanzanian government plans to build a commercial highway. The parks also protect some 300,000 gazelles and 200,000 zebras. . 1 Last Stand in the Serengeti

It can be surprisingly difficult to find a herd of more than a million wildebeest roaming across the Serengeti, but sometimes the herd finds you. After searching these vast plains in vain for two days, I pull my Land Rover into a park campsite, pitch a tent, and lie down, exhausted, only to be awakened after midnight by what I think is a light earthquake. It is not. Under a half-moon sky, the pounding of hooves and frog-like croaking of wildebeest envelope me. I poke my head out of the tent and watch in wonder. By sunrise, the horde has fanned out as far as I can see - black dots scattered to the horizon. Nothing could have prepared me for this sight: one of the last great land migrations on Earth.

It all could come to a grunting, honking halt. Despite an outcry from conservation 10 groups and scientists worldwide, the Tanzanian government plans to build a commercial 82

highway that will link the dusty safari capital of Arusha in the east to the lush shores of Lake Victoria in the westcutting across the Serengeti. Thirty-three miles of road, slated for construction in 2012, will sever 15 the northern section of the Serengeti National Park through which the wildebeest march in a cyclical search for green pastures. The road, scientists predict, will lead to the eventual collapse of the 20 wildebeest population from barriers to forage and water, increased poaching, and traffic collisions. 3 The roughly 9,700-square-mile Serengeti ecosystem straddles two countries and two parksTanzanias Serengeti and Kenyas Masai Mara. The parks 25 protect not only the wildebeest but also some 300,000 gazelles and 200,000 zebras. The migration sustains such predators as lions, leopards, cheetahs, and hyenas, along with a host of smaller species from vultures to dung beetles. As they have for millennia, all depend on the wildebeest returning year after year. (Adapted from:

C. Read again Task 6.3 From the context in the reading, choose the best description for the word or phrase in bold. 1. After searching these vast plains in vain for two days, I pull my Land Rover into a park campsite, pitch a tent, and lie down, exhausted, only to be awakened after midnight by what I think is a light earthquake. (Line 4) Getting Meaning Tips a. The word refers to the movements of the from Context wildebeest. When encountering a difficult word in a text, you b. The word refers to the earthquake that occurs in can guess its meaning from Serengeti. the context. 2. By sunrise, the horde has fanned out as far as I can see - black dots scattered to the horizon. (Line 7) a. The phrase refers to a herd of wildebeest. b. The phrase refers to the colour of the land in Serengeti.


D. Pair work Task 6.4 : Discuss the following questions with a partner. 1. What do you think will happen to the wildebeest if the Tanzanian Government proceeds with their plan to build a commercial highway in the Serengeti? 2. Will you sacrifice the environment for the purpose of development? 3. How can a balance be achieved between development and environmental conservation? VOCABULARY MEANING Task 6.5 Find out the meanings of the following words and write a sentence for each word.

Words Meaning: Sentence: Meaning: Sentence: Meaning: Sentence: Meaning: Sentence:

Meaning and Sentence

1. scattered

2. straddles

3. march

4. predict


PARTS OF SPEECH - MODALS Modals show how certain or committed we feel about something. There are 11 modal verbs in English. Modals can be roughly divided into groups with stronger or weaker effect. For example, if we do not know whether something is true or not true, we can use modals to show how certain and uncertain we are. Question Answer It will be Amran. It must be Amran. It should be Amran. It may be Amran. It might be Amran. It could be Amran. It wont be Amran It cant be Amran. It couldnt be Amran. Feel certain Its likely Its uncertain True More likely

Who is going to win the competition?

Its impossible Untrue Less likely

A. Identify Task 6.6 Identify and underline modals from the article Last Stand in the Serengeti.

B. Pair work Task 6.7 Construct sentences using the following modals.

1. could 2. would 3. should 4. may 5. might

: ____________________________________________________________________ : ____________________________________________________________________ : ____________________________________________________________________ : ____________________________________________________________________ : ____________________________________________________________________


Task 6.8 Underline the BEST answers.

1. You (need not / may not) contact Amirah anymore. I have already contacted her. 2. (Must / Can) I borrow your notes, please? 3. Theres a lot of assignment to do this week. You (will / must) help me! 4. Fiza is not attending class tonight. She (may / need), I hope. 5. Students (may not / must not) bully their friends. It is against the rules. 6. I can hear an explosion. There (must / need) be a house on fire. 7. I can take a taxi. You (cannot / need not) drive me to the school. 8. He (must / can) go to the bank on Monday if he wants. The bank is open. 9. I want to win the competition. I (must / may) practice! 10. Excuse me! (Can / Need) you show me your identity card, please? GRAMMAR IN FOCUS THE PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE TENSE


1. To show that something started in the past and has continued up to the present. Words refer to duration such as for ten minutes, for a few weeks, and since Monday can be used with the Present Perfect Continuous. Examples: c) She has been studying at that university for four years. d) Nurul has been watching television for the last three hours.

2. Present Perfect Tense can also be used without duration by using words lately or recently. Examples: c) Recently, I have been sleeping quite late at night. d) Kamal has been feeling a little stressed lately. FORMS has/have + been + present participle


Affirmative: a) He has been playing football for the last two weeks. b) You have been studying hard lately.


Negative: a) He has not been playing football for the last two weeks. b) You have not been studying hard lately.

Question: a) Has he been playing football for the last two weeks? b) Have you been studying hard lately?

A. Practice Task 6.9 Complete the dialogue with correct forms of the words in brackets.

Batrisyia Nabihah Batrisyia Nabihah Batrisyia Nabihah

: : : : : :

I think the waiter has forgotten us. We (1) _________________ (wait) here for over half an hour and nobody has taken our order yet. I think you're right. He has walked by us at least twenty times. He probably thinks we have already ordered. Look at that couple over there, they have only been here for five or ten minutes and they already have their food. He must realise we have not ordered yet! We (2) _______________ (sit) here for over half an hour staring at him. I don't know if he has even noticed us. He (3) _______________ (run) from table to table taking orders and serving food. That's true, and he has not looked in our direction once.


B. Pair work Task 6.10 Underline the BEST answers.

1. Johan Zizan new one.

: How long (have you been being / have you been) in Canada? : I (have been / have been being) here for more than three years.

2. I (have driven / have been driving) the same car for more than ten years. I'm thinking of buying a 3. I (have loved / have been loving) chocolate since I was a child. You might even call me a "chocoholic." 4. Areef and Sarah (have been having / have had) some difficulties in their relationship lately, so they (have been going / have gone) to a marriage counsellor. I hope they work everything out. 5. Johan (has worked / has been working) for the government since he graduated from Harvard University. Until recently, he (has been enjoying / has enjoyed) his work, but now he is talking about retiring. 6. Lately, I (have thought / have been thinking) of changing my career because I (have been becoming / have become) dissatisfied with the conditions at my company. 7. Sam (has seen / has been seeing) Judy for more than five years and during that time he (has been seeing / has seen) many changes in her personality. GRAMMAR IN ACTION A. Practice Task 6.11 Choose the best suggestion from the box to match the statements below.

a. b. c. d. e.

He has been studying hard since the beginning of the semester. I have been waiting for her reply since last year. He has been working out for three hours. He has been working as a chef lately. He has been doing business for years.


Statement 1. Rahman has a big company and many workers. 2. Arif achieves good results in the final examination. 3. Amir looks exhausted. 4. I am still waiting for her reply. 5. His cooking tastes great.


B. Write Task 6.12 Complete the following table with questions in the Present Perfect Progressive Tense. Each question should begin with How long....

Verbs 1. (Live) in this town? 2. (Wear) your shoes? 3. (Drive) this car? 4. (Take) classes at this school? LISTENING AND SPEAKING A. Discuss

Question E.g.: How long have you been living in this town?

Answer I have been living in this town for the last two years.

Task 6.13 Study the following pictures carefully. Discuss and explain which of the following places you would like to visit?



B. Listen Task 6.14 Listen to the recording. Match the following tips with the correct descriptions. Tips 1. Get your money's worth at hotels. 2. Pack light and pack smart. 3. Get to the airport earlier. 4. Book holiday travel early. Descriptions Hotels in big cities often have great deals during the holidays. Take a cab or public transportation to the airport so you can avoid back-ups at parking lots. Sign up for sale alerts, subscribe to newsletters and keep tabs on Twitter updates. Dont over pack your bag and you will avoid weight limitations.

C. Listen again Task 6.15 Listen again to the recording and choose the main idea for the article. Tips A. Preparing for a holiday. B. Places to visit during holiday. C. How to book holiday package. Listening for Main Idea (Gist)

In listening, the main idea is very important. Basically, it can be found in the first sentence or somewhere in the middle of the first paragraph.

D. Practice Task 6.16 Complete the following tasks. 1. List down at least three ideas on how to make your vacation be more meaningful. Example: Bring extra money to buy souvenirs during holiday. a. _____________________________________________________ b. _____________________________________________________ c. _____________________________________________________ 2. Why do you think we should plan for our vacation? Discuss this with your partner.


SPEAKING IN ACTION ASKING FOR INFORMATION A. Identify Task 6.17 Practice the following dialogue. Then, use other phrases to create similar dialogues.

Staff Student Staff Student Staff

: Good morning. : Good morning, miss. : Can I help you? : Yes, I would like to ask about the course registration. Could you please explain how I can register for my minor courses this semester? : Yes, of course. ...

B. Practice Task 6.18 Read and discuss these conversations with a partner. Complete the following conversations using phrases to ask for information. 1. A B 2. A B A 3. A B A B : Hi. _______________________________ tell me where the caf is? : Sure. The caf is ... : Good evening. : Good evening. _____________________________ inform me how to apply the job? : Yes, of course. You : Excuse me, sir. : Yes, miss. What can I do for you? : ____________________________ show me the way to Ampang? : Sure.


WRITING PARAGRAPHS TO DESCRIBE GRAPHS AND CHARTS Graphs and bar charts are used to show different ways of illustrating data. Graphs are often used to show change over a period of time. - When describing the graphs, use prepositions of time: in 2012, at the beginning, between January and June. Bar charts are often used to make comparisons. - Thus, use comparatives: fewer accidents, and superlatives: the most popular. Below are the four basic trends of graphs and charts: Upward trends Downward trends No movement Change in (verb) (verb) (verb) direction (verb) soar fall remain stable level off rocket drop stay constant stop rising rise plummet stabilize stop falling increase decline remain steady start rising peak decrease start falling surge slip back climb dip Below are the words or phrases used to describe the degree or the speed of change: Degree of change Degree of change Speed of change Speed of change (adjective) (adverb) (adjective) (adverb) dramatic dramatically rapid rapidly vast vastly quick quickly huge hugely swift swiftly significant significantly gradual gradually considerable considerably gentle gently substantial substantially slow slowly moderate moderately quiet quietly slight slightly steady steadily The language used to describe graphs and charts can be repetitive. Therefore, to avoid repetition, use: - synonyms, e.g. plummet = drop - adjectives + nouns, e.g. steady growth - verbs + adverbs, e.g. grow steadily
6 Number 4 2 0 2009 2010 2011 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 2009 2010 2011


A. Identify Task 6.19 Choose the correct words or phrases in the box to describe the arrows.
go up soar plummet level out stabilise fluctuate reach a peak decrease decline go down increase grow rocket plunge

rise Example: go up


stay the same

change frequently


B. Practice Task 6.20 Complete the table with the adjective + noun phrases. Verb + adverb 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. C. Practice Task 6.21 Replace the underlined words or phrases with the equivalent from the box. rose dramatically fell substantially increased considerably dropped slightly decreased noticeably grew marginally declined steadily Adjective + noun a dramatic rise

90% of


70% of

Nearly two-third

A quarter

1. Seven in ten students live in university accommodation. 2. 25% of arts graduates work in education. 3. Nine out of ten textile workers are women. 4. 64% of jobs in the textile industry are in South-East Asia. 5. Almost half of office workers travel more than 30 minutes to reach their work. 93

D. Practice Task 6.22 Correct the wrong information in the description of each graph. The first one has been done for you.

1. The numbers grew slowly and after levelling out, they dropped dramatically slightly.

2. Prices fell substantially and then fluctuated.

3. After a slow rise, there was a steady decline. E. Practice

4. The value dropped and then levelled off for a while before soaring again.

Task 6.23 Read the following paragraph. Underline the nouns and verbs which refer to changes. Circle the prepositions which go with them.

The academic year 2006-2007 saw a general increase in student numbers, as most faculties registered a rise in enrolments. For example, the number of men studying IT rose from 108 in 2000 to just over 140 in 2006, and numbers studying law rose to over 350 men and just under 200 women. There were some decreases. The number of men studying medicine and dentistry dropped to 130, and the number of women studying economics and commerce also fell by 60, to 406.


F. Write Task 6.24 Write a short description about the world population based on Table 1. You may use the following questions as guidance.

1. In what ways is the population changing? 2. Are there more young people than people over 60? Table 1: Total world population by age in millions in 2002 and 2025 Age 2002 2025 Total 6,227,966 7,833,456 0-4 605,138 625,701 5-9 596,123 626,510 10-14 607,387 623,151 15-20 580,448 604,049 20-44 2,352,784 2,819,888 45-64 1,045,771 1,700,854 65-70 363,177 668,912 Over 80 77,138 164,400
( Adapted from


ENRICHMENT LISTENING A. Listen Task 6.25 Listen to the following advertisement on Having a Pleasant Flight and match each category with the correct statements.

Sleep as much as you can when you are flying from west to east

Do not kick or rock the seat in front of you Drink a lot of water

Having a Pleasant Flight When flying from east to west, stay awake as much as possible

Reduce consumption of caffeinated drinks

Be careful when opening the overhead cabins

Rest Assured a) a)

Be Kind, Be Considerate a)

Keep Hydrated




SPEAKING Task 6.26 State your opinion on the following topic: Travelling is a means of education .


READING Task 6.27 Read the passage carefully and circle the BEST answers.

Jordan: Not only Petra and the Dead Sea, But An Adventurer's Paradise If you (0) know anything at all about the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan you are probably aware of the Rose Red City of Petra, one of the modern Seven Wonders of the World. You (1) _______________ on top of the Dead Sea it (2) _______________ so much salt you could not sink if you tried. You might be vaguely familiar with Wadi Rum, the beautiful Jordanian desert made famous by the exploits of Lawrence of Arabia. Beyond the Treasury of Petra (3) _______________ you saw in Raiders of the Lost Ark and Wadi Rum where you may recall Peter OToole charging across the desert in full Arabian garb, there are a number of (4) _______________ and beautiful locales in Jordan that are rarely viewed by American visitors to (5) _______________ Kingdom. Little wonder given the fabulous Roman city of Jerash, the Desert Castles, fascinating Amman with (6) _______________ archeological treasures (7) _______________ beautiful mosques, the intriguing Biblical sites including Bethany Beyond the Jordan and Mount Nebo, as well as all the other points of interest in Jordan. But, if you (8) _______________ for adventure, excitement and the pure joy of being in the open air and the pristine outdoors of this middle-east oasis there is much, much more to discover in Jordan. The Royal Society for the Conservation of Nature and its Wild Jordan division (9) _______________ to the conservation of Jordan s natural environment. RSCN (10) _______________ a non-governmental group created by the late King Hussein. Your adventures (11) _______________ Jordan can be as tame or as wild as you like. If you (12) _______________ the wetland reserve of Azraq, you can leisurely stroll the boardwalks and languish behind the blinds to watch the beautiful variety of birds. You can even (13) _______________ close to a herd of Water Buffalo (14) _______________ they might run off before you (15) _______________ too near. Your best bet here is to visit during the annual migration seasons.
(Adapted from:


A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D.

lie lies lied lying who when which whose a an the


A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D.

has had have having boring charming fascinating uninteresting its his hers theirs 97






A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D.

if so but and dedicate dedicates dedicated are dedicated in at on out get up got up gets up getting up get got gets getting


A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D.

look looks looked are looking is are was were visit visits visited visiting since while although because









Task 6.28 Read the following article and circle the BEST answers.

Booking Your Vacation 1 One of the best things about good books is that each page holds new adventures and surprises. That is especially true of scrapbooks. Only with scrapbooks, you are the star of the story! You are also the author, illustrator, and editor! Scrapbooks are a terrific way to preserve a vacation, and there are some things you will need before you get started. There is the scrapbook itself. Choose one with thick, acid-free pages. White pages are best, because you can make them any colour. The pages should be big enough to hold postcards, brochures, and small menus. Be sure your scrapbook has at least one page for every day that you'll be gone. Polaroid cameras and film are great for scrapbooks; just be sure you will have enough film to take at least one picture a day. Digital cameras are also great, remember to bring extra batteries and memory cards. Disposable cameras, especially those that can go underwater, add to the fun. Here is a helpful tip, if your pictures won't be developed until after you get back from vacation, take along an index card that's the same size as the pictures will be when they are developed. You can use this card over and over again by tracing where the day's pictures will go on that page. Be sure to write a brief description of the picture inside the boxed area; don't worry, the picture will later cover these words. This way, you can draw and write and glue things from that day around where the photographs will go. Another tip, most people suggest placing an odd number of pictures on each page. Before you leave, and after you come back, be sure to visit the Internet with your parents. There are some great places (including the sites listed below) offering printable pages for backgrounds, borders, clip art, alphabets (fun fonts!), and more. Craft stores also provide excellent scrapbooking materials and advice. Most reading books describe the main character. The same is true of scrapbooks. The inside front cover is the perfect place to write about you print and sign your name, write down your address, a list of those who will be with you, and where you are going. You can mention your favourite foods, books, music, movies, TV shows, games, grade and school, friendswhatever you want. You can also trace your hand. One family I know even takes a small snip of their children's hair and tapes it (using acidfree tape) into their books! If you have an extra school picture or a recent photograph, this would be the perfect place for it.
(Adapted from:







1. Which of the following statements effectively summarises the ideas of the first paragraph? A. B. C. D. Scrapbook is the best way to record experience during a vacation. You must be an editor in order to come out with a good scrapbook. Scrapbook is produced only for a purpose of a formal documentation. Scrapbook is produced only for a purpose of a informal documentation.

