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Anda di halaman 1dari 12

, M.A. Amalina

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

a r t i c l e i n f o

Article history:

Received 24 June 2011

Received in revised form 7 October 2011

Accepted 7 October 2011

Available online 27 October 2011

Keywords:

Nanouid

Viscosity

Temperature

Particle size

Volume concentration

a b s t r a c t

The past decade has seen the rapid development of nanouids science in many aspects. Number of

research is conducted that is mostly focused on the thermal conductivity of these uids. However, nano-

uid viscosity also deserves the same attention as thermal conductivity. In this paper, different charac-

teristics of viscosity of nanouids including nanouid preparation methods, temperature, particle size

and shape, and volume fraction effects are thoroughly compiled and reviewed. Furthermore, a precise

review on theoretical models/correlations of conventional models related to nanouid viscosity is pre-

sented. The existing experimental results about the nanouids viscosity show clearly that viscosity aug-

mented accordingly with an increase of volume concentration and decreased with the temperature rise.

However, there are some contradictory results on the effects of temperature on viscosity. Moreover, it is

shown that particle size has some noteworthy effects over viscosity of nanouids.

2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

Nanouid is a new dimensional thermo uid term emerged

after the pioneering work by Choi [1]. Nanouid is a solidliquid

mixture which consists of nanoparticles and a base liquid. Nano-

particles are basically metal (Cu, Ni, Al, etc.), oxides (Al

2

O

3

, TiO

2

,

CuO, SiO

2

, Fe

2

O

3

, Fe

3

O

4

, BaTiO

3

, etc.) and some other compounds

(AlN, SiC, CaCO

3

, graphene, etc.) and base uids usually include

water, ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, engine oil, etc. Due to very

small sizes and large specic surface areas of the nanoparticles,

nanouids have superior properties like high thermal conductivity,

minimal clogging in ow passages, long-term stability, and homo-

geneity [2]. Conventional uids such as ethylene glycol (EG), water

and oil have poor heat transfer properties but their vast applica-

tions in power generation, chemical processes, heating and cooling

processes, transportation, electronics, automotive and other micro-

sized applications make the re-processing of those thermo uids to

have better heat transfer properties quite essential.

Viscosity describes the internal resistance of a uid to ow and

it is an important property for all thermal applications involving

uids [3]. The pumping power is related with the viscosity of a

uid. In laminar ow, the pressure drop is directly proportional

to the viscosity. Furthermore, convective heat transfer coefcient

is inuenced by viscosity. Hence, viscosity is as important as ther-

mal conductivity in engineering systems involving uid ow [4].

There has been a lot of research done about nanouids recently

but most of them are related with the heat transfer properties

having different contents including heat transfer enhancement

[57], thermal conductivity measurement [810], thermal conduc-

tivity enhancement [1121], effective thermal conductivity [22

28], thermal conductivity of suspensions [2931], thermal proper-

ties enhancement [32], thermal transport [33], thermal conductiv-

ity improvement [34], estimation of thermal conductivity [35], and

others [3642]. Some review papers [43,44] emphasized only the

thermal conductivity of nanouids. Recently some new issues have

been introduced in literatures like thermal diffusion coefcient of

nanouid [45], slip mechanisms in nanouids [46], electrical con-

ductivity of nanouids [47], nanouids for cooling of electronic de-

vices [48]. Very few researches have been performed on the

viscosity of nanouids although viscosity seems to be a signicant

property and viscosity should be taken into consideration for heat

transfer performance studies of a nanouid [49,50].

Some articles have been published considering rheological

behavior of nanouids such as viscosity. First, Masuda et al. [51]

measured the viscosity of some water-based nanouids for Al

2

O

3

,

SiO

2

and TiO

2

. Then Pak and Cho [52] presented some additional

data for Al

2

O

3

/water nanouid. Some parameters like, tempera-

ture, particle size and shape, volume concentrations have shown

to have a great effect over viscosity of nanouid. Murshed et al.

[53] measured the volumetric effect on viscosity for Al

2

O

3

and

TiO

2

with deionized water (DIW) and concluded that viscosity in-

creases about 82% and 86%, respectively, for 5 vol.% of Al

2

O

3

and

TiO

2

. Chen et al. [54] measured the volume fraction and tempera-

ture effects on viscosity for multi walled carbon nanotubes

(MWCNTs) with distilled water for a temperature range of 5 C

to 65 C. They reported that viscosity increases accordingly with

nanoparticle loadings when the volume fraction is higher than

0017-9310/$ - see front matter 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2011.10.021

E-mail addresses: saidur@um.edu.my, saidur912@yahoo.com (R. Saidur).

International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 55 (2012) 874885

Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect

International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer

j our nal homepage: www. el sevi er . com/ l ocat e/ i j hmt

0.4 vol.%. Also, relative viscosity increases signicantly with tem-

perature after 55 C. But, Prasher et al. [55] and Chen et al.

[56,57] have presented a contradictory report including that nano-

uid viscosity is independent of temperature. He et al. [58] mea-

sured TiO

2

-distilled water nanouid viscosity for different

concentrations and for three different particle sizes and stated that

viscosity increases with the increase of particle size as well as the

increase in volume concentrations. However, some others [5961]

found that viscosity decreases with the increase of particle size.

Prasher et al. [55] reported that, nanouid viscosity is not a strong

function of nanoparticle diameter. Table 1 shows a list including

investigations about temperature, particle size and volume con-

centration effects over viscosity of nanouids.

Available literature shows that most of the researches done

mainly consider the volume concentration effect on viscosity and

few literatures discussed these three effects for viscosity,

yet along with some contradictions among them. No review paper

is available that would include all temperature, particle size and

volume concentration effects over viscosity of a nanouid. Some

review papers discussed the viscosity of nanouid but actually

emphasized the thermal conductivity of nanouids plus they did

not discuss all the aspects of viscosity of these uids. Studies like

that by Ghadimi et al. [62] discussed the analytical model, Daung-

thongsuk and Wongwises [63] and Keblinski et al. [64] emphasized

viscosity for convective heat transfer, Das et al. [65] mentioned the

importance of studying the viscosity of nanouids, and Murshed et

al. [66] emphasized the volumetric concentration effect on viscos-

ity. In a review paper, Ramesh and Prabhu [67] summarize some

papers in a single paragraph about viscosity of nanouids. Also,

Sridhara and Satapathy brief about the viscosity of some Al

2

O

3

based nanouids [68]. A comparison of viscosity enhancement

for some nanouids has been reported in literature [69], which

are not sufcient. Therefore, a complete study considering all as-

pects of the viscosity of a nanouid seems to be required in this

eld. The purpose of this article is to provide the available informa-

tion about temperature, particle diameter and volume concentra-

tion effects over viscosity of a nanouid.

In the subsequent sections preparation methods used by the

researchers, experimental results concerning temperature, parti-

cle size and volume fraction effects on viscosity, theoretical

models (including conventional model of viscosity for suspen-

sions) and correlations for volume concentrations, temperature

and particle diameter for viscosity have been described

consecutively.

Table 1

Summary of literatures about the viscosity of nanouids for different parameters.

Year Reference Base uid Particle name (diameter in nm) Related to:

T D V%

1999 Wang et al. [70] DW, EG Al

2

O

3

(28)

_

2002 Chadwick et al. [71] EG TiO

2

(600)

_

2002 Tseng and Wu [72] Water Al

2

O

3

(37)

_

2003 Tseng and Lin [73] Ethanolisopropanol BaTiO

3

(580)

_

2003 Tseng and Chen [74] Terpineol Ni (300)

_

2003 Tseng and Lin [75] Water TiO

2

(720)

_

2005 Kwak and Kim [76] EG CuO (12)

_

2005 Yang et al. [77] ATF and synthetic base oils Graphite (thickness = 2040)

_

2006 Prasher et al. [55] PG Al

2

O

3

(27, 40 and 50)

_ _ _

2007 Chen et al. [56] EG TiO

2

(25)

_ _

2007 Chen et al. [57] EG TiO

2

(25)

_ _

2007 Chevalier et al. [59] Ethanol SiO

2

(35, 94 and 190)

_ _

2007 He et al. [58] DW TiO

2

(95, 145 and 210)

_ _

2007 Namburu et al. [78] EGW (60:40) CuO (29)

_ _

2007 Namburu et al. [60] EGW (60:40) SiO

2

(20, 50 and 100)

_ _ _

2007 Nguyen et al. [3] Water Al

2

O

3

(36 and 47), CuO (29)

_ _ _

2008 Chen et al. [54] DW, EG and Gly CNTs (15)

_ _

2008 Chen et al. [79] DW TNT (-10)

_ _

2008 Garg et al. [80] EG Cu (200)

_

2008 Lu and Fan [81] Water, EG Al

2

O

3

(10 and above)

_ _

2008 Murshed et al. [53] DIW TiO

2

(15), Al

2

O

3

(80)

_

2008 Nguyen et al. [82] Water Al

2

O

3

(36 and 47)

_ _ _

2008 Schmidt et al. [83] Decane Al

2

O

3

(40)

_ _

2008 Schmidt et al. [83] Iso-parafnic PAO Al

2

O

3

(40)

_ _

2008 Tsai et al. [84] Diesel oil and polydimethylsiloxane Fe

3

O

4

(10)

_

2009 Anoop et al. [85] Water Al

2

O

3

(45 and 150)

_ _

2009 Anoop et al. [86] Water Al

2

O

3

(95, 100)

_ _

2009 Anoop et al. [86] EG Al

2

O

3

(100), CuO (152)

_ _

2009 Chen et al. [87] EG TNT (-10), L = 100 nm

_ _

2009 Chen et al. [88] EG, water TNT (-10), TiO

2

(25)

_

2009 Duangthongsuk and Wongwises [89] Water TiO

2

(21)

_ _

2009 Kulkarni et al. [90] EGW (60:40) CuO (30), Al

2

O

3

(45), SiO

2

(50)

_ _

2009 Phuoc and Massoudi [91] DIW Fe

2

O

3

(20, 40)

_

2009 Turgut et al. [92] DW TiO

2

(21)

_ _

2010 Chandrasekar et al. [2] Water Al

2

O

3

(43)

_

2010 Kole and Dey [4] Car engine coolant Al

2

O

3

(<50)

_ _

2010 Duangthongsuk and Wongwises [93] Water TiO

2

(21)

_ _

2010 Naik et al. [94] PGwater CuO (<50)

_ _

2010 Zhu et al. [95] DW CaCO

3

(2050)

_

2011 Lee et al. [96] DW SiC (<100)

_ _

2011 Pastoriza-Gallego et al. [61] Water CuO (2337, 11 3)

_ _ _

2011 Phuoc et al. [97] Water MWCNTs (2030)

_

Note: ATF, Gly, PAO, and W refer to automatic transmission uid, glycerol, polyalphaolen, and water respectively. And, D, T and V% means diameter, temperature and vol.%

effect.

I.M. Mahbubul et al. / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 55 (2012) 874885 875

2. Preparation methods

Preparation of nanouids is quite of importance to be known for

measuring viscosity of nanouids since particle agglomeration de-

pends on the preparation method of a nanouid. Nanouids prep-

aration is not as simple as mixing some solid nanoparticles in a

base uid. There are two techniques mainly used for synthesizing

nanouids: single step method and two step method.

In a single step method [27,98], both preparation of nanoparti-

cles and synthesis of nanouids are done in a combined process.

Normally, physical vapor deposition (PVD) technique [27] or liquid

chemical method [98] is used for single step method. This method

has advantages such as stability increase and minimized agglomer-

ation. There are some disadvantages like the fact that only low

pressure uids are suitable for this process hence limiting the

scope of utilization.