2. Which of the following statements is TRUE? A. B. C. D. Scrapbook needs only thin book with small pages. Scrapbook must be written on a high quality books. It is advisabale to use an expensive book as scrapbook. It is important to choose the right book for your scrapbook.

3. Which of the following statements is the tip given in the third paragraph? A. B. C. D. It is compulsory to use digital camera. It is a must to use digital camera instead of Polaroid camera. It is advised to bring together extra batteries and memory cards. It is not encouraged to use disposable camera as it has low quality of photos.

4. Which of the following statements most adequately summarises the ideas of the whole text? A. B. C. D. Scrapbook is only used to record about school time. Scrapbook is useful to record about school projects. Scrapbook should describe more on the main character. Scrapbook only describes about the places that you visit.



LEARNING OBJECTIVES At the end of the unit, you should be able to: 1. identify the main idea of passages; 2. discuss with your online friends how catastrophic events all over the world affect you; 3. complete exercises on conjunctions and grammar; 4. read and answer comprehension questions; and 5. write a definition essay.

READING A. Getting started Task 7.1 Discuss the following questions in pairs. 1. Name a few types of threats from space that you know. 2. What are the solutions to overcome the threat of large objects striking Earth? 3. What would you do if our country is struck by an asteroid? B. Read Task 7.2 Read the article and answer the following questions.

A threat from space? 1 On 15 February 2013, a small asteroid entered Earth's atmosphere over Russia with an estimated speed of 18.6 km/s (over 41,000 mph). The meteor about 55 feet in diameter flashed across the morning sky over Chelyabinsk in Russia's Ural Mountains before exploding like a bomb in midair about 20 miles up. The shock wave blew out windows and doors and injured 1,200 people. That unexpected blast occurred the same day that an asteroid 150 feet in diameter, designated DA14, passed within about 17,000 miles of Earth's surface a hair's breadth away in astronomical terms, and closer than many man-made satellites. NASA estimates that there are about 4,700 similarly sized asteroids within 5 million miles of Earth, and the impact of any one of them could easily destroy a major city or cause a 60-foot-high tsunami. Hundreds of asteroids enter the atmosphere every minute. That is because our solar system contains several bands of space rocks asteroids and comets of varying size and composition which can veer off into new orbits that intersect with Earth's.



Almost all the objects that reach our planet are mere inches in diameter and burn up in the atmosphere. A handful of times a year, space rocks up to 10 feet in diameter make it to the planet's surface. Once a millennium, an asteroid larger than 250 feet penetrates the atmosphere, causing major but localized damage. Every 1 million years, on average, an asteroid over a mile in diameter strikes Earth, with catastrophic consequences. An asteroid six miles in diameter is thought to have wiped out the dinosaurs 66 million years ago. If one that size were to hit Earth tomorrow, it would instantly erase all life within 1,000 miles of impact, and probably throw so much dust into the atmosphere that it would blot out the sun for years, killing off most species. 3 How could we defend ourselves? The first step is to track large asteroids, and NASA is on the case. Congress tasked the space agency in 1998 with identifying nearby asteroids over two thirds of a mile in diameter. So far, it has discovered 862 asteroids big enough to do serious damage to Earth. But we know little about thousands of smaller asteroids that pose a major threat; DA14, for example, was spotted only a year ago. NASA spends $20 million a year identifying and mapping threats, and the nonprofit B612 Foundation plans to launch a space telescope in 2018 that will orbit the sun in search of asteroids. The foundation's chairman, former astronaut Rusty Schweickart, figures there's a 30 percent chance the telescope will find an asteroid or comet on a collision course with Earth. If it does, the question becomes what we can do about it. Trying to destroy an asteroid with a nuclear weapon would only turn a cosmic bullet into buckshot that could pepper our planet with smaller meteor strikes. Instead, scientists hope to change an asteroid's trajectory long before it reaches Earth. Some scientists have proposed spraying one side of an asteroid with white paint, causing it to absorb less solar heat on that side and changing its course over years. Another proposal would use a shield to shade the asteroid for the same purpose. NASA says the most likely option would be using an unmanned space vehicle as a "gravity tractor" to pull the asteroid off course, or just crashing the ship into the rock to ram it out of the way. "Ramming a spacecraft into an asteroid has still to be considered the reference solution for its simplicity," said Massimiliano Vasile of the University of Glasgow. The technology exists, but not the funding or an organized programme. A deepspace mission to deflect an asteroid could cost as much as $80 billion four times NASA's budget. It would require global cooperation, and we wouldn't have much time to argue: The closer an asteroid gets, the harder it becomes to deflect. A 2011 study by European aerospace firm Deimos found that deflecting a 300-foot asteroid becomes effectively impossible unless we act more than a decade before it hits. So if we had discovered last year that DA14 was aimed right at us, our only option would have been to evacuate the area it was projected to hit and cross our fingers. The near miss should be a call for action, said Schweickart. "We live in a shooting gallery," he said. "We don't think it's a good idea to put off protecting life on Earth."
(Adapted from:











DA14 is the asteroid that ________________. A. B. C. D. hit Russia passed by Earth wiped out the dinosaurs caused major but localized damage


The word deflect (line 44) can be replaced with ________________. A. B. C. D. cut off put off take off ward off


Which is the BEST option on how to destroy an asteroid? A. B. C. D. Using a shield. Using a nuclear weapon. Spraying it with white paint. Crashing a space ship into it.


The following statements are true about DA14 EXCEPT ________________. A. B. C. D. it missed hitting Earth it was discovered in 2012 it was 150 feet in diameter it caused a 60-foot-high tsunami


The purpose of this article is to ________________. A. B. C. D. explain the possible threats of objects hitting Earth and explore solutions convince readers that asteroids hit Earth every minute without causing any harm report the types of asteroids that threaten Earth and how technology can save lives encourage readers to think about possible ways to protect life on Earth from asteroids


The word buckshot (line 35) in the article means ________________. A. B. C. D. debris of metal chunks of burnt metal pieces of broken metal many small balls of metal


C. Read again Task 7.3 Read the statements. Then, circle T for true statements or F for false statements. 1. 2. A 300 foot asteroid can be successfully deflected 10 years before it hits earth. Evacuating an area before an asteroid hits earth is the only option available to save lives. 3. Crashing a spacecraft into an asteroid has been proven to successfully destroy an asteroid. 4. Using nuclear weapon to destroy asteroids is not a safe method. 5. B612 Foundation aims to raise funds to launch a space telescope in 2018 to observe asteroids in space. 6. An asteroid up to 10 feet in diameter reaches the Earths surface every minute. 7. Massimiliano Vasile is a NASA astronaut. 8. Man-made satellites are placed within 17,000 miles of Earths surface. 9. Schwerckart called for actions to be taken to protect life on Earth after the explosion of the asteroid over Chelyabinsk in Russia's Ural Mountains. 10. Deimos is an aerospace firm that conducts studies to deflect asteroids. T T T T T T T T T T F F F F F F F F F F

VOCABULARY A. Identify Task 7.4 The following words/phrases are common among astronomers. What do you think these words mean? impact B. Identify Task 7.5 Use a dictionary to look up the meanings of the words and check if your answers are correct. Fill in the table with the definition of each word. Word impact orbit atmosphere catastrophic mission Meaning orbit atmosphere catastrophic mission


C. Practice Task 7.6 Fill in the blanks with the correct words from the table above. 1. Three space rocks ___________ the Earth near Rio De Janerio. 2. Gury Gaglionao is one of the astronauts deployed on a space ____________ to Mars to study its terrain. 3. The advance of technology has enabled scientists to calculate the ______________ of asteroids to determine their threats to Earth. 4. A large meteorite burns brightly as it streaks through Earths ______________ . 5. People have predicted great __________________ effects due Earths collision with outer-space objects that would bring an end to the world.

PARTS OF SPEECH CONJUNCTIONS Conjunctions are used to join words, phrases, clauses or sentences to express a particular idea or ideas. There are three types of conjunctions coordinating, correlative and subordinating conjunctions. Coordinating conjunctions are words that join two or more items of equal syntactic importance, such as words, main clauses, or sentences. The conjunctions are for, and, nor, but, or yet, so (acronym: FANBOYS). Conjunction for and nor but or yet so Example Jamilah is staying with her aunt for her mother is in hospital. Her daughter lives at home and has a steady job. Ahmad refuses to eat rice nor will he touch a bowl of soup. The food looked good, but I was too full to eat. It is best to carpool or use mass transit for your daily commuting. Safuan plays basketball well, yet his favourite sport is volleyball. Salim ignored his meal, so I got a spoon and ate the rice myself. Functions reason or choice addition negative choice contrast choice contrast result; effect


Correlative conjunctions work in pairs to join words and groups of words of equal weight in a sentence. There are six different pairs of correlative conjunctions: Correlative conjunction either...or not only...but also neither...nor both...and whether...or just London. Not only is he handsome, but he is also brilliant. Neither the volleyball team nor the football team is doing well. Both the badminton team and the swimming team are doing well. Whether you stay or go is your decision. Just as many Americans love football, so many Canadians love ice hockey. Subordinating conjunctions, also known as paired conjunctions, are conjunctions that conjoin an independent clause and a dependent clause. The sentence is called complex sentence. The following are examples of complex sentences: Independent Clause Sally bought a set of sofa Daniel is a lawyer I called my friends Dependent Clause which was ordered from Italy. who works with a law firm in Cheras. after I finished my class. Complex Sentence Sally bought a set of sofa which was ordered from Italy. Daniel is a lawyer who works with a law firm in Cheras. I called my friends after I finished my class. The most common subordinating conjunctions in the English language include the following: after, although, as, as far as, as if, as long as, as soon as, as though, because, before, if, in order that, since, so, so that, than, though, unless, until, when, whenever, where, whereas, wherever, and while. Example You either do your work or prepare for a trip to


For examples: o Steven went swimming although it was raining. o Give me a call whenever you have time. o Since Mei Li doesn't speak English, she can't go to university in Ireland. A. Practice Task 7.7 Combine the ideas in the following pairs of sentences into compound sentences. Use suitable coordinating conjunctions. 1. The man was unable to work. He had heart failure. ________________________________________________________________________ 2. Salmah saw a rat ran in front of her. She fell down from the chair. ________________________________________________________________________ 3. You can cry like a baby. You can face the consequences of your action like an adult. ________________________________________________________________________ 4. Set up a home recycling centre. Sort your recyclables at home. ________________________________________________________________________ 5. Aman did not want to play with Julisah. Aman did not want to play with Sofia. ________________________________________________________________________ B. Practice Task 7.8 Fill in the blanks with suitable correlative conjunctions.

1. _________ Rizal _________ Carl knows how to speak Spanish. 2. ________________ did the man lose his job, _________ he _________ lost his house. 3. _________ my nephew _________ my niece live in Australia. 4. You will _________ have to take Geography _________ History next semester. 5. I do not know _________ I want to take Geography _________ History.


Task 7.9 Join the following sentences to form a complex sentence by adding a subordinating conjunction. e.g. Melissa is a new teacher. Her husband was transferred here last month. Melissa is a new teacher whose husband was transferred here last month. a. Fahrin got the job. He had no experience. ___________________________________________________________________________ 2. I dont drink coffee. It makes me nervous. ___________________________________________________________________________ 3. I was late today. My car broke down. ___________________________________________________________________________ 4. I ran out of the bathroom. I heard someone screamed. ___________________________________________________________________________ 5. My sister is not feeling well. She is taking a nap now. ___________________________________________________________________________ 6. The twin brothers are working in the same bank. It is one of the most well-known in Asia. ___________________________________________________________________________

GRAMMAR IN FOCUS THE PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE TENSE The past perfect progressive tense is used to show an action or activity that started in the past and continued up until another time in the past. For examples: Munirah and Jacintha had been talking for over 40 minutes before Tamilarasi arrived. Jalal had been teaching at that school for three years before he quit. Rashidah had been working at the law firm for more than three years before she left for Australia. 108

It can be used to express an action in progress close in time to another activity or time in the past. For examples: When Ali got home, his hair was still wet because he had been swimming. Samihahs eyes were red because she had been crying. Azim was tired because he had been cycling.

A. Practice Task 7.10 Complete the sentences with the correct Past Perfect Progressive Tenses of the verbs. Example: Amir had been playing badminton for an hour now. (play) 1. Selvam and I ____________________ for Azizah for the last two hours. (wait) 2. It was midnight. Zulkifli ____________________ for five straight hours. (study) 3. It was midnight. Mazlina ____________________ movies for five straight hours. (watch) 4. My student couldnt answer the question because he ____________________ in the class, said Miss Nazihah. (daydream) 5. Wake up! You __________________ long enough, said mother (sleep) 6. I was upset because my boss __________________ my work. (criticise) 7. Shamsul was tired because he __________________ all day. (work) 8. Maya __________________ for six hours, so she took a break. (practise) 9. It __________________ much and the grass was brown. (not rain) 10. I wondered why my cat was ill. It __________________ dead birds? (not eat)


Task 7.11 Match the following sentence parts.

1) Salman had been working for three hours 2) By the time I found an umbrella 3) By the time Halimah got to the office 4) I had been feeding the cats 5) I had not been feeling well 6) He had not been expecting a positive answer 7) The boys were exhausted 8) The river had been polluted

a) the client had been waiting for an hour. b) for many years. c) so I sent my son to the babysitter. d) as they had been hiking since noon. e) it had been raining for ten minutes. f) when Salmah came home. g) since he got the assignment. h) when I tripped and fell.

GRAMMAR IN ACTION A. Practice Task 7.12 Complete the sentences with the correct Past Perfect Progressive Tense of the verbs in the brackets. Example: Susan had been sewing (sew) a dress for an hour when her friend called. 1. Samihah _____________________ (sleep) for 10 hours when I woke her up. 2. Amir _____________________ (wait) at the station for an hour when the bus finally arrived. 3. We _____________________ (look) for her ring for two hours when we found it in the drawer. 4. Kalsom _____________________ (jog) for a long time, when it suddenly began to rain. 5. Sazali ___________________ (drive) less than half an hour when he ran out of petrol. 6. They were very tired because they ______________________ (help) in the orchard all day. 7. My father ______________________ (cycle) all morning so his legs were sore in the evening. 8. It ______________________ (rain) since I reached home.


B. Practice Task 7.13 Complete this text with either the past simple or the past continous form of the verbs in brackets. 1. Mrs Lee _____________ to have children for years, then she finally became pregnant at the age of 40. (try) 2. That was the first time we had been to Kellies Castle, even though we _____________ Ipoh a few times before. (visit) 3. She bought her first watch at the age of 8. It _____________ twenty ringgit. (cost) 4. Leela _____________ childrens stories for 10 years when she got her first book published. (write) 5. 6. 7. 8. For some time Marlia _____________ about passing the exams and eventually decided to change the course he was taking. (worry) My teacher was really annoyed me. It was the third time I _____________ late for school that week. (arrive) I _____________ always _____________ it would be easy to get a job, and was disappointed to be rejected. (believe) We _____________ about Sue when, to our amazement, she walked through the door. (talk)


LISTENING AND SPEAKING A. Listen Task 7.14 Listen to the article entitled What Threats Do We Face from Outer Space? and circle the BEST answers. 1. How many types of threats are mentioned in the article? A. B. C. D. Two. Three. Four. Five.

2. The threats from outer space ____________ occur but can cause _____________ damage. A. B. C. D. rare, worse always, total seldom, varied hardly, immense

3. What are CMEs? A. B. C. D. Colonel Mass Ejections. Coronal Mass Ejections. Coronal Mars Ejections. Coronal Mass Erections

4. Which of the following statements is TRUE about near-earth objects? A. Most near-earth objects are small and not dangerous. B. Shooting stars are near-earth objects that hit the ground. C. Potentially Hazardous Asteroids are no bigger than 100 meters in diameter. D. Astronomers are tracking near-earth objects to observe their distance from our planet. 5. Which of the following statements is TRUE about comets? A. Comets are made up of rock, ice and fire. B. Comets are capable of colliding with Earth. C. Comets travel towards the sun all the time. D. Comets are popular due to their position near the sun.