In two step method [99,100], nanoparticles are initially pre-

pared and then dispersed into the uid by some techniques like

high shear [52,101] and ultrasound [102]. Nowadays, availability

of nanoparticles from commercial sources makes this method

fairly attractive to the researchers and different industries. In addi-

tion, this method functions suitably for oxide nanoparticles. But

particles quickly agglomerate before dispersion and sometimes

nanoparticles disperse partially. Table 2 shows typical synthesis

method used by the researchers.

Most of the researches utilized two step dispersion method and

ultrasonic vibrations for proper mixtures and some used chemical

reduction methods [80].

Wang et al. [70] analyzed relative viscosity of Al

2

O

3

water

nanouids with three different dispersion methods including

mechanical blending (method 1), coating particles with polymers

(method 2), and ltration (method 3). They reported that method

1 leads to higher viscosity compared with others indicating that

other two methods caused better dispersion.

3. Experimental studies

3.1. Effect of temperature

Some literature is available about the temperature effect over

nanouids viscosity. Yang et al. [77] experimentally measured

temperature effect of viscosity with four temperatures (35, 43,

50 and 70 C) for four nanouid solutions taking graphite as nano-

particles. They experimentally showed that kinematic viscosity de-

creases with the increase of temperature and interesting

observations were made such as: the corresponding viscosity of

2 wt% graphite with ATF at 35 and 70 C is found to be 41.4 and

12.2 (cSt) respectively. Chen et al. [54] measured the temperature

effect of multi walled carbon nanotubes with distilled water for a

temperature range of 5 C to 65 C and indicated that relative vis-

cosity increases signicantly with temperature after 55 C. Nguyen

et al. [3,82] studied temperature effect of nanouids viscosity for

Al

2

O

3

water and CuOwater over a temperature range of 21 C

to 75 C. The authors reported that nanouids viscosity decreases

with the increase of temperature. Anoop et al. [86] studied the

viscosity of CuOethylene glycol, Al

2

O

3

ethylene glycol and

Table 2

Different synthesis process used in the literatures.

Base uid Particle name (diameter in nm) Particle fraction (vol.%) Synthesis process Reference

DW, EG Al

2

O

3

(28) 16 Two-step [70]

Water Al

2

O

3

(37) 0.010.16 Two-step [72]

Water Al

2

O

3

(131.2), CuO (87.3) 1, 2 and 4 Two-step [103]

Ethanol-isopropanol BaTiO

3

(580) 3060 Two-step [73]

Terpineol Ni (300) 310 Two-step [74]

Water TiO

2

(720) 512 Two-step [75]

EG CuO (12) 0.002 Two-step [76]

PG Al

2

O

3

(27,40 & 50) 0.5, 2 and 3 Two-step [55]

EG TiO

2

(25) 08 wt% Two-step [56]

EG TiO

2

(25) 0.1, 0.21, 0.42, 0.86 and 1.86 Two-step [57]

Ethanol SiO

2

(35,94 &190) 1.47 Two-step [59]

DW TiO

2

(20) 0.024, 0.6, 1.18 Two-step [58]

EG-W(60:40) CuO (29) 06.12 Two-step [78]

EG-W(60:40) SiO

2

(20,50 & 100) 010 Two-step [60]

DW, EG and Gly. CNTs (15) 0.002, 0.006, 0.01 Two-step [54]

DW TNT (-10) 0.12, 0.24 and 0.6 Two-step [79]

EG Cu (200) 0.42 Single-step [80]

Water, EG Al

2

O

3

(10 & above) 5 Two-step [81]

DIW and EG TiO

2

(15), Al

2

O

3

(80 & 150) 15 Two-step [53]

Decane and iso-parafnic PAO Al

2

O

3

(40) 0.251 Two-step [83]

Diesel oil and polydimethylsiloxane Fe

3

O

4

(10) 14.48 Two-step [84]

Water Al

2

O

3

(45&150) 1, 2, 4, 6 wt% Two-step [85]

Water, EG Al

2

O

3

(95, 100) 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 6 Two-step [86]

EG CuO (152) 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 6 Two-step [86]

EG TNT (-10), L = 100 nm 08% mass Two-step [87]

EG, Water TNT (-10), L = 100, TiO

2

(25) 01.8 Two-step [88]

Water MWCNTs (1020) 1 wt% Two-step [104]

EG-W(60:40) CuO (30), Al

2

O

3

(45), SiO

2

(50) 06.12 Two-step [90]

DIW Fe

2

O

3

(20, 40) 0.2 wt% Two-step [91]

DIW TiO

2

(21) 0.23 Two-step [92]

Water Al

2

O

3

(43) 0.335 Two-step [2]

Car engine coolant Al

2

O

3

(<50) 0.1, 0.4, 0.7, 1.0 and 1.5 Two-step [4]

DW CNT 0.10.5 wt% Two-step [105]

Water MWCNTs Single-step [106]

PG-water CuO (<50) 0.025, 0.1, 0.4, 0.8, 1 and 1.25 Two-step [94]

DW CaCO

3

(2050) 0.124.11 Two-step [95]

DW SiC (<100) 0.001, 0.1, 1, 2 and 3 Two-step [96]

Water CuO (2337, 11 3) 0.0510 wt% Single-step, Two-step [61]

Water MWCNTs (2030), L = 1030 lm 0.241.43 Two-step [97]

EG, PG AlN (50) 110 Two-step [100]