SPEAKING IN ACTION RECOGNISING AND INTERPRETING VIEWS A. Identify Task 7.15 Read the following conversation. Then, practice using other phrases and expressions. Kelly Malik Kelly Malik Kelly : Do you believe that an asteroid six miles in diameter is thought to have wiped out the dinosaurs 66 million years ago? : I guess thats true. I have read an article about it recently as I was surfing the Internet. : Are you sure? I dont think it is true. The existence of dinosaurs is a myth. : Well, perhaps we can ask our professor about it. Im sure he can enlighten us on this subject. : Yes, you are right. We should also find out more about the existence of 4,700 asteroids within 5 million miles of Earth, which could easily destroy Earth. Its very frightening!

B. Practice Task 7.16 Use the phrases and expressions from Activity A to complete the following conversation. 1. A B 2. A : The ancient Mayans have predicted that the world would come to an end this century. There are other similar beliefs throughout civilisation. Do you believe that? : Hmm, its difficult for me to believe that, but I have read about it before : Last night, my niece called and said she saw a shooting star while driving on the highway. She believed that aliens have landed in her neighbourhood. I had a really good laugh. B A B : Oh, its simply absurd! : But she was convinced that its true. She has been influenced by a movie she watched recently. : Well,


WRITING DEFINITION ESSAY In writing a definition essay, we make it clear in a more complete and formal way our own personal understanding of a term. The meaning is usually illustrated with a series of details. The main purpose of the definition essay is to convey what a particular term means to you, while the second purpose is to persuade your readers that your definition is a legitimate one. You may plan your definition essay as follows: Introduction Body Conclusion Provide some background information. Define or explain clearly the term or concept. Each body paragraph focuses on a category of the defined term or concept. Examples or evidence that illustrate the term or concept. A summary of the term or concept defined. A final remark on the subject, which should relate to the introduction. Definition of a Football Fan What is football fan? The word fan is an abbreviation of fanatic, meaning an insane or crazy person. In the case of football fans, the term is appropriate. They behave insanely, they are insane about the past, and they are insanely loyal. Football fans wear their official team T-shirts and warm-up jackets to the mall, the supermarket, the classroom and even-if they can get away with it-to work. If the team offers a giveaway item, the fans rush to the stadium to claim the hat or sports bag or water bottle that is being handed out that day. In addition, football fans decorate their houses with football-related items of every kind. To them, team bumper stickers belong not only on car bumpers, but also on fireplace mantels and front doors. When they go to a game, which they do as often as possible, they also decorate their bodies. True football fans not only put on their team jackets and grab pennants but also paint their heads to look like helmets or wear glow-in-the-dark cheese heads. Football fans are insanely fascinated by the past. They talk about William Refrigerator Perrys 1985 Super Bowl touchdown as though it had happened last week. They described the Fog Bowl as if dense fog had blanketed yesterdays game, not 1988s playoff match between the Philadelphia Eagles and Chicago Bears. They excitedly discuss John Elways final game before retiring -when he won the 1999 Super Bowl and received MVP honours-as if it were current news. And if you cant ma nage to get excited about such ancient history, they look at you as though you were the insane one. Last of all, football fans are insanely loyal to the team of their choice, often dangerously so. Should their beloved team lose three in a row, fans may begin to react negatively as a way to hide their broken hearts. They still obsessively watch each game and spend the entire day afterward reading and listening to the postgame commentary in newspapers, on TV sports segments, and on sports radio. Further, this intense loyalty makes fans dangerous. To anyone who dares to say to a loyal fan that another team has better players or coaches or, God forbid, to anyone wandering near the home cheering section wearing the jacket of the opposing team, physical damage is a real possibility.


From February through August, football fans act like any other human beings. They pay their taxes, take out the garbage, and complain about the high cost of living. But when September rolls around, the colours and radios go on, the record books come off the shelves, and the devotion returns. For the true football fan, another season of insanity has begun.
(Adapted from: Langan, J. (2011). College writing skills (8th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill, p.325-326.)

A. Write Task 7.17 Write an essay on one of the topics provided. Your essay should not be less than 350 words. 1. A Good Neighbour 2. Workplace Depression 3. Violence in Sports


ENRICHMENT LISTENING Task 7.18 You will listen to an article entitled Emotional Recovery after a Disaster. While listening, write T for True statements or F for False statements. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Natural disasters and catastrophic events cause only physical damages. People need time to be emotionally stable after traumatic events occur in their lives. Unsettling thoughts and feelings mentioned in the article include anxiety, fear and confusion. The sentence, There is no right or wrong way to think, feel, or respond. means people may react in different ways to disasters and traumatic events. Traumatic events can be dealt with by not thinking about the incident. There are five methods mentioned in the article about how to deal with the effects of traumatic events. The healing process is slowed as people ignore their feelings. This article helps people recover from the physical and emotional damages caused by natural disasters and catastrophic events. T T T T T T T T F F F F F F F F

SPEAKING Task 7.19 There have been many catastrophic events that occured all around the world. How do these events affect you? Do you believe that the world is coming to an end soon? Discuss with your online friends. .


READING Task 7.20 Read the passage and circle the BEST answers.

Network of Satellite Guardians in Space 1 Almost unknown to the public, a constellation of satellite guardians is flying overhead, and all it takes is a phone call for them to intervene when a country is hit by a storm, earthquake, tsunami or flood. Armed with cameras or ground radar, these Earth-observation satellites were sent into orbit for scientific and commercial missions. But under an international agreement, they can also be called on for humanitarian work. Assigned to fly over a disaster zone, they send back high-resolution images that can be crucial for rescue teams on the ground. Which towns or streets are most at risk of flooding? What route can be found for relief trucks after a bridge has collapsed? And where is a secure location to pitch tents for survivors? This pooled effort gathers 14 space agencies or national organisations, which together have 20 satellites, ranging from Frances SPOT commercial satellite to the United States scientific satellite, Landsat. Their cooperation comes under an agreement called the International Charter Space and Major Disasters. When catastrop he strikes, an authorised user of the Charter simply phones a number at the European Space Agency (ESA), where space technicians are on round-the-clock duty. After confirming the request, the team looks at what satellites are available, determines which is best suited for the job and then sends a programming request to its operator. Within three hours, a scout can be instructed to take pictures as it swings over the site, said Philippe Bally, ESAs representative on the Charters secretariat in Paris. The data is usually available within 24 hours, and the service is provided for free. To make the information usable on the ground, the raw data is sent to specialist cartographers, who highlight the disaster zone and compare the latest pictures against those from previous years in order to show the change. Since 2000, the Charter has been activated 433 times in more than 110 countries. Floods and tsunamis account for roughly half of the activations, followed by storms (16 percent) and earthquakes (11 percent). Forest fires and industrial accidents such as oil spills have also activated the Charter. The beneficiary countries are generally poor economies that do not have access to an Earth-observation satellite. Haiti, for instance, was helped after the January 2010 earthquake with satellite pictures that pinpointed terrain that offered the best opportunities for clean water and identified areas at risk of landslip. One of the 41 authorised users of the Charter is the United Nations, which can activate it on behalf of member states.
(Adapted from:








The word constellation (line 1) can be replaced with _______________. A. B. C. D. group assembly collection gathering

3. The International Charter Space and Major Disasters agreement is aimed at _______________. I. II. III. IV. A. B. C. D. preventing natural disasters identifying areas at risk after a disaster securing safe locations to place survivors activating alerts for floods, tsunamis, storms and earthquakes I, II and III. I, II and IV. II, III and IV. I, II, III and IV.

4. There are currently ________________ Earth-observation satellites. A. B. C. D. 4. 14 20 24 41

The International Charter Space and Major Disasters has been activated for the following weather-related disasters EXCEPT ________________. A. B. C. D. floods storms forest fires earthquakes

5. The International Charter Space and Major Disasters is based in _______________. A. B. C. D. Haiti Paris France United States

6. In your opinion, what is the text mainly about? A. B. C. D. Types of satellites. A network of satellites. Satellites to monitor natural disasters. Satellites to activate natural disasters.


Task 7.21 Read the passage and circle the BEST answers. A Solar System can be defined as a star and all the objects orbiting it as well as all the material in that system. Our solar system (1)___________ the Sun together with the eight planets and their moons as well as all other celestial bodies that orbit the Sun. From our small world we have gazed (2)___________ the cosmic ocean for thousands of years. Ancient astronomers (3)___________ points of light that appeared to move (4)___________ the stars. They called these objects planets, meaning wanderers, and named (5)___________ after Roman deities -- Jupiter, king of the gods; Mars, the god of war; Mercury, messenger of the gods; Venus, the goddess of love and beauty; and Saturn, father of Jupiter and god of agriculture. The stargazers also observed comets with sparkling tails, and meteors or shooting stars apparently falling from (6)___________ sky. (7)___________ the invention of the telescope, three more planets have been discovered in our solar system: Uranus in 1781, Neptune in 1846 and Pluto in 1930. Pluto was (8)___________ as a dwarf planet in 2006. In addition, our solar system (9)___________ by thousands of small bodies such as asteroids and comets. Most of the asteroids orbit in a region (10)___________ the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, while the home of comets (11)___________ far beyond the orbit of the dwarf planet Pluto, in the Oort Cloud. The four planets (12)___________ to the sun -- Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars -- are called the terrestrial planets (13)___________ they have solid rocky surfaces. The four large planets beyond the orbit of Mars -- Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune are (14)___________ the gas giants. Beyond Neptune, on the edge of the Kuiper Belt, tiny, distant, dwarf planet Pluto has a solid (15)___________ icier surface than the terrestrial planets.
(Adapted from:


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Task 7.22 Read this excerpt and answer the questions below.

Natural Disasters and Solar Storms: Why Space Weather Matters 1 In addition to events such as the Haitian earthquake and global warming, there lurks another potentially devastating challenge of a different sort to which neither the public nor policy makers have devoted sufficient attention. The culprit is "space weather." The star that lights our day and gives us life, the Sun, also generates periodic disturbances -- solar storms and flares -- that give rise to effects that rain upon the Earth. While this space weather has minimal impact on humans in the normal course of events, it can have a devastating impact on the electric power generating systems as well as the electronic and computer infrastructure that keep modern society going. In the near future, the problem is likely to grow. Scientists predict more severe space weather and solar storms on the horizon due to the coming rise in solar activity in its eleven-year cycle -- with potentially catastrophic effects in 2011 and beyond. According to a recent report by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, a single severe storm could cause $1 to $2 trillion in damages to the U.S.'s high-tech infrastructure and require four to ten years for complete recovery. 5



Few of us realize that space weather already has negatively impacted our lives. A few years ago in May 1998 solar activity knocked out for a day all cell phones in the U.S. affecting everything from credit card transactions to telemedicine. In 1989, the HydroQuebec power grid suffered a nine hour loss of generation leaving millions in the dark following a large geomagnetic storm that was caused by solar eruptions and space weather. For many years airlines have modified Polar routes to reduce the potentially damaging radiation effects on humans because of the increased penetration of high energy particles in these regions and because of the potential for communication blackouts. Transpolar flights are increasing: In 2000 there were 368 and in 2008 more than 7,999. In its 2008 evaluation of potential cascading impacts of space weather events the National Academy of Sciences concluded that the disruption of electric power could lead to disruptions in transportation, communication, banking, finance systems, government services, potable water (due to pump failure), loss of perishable foods and medicines (due to lack of refrigeration). The report points out that lengthy power outages could affect the entire U.S. and have international impacts.
(Adapted from



4 25


What is the main idea of this passage? ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ How does space weather threaten mankind? ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ List down the negative impacts of space weather. ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ What are transpolar flights? ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ What are the effects of electric power disruption? ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________







LEARNING OBJECTIVES At the end of the unit, you should be able to: 1. identify the main idea of passages; 2. discuss in you group forum what the classroom will be like in the year 2050; 3. complete exercises on prepositions and grammar; 4. read and answer comprehension questions; and 5. write a compare and contrast essay. READING A. Getting started Task 8.1 Conduct a survey of your course mates and write down their answers in the table. You can begin your survey as follows: You : Hi. I am carrying out a survey on pursuing education in a distance learning environment. Can I ask you a few questions regarding your studies? Friend : You : Thank you. ... Question 1 Why do you choose to pursue your degree in a distance learning environment? Question 2 Who motivated you to pursue the programme of study? Why? Question 3 What is your aspiration? How do you ensure that you achieve excellence in your studies?

Students name


B. Read Task 8.2 Read the article carefully. Then, answer the questions that follow. 1 With its world-class education system and strong international reputation, Malaysia is an increasingly popular study destination for international students interested in education abroad. Malaysia has about 50,000 international students from more than 100 countries studying in private schools, international schools, colleges, private universities, foreign universities branch campus and public universities. They are enrolled in a wide range of disciplines at every level of education, including short-term and professional courses, diplomas, bachelor degree and other post-graduate studies such as masters degrees right through doctoral degrees. Why do international students choose Malaysia as a preferred study destination? Malaysias colleges and universities offer very reasonable and highly affordable course fees, among the lowest in the region. This makes Malaysia a popular destination for good quality education at very competitive rates and cost-savings. Besides that, the cost of living for international students in Malaysia for comfortable living is as low as RM10,000 RM12,000 (USD3,200 USD3,800) a year. This amount includes food, accommodation and transport. Students can choose between on-campus or off-campus accommodations: college hostels, apartments, link-houses and condominiums. These represent a great savings of living expenses. A contributing factor towards the low living cost is the Malaysian Ringgit is less expensive compared to other currencies from countries like the United Kingdom, USA and Australia. International students can also choose from a comprehensive range of courses, programmes and other study options offered by hundreds of universities and colleges in Malaysia. Some popular study options include unique collaborative degree programmes such as twinning degrees and 3+0 degree programmes. Moreover, Malaysia is wellknown for its undergraduate 2+1 twinning degree programme, which offers a cost -saving route for quality education and qualifications from reputable international universities in the United Kingdom, USA, Australia, Canada, New Zealand and France. Another contributing factor is English is used as the medium of instruction in all private colleges and government universities. It is also commonly used among Malaysians, making living and studying easy for students. However, for those less proficient in the language, most institutions also offer English Proficiency classes. Picking up the language is easy because Malaysia offers an environment ideal for those who are interested to improve their command of English. Malaysia offers another crucial aspect of a students education living and interacting in a multi-ethnic, multi-culture and multi-religion country. Not only can international students interact with the three major Malaysian races which are Malay, Chinese and Indians as well as the other minority groups, they are also exposed to other students from different nationalities. Experiencing a diverse culture, languages and religions will broaden students outlook and will benefit students in an increasing globalised economy.








Malaysia with its all year round tropical climate is free from major natural disasters. It has a strong economy and is a socially safe country with a stable government and a low crime rate, making it an ideal place to study. Most importantly, international students who wish to study in Malaysia will find the administrative process easy and hassle free.
(Adapted from:


1. Why is Malaysia becoming an increasingly popular study destination for international students? ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ 2. Where do the international students study in Malaysia? ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ 3. What are the reasons provided to support the statement that Malaysias colleges and universities offer very reasonable and highly affordable course fees? (line 10) ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ 4. Is it compulsory for all international students to attend the English Proficiency courses offered? Why? ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ 5. Why is it easy to learn English in Malaysia? ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ 6. List down two unique features of Malaysia which attract international students. ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________


C. Read again Task 8.3 Complete the following chart based on the passage.

Why do international students choose to study in Malaysia?

reasonable and (1)___________ course fees

(2)_______________ and a variety of courses

English as a medium of (3)___________ and communication

experience (4)____________ cultures, languages and (5)____________

ideal weather, (6)______________ government and hassle free process

D. Pair work Task 8.4 Discuss with a friend. List down at least three advantages and three disadvantages of studying abroad. Topic: Studying Abroad Advantages Disadvantages


VOCABULARY - SYNONYM A. Identify Task 8.5 Provide a synonym that can be used to replace the words taken from the above passage. Word 0. reputation (line 1) 1. enrollled (line 5) 2. preferred (line 9) 3. comfortable (line 13) 4. amount (line 14) 5. represent (line 16) 6. comprehensive (line 20) 7. well-known (line 23) 8. qualifications (line 25) 9. instruction (line 27) 10. commonly (line 28) 11. proficient (line 29) 12. crucial (line 33) 13. diverse (line 37) 14. climate (line 39) 15. stable (line 40) B. Practice Task 8.6 Choose any six words from the list of synonyms and construct a sentence for each of the synonym. Example: 0. Even though Kim has stayed here all his life, his status as a citizen of Malaysia is still uncertain as there is complication in getting evidence for his birth place. 1. ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ 2. ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ 126 status _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ Synonym


___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________


___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________


___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________


___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________

PARTS OF SPEECH PREPOSITIONS Prepositions are words which show relationship among other words in sentence. The relationships include direction, time, place, and manner. Prepositions usually come before another word, usually a noun or noun phrase. A direction preposition is a word used to show movement from one place to another. For examples: o o She is going to the shopping mall. The rocket travelled through space.

o The tourists walked across the street. o They brought the boxes into the room. o They walked around the museum. o He walked up the stairs. o She walked down the stairs.


Preposition of time helps us differentiate if something is at a point in time or for a length of time. Preposition at Time frame precise time Examples o at 5 oclock. o at dinnertime o at sunrise in month, year, century, long periods o in February o in 2002 o in summer o in the past on days and date o on Sunday o on 26th December o on my birthday

Preposition of place shows where an object is located in relation to something else. It is usually used for places which have some boundary (boundary may physical or virtual) For examples: o There is a cup on the table. o I could see the helicopter hovering above my house. o The police placed a sheet over the body. o He stood in front of the main office. Preposition of manner tell how something is done. Preposition of manner with for of by Function used for accompaniment used for purpose or reasoning used for association or measure used to show measurement Examples I went with my friend. I made a blog for writing. I want a piece of the cake. I get paid by the hour.