876 I.M. Mahbubul et al. / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 55 (2012) 874885

Al

2

O

3

water for temperature range of 20 C to 50 C with a volume

concentration of 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 6 vol.%. They found that viscosity

reduces with an increase in temperature. From the temperature

based studies of Duangthongsuk and Wongwises [89] it was found

that viscosity of nanouids decreases with the increase of temper-

atures. They did the study with TiO

2

and water for a temperature

range of 1550 C. Turgut et al. [92] studied the thermal conductiv-

ity and viscosity of TiO

2

with deionized water for a temperature

range of 1355 C and for volume fraction of 0.23%. They discov-

ered that nanouids viscosity becomes less in amount with the in-

crease of temperature. Kole and Dey [4] investigated the viscosity

of a nanouid for alumina nanoparticle with car engine coolant for

a temperature range of 1050 C, with volume concentrations of

0.11.5% and found that nanouid viscosity decreases with the

augmentation of temperature. Pastoriza-Gallego et al. [61] mea-

sured the temperature effect on viscosity for CuO with water for

a temperature range of 283.15 K to 323.15 K. From their experi-

ment it is evident that, viscosity decreases with the increase of

temperature as at 323.15 K and the viscosity of 10 wt% CuO + W

nanouid becomes almost equal to the viscosity of water at

288.15 K. Also, Lee et al. [96] reported that viscosity decreases with

the increases of temperature. They studied SiC with distilled water

(DW) for 28 C to 72 C. Fig. 1 shows the decreasing trend of viscos-

ity with the rise in temperature.

Namburu et al. [60] showed that viscosity decreases exponen-

tially with the increasing temperature for a temperature range of

35 C to 50 C. They also found that at low temperature nano-

uids containing SiO

2

nanoparticles with ethylene glycol and water

as base uids demonstrate a non-Newtonian behavior and at high

temperature behave as a Newtonian uid. But in another study by

Namburu et al. [78] it was found that CuO nanoparticles in ethyl-

ene glycol and water mixture behave like Newtonian uids with

the temperature ranging from 35 C to 50 C with a volume frac-

tion of 06.12%. And viscosity decreases exponentially with the in-

crease of temperature. Similarly, Kulkarni et al. [90] report that

viscosity decreases exponentially with the increase of temperature,

where they analyzed CuO, Al

2

O

3

and SiO

2

as nanoparticle with EG/

Water base uid for a temperature range of 35 C to 50 C. Also,

Naik et al. [94] experimentally showed that viscosity of CuO/PG

water nanouids decreases exponentially with an increase in tem-

perature for a range of 258335 K. Fig. 2(a) and (b) shows the expo-

nential reduction in viscosity with the rise in temperature.

However results stated by Prasher et al. [55] and Chen et al.

[56,57] seem to be fairly contradictory indicating that nanouid

viscosity is independent of temperature. Fig. 3 shows this observa-

tion for relative viscosity being independent of temperature.

3.2. Effect of particle size and shape

There are few studies done on the particle size effect on the vis-

cosity of a nanouid. Nguyen et al. [3] studied particle size effect

for Al

2

O

3

/water nanouid and observed that particle size effects

are more signicant for high particle volume percentage. Their

studies exhibited that for low particle volume concentrations like,

below 4%, viscosities corresponding to 36 nm and 47 nm particle

size Al

2

O

3

/water nanouids are nearly equal. And for higher parti-

cle volume concentrations, viscosities of 36 nm particle size are

evidently lower than those of 47 nm size. In another literature,

Nguyen et al. [82] reported that viscosity values of 36 nm are

respectively 5% lower than the value of 47 nm particle-sizes. And

particle size effect is more signicant for a higher particle fraction,

say for 7% and 9%. Also, He et al. [58] report shear viscosity in-

creases with the increases of particle size. They measured TiO

2

and for three different nanoparticles sizes (95,145, 210 nm).

Fig. 4 shows viscositys upward trend with the increase in particle

diameter.

However a contradictory result has been also found like that by

Lu and Fan [81]. They studied viscosity of Al

2

O

3

with water and Fig. 1. Viscosity decreases with the increase of temperature.

Fig. 2. Viscosity decreases exponentially with the increase of temperatures.

I.M. Mahbubul et al. / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 55 (2012) 874885 877

ethylene glycol for different sizes of nanoparticles both numeri-

cally (simplied molecular dynamic (MD) simulation) and experi-

mentally. They found that viscosity of nanouids decrease with

increasing the diameter of the particle. Also, for diameters more

than 30 nm, the change in shear viscosity is comparatively less.

Also, Anoop et al. [85] found the same results. Taking two particle

sizes of Al

2

O

3

45 nm and 150 nm for a particle concentration of 1,

2, 4 and 6 wt% with water they observed that viscosity increases

with the reduction of particle size. Chevalier et al. [59] measured

the viscosity of SiO

2

with ethanol for three different sizes of parti-

cle diameter as 35, 94, 190 nm and discovered that viscosity in-

creases with the decrease of particle size. Namburu et al. [60]

measured the particle size effect for three different sizes (20, 50,

100 nm) of SiO

2

nanoparticles and concluded that viscosity reduces

with the increase of particle size. Pastoriza-Gallego et al. [61] also

investigated the viscosity of CuO in water for different particle

sizes and volume concentrations. They used two different samples

of CuO of 2337 nm and other 11 3 nm diameter and measured

the viscosity of both samples for 010 wt% with temperature range

of 283.15323.15 K and realized that the sample containing smal-

ler size exhibits larger viscosity. Fig. 5 shows viscositys decreasing

trend with increasing particle size.

Also, a different report is available in a literature which shows

deviation from the above results. Prasher et al. [55] indicated that

nanouid viscosity is not an exact function of nanoparticle diame-

ter. They studied 27, 40 and 50 nm of Al

2

O

3

with propylene glycol

and saw that nanouid viscosity anomalously changes slightly

with particle diameter. Fig. 6 shows this result obtained from the

mentioned study.

There are very few results available in literature about particle

shape effect on viscosity of nanouids. However, viscosity of nano-

uids has a strong dependence with nanoparticle shape [107,108].

Timofeeva et al. [108] report that elongate particles like platelets

and cylinders result in higher viscosity at the same volume frac-

tion. And for lower viscosities spherical particles or lower aspect

ratio spheroids should be used.

3.3. Effect of volume fraction

Although there are some contradictions observed about tem-

perature and particle size effect on viscosity of nanouids, theres

Fig. 3. Relative viscosity independent of temperatures.