A. Identify Task 8.7 Fill in the blanks with at, in, by, for or on. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. She goes to school ___________ bicycle, but her brother walks to his school. Marina lives ___________ Kuantan. I live ___________ No. 22A, Jalan Malim 2. Mother is talking ___________ the phone. Susan walked all the way home ___________ the rain. Could we meet ___________ the burger stall this evening? The bride shocked everyone when she came ____________ a black dress. I study engineering ___________ Malim College. Jamal was ill but he visited Eva every day, even when he was __________ pain. Have you seen the new movie directed __________ Steven Spielberg?

A. Practice Task 8.8 Read the letter below carefully. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate prepositions. Dear Mrs Lim, Some of us are going (1) ________ holiday (2) ________ a few days. We are wondering whether you could reduce our rent this month. Half of us will be (3) _________ Malacca and the other half will be (4) ________ Sabah. Most of us will be away (5) __________ the whole holidays. Most landladies have agreed to reduce the rent and we are hoping that you would do the same. Some people say you have a very kind heart and we are hoping you will help us. Yours sincerely, Yan Ee Way


GRAMMAR IN FOCUS THE FUTURE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE TENSE The Future Perfect Progressive Tense is used to emphasise the duration of an activity in progress at a particular point in the future. For examples: o On this Sunday, we will have been living in this house for two years. o Next year I will have been working in this university for 6 years. The Future Perfect Progressive Tense also can be used to say what we think was happening at a point in the past. For examples: o Motorist Aman Zakaria will have been asking himself whether AES cameras are a good idea after he was fined RM300 last week for driving at 33 kmph in a 30 kmph zone. (positive form) o Saleha will not have been studying, so shell want to study tomorrow. (negative form) o Where will I have been working? (wh-question) o Will he have been cooking? (Yes/no question)

A. Practice

Task 8.9 Fill in the blanks with the correct Future Perfect tense or Future Perfect Progressive tense.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Come over to my house around 5pm. By then, I _______________________ (complete) my assignment and we can go shopping. This October, my parents _______________________ (be) married for forty years. Fairuz just changed jobs again. If she keeps this up, she _______________________ (change) jobs at least five times by the end of the year. The students ______________________ (paint) the mural for over three months by the time it is finished. He will be tired because he __________________ (exercise) so hard. Jamal will be tired when he gets home because he ________________________ (jog) for over 90 minutes. Nora and I ___________________ (talk) for over half an hour by the time Zaleha arrives. 130

8. 9. 10.

Jamal ____________________ (teach) at that college for more than three years by the time he leaves for Australia. Karen ___________________ (wait) for more than three hours when her parents finally arrives. By next February, my husband ___________________ (receive) his promotion.

A. Pair work Task 8.10 Read part of an e-mail from Jannah to her friend Sara, a teacher in Ireland. Circle the correct verbs.

Dear Sara, Hope this find you all well. I suppose by now school (1) will close/will have closed for Christmas and you (2) will be enjoying/will have been enjoying a rest. Its hard to believe that Nick is already 18 and that has only a few months until he (3) will be leaving/will have been leaving school for college. My main news is that my brother, Jasni and his family (4) will have been arriving/will be arriving next Friday as part of their big trip around the world. By the time they get here they (5) will be going/will have been to Hawaii and California. No doubt Jasnis children (6) will have been planning/will plan it all out for months! They (7) wont be spending/wont have spent all their time with me. Jasni has to go to Sydney on business, so I (8) will have kept/will be keeping the rest of the family entertained while hes away. Then they (9) will all be going/will all have been going to Gold Coast.


GRAMMAR IN ACTION A. Practice Task 8.11 Change the verb into the correct form. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. I _____________________ (wait) for 2 hours when Shiela __________ (arrive). Jamilah _____________________ (study) for 5 years when she __________ (get) her degree. We _____________________ (talk) for an hour when Jacintha __________ (leave). My father _____________________ (drive) for 6 hours when he __________ (get) there. Samir __________ (be) tired when he __________ (return) because he _____________ (jog) for over 2 hours. My cooking __________ (be) much better when I __________ (return) because I _____________ (practice) for a whole month. The couple__________ (have) all the things they need because they _______________ (shop) for the whole afternoon. My brothers ______________ (exercise) the entire morning, so they will __________ (want) to rest. Merlisa _________________ (prepare) the whole weekend so she __________ (pass) the test. My sons ________________ (swim) for 1.5 hours when the sun __________ (set). B. Pair work Task 8.12 Write the Future Perfect Progressive question form. 1. (you / work) when we meet? _____________________________________________________________________________ 2. (she / live) here for long when she moves? _____________________________________________________________________________ 3. (Julie / study)? _____________________________________________________________________________



(what / Lucy / do)? _____________________________________________________________________________


(how long / he / work) there when he retires? _____________________________________________________________________________


(how long / they / see) each other when they marry? _____________________________________________________________________________


(how long / you / study) when you graduate? _____________________________________________________________________________


(why / he / fix) the car? _____________________________________________________________________________


(she / teach) those students for long? _____________________________________________________________________________


(how long / we / wait) when he finally arrives? _____________________________________________________________________________


LISTENING AND SPEAKING A. Pair work Task 8.13 Discuss the questions below with a partner. You have the opportunity to learn about a new culture when studying abroad. What customs should you be aware of when studying in another country? What are the dos and donts a foreign student should be aware of when studying abroad? What are the expected behaviours when studying in a foreign country?


Listen Task 8.14 Listen to the recording and circle T for true statements and F for false statements. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. The passage helps students adapt to living and studying in a new country. Students studying abroad should not share their feelings with others. Studying at a university provides opportunities to gain a higher academic qualification, learn new cultures and understand oneself better. Students begin to feel pressured when they are at loss. Feeling homesick is common when studying abroad. Keeping a diary can help students record their daily routines and improve their writing skill. Culture shock is something to look forward to in a new country. Students do not need time to adjust to a new place. Laughter causes misunderstandings and embarrassment. Students facing social problems should seek help from a psychiatrist. T T T T T T T T T T F F F F F F F F F F


SPEAKING IN ACTION ASKING FOR AND GIVING RECOMMENDATIONS A. Practice Task 8.15 Read the following conversation. Then, role play similar conversation.

Uncle Lim, a government retiree, is looking for a suitable apartment for his daughter who is pursuing her tertiary studies in Kuala Lumpur. He meets his former colleague who is staying in Kuala Lumpur. Uncle Lim Johan Uncle Lim Johan Uncle Lim Johan :Johan, Im looking for an apartment for my daughter. Can you recommend a suitable place around here? :Well, there are many around here. What are your requirements, Lim? :Hmm, Im looking for a cosy place with a reasonable price, probably near the commuter station as my daughter will be using public transportation. :I see, then probably you can go to Hill Apartments which is three blocks from here. Its affordable and just a walking distance to the commuter station. :Thank you. Youve been a great help. :Youre most welcome.

B. Pair work Task 8.16 Continue the following conversations with a partner. Use phrases to ask for or give recommendation. 1. A : I am really stressed out! Ive never taken any leave for ten years. Can you recommend a nice place where I can go for a holiday? B : Well, Im glad to hear that youre finally taking a leave. What about an oversea trip? A : Oh, Ive never thought about that . 2. A : What are you going to do this weekend? B : Hmm, Im not sure, I dont have any plans yet. A : Really? Why dont you 7. A : I need to get a new sweater. Can you suggest a shop nearby? B : Theres a small shop downtown but the collection is rather limited. I think you should....


WRITING COMPARE AND CONTRAST ESSAY In our daily life, we often compare and contrast things, behaviour or attitude of people, the food we eat, and many other things. To compare means to look at similarities between these things. To contrast, on the other hand, means we focus on the differences. For example, when we want to buy a new hand phone, we always look at two (or more) models and compare and contrast them before making a decision. The following are some commonly used transitional markers when writing comparison and contrast essays: To compare (similarities) is similar to both also too as well like likewise in the same way in the same manner yet in contrast unlike conversely To contrast (differences) however but in contrast while nonetheless differs from on the contrary nevertheless

There are two basic patterns for comparison and contrast essays: the block-by-block method and the point-by-point method. In the block-by-block method, you describe all the similarities in the first body paragraph and then all the differences in the second body paragraph. You may plan your comparison and contrast essay using the block-by-block method: Introduction Body Conclusion Provide some background information about your topic. Identify the two things being compared and contrasted. State the purpose for making the comparison and/or contrast. In the first paragraph, discuss the similarities. In the next paragraph, discuss the differences. Summarise the main similarities and differences. A final remark on the importance of the topic.

In the point-by-point method, you present each point of comparison side by side for a comparison or contrast. You may plan your comparison and contrast essay using the point-by-point method: Introduction Body Introduce the two subjects in the background information. Inform the readers the main criteria of comparison. In the first paragraph, compare and contrast the first aspect of subject A and subject B. Provide examples to illustrate similarities and/or differences. In the next paragraph, compare and contrast the second aspect of subject A and subject B. Provide examples to illustrate similarities and/or differences. In the third paragraph, compare and contrast the third aspect of subject A and subject B. Provide examples to illustrate similarities and/or differences. Summarise the main similarities and/or differences between subject A and subject B. A final remark or evaluation on the topic. 136


Studying: Then and Now One day in June, I staggered into a high school classroom to take my final exam in United States History. I had made my usual desperate effort to cram the night before, with the usual dismal results. My study habits in high school, obviously, were a mess. But in college, Ive made an attempt to reform my note-taking, studying, and test-taking skills. As I took notes in high school classes, I often lost interest and began doodling or drawing Martians. Now, however, I try not to let my mind wander, and I pull my thoughts back into focus when they begin to go fuzzy. In high school, my notes often looked like something written in another language. In college, Ive learned to use a semiprint writing style that makes my notes understandable. Ive since learned to write down connecting ideas, even if I have to take the time to do it after class. Taking notes is one thing Ive really learned to do better since high school days. Ordinary studying during the term is another area where Ive made changes. In high school, I let reading assignments go. I told myself that Id have no trouble catching up on two hundred pages during fifteen-minute ride to school. College courses have taught me to keep pace with the work. Otherwise, I feel as though Im sinking into a quicksand of unread material. When I finally read the high school assignment, my eyes would run over the words but my brain would be plotting how to get the car for Saturday night. Now, I use several techniques that force me to really concentrate on my reading. In addition to learning how to cope with daily work, Ive also learned to handle study sessions for big tests. My all-night study sessions in high school were experiments in self-torture. Around 2.00 a.m., my mind, like a soaked sponge, simply stopped absorbing things. Now, I space out exam study sessions over several days. That way, the night before can be devoted to an overall review rather than raw memorising. Since Ive reformed, note-taking and studying are not as tough as they once were. And I am beginning to reap the benefits. As time goes on, my college test sheets are going to look much different from the red-marked tests of my high school days.
(Adapted from: Langan, J. (2011). College writing skills (8th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill, p.304-305)

A. Write Task 8.17 Write an essay of comparison or contrast on one of the topics below. Your essay should not be less than 350 words. 1. Two places you have visited 2. Two common ways of waste disposal in Malaysia 3. Nuclear power versus fossil fuel power


ENRICHMENT LISTENING Task 8.18 You will listen to an article about online learning. While listening, answer the questions below. 1. Online learning is getting more popular due to the following reasons EXCEPT ____________. A. gain new abilities B. access your own learning C. study at your own initiative D. discover time management skill Online learning occurs in ____________. I. virtual classroom. II. typical classroom. III. discussion forums. IV. video conferencing sessions. A. B. C. D. 3. I and II only. I and IV only. II and III only. II and IV only.


The types of assessment mentioned in the recording include the following EXCEPT _____________. A. test B. assignment C. writing exercise D. final examination Based on the recording, arrange the following in the correct sequence as one enrolls in an online learning programme. I. Students are given the details of assignments. II. Students are given the topics for a course registered. III. Students are given a guide on how to go about learning a subject. IV. Students are given the websites for them to do further research about a topic. A. B. C. D. I, II, III and IV. II, III, IV and I. II, I, III and IV. II, I, IV and III.



What is the most suitable title for this article? A. The Advantages of Online Learning B. Online Learning is Gaining Popularity C. Features of an Online Learning Programme D. The People Enrolled in Online Learning Programme


SPEAKING Task 8.19 Imagine what the classroom will be like in the year 2050. Discuss this in your group forum. READING Task 8.20 Read the dialogue carefully and circle the BEST answers. Mary Adrian Mary Adrian Mary Adrian Mary Adrian Mary Adrian Mary : : : : : : : : : : : Hi, Adrian. Where have you been? Ive not seen you for quite some time. Hi Mary. Oh, I was busy the last two weeks. Id a project to complete. Since I was in the neighbourhood, I thought I'd drop by. Come on in. Take a seat. Would you like anything to drink? I have Sprite and orange juice. Sprite would be fine. So, how have you been? Oh, not bad. And you? Oh, I'm fine, but school has been really hectic these days, and I haven't had time to relax. By the way, what's your major anyway? Hotel management. Well, what do you want to do once you graduate? Oh... I haven't decided for sure, but I think I'd like to work for a hotel or travel agency in this area. How about you? Well, when I first started college, I wanted to major in French, but I realised I might have a hard time finding a job using the language, so I changed majors to computer science. With the right skills, landing a job in the computer industry shouldn't be as difficult. So, do you have a part-time job to support yourself through school? Well, fortunately for me, I received a four-year academic scholarship that pays for all of my tuition and books. Now that Im in the final semester, Ive done some job hunting as well. Wow. That's great. Yeah. How about you? Are you working your way through school? Yeah. I work three times a week at a restaurant near campus. Oh. What do you do there? I'm a waiter. How do you like your job? It's okay. The other workers are friendly, and the pay isn't bad. On top of that, I get free meals!

Adrian Mary

: :

Adrian Mary Adrian Mary Adrian Mary Adrian

: : : : : : :


1. What does Adrian plan to do after he graduates? A. B. C. D. He wants to work in a hotel. He wants to become a teacher. He hopes to open a restaurant. He hopes to continue studying at a higher level.

2. Mary is in the _______________ year of college. A. B. C. D. first second third fourth

3. Mary majors in ______________. A. B. C. D. French history computer science hotel management

4. Which statement is TRUE about Mary? A. B. C. D. She receives scholarship. She finds that studying languages is difficult. She is currently studying and working part time. She does not have to pay for food as she works in a nearby restaurant.

5. Which statement is NOT mentioned by Adrian about his working place? A. B. C. D. He gets free meals. The pay is reasonable. His co-workers are friendly. His works during weekdays.

Task 8.21 Read the passage and circle the BEST answers. If you are a working adult planning to add a study course to your schedule, be quite clear about the issues involved in this understanding. You have to be ready to meet (1) ___________ at an academic level and in the professional and personal arena. You may need to (2) ___________ on basic study competencies such as research methodology, reading skills and the (3) ___________ computer programmes. Look at all the course options and choose with your professional (4) ___________ in mind. In a study conducted, it is found that working adults often perform (5) ___________ in subjects related to their work (6) ___________. Working adults also tend to (7) ___________ programmes such as business studies and arts and social sciences. 140

The university you choose should have the infrastructure to (8) ___________ your learning process. This should (9) ___________ include an assigned course coordinator to help you with your academic progress and an (10) ___________ on study groups so you can discuss topics and (11) ___________ learning with peers. It should also provide (12) ___________ options to make it easier to pursue your studies while working. Be prepared to manage your time, read more, mix well with your (13) ___________ and participate in group discussions. Do not be (14) ___________ by the potentially younger study body around you. (15) ___________ you have to be dedicated in your exploration of new knowledge.
(Adapted from Readers Digest, June 2010, p.H3)


A. deadlines B. objectives C. expectations D. opportunities A. top B. hot C. latest D. newer A. more B. better C. further D. superior A. chose B. choose C. chosing D. chooses A. hardly B. always C. typically D. sometimes A. refrain B. restrain C. reinforce D. restructure A. peers B. siblings C. partners D. colleagues A. While B. Whereas C. Although D. Nonetheless


A. put up B. meet up C. break up D. brush up A. process B. projection C. propulsion D. progression A. time B. incident C. occasion D. experience A. assist B. assists C. assisted D. assisting A. emphasis B. importance C. attachment D. involvement A. robust B. elastic C. flexible D. durable A. limited B. delayed C. hindered D. intimidated
















LEARNING OBJECTIVES At the end of the unit, you should be able to: 1. identify the main idea of passages; 2. present a motivational speech titled Don't put things for tomorrow, when you can do it today; 3. complete exercises on adjectives and adverbs, and grammar; 4. read and answer comprehension questions; and 5. write a cause and effect essay. READING A. Getting started Task 9.1 Answer these questions. 1. Have you read or heard about an inspiring story? If yes, share with your partner. 2. Who inspired you to achieve your ambition? B. Read Task 9.2 Read the following article and answer the questions below. 1. Describe Maricel Apatan in your own words. 2. What is the writers point of view or opinion of this person? A. Wonder. A. Strong. B. Skepticism. B. Daring. C. Conjecture. C. Intelligent. Recipe for Inspiration 1 Maricel Apatan, 22, stands in the kitchen of the Edsa Shangri-La Hotel in Manila, preparing to decorate a cheesecake. It would seem to be a routine task for a pastry chef, but Maricel is no ordinary chef she has no hands! 2 Her disability, however, barely slows her down. Using her wrists, Maricel coats the sides of the cake with crushed nuts. Next, she grips a chefs knife tightly between her hip and 5 left inner elbow and uses her left wrist to delicately slice grapes, kiwi and strawberries in half. In short order, she arranges the fruit on the cake, adds blueberry filling, and sets an elegant chocolate curl on top. 142 D. Doubt. D. Determined. 3. What is the most outstanding characteristics of Maricel Apatan?