Fig. 4. Viscosity increases with the increase of particle size [58].

Fig. 5. Viscosity decreases with the increases of particle diameter [81].

878 I.M. Mahbubul et al. / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 55 (2012) 874885

no signicant contradiction seen about the volumetric concentra-

tion effects of a nanouid on its viscosity. All researchers and most

of the investigations available in the literature on the viscosity of

nanouids, regarding the effect of volume fraction agree upon

the fact that viscosity of nanouids increases with increasing the

volume fractions. Das et al. [109] and Putra et al. [103] proved

Newtonian behavior of Al

2

O

3

/water nanouid between 1% and 4%

particle (volume) concentration and showed that viscosity of nano-

uid increased with increasing the particle concentration. Prasher

et al. [55] showed that viscosity proportionally augments when the

nanoparticle volume fraction is made to increase. They also proved

that viscosity enlarges around 10 (ten times) as the volume frac-

tion increases. Chevalier et al. [59] measured the viscosity of SiO

2

in ethanol at room temperature with three different nanoparticle

sizes as 35, 94 and 190 nm and for a volume fraction of 1.4% to

7%. It was observed that viscosity increases anomalously with the

increase in volume concentrations.

Chen et al. [54] have reported that viscosity increases after a

certain range of volume fraction implying that at low volume frac-

tion that is less than 0.4 vol%, nanouids have lower viscosity than

corresponding base uid due to lubricating effect of nanoparticles.

But viscosity increases accordingly with nanoparticle loadings

when the volume fraction is higher than 0.4 vol%. Lu and Fan

[81] studied the viscosity of Al

2

O

3

with water and ethylene glycol

for different volume fractions. And they found experimentally as

well as numerically that viscosity of nanouids becomes higher

as the volume concentrations increases. Nguyen et al. [82] studied

the viscosity of Al

2

O

3

water for 36 nm for particle volume frac-

tions of 1%, 4%, 9% and nally 12%, with relative viscosity increases

of 1.12, 1.6, 3.0 and 5.3 respectively and also, 47 nm of diameter for

particle volume fractions of 2.1, 4.3, 8.5, and 12.2%, relative viscos-

ity augments 1.1, 1.4, 2.0, and 3.1 respectively. Schmidt et al. [83]

studied the shear and longitudinal viscosity of Al

2

O

3

with decane

and isoparafnic polyalphaolen (PAO) for volume fractions of

0.251% and found an increasing trend for viscosity with the in-

crease of volume fractions. Anoop et al. [86] studied the rheological

behavior of nanouids using nanouids as CuOethylene glycol,

Al

2

O

3

ethylene glycol and Al

2

O

3

water from two different sources

in two different forms. They studied the viscosity change for tem-

perature range of 20 C to 50 C with volume concentrations of 0.5,

1, 2, 4 and 6 vol.% and observed that viscosity becomes higher

when the particle concentrations rise. And augmentation factor is

nearly linear at higher volume fractions and not quite linear at

lower volume concentrations where viscosity ratio increases more

for water-based nanouids compared with ethylene glycol-based

nanouids. Chen et al. [87] studied the rheological behavior of

nanouids for titanate nanotubes in ethylene glycol. They saw that

the comparative increments in the shear viscosities of nanouids

containing 0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0%, 4.0% and 8.0% particles are 3.30%,

7.00%, 16.22%, 26.34% and 70.96%, respectively. Duangthongsuk

and Wongwises [89] reported an increase of 415% in viscosity

for particle volume concentrations of 0.22.0% respectively for

temperature range of 15 C to 35 C. Interestingly from their exper-

iment, it is evident that the increment of viscosity due to the in-

crease in particle volume concentration is very low compared to

results from other studies. Phuoc and Massoudi [91] studied

Fe

2

O

3

deionized water nanouids with Polyvinylpyrrolidone

(PVP) or Polyethylene oxide (PEO), as a dispersant for the shear

rates and particle concentration effect on viscosity. From this

experiment it was indicated that viscosity increases with increas-

ing particle volume fraction. Nanouid with Fe

2

O

3

nanoparticles

in DW-0.2% PVP behaved as a Newtonian uid when the volume

fraction u was less than 0.02. In this case, the uid viscosity was

about 2 cp and remained independent of the shear rate. As the vol-

ume fraction became larger than 0.02 the suspension became non-

Newtonian with shear-thinning behavior. Chandrasekar et al. [2]

studied the thermal conductivities and viscosities of nanouids

for Al

2

O

3

nanoparticles of 0.335 vol.% with water. Their experi-

ments reached the result that viscosity rises with the increase of

volume fraction and also that the viscosity increases linearly up

to 2% volume concentrations. Yu et al. [100] investigated viscosity

vs. shear rate for a temperature range of 1060 C with a volume

concentration of 110% and discovered that nanouids containing

5 vol.% of AlN with EG and PG is a critical phenomena, as AlN con-

taining less than 5 vol.% exhibits Newtonian behavior and more

than 5 vol.% behaves in a non-Newtonian way and owns shear

thinning.

Some researchers report tremendous increase of viscosity with

the addition of nanoparticles. For instance in the case of 12 vol.% of

Al

2

O

3

with water, viscosity increased 5.3 times [82], for 12 vol.% of

TiO

2

with water viscosity increased 1200 times [75] and for 3 vol.%

of SiC with DIW, viscosity increased 102% compared to that of DIW

[96]. Apparently metal oxide based nanouids are broadly studied

and Al

2

O

3

and TiO

2

related literatures are major among the avail-

able literature concerning the viscosity of nanouids. Hence to

see the volumetric concentration impact on viscosity two graphical

representations are presented here. Figs. 7 and 8 demonstrate vis-

cosity trends with the increase of volume fraction for Al

2

O

3

and

TiO

2

respectively. Table 3 also contains a list of viscosity increment

in terms of volume fraction enhancement.

Fig. 6. Nanouid viscosity is not a strong function of nanoparticle diameter [55].

I.M. Mahbubul et al. / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 55 (2012) 874885 879

4. Theoretical investigations

There are some existing theoretical formulas to estimate the

particle suspension viscosities. Among them equation suggested

by Einstein [110] could be labeled the pioneer one and most of

other derivations have been basically established from this rela-

tion. His assumptions are based on linear viscous uid containing

dilute, suspended, spherical particles and low particle volume frac-

tions (/ < 0.02). The suggested formula is as follows:

l

nf

= l

bf

(1 2:5/) (1)

Here, l

nf

is the viscosity of suspension; l

bf

is the viscosity of base

uid and / is the volume fraction of particle in base uid. This is

a linear increase of the suspension viscosity with increasing solid

volume concentration. Einstein considered non-interacting suspen-

sions. Some factors have been identied as the limitations of this

formula as the particle concentrations may not be so small, the

structure and the interaction of the particles within the continuous

phase may also affect the viscosity of the mixture. Later on many

researchers contributed to correct this formula.

In 1952, Brinkman [111] extended Einsteins formula to be used

with moderate particle concentrations, considering the effect of

the addition of one solute-molecule to an existing solution, which

is considered as a continuous medium. And this correlation has

more acceptances among the researchers. For particle concentra-

tions less than 4%, the expression is as follows:

l

nf

= l

bf

(1 /)

2:5

(2)

Krieger and Dougherty [112] in 1959 derived a semi-empirical

relation for the shear viscosity covering the full range of particle

volume fraction:

l

nf

= l

bf

(1 (/=/

m

))

g|/

m

(3)

where /

m

is the maximum particle packing fraction, which varies

from 0.495 to 0.54 under quiescent conditions, and is approxi-

mately 0.605 at high shear rates and g| is the intrinsic viscosity,

whose typical value for mono disperse suspensions of hard spheres

is 2.5.

Considering the effects of variable packing fraction within the

aggregate structure, this equation has been modied by Chen et

al. [57] and termed Modied Krieger and Dougherty equation as:

l

nf

= l

bf

(1 /

a

=/

m

)

2:5/

m

(4)

/

a

= /(a

a

=a)

3D

(5)

where a

a

and a, are the radii of aggregates and primary particles,

respectively. D is the fractal index having a typical value of 1.8 for

nanouids.

For semi-dilute nanouids (-0.001 < / < -0.05) with aggrega-

tion of nanoparticles, the shear viscosity ts the modied Krie-

gerDougherty equation and there is no obvious shear-thinning

behavior; also, semi-concentrated nanouids (-0.05 < / < -0.1)

with aggregation of nanoparticles, the shear viscosity ts the mod-

ied KriegerDougherty equation and there is obvious shear-thin-

ning behavior.

Franken and Acrivos [113] presented a correlation:

l

nf

= l

bf

9

8

(/=/

m

)

1

3

1 (/=/

m

)

1

3

_ _

(6)

where /

m

is the maximum particle volume fraction as determined

experimentally.

Lundgren [114] proposed the following equation in 1972 under

the form of a Taylor series in /:

l

nf

= l

bf

1 2:5/

25

4

/

2

f (/

3

)

_ _

(7)

Considering the effect due to the Brownian motion of particles on

the bulk stress of an approximately isotropic suspension of rigid

and spherical particles; Batchelor [115] proposed the following for-

mula in 1977:

l

nf

= l

bf

(1 2:5/ 6:5/

2

) (8)

It is clear from the above two relations that, if second or higher

order of / are ignored, then these formulas will be the same as Ein-

steins formula. Eq. (8) has been validated for a particle volume

fraction up to / 6 0:1 where motion of single particle and pair-par-

ticle interactions is dominant [116]. Batchelor considered the

interaction of pair-particles.

In 1981, Graham [117] suggested a generalized form of the

Franken and Acrivos [113] formula including particle radius and

inter particle spacing that is well in accordance with Einsteins for-

mula for small /. Graham [117] formula is expressed as follows:

l

nf

= l

bf

1 2:5/ 4:5 1=

h

d

p

2

h

d

p

_ _ _ _

1

h

d

p

_ _

2

_ _ _ _

(9)

where d

p

is the particle radius and h is the inter-particle spacing.

Fig. 7. Viscosity increases with the increase of volume fraction for different

concentration of Al

2

O

3

.

Fig. 8. Viscosity increment with the increase of volume fraction for different

concentration of TiO

2

.

880 I.M. Mahbubul et al. / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 55 (2012) 874885

In the same year Kitano et al. [118] proposed a simple expres-

sion involving /

m

to predict the viscosity of two phase mixtures:

l

nf

= l

bf

[1 (/=/

m

)[

2

(10)

In 1999, Bicerano et al. [119] offered a correlations for volumet-

ric effect of viscosity:

l

nf

= l

bf

(1 g/ k

H

/

2

) (11)

Here g is the virial coefcient and k

H

is Huggins coefcient.

In 1999, Wang et al. [70] expressed a model to predict the vis-

cosity of nanouids as follows:

l

nf

= l

bf

(1 7:3/ 123/

2

) (12)

In 2003, Tseng and Lin [75] have plotted the relative viscosity

against the particle concentration at shear rate c = 100 s

1

and

found relative viscosity increases with concentration in an expo-

nential form for TiO

2

/water nanouid:

l

nf

= l

bf

13:47e

35:98/

(13)

[where the correlation factor was, R

2

= 0.98 for TiO

2

/Water nano-

uids]. This relative viscosity increment with respect to concentra-

tion is unrealistic (especially after solids loading -0.05)

comparing with other experimental and analytical studies.

In 2003, Tseng and Chen [74] presented an exponential form of

volumetric concentration effect on viscosity for NickelTerpineol:

l

nf

= l

bf

0:4513e

0:6965/

(14)

[where the correlation factor was, R

2

= 0.9852 for Ni/Terpineol

nanouids]. This relative viscosity increment with respect to con-

centration is unrealistic (especially after solids loading -0.07) com-

paring with other experimental and analytical studies.