When I first saw Maricel, I was worried she might hurt herself when using a chefs knife but that has never been a problem, says Sous Chef Ariel Reyes, Maricels manager. She does not get special treatment and works just as hard as t he rest of the chefs. Maricel has come a long way since the day in September 2000 when she and her uncle were attacked near their farm in a remote area of Zamboanga City, Mindanao. Five machete-wielding men, who were trying to force Maricels family off their land, brutally hacked into her uncle, then turned on 11-year-old Maricel. She passed out as she tried to protect herself from the savage blows. After she came to, Maricel pretended to be dead until she was sure the attackers were gone. As she staggered home, she looked down to see her hands dangling loosely on threads of bloodied flesh. Miraculously, she survived a long, arduous trip to the hospital, but doctors could not save her hands. Her uncle also survived the attack and eventually they testified against two of their attackers, who are serving life sentences. In 2004, Archbishop Ledesma arranged for Maricel to live in the House with No Steps, a Manila rehabilitation and training centre for people with disabilities. She learned how to write and do chores and, more importantly, came to terms with her disability. Maricel eventually graduated from high school and enrolled in a two-year Hotel and Restaurant Management course in Cagayan de Oro City. Thanks to her parents unwavering support, Maricel flourished even though she was the only disabled student in the course. After Maricel moved back to Manila to continue her studies, the media started reporting on this indomitable young woman. She didnt shy away fro m the attention. When managers at the Edsa Shangri-La Hotel saw Maricel on television, they hired her as part of the hotels Care for People project. Fellow chef, Aljamil Borja, marvels at Maricels skills. She asks for assistance only if she needs to move a hot kettle or large saucepan from the stove, or open slippery bottle caps, says Aljamil. Maricel has also accomplished her goal of inspiring others. One of them is Ronelyn Calumpiano, a 21-year-old with cerebral palsy. Confined to a wheelchair, she rarely left her Manila home and had never attended school. Then, she saw Maricel on television. I watched her demonstrate how to prepare vegetables for a salad with so much confidence, she recalls. Ronelyn, who now lives at the House with No Steps and will soon start classes, is already planning a career in IT. Maricels three younger siblings have moved to Manila. She pays for the rent of their small apartment, while their parents look after the family farm in Mindanao. It is difficul t to make ends meet but I dont lose hope. I believe anything is possible if you dream, work hard and pray.
(Adapted from










C. Read again Task 9.3 Read the excerpts below from the article. Check ( ) the statements that show that the writer admires Maricel Apitan. Then, underline the word or phrase that expresses the writers view. Words, Phrases and Sentences Example: Maricel is no ordinary chef she has no hands! 1 2 3 4 5 6 Her disability, however, barely slows her down. She learned how to write and do chores and, more importantly, came to terms with her disability. Maricel flourished even though she was the only disabled student in the course. the media started reporting on this indomitable young woman. Fellow chef, Aljamil Borja, marvels at Maricels skills. She pays for the rent of their small apartment, while their parents look after the family farm in Mindanao.

D. Discuss Task 9.4 Discuss these questions in your group forum. 1. Have you met any disabled person? If yes, what are his/her strengths? If no, how would you react when you meet a disabled person? 2. How do you inspire a person with disabilities? 3. What would you do to help people with disabilities? VOCABULARY - SYNONYM A. Identify Task 9.5 Match each word in Column A to its synonym in Column B. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ Column A decorate routine special arduous flourished remote indomitable confined savage possible Column B a. thrived b. gruelling c. determined d. distinctive e. isolated f. beautify g. usual h. cruel i. achievable j. restricted



Synonym is a word or phrase that has the same meaning as another word or phrase. For example: routine is the synonym of habitual.


B. Practice Task 9.6 Construct a sentence for each of the word provided in Column B.

1. thrived _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ 2. gruelling _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ 3. determined _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ 4. seldom _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ 5. isolated _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ 6. beautify _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ 7. usual _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ 8. cruel _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ 9. achievable _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ 10. restricted _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________


PARTS OF SPEECH REVISION Task 9.7 Read the article Recipe for Inspiration. Identify and list down the appropriate parts of speech in the table below. The word that is repeated should be written once. Nouns Example: Maricel Apatan Verbs Example: stands Adjectives Example: routine Adverbs Example: barely

Task 9.8 Choose five adjectives and adverbs that you have identified from Task 9.7. Construct a sentence for each of the adjectives and adverbs. Adjectives Example: routine His usual routine includes exercising three times a week.

1. _____________________ _________________________________________________________________________ 2. _____________________ _________________________________________________________________________ 3. _____________________ _________________________________________________________________________ 4. _____________________ _________________________________________________________________________ 5. _____________________ _________________________________________________________________________


Adverbs Example: barely He could barely walk due to the sickness.

1. _____________________ _________________________________________________________________________ 2. _____________________ _________________________________________________________________________ 3. _____________________ _________________________________________________________________________ 4. _____________________ _________________________________________________________________________ 5. _____________________ _________________________________________________________________________

GRAMMAR IN FOCUS THE PASSIVE VOICE The passive voice is used in the written form as it is more impersonal in tone. Thus, research findings, reports and minutes of meetings are written in the passive. (S) (O) (a) The boys ate the cheesecake. (Active sentence)

(S) (by + O) (b) The cheesecake was eaten by the boys. (Passive sentence) # In (a): The object in an active sentence becomes the subject in the passive sentence. In (b): The subject in an active sentence is the object of by in the by-phrase in a passive sentence. FORM OF THE PASSIVE (a) Paddy (b) Amin (c) The report (BE) + (PAST PARTICIPLE) is grown by farmers. was shocked by the news. will be written by the teacher.

Form of all passive verbs: be + past participle Be can be in any of its forms: am, is, are, was, were, has been, have been, will be, etc.


TENSE Simple Present Present Progressive Simple Past Past Progressive Simple Future Present Perfect Past Perfect A. Practice

ACTIVE VOICE My sister cooks some porridge. My sister is cooking some porridge.

PASSIVE VOICE Some porridge is cooked by my sister. Some porridge is being cooked by my sister. My sister cooked some porridge. Some porridge was cooked by my sister. My sister was cooking some Some porridge was being cooked by my porridge. sister. My sister will cook some porridge. Some porridge will be cooked by my sister. My sister has cooked some Some porridge has been cooked by my porridge. sister. My sister had cooked some Some porridge had been cooked by my porridge. sister.

Task 9.9 Change the active sentences into the passive form. SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE 1. My aunt sews my clothes. 2. A few workers clean the building. 3. He kicks the ball. 4. We occupy this old bungalow. 5. Her grandfather always wears a cap. PRESENT PROGRESSIVE TENSE 1. My brother is solving those crossword puzzles. 2. Ah Seng is eating a big bowl of noodles. 3. Some stray cats are rummaging the dustbin. 4. My son is teaching piano lessons. 5. They are scolding us. SIMPLE PAST TENSE 1. They ate the dessert. 2. The boys stole the mangoes behind the shop. 3. The doctor examined the sick girl. 4. Suria found a kitten in the drain. 5. My sister wrote a letter to the headmaster. PAST PROGRESSIVE TENSE 1. We were eating fried chicken during lunch. 2. The zoo-keeper was training the dolphins. 3. Miss Lim was teaching them to speak Chinese. 4. My senior was assisting me. 5. A group of policemen was questioning them. 148

SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE 1. My mother will not allow me to go out. 2. My uncle will buy a new house. 3. My maid will wash the dirty clothesl. 4. The new lecturer will not interview Gopal. 5. My father will tell my sister the good news. PRESENT PERFECT TENSE 1. The tsunami has destroyed many villages in Acheh. 2. My brother has not counted the money in the envelope. 3. Some naughty boys have vandalised the public telephone. 4. Jason has cleaned the aquarium twice a month. 5. She has eaten the pizza. PAST PERFECT TENSE 1. The elephants had destroyed the plantation. 2. Aleesya had written the lyrics of the song. 3. My brave neighbour had caught the hungry python. 4. The baby had worn the old sweater. 5. She had opened all the windows in the lecture room. B. Read Task 9.10 Read the following sentences. Complete the sentences with the correct passive form of the verbs in bracket. Then, identify the tense for each sentence. Example: The young boy _______________ (accuse) of stealing some money. The young boy was accused of stealing some money. (Simple Past Tense) All expenses for the trip next month _______________ (pay) by her company. Some movies _______________ (show) repeatedly on that television channel. The light bulb _______________ (invent) by Thomas Edison. Hiroshima and Nagasaki _______________ (bomb) in 1941. Currently, many heavy machineries _______________ (manufacture) in Malaysia. The father of four _______________ (sentence) to death for drug trafficking. The task of caring for the aged couple _______________ (share) by the siblings at the moment. 8. So far, only one baby dugong _______________ (rescue) from the sea. 9. The young lady _______________ (offer) a high salary to join that renowned corporation. 10. The business _______________ (establish) in 1999 by my late father. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.


GRAMMAR IN ACTION A. Practice Task 9.11 Change the sentences into the passive form. Example: Ms. Lissy invited me to lunch.

I was invited to lunch by Ms. Lissy.

1. Alexander Graham invented the telephone. _________________________________________________________________________ 2. Water surrounds the island. _________________________________________________________________________ 3. An electrician is going to fix the burnt circuit. _________________________________________________________________________ 4. A doctor has examined the sick boy. _________________________________________________________________________ 5. A large number of people speak English. _________________________________________________________________________ 6. Airplanes fascinate children. _________________________________________________________________________ 7. Oscar Wilde wrote A Woman of No Importance. _________________________________________________________________________ 8. This news will shock you. _________________________________________________________________________ 9. The murderer was burying his victim when the policemen caught him. _________________________________________________________________________ 10. The host was welcoming the guests to the house-warming party. _________________________________________________________________________ 11. The policeman had issued a summons to the errant driver. _________________________________________________________________________ 12. The teacher will select the best students for the debate competition. _________________________________________________________________________ 150

13. My mother has not found her missing necklace. __________________________________________________________________________ 14. The recent fire had made many people homeless. __________________________________________________________________________ 15. Cynthia and her mother are preparing dinner now. __________________________________________________________________________ B. Practice Task 9.12 Answer the following questions in the affirmative using the passive form. Example: Does Lily buy fruits every day? Yes, fruits are bought by Lily every day. 1. Do students usually respect lecturers? 2. Do road accidents often cause fatalities? 3. Does Marys cat perform clever tricks? 4. Did the plumber check the piping in that old mansion? 5. Does the steward assist the passenger in trouble? 6. Did they spend all their allowances on food last month? 7. Have the doctors examined all the patients in the ward? 8. Has Jason donated blood before? 9. Will the prefect report the disciplinary problem to the teacher? 10. Is your uncle reading the magazine now? 11. Are the twins performing the dance during the school concert? 12. Has the government launched the anti-smoking campaign? C. Practice Task 9.13 Answer the following questions in the negative using the passive form. Example: Does Lily buy fruits every day? No, fruits are not bought by Lily every day. 1. Is Maniam trimming the hedges right now? 2. Does a clerk prepare reports? 3. Do banks process loan applications fast? 4. Is your mother cooking lunch at the moment? 5. Were the neighbours lifting those heavy boxes? 6. Have the police summoned the drunk drivers? 7. Are you driving your sister to the airport? 8. Does he play the piano well? 9. Is the loud music disturbing the babys sleep? 10. Did your cats steal a fish from your kitchen? 11. Is Abdul taking his brothers to the zoo during the holiday? 12. Will the head of department investigate the complaints from the students? 151

LISTENING AND SPEAKING A. Listen Task 9.14 Listen to the passage carefully. Then, complete the sentences below. Your answer should not be more than one word. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. When he was young, he was ____________ by his friends. He loved shooting homemade ____________ which he showed to his friends. In his sophomore year of ____________ school, he dropped out. Then, he graduated when his family moved to another ____________. He ____________ Chuck Silvers when visiting Universal Studios. Then, he entered Universal Studio without a job or ____________ clearance. He found an office that wasnt being used, and became a ____________. He put his name in the ____________ directory: Steven Spielberg, Room 23C. Jaws, which took in $470 ____________, became the highest-grossing movie of all time. Finally, Spielberg becomes a successful ____________.

B. Listen again Task 9.15 Listen to the passage again. Check ( ) the characteristics of Steven Spielberg as inferred from the passage. 1. 3. 5. 7. 9. academician disabled daring confident millionaire 2. 4. 6. 8. 10. playful likable jobless dishonest talented


SPEAKING IN ACTION MAKING A SUCCESSFUL PRESENTATION TIPS 1. Overcome nervousness with a lot of practice. For example, practice with a friend or talk in front of the mirror. 2. Maintain a relaxed posture. 3. Use appropriate facial expressions and gestures. 4. Have eye contact with the audience at least 50 percent of the presentation time. 5. Show enthusiasm and spontaneity. 6. Speak calmly to project confidence. A. Practice Task 9.16 Practise a 2-minute presentation based on the following situation. Situation: Vandalism among youths is on the rise. You are a member of the Youth Club in your university. Discuss how you can overcome this problem. Student A: You suggest that the most effective way to overcome vandalism is by having a campaign to instil awareness among youths. Student B: You suggest that the most effective way to overcome vandalism is by installing CCTV. Student C: You suggest that the most effective way to overcome vandalism is by imposing heavier punishments. Student D: You suggest that the most effective way to overcome vandalism is by frequent and scheduled patrolling of public areas. Sample Response: Student A : Good morning. We are here to discuss the most effective way to overcome vandalism among youths. I suggest that we have a campaign to instil awareness among youths about the importance of maintaining our public facilities such as the public telephones. Firstly, youths need to be taught how and why these facilities are built. They need to know the importance of these facilities during cases of emergency such as fires. When youths are aware of the necessity to keep the facility in good working condition, they will not destroy them. Next, ...


WRITING CAUSE AND EFFECT ESSAY The cause and effect essay aims to explain the causes (reasons) or the effects (results) of an event or situation. When writing a cause and effect essay, you are usually asked to focus on either one. Examples: The causes of water pollution (multiple factors leading to water pollution) The effects of eating too much fast-food (many effects of a situation)

The following are some words and phrases commonly used in a cause and effect essay: one cause is is caused by leads to accordingly hence is due to results from contributes to as a result of consequently is the result of is the consequence of in addition for this purpose therefore

You may plan your cause and effect essay as follows: Introduction Provide some background information. (if the essay focuses on effects, the background information may talk about the causes; or if the essay focuses on causes, the background information may talk about the effects) Inform the readers what the essay will discuss and how you plan to go about it. One effect or cause, depending on the topic in each paragraph. Each paragraph contains one main idea. Elaboration of the main idea in the form of examples or evidence. Logical sequencing of effects or causes and supporting details. A summary of the main ideas. A final remark on the subject, which relates to the introduction. The Joys of an Old Car Some of my friends cant believe that my car still runs. Others laugh when they see it parked outside the house and ask if its an antique. But they arent being fair to my twenty -year-old Toyota Corolla. In fact, my antique has opened my eyes to the rewards of owning an old car. One obvious reward of owning my old Toyota is economy. Twenty years ago, when my husband and I were newly married and nearly broke, we bought the car---a shiny red year-old leftoverfor a mew $4,200. Today it would cost four times as much. We save money on insurance, since its no longer worthwhile for us to have collision coverage. Old age has even been kind to the Toyotas engine, which has required only three major repairs in the last several years. Ive heard that when a Toyota passes the twenty-thousand-mile mark with no problems, it will probably go on forever. I wouldnt disagree. Our Toyota breezed past that mark many years ago. Since then, Ive been able to count on it to sputter to life and make its way down the driveway on the coldest, snowiest mornings. When my boss got stuck with his brand-new BMW in the worst snowstorm of the year, I sauntered into work on time. The Toyota may have the body of an old car, but beneath its elderly hood hums the engine of a teenager. 154



Lastly, having the same car for many years offers the advantage of familiarity. When I open the door and slide into the drivers seat, the soft vinyl surrounds me like a well-worn glove. I know the millimetre exactly how much room I have when I turn a corner back into a curbside parking space. When my gas gauge points to empty, I know that 1.3 gallons are still in reserve, and I can plan accordingly. I prize my twenty-year-old Toyotas economy and dependability, and most of all, its familiarity. It is faded, predictable, and comfortable, like a well-worn pair of jeans. And, like a well-worn pair of jeans, it will be difficult to throw away.
(Adapted from: Langan, J. (2011). College writing skills (8th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill, p.277)

A. Write Task 9.17 Write an essay on one of the topics below. Your report should not be less than 350 words. 1. Students in Malaysia are aware of the importance of learning English. However, some students are unable to learn the language successfully. Discuss the reasons students are not able to master the language successfully. 2. The effects of advertising on teenagers. 3. A good teacher can have long-lasting impacts on a student.


ENRICHMENT LISTENING Task 9.18 Listen carefully to the article entitled Inspired to Reach for the Stars and circle the BEST answers. 1. The phrase was over the moon in the first sentence means Intan Syafienez Mohd Bakhie was __________________. A. eager B. excited C. dreamy D. delighted Where was the education carnival held? A. Ipoh. B. Sitiawan. C. SM Raja Perempuan. D. Mara Education Department. Dr. Sheikh Muszaphars advised the students who attended the carnival to ____________. A. dream and work hard. B. think positively and change ambitions. C. have dreams and do not listen to others. D. laugh aloud and reach for the impossible. The following is used to describe Intan Syafienez feeling when meeting Dr . Sheikh Muszaphar EXCEPT __________________. A. thrilled B. excited C. expected D. dumbfounded What was the name of the motivational talk conducted in SM Raja Perempuan? A. Rocket Science Workshop. B. Rocket Scientist Workshop. C. Rocketry Science Workshop. D. Rocket Three Science Workshop. The following are students from SM Raja Perempuan EXCEPT __________________. A. Eric Joseph Pereira B. Nur Hidayah Sulaiman C. Intan Syafienez Mohd Bakhie D. Nurul Hidayah Sumaiyah Mohd Nozi Which of the following statements is TRUE? A. Eric Joseph Pereira aspires to be an aerospace engineer. B. Rusnani Sharuddin is the principal of SM Raja Perempuan in Ipoh. C. Intan Syafienez Mohd Bakhie is older than Nurul Hidayah Sumaiyah. D. Nurul Hidayah Sumaiyah obtained excellent results in the SPM exam. 156








Which statements are TRUE about Dr. Sheikh Muszaphar? I. He is an icon in Malaysia. II. He is a motivational speaker. III. He is Malaysias first astronaut. IV. He is well-known for his big dreams. A. B. I, II and III. II, III and IV. C. D. I, II and IV. I, II, III and IV.

SPEAKING Task 9.19 You are invited to present a motivational speech to a group of undergraduates at a local university. Your topic is Don't put things for tomorrow, when you can do it today. Prepare your speech. READING Task 9.20 Circle the BEST answers. The sun beat down mercilessly on Zhang Tingjun as she ran the City of Peace marathon in Dili, East Timor, last June. As the 28-year-old approached the finish line, she fought a lump rising in her throat. When she was done, she caught (1) _______________ of her three running mates and saw that they too were overwhelmed with (2) _______________. It was not because their ordeal was over. For Ting and her friends, each step they took (3) _______________ help save a life. It all started in July 2009 when the four young Singaporean women Ting, Jasmine Wong, Anina Boshoff and Alexandra Toh decided to go on an adventure together. Someone (4) _______________ the five-day Tour De Timor bicycle race and they jumped at it. Soon they were talking about the (5) _______________ that has gripped East Timor. The conversation slowly shifted to a common (6) _______________ to use adventure as a catalyst for change, Ting, a former TV journalist and former professional netball player, recalls. The quartet (7) _______________ The Chain Reaction Project (TCRP), with the goal of using their love for sport and adventure to help the (8) _______________. In addition to their four-hour-a-day training schedule, they appealed to friends, family and colleagues for donations. Their (9) _______________ efforts raised just S$100 ($78). Then out of the blue, Tings netball mentor, Ivy Singh Lim, (10) _______________ S$20,000 ($15,550). To have someone who really believed in us and what we were trying to do meant more than the cheque in my hand, says Ting. In all they raised more than S$45,000 ($35,000), (11) _______________ S$10,000 from Standard Chartered Private Bank. The four friends arrived in Dili in August 2009, several days (12) _______________ of the start of the race. Needing a place to stay, they took up an offer to camp at HIAM Health, a (13) _______________ centre for malnourished children. During their week at the centre, the women learned that more than half of Timorese children under five suffer from malnutrition. They also discovered that the centre was struggling to get enough money to prove what it could do to help. TCRP came to a (14) _______________: the money they had raised would go to HAIM Health. 157

We know a $100,000 donation isnt going to save the world, Ting says. At the end of the day, the combined (15) _______________ of a group of people trying to do good will be far greater than the four of us can achieve on our own.
(Adapted from


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Task 9.21 Read the article below and answer the questions below.

Inspired by Nadia Poster 1 A poster on the wall of a bookshop in Penang inspired Australian Noeleen Smith to face a gruelling battle against breast cancer and emerge a survivor. The 58-year-old, who visits Penang frequently, chanced upon the poster which depicted gymnast Nadia Comaneci and a stimulating quote Do not pray for an easy life, pray to be a strong person in 2004 and has lived by the quote since then. The portrait of Comaneci was drawn by Penang artist Goh Mai Loon. Smith went on to fight breast cancer and two years later was told by doctors that she was miraculously cured of the disease. Whenever things were tough during my chemotherapy, I would often think of the quote that I saw at the Nanyang Bookstore in Carnarvon Street. Anyone who has watched Nadia perform during the 1976 Summer Olympics will definitely be in awe of her abilities and the determination she showed to achieve perfect scores, she said in an e-mail interview. Relating her battle, Smith said her husband Bruce Smith would drive her from Albany to Perth every three weeks for the treatment, with the journey totalling about 1,000km to and fro. My oncologist was brilliant, the side effects of chemotherapy can be quite awful, but can be controlled. Smith said Nadias inspiring quote motivated her and gave her hope that she would live to see her granddaughter grow up and to see more grandchildren. Recently, Smith was in Penang and visited the bookstore again. She asked the owner to introduce her to Goh. I met her and thanked her for indirectly inspiring me with the drawing, she said. Life has been great for Smith after her treatment. She bought a shiny black Harley Davidson and learned the most important things in her life were family, friends and being happy. Smiths message to cancer patients is simple It is now your time, so stay positive and take the time to get well. Goh, a volunteer heritage conservationist and the Road to Dawn movie producer, said she drew the portrait when she was 16 years old during her class when the teacher was busy. I just sketched out my idol since we had nothing much to do. Never did I expect the portrait to inspire Smith in her fight against cancer, she said.
(Adapted from The Star Online, April 5, 2011






1. 2.

The poster on the wall of a bookshop in Penang inspired Noeleen Smith to be a __________________________________________________________________________ Describe the poster in your own words. __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________



What did Smith do after she was cured? __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ List four positive characteristics of Smith. __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ Who is Goh Mai Loon? __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ What is the advice given by Smith to cancer patients? __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ Explain what you understand about the message conveyed based on this article. __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ If you are given a chance to help others, what will it be? How would you plan to achieve your goal? __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________








LEARNING OBJECTIVES At the end of the unit, you should be able to: 1. identify the main idea of passages; 2. present a speech on the influence of fashion on todays youth; 3. complete exercises on subject-verb agreement and grammar; 4. read and answer comprehension questions; and 5. write an argumentative essay. READING A. Getting started Task 10.1 Answer these questions.


The impressive lace embroidered hand-stitched over ivory duchess satin shoes worn by Catherine, HRH Duchess of Cambridge during her wedding.

1. Do you know the designer of this pair of wedding shoes? 2. Do you like the design? Why? B. Read Task 10.2 Read the following article and answer the questions below. 1. What is the most significant function of shoes? 2. Name the shoe designers mentioned in this article. Are you familiar with their names?


The Shoe 1 From the smooth lines of the unopened box to the soft rustling of tissue paper, there are few things in life that excite women and often men as much as a new pair of shoes. Why do these objects hold such fascination for us? And what are the components that make up a perfect shoe? Primarily worn to protect our feet, the shoe will always be an intrinsically practical and necessary item of clothing. However, due to our increasing detachment from nature and ever more radical examples of footwear design, it is easy to forget the shoes profound significance. More recently, the shoe has become an object of beauty and desire, a testament to the vision of skilled and pioneering designers. The variety of footwear styles available today allows us all to express fully our individual tastes, and the messages communicated by our choice of shoe have surely never been greater. For example, stilettos are renowned for being both sexy and restrictive. Wedges bring to mind nostalgic fashions; while ballerina flats will always be considered effortlessly chic. Making shoes or cobbling was once considered to be a lowly trade, ranking alongside the carpenter, the blacksmith and the seamstress. Today, however, the inevitable march of mass production through the footwear industry has forced us to sit up and realised that every hand-sewn shoe is in fact a precious object created by highly skilled and trained craftspeople. It is not known exactly when shoemaking developed as a craft, although evidence suggests that it existed as a trade in Egypt as far back as 2000 BC. The skills, tricks and wiles of the trade have doubtless been altered and refined over the centuries, yet todays process of constructing footwear still consists of the same essential stages as it did one or even two hundred years ago. However, the fundamental change has been in the division of the labour. Until the mid-twentieth century, the actual designing of the shoe was not considered a separate artistic pursuit, rather a part of the whole cobbling process. This is a far cry from today when celebrated designers such as Christian Louboutin, Jimmy Choo and Manolo Blahnik are household names, while the craftsmen who produce the shoes in factories remain anonymous. The most significant recent development in the footwear industry had undoubtly been the large-scale transfer of footwear production in Vietnam, India, Indonesia, Thailand and, above all, China. Implemented entirely on economic grounds, this shift is due to manufacturers who are willing to sacrifice quality for the promise of a keen workface who will work for a fraction of Western wages. Consequently, this has meant that many of Europes highly skilled artisan craftsmen, unable to compete with such cheap labour, have been made redundant. There is much talk within the shoemaking industry of these Asian countries eventually taking over the entire industry, but in Italy, traditionally the most important footwear manufacturer in Europe, shoemakers have refocused on what they do best and continue to 162 5







produce shoes of particularly high quality. The Italians are relentlessly meticulous and proud of their perfection in quality and craftsmanship, making shoes that are far superior to anything created in the East. It could be argued, however, under the right conditions, the prospect of Chinese production offers a valid alternative. As consumers, we must make informed choices, which will allow the footwear industry to flourish ethically and in the right direction. 8 Ultimately our choice of footwear is a personal one. Shoes have the power to seduce us, move us and empower us. They can fulfil our fantasies and help us to escape from reality. The future of shoe design lies in the hands of our contemporary designers and although each shoe is different, the common thread that links them all is their exquisite craftsmanship. This, we believe, is the key to modern luxury.
(Adapted from Huey, S. and Proctor, R. (2007). New shoes: contemporary footwear design. London, United Kingdom: Laurence King Publishing Ltd)




C. Read again Task 10.3 Circle the BEST answers. 1. What is the main idea of this article? A. The individual preferences of shoes. B. The future of famous shoe designers. C. The variety of shoe designs available. D. The revolution in the shoemaking industry. 2. Nowadays, the choice of footwear styles available has enabled individuals to A. attract attention. B. exchange ideas. C. express their taste. D. share their collection. 3. Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding the shoemaking industry in Italy? A. Creates flawless shoes. B. Generates many shoe manufacturers. C. Produces shoes of wide-ranging quality. D. Uses cheap labour to produce quality shoes. 4. Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding the shoemaking industry in Asia? A. Becomes the leading shoe manufacturer in the world. B. Creates quality shoes at par with European manufacturers. C. Produces economical shoes due to the cheap labour available. D. Possesses the potential to become the world leading shoe manufacturer. 5. Which of the following is not a type of lady shoes? A. Flats. B. Stilts. C. Heels. D. Wedges.


6. Complete the table using words from the article to find the differences between the traditional and modern shoemaking development. Use up to three words for each blank. TRADITIONAL VERSUS MODERN SHOEMAKING Traditional Shoemaking Modern Shoemaking o worn to care for our feet o worn as an ___________ and desire o hand-sewn by highly skilled and o ___________ in factories trained craftspeople o believed to be ___________ o the shoemaking process has been altered and refined D. Discuss Task 10.4 Discuss these questions in your group forum. 1. 2. Do you agree that an individuals shoes reveal his or her status in society? How? Is buying a pair of designer shoes part of your desire? Why? o deemed to be a lowly trade o the essential stages of shoemaking ___________

VOCABULARY - DEFINITION A. Identify Task 10.5 Identify the word in bold from the article to match the definition provided below. Word Example: smooth _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ Definition completely flat surface with no lumps or holes famous for something very fashionable and elegant not needed or useful workers, especially people who do practical work with their hands a thing that shows that something else is true the sound of light, dry things moving together belonging to the present time feeling happy and sometimes slightly sad at the same time as you think about things that happened in the past a very strong attraction the state of things as they are, rather than as they are imagined to be something that is certain to happen and cannot be prevented preventing people from doing what they want paying careful attention to every detail made or done by someone whose name is not known or not made public extremely beautiful or carefully made of great value because of being rare, expensive or important

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.


B. Pair work Task 10.6 Fill in the blanks with appropriate words from Task 10.5. Dato Jimmy Choo made his first shoe when he was eleven years old. He i s (1)_______________ for founding Jimmy Choo Ltd. which produces hand-made women's shoes. The (2) _______________ shoes he created have always captured our (3) _______________ . He shared the (4) _______________ memories of his life where he worked part time at restaurants and as a cleaner at a shoe factory to help fund his college education. He came to the verge of international notability when his creations were featured in a record eight pages in a 1988 issue of Vogue magazine. Patronage from the late Diana, Princess of Wales from 1990 onwards had also become the (5)_______________ of his prominent image. PARTS OF SPEECH SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT BASIC RULE In a sentence, the subject must always agree with the verb. The basic rule states that a singular subject takes a singular verb, while a plural subject takes a plural verb. Examples: 1. The box is heavy. 2. The boxes are heavy. EXPLANATION Two singular subjects connected by or or nor require a singular verb. Two singular subjects connected by either/or or neither/nor require a singular verb. EXAMPLE My aunt or my uncle is arriving by train today. Neither Juan nor Carmen is available. Either Kiana or Casey is helping today with stage decorations. When I is one of the two subjects connected by Neither she nor I am going to the festival. either/or or neither/nor, put it second followed with the singular verb am. When a singular subject is connected by or or nor to The serving bowl or the plates go on that a plural subject, put the plural subject last and use a shelf. plural verb. When a singular and plural subject are connected Neither Jenny nor the others are available. by either/or or neither/nor, put the plural subject last and use a plural verb. As a general rule, use a plural verb with two or more A car and a bike are my means of subjects when they are connected by and. transportation. Sometimes the subject is separated from the verb The politician, along with the newsmen, is by words such as along with, as well as, besides, or expected shortly. not. Ignore these expressions when determining Excitement, as well as nervousness, is the whether to use a singular or plural verb. cause of his agitation. The pronouns each, everyone, every one, Each of the girls sings well. everybody, anyone, anybody, someone, and Every one of the cakes is gone. somebody are singular and require singular verbs. 165

Do not be misled by what follows of.

With words that indicate portionspercent, fraction, part, majority, some, all, none, remainder, and so forth look at the noun in your of phrase (object of the preposition) to determine whether to use a singular or plural verb. If the object of the preposition is singular, use a singular verb. If the object of the preposition is plural, use a plural verb.

The expression the number is followed by a singular verb while the expression a number is followed by a plural verb. When either and neither are subjects, they always take singular verbs.

The words here and there have generally been labeled as adverbs even though they indicate place. In sentences beginning with here or there, the subject follows the verb. Use a singular verb with sums of money or periods Ten dollars is a high price to pay. of time. Five years is the maximum sentence for that offense. Sometimes the pronoun who, that, or which is the Amir is the lecturer who prepares the subject of a verb in the middle of the sentence. The reports. pronouns who, that, and which become singular or He is one of the men who do the work. plural according to the noun directly in front of them. So, if that noun is singular, use a singular verb. If it is plural, use a plural verb. Collective nouns such as team and staff may be The staff is in a meeting. either singular or plural depending on their use in The staff are in disagreement about the the sentence. findings. The sentence would read even better as: The staff members are in disagreement about the findings.

NOTE: Everyone is one word when it means everybody. Every one is two words when the meaning is each one. Fifty percent of the pie has disappeared. Fifty percent of the pies have disappeared. One-third of the city is unemployed. One-third of the people are unemployed. All of the pie is gone. All of the pies are gone. Some of the pie is missing. Some of the pies are missing. None of the garbage was picked up. None of the sentences were punctuated correctly. Of all her books, none have sold as well as the first one. The number of people we need to hire is thirteen. A number of people have written in about this subject. Neither of them is available to speak right now. Either of us is capable of doing the job. There are four hurdles to jump. There is a high hurdle to jump.