In 2007, Chen et al. [56] showed a relation for the normalized

shear viscosity with respect to the based liquid viscosity for up

to 10% by volume with an uncertainty less than -6%. The authors

have given the following correlation by the regression of the exper-

imental data as

l

nf

= l

bf

(1 10:6/ (10:6/)

2

) (15)

[where the correlation factor was, R

2

= 0.9989]. The authors have

shown that relative viscosity increase is only a function concentra-

tion but independent of temperature. This equation deviates signif-

icantly from the Einstein equation.

In 2007, Nguyen et al. [3] showed that, both the Brinkman [111]

and Batchelor [115] formulas severely underestimate nanouid

viscosities, except at very low particle volume fractions (lower

than 1%). Those linear uid theories are very low comparing with

their experimental results. Thus for computing purpose, they have

proposed two correlations for nanouids consisting 47 nm and

36 nm Al

2

O

3

nanoparticles with water, respectively as follows:

l

nf

= l

bf

0:904e

0:1482/

(16)

l

nf

= l

bf

(1 0:025/ 0:015/

2

) (17)

Both of these models determine the viscosity by only considering

the viscosity of the base uid and the particle volume fraction. Fur-

thermore, they found Batchelor [115] and Brinkman [111] formulas

inappropriate for CuOwater nanouids and proposed a correlation

for computing CuOwater viscosity:

l

nf

= l

bf

(1:475 0:319/ 0:051/

2

0:009/

3

) (18)

Avsec and Oblac [120] derived a mathematical model for calcu-

lating nanouids viscosity with the help of exponential formula of

Cheng and Law [121] and Einstein [110]. The Cheng and Law

Table 3

Volume fraction dependent viscosity of nanouids.

Researchers Base uid Particle name Particle size (nm) Volume fraction (%) Viscosity enhancement (%)

Chandrasekar et al. [2] Water Al

2

O

3

43 15 14136

Nguyen et al. [3,82] Water Al

2

O

3

36 2.113 10210

Nguyen et al. [3,82] Water Al

2

O

3

47 113 12430

Kole and Dey [4] Car engine coolant Al

2

O

3

<50 0.11.5 4136

Wang et al. [70] DW Al

2

O

3

28 16 986

Wang et al. [70] EG Al

2

O

3

28 1.23.5 739

Prasher et al. [55] PG Al

2

O

3

27 0.53 729

Prasher et al. [55] PG Al

2

O

3

40 0.53 636

Prasher et al. [55] PG Al

2

O

3

50 0.53 5.524

Murshed et al. [53] DIW Al

2

O

3

80 15 482

Anoop et al. [85] Water Al

2

O

3

45 28 wt% 16

Anoop et al. [85] Water Al

2

O

3

150 28 wt% 13

Anoop et al. [86] Water Al

2

O

3

95 0.56 377

Anoop et al. [86] Water Al

2

O

3

100 0.56 357

Anoop et al. [86] EG Al

2

O

3

100 0.56 5.530

Masuda et al. [51] Water TiO

2

27 14.3 1160

Murshed et al. [53] DIW TiO

2

15 15 2486

Chen et al. [56,57,88] EG TiO

2

25 0.11.86 0.523

He et al. [58] DW TiO

2

95,145,210 0.0241.18 411

Chen et al. [88] Water TiO

2

25 0.251.2 311

Duangthongsuk and Wongwises [89] Water TiO

2

21 0.22 415

Turgut et al. [92] DIW TiO

2

21 0.23 4135

Anoop et al. [86] EG CuO 152 0.56 832

Pastoriza-Gallego et al. [61] Water CuO 2337 110 wt% 0.511.5

Pastoriza-Gallego et al. [61] Water CuO 113 110 wt% 2.573

Chevalier et al. [59] Ethanol SiO

2

35 1.25 1595

Chevalier et al. [59] Ethanol SiO

2

94 1.47 1285

Chevalier et al. [59] Ethanol SiO

2

190 15.6 544

Chen et al. [87,88] EG TNT -10, L = 100 nm 0.11.86 3.370.96

Chen et al. [79,88] Water TNT -10, L = 100 nm 0.120.6 3.582

Garg et al. [80] EG Cu 200 0.42 524

Zhu et al. [95] DW CaCO

3

2050 0.124.11 169

Lee et al. [96] DW SiC <100 0.0013 1102

I.M. Mahbubul et al. / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 55 (2012) 874885 881

[121] or Ward models give very good results for two-phase ow

with particles larger than 100 nm. For smaller particle their theories

give wrong results with the deviation more than 100% in compari-

son with experimental results. Then the expression has modied as

renewed Ward model (RW):

l

nf

= l

bf

(1 2:5/

e

(2:5/

e

)

2

(2:5/

e

)

3

(2:5/

e

)

4

) (19)

where /

e

is the effective volume fraction. This relation has been de-

rived using the model of Yu and Choi [122] whose expression is:

/

e

= / 1

h

r

_ _

3

(20)

where h represents the liquid thickness.

Most of the formulas have been developed to express viscosity

as a function of volume fraction of nanoparticles. However temper-

ature is an important inuencing factor on viscosity as well, and as

a result some correlations have been created to be used to investi-

gate the temperature effect on viscosity.

A correlation between viscosity and temperature for pure uids

was presented by White [123] in 1991:

ln(l

f

=l

o

) ~ a b(T

0

=T) c(T

0

=T)

2

(21)

Here (l

0

, T

0

) are reference values and (a, b, c) given in the table by

White, are dimensionless curve-t constants. They vary from uid

to uid; for example for water

a = 2:10; b = 4:45 and c = 6:55:

Another two temperature dependent correlation given by Reid et al.

[124]:

l

nf

= Aexp(B=T) (22)

where A and B are the functions of concentrations and Yaws [125]

are written as:

Log(l

nf

) = A BT

1

CT DT

2

(23)

where A, B, C and D are tting parameters.