A. Practice Task 10.7 Change the sentences into the singular or plural forms. Example: These imported racing cars are so expensive that they are not popular in Malaysia. This imported car is so expensive that it is not popular in Malaysia. 1. The telephones in those rooms have been ringing all day. __________________________________________________________________________ 2. Foreign waitresses earn reasonable pay. __________________________________________________________________________ 3. Firemen wear uniforms when on duty. __________________________________________________________________________ 4. A house with a garden is beautiful and pleasant. __________________________________________________________________________ 5. His order is being attended to now. __________________________________________________________________________ 6. Where is the present you promised me? __________________________________________________________________________ 7. The grocery shop opposite the administrative building opens at 6:00 a.m. daily. __________________________________________________________________________ 8. Clocks, including watches, tell the time. __________________________________________________________________________ 9. An inefficient staff causes problems to the organisation. __________________________________________________________________________ 10. We always dress well because we are fashion conscious. __________________________________________________________________________ 11. A chilly plant grows well in a pot. __________________________________________________________________________ 12. Teachers should equip themselves with the most advance methods of teaching. __________________________________________________________________________


B. Read Task 10.8 Complete the passage below using the Simple Present Tense of the verbs in brackets. Apply the Subject-Verb Agreement rules. Zakiah (0) misses (miss) her former hometown, Melaka, very much. So, one fine morning, while having breakfast, she (1) _______________ (decide) on a brief stay in that historical city. Thus, after ten years, the undergraduate (2) _______________ (be) finally not only able to visit the various historical buildings, but also her teachers, classmates and childhood friends, all of whom she (3) _______________ (remember) with affection. When Zakiah (4) _______________ (reach) Melaka, she (5) _______________ (see) the numerous changes which (6) _______________ (impress) her. As she (7) _______________ (make) her way to the centre of the town, recollections of the past (8) _______________ (fill) her mind. Gone (9) _______________ (be) the days of a leisurely pace of life. Therefore, Melaka no longer (10) _______________ (deserve) the unflattering label sleepy hollow. Zakiah (11) _______________ (board) a bus to get to Peringgit Point, where she (12) _______________ (hope) to surprise her best friend, Lee Na. It (13) _______________ (not, take) long for Zakiah to reach her destination. She (14) _______________ (hurry) to Lee Nas house, knocking on the door nervously. After some time, someone finally (15) _______________ (open) the door. GRAMMAR IN ACTION A. Practice Task 10.9 Fill in the blanks with is, are, has or have. Example: is A pair of broken glasses ____________ lying on the desk. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Half of the books ____________ (be) story books. Many students ____________ (have) scored in the placement test. Twelve years ____________ (have) passed since I quit working in that company. One hundred years ____________ (be) a century. What ____________ (be) the villagers looking for? The cattle ____________ (be) grazing grass by the river bank. Politics ____________ (be) a subject taught in most local universities. A number of teenagers ____________ (be) skating at the park. The number of students who own computers ____________ (be) increasing. The Philippines ____________ (be) in the Pacific Ocean. Her family ____________ (be) preparing food for the house warming party. The lecturer together with the international students ____________ (have) discussed the matter. 13. One and a half day ____________ (be) what Siti needs to complete her work. 14. Great quantities of fresh water fish ____________ (have) been caught in the Pahang River. 15. When and where to carry out the fund raising project ____________ (have) not been determined yet.


B. Write Task 10.10 Change the sentences into the singular or plural form. Then, identify the tense of each sentence or question. Example: A lion preys on a smaller animal, such as a rabbit, attacking it without warning. Lions prey on smaller animals, such as rabbits, attacking them without warning. (Simple Present Tense) 1. The shelves of these racks are not strong enough to bear the weight of those books. __________________________________________________________________________ 2. A child loves reading an adventure story. __________________________________________________________________________ 3. While I was watching television, my colleague dropped by to invite me to his party. __________________________________________________________________________ 4. That boat which sank was on fire yesterday. __________________________________________________________________________ 5. Why doesnt she tell the truth to her friend? __________________________________________________________________________ 6. Inventions, as well as scientific discoveries, are beneficial to mankind. __________________________________________________________________________ 7. How do these families cope with such meager income? __________________________________________________________________________ 8. A drug addict usually does not seek treatment on his own. __________________________________________________________________________ 9. A student who disobeys the school regulations, risks punishment. __________________________________________________________________________ 10. Those blouses and pairs of trousers were too old and worn out that my mother decided to discard them. __________________________________________________________________________


LISTENING AND SPEAKING A. Listen Task 10.11 Listen to the passage carefully. Then, check () True or False for each sentence. True 1. Moon boots cost $13,000 a pair. 2. ILC Dover manufactures space suits and high-tech shoes for NASA. 3. ILC Dover in Delaware is owned by Dave Graziosi. 4. The latest in space footwear is the M2 Trekker designed by Dave Graziosi's team. 5. Nine pairs of boots worn during the Apollo missions are still on the moon after thirty years. 6. The boots left on the moon can still be retrieved. B. Listen again Task 10.12 Listen to the passage again. Then, fill in the blanks with the correct words. False

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

M2 Trekker It is designed for the mission to the moon and ____________________ . The three parts of the shoe are an ____________________ pressure bladder, a middle structural layer, and a ____________________ cover. The shoe can withstand temperatures from minus 212C to plus __________________. The wearer will be able to hike back should the ____________________ rover break down miles away from the landing module. The boot is slimmer and ____________________ compared to the shoe worn by Apollo astronauts.


SPEAKING IN ACTION MANAGING A GROUP DISCUSSION TIPS: ELEMENTS IN MANAGING A DISCUSSION 1. Initiating a discussion 2. Responding to arguments or statement made 3. Asking for and giving information 4. Maintaining a discussion 5. Interrupting 6. Closing a discussion A. Practice Task 10.13 Read the following expressions. Provide other phrases for these elements of managing a discussion. ELEMENT Initiating a discussion EXPRESSIONS Lets begin our discussion. First, we need to discuss _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ Thats a good idea. It is good that Sorry, I dont agree with you. In my opinion _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________

Responding to arguments or statement made

Asking for and giving information

Asking for information: Could you elaborate on Is there anything else that you would like to share with us? _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ Giving information: The advantages of mixed marriages are The problem of baby dumping stems from _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________

Maintaining a discussion

Can you please explain Let me further elaborate . _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________



Excuse me, can I add something here? May I interrupt for a minute? _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ This has been an interesting discussion. Let me conclude by saying So, we have reached an agreement that . _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________

Closing a discussion


Group work Task 10.14 Choose one of the topics given below and discuss with your group. 1. What do you think are the causes of accidents at the work-place? Discuss by providing appropriate examples. 2. How do you solve the problem of daylight robbery in your housing area? Provide the relevant details to curb this problem. 3. Discuss how you can help tourism in our country. 4. How can we promote national integration and harmony among Malaysians?

WRITING - ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY In argumentative essays, you are required to give your viewpoints or opinions on certain topics. Therefore, you may be arguing for or against the topic. Often you have to present the pros (supporting ideas) and the cons (opposing ideas) of an argumentative issue. You have to clearly take a stand and write as if you are trying to persuade an opposing audience to adopt new beliefs or behaviour. You must support your argument with good examples or facts. You may plan your argumentative essay as follows: Introduction Body Introduce the topic and state your stand whether you are for or against the topic. Define or explain clearly the words or phrases in the topic. Present suitable evidences or examples to support your viewpoint. Point out anything that is not logical or relevant. Do not generalise without proper evidence. Present your arguments clearly and in a logical sequence. Stick to your view throughout the essay. Every paragraph should express a different point. A summary of the main arguments. A final comment or remark and restatement of your viewpoint.



Teenagers and Jobs The pressure for teenagers to work is great, and not just because of the economic plight in the world today. Many people argue that working can be a valuable experience for the young. However, working more than fifteen hours a week is harmful to adolescents because it reduces their involvement with school, encourages a materialistic and expensive lifestyle, and increases the chances of having problems with drugs and alcohol. Schoolwork and the benefits of extracurricular activities tend to go by the wayside when adolescents work long hours. As more and more teens have filled numerous part-time jobs offered by fast-food restaurants and malls, teachers have faced increasing difficulties. They must both keep the attention of tired pupils and give homework to students who simply dont have time to do it. In addition, educators have noticed less involvement in the extracurricular activities that many consider a healthy influence young people. School bands and athletic teams are losing players to work, and sports events are poorly attended by working students. Those teens who try to do it all-homework, extracurricular activities, and work-may find themselves exhausted and prone to illness. Another drawback of too much work is that it may promote materialism and an unrealistic lifestyle. Surveys have shown that the majority of working teens use their earnings to buy luxuriescomputers, video-game systems, clothing, even cars. These young people, some of whom earn $500 or more a month, dont worry about spending wisely-they can just about have it all. In many cases, experts point out, they are becoming accustomed to a lifestyle they wont be able to afford several years down the road, when they no longer have parents paying for car insurance, food, lodging, and so on. At that point, theyll be hard-pressed to pay for necessities as well as luxuries. Finally, teenagers who work a lot are more likely than others to get involved with alcohol and drugs. Teens who put in long hours may seek a quick release from stress, just like the adults who need to drink a couple of martinis after a hard day of work. Stress is probably greater in our society today than it has been at any time in the past. Also, teens who have money are more likely to get involved with drugs. Teenagers can enjoy the benefits of work while avoiding its drawbacks, simply by limiting their work hours during the school year. As is often the case, a moderate approach will be the most healthy and rewarding.
(Adapted from: Langan, J. (2011). College writing skills (8th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill, p.374-375)

A. Write Task 10.15 Write an essay on one of the topics below. Your essay should not be less than 350 words. 1. Do you think private schools are better than government schools? 2. Extended families living under one roof should be encouraged. 3. Private tuition is necessary for academic success. 173

ENRICHMENT LISTENING Task 10.16 Listen to the article entitled The Story of Shoes and circle the BEST answers. 1. Our ancestors made shoes to protect the feet from the following EXCEPT _____________. A. B. C. D. 2. sand rocks rough surface food and shelter

Stories of shoes have been handed down to us as a legacy. The word legacy means _______________. A. B. C. D. wealth property heritage well-being


Which of the following stories is not mentioned in the article? A. B. C. D. Cinderella Puss in Books Seven League Boots Mercurys Winged Sandals


The custom of flinging the shoe after the newly wedded couple in the olden days was meant to _______________. A. B. C. D. chase the couple away say goodbye to the couple show the status of the couple bring good luck for the couple


Which statements are TRUE about shoes? I. II. III. IV. A. B. The Greeks designed military sandals. The Roman sandals were very durable. The Japanese sandals indicated social status. The Roman sandals were beautifully decorated. I and II . III and IV. C. D. II and III. II, III and IV.


SPEAKING Task 10.17 Present a speech on the influence of fashion on youth today.

READING Task 10.18 Circle the BEST answers. Tracey Neuls has established herself as a vital force in contemporary shoe making design. Since she was only 9 years old and designing shoes with cardboard, tape, staples, and a pair of toilet paper rolls, Neuls has been a (1) _______________ who demonstrates exceptional aptitude for taking the normal and (2) _______________ , and throwing them into exciting new situations. After first making a name for (3) _______________ in clothing design, in both America and Europe, she eventually moved to London from Canada in 1996 to enrol at the (4) _______________ Cordwainers College. Success came to Neuls almost instantly, and by the end of her studies she (5) _______________ awarded the Royal Society of Arts award, the Absolute Cobblers award and the Blueprint/Vitra design award. Following her 1998 graduation collection, she (6) _______________ her own footwear company TN_29. Launching her first (7) _______________ in 2000, Neuls showed a unique ergonomic shape that was greeted with critical (8) _______________ . Treating the shoe as a single form, Neuls challenged (9) _______________ footwear shapes by carrying the upper over the heel and (10) _______________ any joint. Shortly afterwards she won the New Generation Award for her (11) _______________ designs. Neulss priority is always to indulge feet with quality (12) _______________ to shatter the fashion myth that great design (13) _______________ be accompanied by pain. All components for her shoes are developed (14) _______________ in Italy and she is adamant about refusing to buy ready-made or pre-designed pieces. The (15) _______________ of Neuls work lies not only in her use of the best craftsmen available, but also in her questioning of the expected, ignoring the rules and taking inspiration from a vast range of sources.
(Adapted from Huey, S. and Proctor, R. (2007). New shoes: contemporary footwear design. London, United Kingdom: Laurence King Publishing Ltd.)


A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D.

design designer designed designing bored standard mundane common itself herself himself themselves


A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D.

usual habitual common traditional erase erases erased erasing innovates innovated innovative innovation 175






A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A B. C. D.

auspicious suspicious prosperous prestigious has been had been have been have being launch launches launched launching collects collected collection collecting accept acclaim argument appreciation


A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. A. B. C. D.

but and while however can must could would exclude excluded exclusion exclusively beauty glorious gorgeous attractive








Task 10.19 Read the story below and circle the BEST answers. Theresas Doll Shoes 1 At age eight Theresa played with a doll just like other little girls her age. Theresas doll wore a gathered blue dress and had porcelain eyes, but she lacked shoes. This was a serious omission because Theresa was the granddaughter of a master shoemaker. On her way home from school, Theresa never forgot to stop at her grandfathers workshop to give him a kiss. There, with the help of few workers, shoes were custom made and hand sewn. On Thursdays, when there was no school, the little girl often spent the afternoon in the workshop where a mingled scent of leather, glue, and polish emanated. Theresa nosed about every nook and cranny, between the workbench and the shelves full of wooden dorms and boxes of nails, while the steady sounds of the workshop resounded around her; the sound of the lasting pliers pushing in nails to fit the leather on the last and the sound of the hammer pounding out the leather. One cold and gloomy November afternoon in 1889, the little girl, with doll in arms, pushed open the door, as was her custom, and entered the shop like a stream of sunlight, filing the place with joy. In that same instant, the grand fathers eye fell upon the dolls bare feet. Now Theresa, who could not stop herself from thoroughly exploring 5


15 176

the world of the shoemakers workshop, placed her daughter on the stool. Taking advantage of the moment, her grandfather rapidly measured the d olls feet. When his workday was done, and with the utmost secrecy, the master craftsman put his heart into skillfully crafting miniature ankle boots for the doll. On Christmas Eve, he wrapped them in tissue paper and, while the child lay asleep, placed the doll shoes inside her own shoes left in front of the fireplace. 4 Christmas morning, Theresa discovered her shoes stuffed with the little doll shoes. Her eyes blazed with delight as she turned to her grandfather and said, Look Grandfather what Father Christmas brought me. He knows how to make shoes just like you and you did not even teach him how. Theresa carefully preserved the little ankle boots as a memento of the deep affection she shared with her beloved grandfather. Years passed. Christmas time was approaching when Theresa decided to donate the shoes to the International Shoe Museum, Romans. She was aged ninety-five. In offering them, the elderly woman said, Grandfather is watching from above. How happy he must be to see his an kle boots join in thousands of pairs gathered here and made by men practicing his craft from over four thousand years ago to the present day. As the holidays approached, the Museum could not have asked for a more wonderful gift than Theresas doll shoes.
(Adapted from Bossan, M-J. (2007).The art of the shoe. New York, USA: Parkstone Press International)





Which of the following statement is TRUE regarding Theresas doll? A. It was blue. B. It had beautiful eyes. C. It did not wear shoes. D. It wore ankle boots made by workers in the workshop. The idiom every nook and cranny (line 8) means __________________. A. every part of a place B. every angle of a place C. every niche of a place D. every corner of a place The writer described Theresa like a stream of sunlight (line 13-14) as she entered her grandfathers workshop. The phrase means Theresa was __________________. A. bright B. active C. cheerful D. beautiful





Which of the following statements describes the shoes made by Theresas grandfather? A. The shoes were made in bulk. B. The shoes were made to order. C. The shoes were made using machines. D. The shoes were made from nails and leather. Why did Theresas grandfather make the dolls ankle boots in secret? A. He was not sure what to do. B. He wanted to surprise Theresa. C. He did not want to pamper Theresa. D. He did not want Theresa to pay him. The word memento (line 26) can be replaced with__________________. A. gift B. relic C. prize D. keepsake Based on this story, which statement is TRUE? A. Theresa donated the dolls shoes during Christmas. B. Theresa passed away when she was ninety-five years old. C. Theresa kept her dolls ankle boots for more than ninety-five years. D. Theresa donated the doll to the International Shoe Museum, Romans.





REFERENCES Azar, B.S. (2003). Fundamentals of English grammar (3rd ed.). New York: Pearson Education. Bossan, M-J. (2007).The art of the shoe. New York, USA: Parkstone Press International. Huey, S. and Proctor, R. (2007). New shoes: contemporary footwear design. London, United Kingdom: Laurence King Publishing Ltd. Langan, J. (2011). College writing skills (8th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. Thewlis, S.H. (2007). Grammar dimensions: Form, meaning, and use (4th ed.). USA: Heinle.


ANSWER KEY UNIT 1 Task 1.7 1. cinemas 2. flies 3. houses 4. mice 5. geese 6. moose 7. fish/fishes 8. abbeys 9. pencil cases 10. sheep Task 1.11 1. likes 2. sweep, does 3. are eating 4. spend 5. are leaving 6. has 7. work, works 8. lives 9. are cleaning 10. am dropping 11. chooses, gets 12. loves, feels Task 1.9 1. I 2. She 3. He 4. He 5. They 6. It 7. They 8. It 9. They 10. You Task 1.12 1. am reading 2. works 3. are watching 4. are, speaking 5. do not/dont know 6. comes 7. likes 8. does, have 9. is leaving 10. does, do 11. goes 12. go 13. is ringing 14. falls 15. is changing 16. is getting 17. comes 18. grows 19. waters 20. are leaving Task 1.23 1. C 2. D 3. C 4. A 5. D 6. A 7. A 8. A 9. C 10. A 180 Task 1.10 1. himself 2. themselves 3. myself 4. yourself 5. himself 6. ourselves 7. itself 8. oneself 9. ourselves 10. herself Task 1.13 1. is not/isnt taking 2. thinks 3. has 4. teaches 5. gets 6. feels 7. have 8. is looking 9. is trying 10. gets

Task 1.15 1. B 2. B 3. A 4. A 5. D 6. B 7. B 8. A

UNIT 2 Task 2.7 1. poisonous 2. long 3. talkative 4. windy 5. enjoyable 6. helpful 7. golden 8. Harmful Task 2.8 1. seemed 2. was 3. blamed 4. set 5. were 6. spotted 7. could 8. swore 9. kept 10. returned Task 2.14 (a) Install (b) answer (c) Flush with care (d) recycled (e) dual (f) natural (g) spray (h) vinegar (i) teaspoons (j) essential (k) scrubber (l) Green note on towels (m) materials (n) PVC (o) linen UNIT 3 Task 3.3 1. F 2. F 3. T 4. F 5. T 6. F 7. T 8. T 9. F 10. T Task 3.7 1. lighter than 2. the most beautiful 3. slower than 4. the thinnest 5. bigger than 6. cold 7. more important than 8. more expensive than 9. the funniest 10. the most attractive 11. the most interesting 12. better than Task 3.20 1. A 2. B 3. B 4. D 5. B 6. C 7. A 8. C 9. D 10. C 11. A 12. A 13. A 14. C 15. C 181 Task 2.10 1. walked 2. did 3. were 4. bought 5. cleaned 6. taught 7. cut 8. flew 9. grew 10. had Task 2.20 1. C 2. D 3. A 4. C 5. B 6. C 7. D 8. C 9. D 10. C 11. B 12. C 13. B 14. D 15. C

Task 2.13 1. F 2. F 3. T 4. T 5. T 6. F 7. F 8. T 9. T 10. F

UNIT 4 Task 4.3 1. F 2. F 3. F 4. T 5. T Task 4.5 1. to recognize and name the exact character of a disease or a problem, by examining it 2. a very strong feeling, especially of love, hate or anger 3. something that is added to something else 4. money that is paid regularly by a government or company to somebody who has stopped working because of old age or who cannot work because they are ill 5. knowing about something Task 4.11 1. has he been 2. have they lived here 3. has taken my car 4. has Vijay known about it 5. have you seen it 6. have you chosen 7. has she lost 8. has she been here 9. has Johari gone to 10. has she married Task 4.15 a. 3 b. 4 c. 1 d. 5 e. 2 Task 4.23 1. D 2. D 3. C Task 4.12 1. given 2. grown 3. known 4. broken 5. thought 6. shut

Task 4.10 1. has been 2. have known 3. have moved 4. have played 5. has had 6. has found 7. has seen 8. has not been able 9. has decided 10. has stayed Task 4.13 1. F 2. T 3. T 4. F 5. F Task 4.22 1. B 2. A 3. B 4. D 5. A 6. C 7. A 8. A 9. D 10. D 11. C 12. A

Task 4.20 1. D 2. D 3. B 4. C 5. B


UNIT 5 Task 5.3 1. T 2. T 3. F 4. T 5. F Task 5.7 1. to take 2. to establish 3. passing 4. to cook 5. to help 6. playing 7. to work 8. eating 9. fixing 10. meeting Task 5.11 1. I will have graduated 2. I will have visited 3. I will have finished 4. I will have read 5. I will have completed Task 5.16 1. sad 2. sympathy 3. frustration Task 5.9 1. will have driven 2. will have studied 3. will have visited 4. will have mastered 5. will have delivered

Task 5.10 1. will have opened 2. will have provided 3. will have completed

Task 5.12 1. C 2. C 3. C 4. C 5. C Task 5.23 1. D 2. F 3. C 4. E 5. A 6. B

Task 5.15 1. T 2. T 3. F 4. F 5. T 6. F 7. T 8. F Task 5.24 1. A 2. B 3. C 4. B 5. A 6. D 7. B 8. A 9. B 10. B 11. C 12. C 13. A 14. A 15. D


UNIT 6 Task 6.2 1. T 2. F 3. T 4. T Task 6.3 1. a 2. a Task 6.8 1. need not 2. Can 3. must 4. may 5. must not 6. must 7. need not 8. can 9. must 10. Can Task 6.11 1. e 2. a 3. c 4. b 5. d

Task 6.9 1. have been waiting 2. have been sitting 3. has been running

Task 6.10 1. have you been have been 2. have been driving 3. have loved 4. have been having have gone 5. has been working has been enjoying 6. have thought have become 7. has been seeing has seen Task 6.21 1. 70% of 2. A quarter 3. 90% of 4. Nearly two-third 5. 47%

Task 6.21 2. a substantial fall 3. a considerable increase 4. a slight drop 5. a noticeable decrease 6. a marginal growth 7. a steady decline

Task 6.28 1. A 2. D 3. C 4. C

Task 6.27 1. A 2. A 3. C 4. C 5. D 6. A 7. D 8. A 9. B 10. A 11. A 12. A 13. A 14. C 15. A


UNIT 7 Task 7.2 1. B 2. D 3. D 4. D 5. A 6. D Task 7.3 1. T 2. F 3. F 4. T 5. F 6. F 7. F 8. F 9. T 10. F Task 7.6 1. impact 2. mission 3. orbit 4. atmosphere 5. catastrophic

Task 7.7 1. The man was unable to work for he had heart failure. 2. Salmah saw a rat ran in front of her, so she fell down from the chair. 3. You can cry like a baby or face the consequences of your action like an adult. 4. Set up a home recycling centre and sort your recyclables at home. 5. Aman did not want to play with Julisah nor with Sofia. Task 7.8 1. Neither, nor 2. Not only, but also 3. Both, and 4. either, or 5. whether, or Task 7.9 1. Fahrin got the job although he had no experience. 2. I dont drink coffee because it makes me nervous. 3. I was late today because my car broke down. 4. I ran out of the bathroom after I heard someone screamed. 5. My sister is not feeling well, therefore she is taking a nap. 6. The twin brothers are working in the same bank which is one of the most well-known in Asia.

Task 7.10 1. had been waiting 2. had been studying 3. had been watching 4. had been daydreaming 5. had been sleeping 6. had been criticising 7. had been working 8. had been practising 9. had not been raining 10. had not been eating

Task 7.11 1. g 2. e 3. a 4. h 5. c 6. f 7. d 8. b

Task 7.12 1. had been sleeping 2. had been waiting 3. had been looking 4. had been jogging 5. had been driving 6. had been helping 7. had been cycling 8. had been raining


Task 7.13 1. had been trying 2. visited 3. costed 4. had been writing 5. had been worrying 6. arrived 7. had - believed 8. had been talking Task 7.20 1. A 2. C 3. C 4. D 5. B 6. C

Task 7.14 1. B 2. D 3. B 4. A 5. B

Task 7.18 1. F 2. T 3. T 4. T 5. F 6. F 7. T 8. F

Task 7.21 1. B 2. D 3. B 4. B 5. B 6. D 7. A 8. D 9. A 10. D 11. C 12. A 13. C 14. C 15. C

UNIT 8 Task 8.2 1. Due to its world-class education system and strong international reputation. 2. They study in private schools, international schools, colleges, private universities, foreign universities branch campus and public universities. 3. The reasons are the fees is the lowest in the region, the cost of living is low which includes food, accommodation and transport and Malaysian Ringgit is less expensive compared to other countries. 4. No, the English Proficiency courses are meant for those who are less proficient in the language. 5. It is the medium of instruction and commonly used among Malaysians. 6. Tropical climate and free from major natural disasters / strong economy and socially safe country with a stable government / low crime rate / easy and hassle free administrative process. (Any 2 correct answers.)


Task 8.3 1. affordable 2. comprehensive 3. instruction 4. diverse 5. religious 6. stable

Task 8.4 Advantages: 1. Learn new culture. 2. Learn to be independent. 3. Meet new friends. Disadvantages: 1. Feelings of loneliness, stress and fear. 2. High cost of tuition fees. 3. Inability to adapt and adjust to the new environment. (Other appropriate responses accepted.) Task 8.7 1. by 2. in 3. at 4. on 5. in 6. at 7. in 8. at 9. in 10. by Task 8.8 1. on 2. for 3. in 4. in 5. for

Task 8.5 1. registered 2. chosen / favoured 3. contented 4. sum / total 5. correspond to / signify 6. complete / broad 7. renowned / famous 8. credentials 9. teaching 10. usually / normally 11. capable / skilful 12. vital / critical / important 13. varied / assorted 14. weather 15. steady / established / secure Task 8.9 1. will have completed 2. will have been 3. will have changed 4. will have been painting 5. will have exercised 6. will have been jogging 7. will have been talking 8. will have been teaching 9. will have been waiting 10. will have received

Task 8.10 1. will have closed 2. will have been enjoying 3. will be leaving 4. will be arriving 5. will have been 6. will have been planning 7. wont be spending 8. will be keeping 9. will all be going


Task 8.11 1. will have been waiting, arrives 2. will have been studying, gets 3. will have been talking, leaves 4. will have been driving, gets 5. will have been, returns, will have been exercising 6. will have been, return, will have been practicing 7. will have, will have been shopping 8. will have been studying, will want 9. will have been revising, will pass 10. will have been swimming, sets Task 8.14 1. T 2. F 3. T 4. T 5. F 6. F 7. F 8. F Task 8.21 1. C 2. D 3. C 4. D 5. B 6. D 7. A 8. A 9. C 10. A 11. C 12. C 13. A 14. D 15. D Task 8.18 1. D 2. A 3. C 4. D 5. B Task 8.20 1. A 2. D 3. C 4. A 5. D


UNIT 9 Task 9.5 1. f 2. g 3. d 4. b 5. a 6. e 7. c 8. j 9. h 10. i Task 9.9 Simple Present Tense 1. My clothes are sewn by my aunt. 2. The building is cleaned by a few workers. 3. The ball is kicked by him. 4. The old building is occupied by us. 5. A cap is always worn by ger grandfather. Present Progressive Tense 1. Those crossword puzzles are being solved by my brother. 2. A big bowl of noodles is being eaten by Ah seng. 3. The dustbin is being rummaged by some stray cats. 4. Piano lessons are taught by my son. 5. We are being scolded by them. Simple Past Tense 1. The dessert was eaten by them. 2. The mangoes behind the shop were stolen by the boys. 3. The sick girl was examined by the doctor. 4. The kitten in the drain was found by Suria. 5. The letter to the headmaster was written by my sister. Past Progressive Tense 1. Fried chicken were being eaten during lunch. 2. The dolphins were being trained by the zoo-keeper. 3. They were being taught to speak Chinese by Miss Lim. 4. I was being assisted by my senior. 5. They were being questioned by a group of policemen. Simple Future Tense 1. I will not be allowed to go out by my mother. 2. A new house will be bought by my uncle. 3. The dirty clothes will be washed by my maid. 4. Gopal will not be interviewed by the new lecturer. 5. My sister will be told the good news by my father.


Present Perfect Tense 1. Many villages in Acheh have been destroyed by the tsunami. 2. The money in the enveloped has not been counted by my brother. 3. The public telephone has been vandalised by sine naughty boys. 4. The aquarium has been cleaned twice a month by Jason. 5. The pizza has been eaten by her. Past Perfect Tense 1. The plantation had been destroyed by the elephants. 2. The lyrics of the song had been written by Aleesya. 3. The hungry python had been caught by my brave neighbour. 4. The old sweater had been worn by the baby. 5. All the windows in the lecture room had been opened by her. Task 9.10 1. was paid (Simple Past Tense) 2. are shown (Simple Present Tense) 3. was invented (Simple Past Tense) 4. were bombed (Simple Past Tense) 5. are manufactured (Simple Present Tense) 6. was sentenced (Simple Past Tense) 7. is being shared (Present Progressive Tense) 8. has been rescued (Present Perfect Tense) 9. was offered (Simple Past Tense) 10. was established (Simple Past Tense) Task 9.11 1. The telephone was invented by Alexander Graham Bell. 2. The island is surrounded by water. 3. The burnt circuit will be fixed by an electrician. 4. The sick boy has been examined by a doctor. 5. English is spoken by a large number of people. 6. Children are fascinated by airplanes. 7. A Woman of No Importance was written by Oscar Wilde. 8. You will be shocked by the news. 9. The victim was being buried by the murderer when the policemen caught him. 10. The guests to the house-warming oarty were being welcomed by the host. 11. The errant driver had been issued a summons by the policeman. 12. The best students will be selected by the teacher for the debate competition. 13. The missing necklace has not been found by my mother. 14. Many people had been made homeless by the fire. 15. Dinner is now being prepared by Cynthia and her mother.


Task 9.12 1. Yes, lecturers are usually respected by students. 2. Yes, fatalities are often caused by road accidents. 3. Yes, clever tricks are performed by Marys cat. 4. Yes, the piping in that old mansion was checked by the plumber. 5. Yes, the passenger in trouble is assisted by the steward. 6. Yes, all their allowances was spent on food last month. 7. Yes, all the patients in the ward have been examined by the doctors. 8. Yes, Jason has donated blood before. 9. Yes, the disciplinary problem will be reported by the prefect to the teacher. 10. Yes, the magazine is being read by my uncle now. 11. Yes, the dance is being performed by the twins during the school concert. 12. Yes, the snit-smoking campaign has been launched by the government. Task 9.13 1. No, the hedges are not being trimmed by Maniam right now. 2. No, reports are not prepared by a clerk. 3. No, loan applications are not processed fast by banks. 4. No, lunch is not being cooked by my mother at the moment. 5. No, those heavy boxes were not lifted by the neighbours. 6. No, the drunk drivers have not been summoned by the police. 7. No, my sister is not being driven by me to the airport. 8. No, the piano is not well played by him. 9. No, the babys sleep is not being disturbed by the loud music. 10. No, a fish was not stolen by my cats from my kitchen. 11. No, his brothers are not being taken to the zoo by Abdul during the holiday. 12. No, the complaints from the students will not be investigated by the head of department.

Task 9.14 1. teased 2. movies 3. high 4. town 5. met 6. security 7. squatter 8. building 9. million 10. filmmaker

Task 9.18 1. D 2. A 3. A 4. C 5. C 6. C 7. B 8. A

Task 9.20 1. A 2. B 3. C 4. C 5. A 6. A 7. C 8. D 9. B 10. C 11. D 12. B 13. D 14. D 15. B


UNIT 10 Task 10.3 1. D 2. A 3. A 4. B 5. B 6. object of beauty mass produced an artistic pursuit remain the same Task 10.5 1. renowned 2. chic 3. redundant 4. labour 5. reality 6. rustling 7. contemporary 8. nostalgic 9. fascination 10. testament 11. inevitable 12. restrictive 13. meticulous 14. anonymous 15. exquisite 16. precious Task 9.20 1. renowned 2. exquisite 3. fascination 4. nostalgic 5. testament

Task 10.7 1. The telephone in that room has been ringing all day. 2. A foreign waitress earns reasonable pay. 3. A fireman wears uniform when on duty. 4. Houses with gardens are beautiful and pleasant. 5. His orders are being attended to now. 6. Where are the presents you promised me? 7. The grocery shops opposite the administrative buildings open at 6:00 a.m. daily. 8. A clock, including a watch, tells the time. 9. Inefficient staff cause problems to the organisations. 10. I always dress well because I am fashion conscious. 11. Chilly plants grow well in pots. 12. A teacher should equip him/herself with the most advance methods of teaching. Task 10.8 1. decides 2. is 3. remembers 4. reaches 5. sees 6. impress 7. makes 8. fill 9. are 10. deserves 11. boards 12. hopes 13. does not take 14. hurries 15. opens Task 10.9 1. are 2. have 3. have 4. is 5. are 6. is 7. is 8. are 9. is 10. is 11. is 12. has 13. is 14. have 15. have 192

Task 10.10 1. The shelf of this rack is not strong enough to bear the weight of that book. (Simple Present Tense) 2. Children love reading adventure stories. (Simple Present Tense) 3. While we were watching television, our colleagues dropped by to invite us to their party. (Past Progressive Tense) 4. Those boats which sank were on fire yesterday. (Simple Past Tense) 5. Why dont they tell the truth to their friends? (Simple Present Tense) 6. An invention, as well as a scientific discory, is beneficial to mankind. (Simple Present Tense) 7. How does this family cope with such meager income? (Simple Present Tense) 8. Drug addicts usually do not seek treatment on their own. (Simple Present Tense) 9. Students who disobey the school regulation, risk punishment. (Simple Present Tense) 10. That blouse and pair of trousers were too old and worn out that my mother decided to discard them. (Simple Past Tense) Task 10.11 1. F 2. T 3. F 4. T 5. F 6. F Task 10.17 1. B 2. C 3. B 4. D 5. B 6. C 7. C 8. B 9. C 10. B 11. C 12. B 13. A 14. D 15. A Task 10.12 1. beyond 2. inner, protective 3. 177C 4. lunar 5. lighter Task 10.16 1. D 2. C 3. B 4. D 5. D

Task 10.19 1. C 2. D 3. C 4. B 5. B 6. D 7. D