Some correlations have also been suggested taking into account

both temperature and volume fraction effects on viscosity.

In 2006, Kulkarni et al. [126] proposed a correlation that relates

viscosity of copper oxide nanoparticles suspended in water with a

temperature range of 550 C:

ln(l

nf

) = A(1=T) B (24)

Here A and B are functions of volume percentage /. This correlation

is mainly for aqueous solution and is not applicable to nanouids in

the subzero temperature range.

Namburu et al. [78] tried to t their experimental data to corre-

lations presented by Yaws [125], Kulkarni et al. [126], Tseng and

Lin [75] and White [123]. None of these correlations t the data.

Therefore, by careful statistical analyses an exponential model

with a correlation coefcient of R

2

> 0.99 has been derived:

Log(l

nf

) = Ae

BT

(25)

where l

nf

is the copper oxide nanouid viscosity in centi poise (cP),

T is the temperature in K and A, B are functions of particle volume

percentage (/). The coefcients A and B are related to volume con-

centration (/) as

A = 1:8375(/)

2

29:643(/) 165:56 with R

2

= 0:9873 (26)

B = 4 10

6

(/)

2

0:001(/) 0:0186 with R

2

= 0:988 (27)

where / ranges from 0 to 6.12; the maximum deviation between

experimental values and curve-t values are within 8.8%.

Abu-Nada [127] derives a correlation for nanouids viscosity as

a function of temperature and nanoparticle concentration. The

experimental data reported by Nguyen et al. [3] have been used

to derive this correlation. The expression is as:

l

Al

2

O

3

= 0:155

19:582

T

0:794/

2094:47

T

2

0:192/

2

8:11

/

T

27463:863

T

3

:0127/

3

1:6044

/

2

T

2:1754

/

T

2

(28)

This model has been compared with Brinkman model and it has

been found that the Nguyen et al. data and Brinkman model gives

completely different predictions.

Some correlations simultaneously consider the effects of parti-

cle diameter along with volume fraction and temperature.

Masoumi et al. [128] established a new theoretical model for

nanouids viscosity prediction based on Brownian motion. This

model could be used to calculate the effective viscosity in terms

of temperature, the mean particle diameter, the nanoparticle vol-

ume fraction, the nanoparticle density and the base uid physical

properties. Fluid consisting of two different uids also can be pre-

dicted by this model

l

nf

= l

bf

qPV

B

d

2

P

72Cd

(29)

where q

P

is the density, d

p

is particle diameter, d is the distance be-

tween the nanoparticles, V

B

and C are functions of the temperature.

V

B

=

1

dP

18K

b

T

pqPdP

_

, K

b

is Boltzmann constant; C is a correction factor and

C = l

1

bf

[(c

1

d

p

c

2

)/ (c

3

d

p

c

4

)[; c

1

c

2

c

3

and c

4

are constants. The

authors calculate this model by using very limited experimental

data of [52,70] for nanouids consisting of 13 nm Al

2

O

3

nanoparti-

cles and water and 28 nm Al

2

O

3

nanoparticles and water.

Masoud Hosseini et al. [129] presented a dimensionless group

model to determine the viscosity of a nanouid considering the

volume concentration, nanoparticle size, effect of the capping

layer, and temperature. They used a least-squares regression tech-

nique to determine model parameters. And they showed this mod-

el is suitable for the nanouids containing Al

2

O

3

and water

l

nf

= l

bf

exp ma

T

T

0

_ _

b(/

h

) c

d

1 r

_ _ _ _

(30)

where /

h

is the hydro dynamic volume fraction of solid nanoparti-

cles, d is the nanoparticle diameter, r is the thickness of the capping

layer, T

0

a reference temperature, and T is the measured tempera-

ture of the nanouid, m is a factor that depends on the properties

of the system (i.e., the solid nanoparticles, the base uid, and their

interactions), while a, b, and c are empirical constants determined

from experimental data. This correlation is only for the Al

2

O

3

with

water solution. And the authors calculate the experimental data

from Nguyen et al. [82].

Actually, no model is able to predict the viscosity of nanouids

precisely in a broad range of nanoparticle volume fraction. Garg et

al. [80] found a four times increment in viscosity comparing with

the Einstein law of viscosity [110]. Murshed et al. [66] argued that

the classical models such as Einstein [110], Krieger and Dougherty

[112], Batchelor [115], and Nielsen [130] could not predict the vis-

cosity of nanouids in a precise way.

5. Discussion

In this study, attempt has been made to cover all the investiga-

tions performed on the viscosity of nanouids available in the lit-

erature. Through this study it is found that temperature, particle

882 I.M. Mahbubul et al. / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 55 (2012) 874885

size & shape and volume fractions have signicant effects over vis-

cosity of nanouids. Results indicate that viscosity increases as the

particle volume fractions increase, and nanouids behave in a

Newtonian way for low particle volume concentrations. No exist-

ing model or correlation is capable of precise prediction of the vis-

cosity enhancement with respect to volume fractions. Although

there have been a few contradictory results in the eld of temper-

ature effect on viscosity, generally researchers deduce that, viscos-

ity decreases with an increase of temperature. There are some

correlations available for the temperature inuence over viscosity

most of which are not versatile enough and a debate still exists

about the particle size impact on viscosity. However, it can be con-

cluded that particle size has some effects on viscosity of nanouids.

The reason that all the reports about particle size effects are not in

accordance with each other might be due to the fact that the vis-

cosity of these new classes of uids not only depends on particle

size but also on other factors. Besides if the nanouids are not

well-dispersed, then agglomeration would occur, and conse-

quently it would be difcult to measure the nanoparticle size

and its effects on the viscosity of a particular nanouid.

Also, the effects of material type are not signicant in many

cases. For an example, Al

2

O

3

ethylene glycol and Al

2

O

3

water

solution has a similar viscosity increment [70]. However, Anoop

et al. [86] found different viscosity increment for the above two

nanouids. Again, Murshed et al. [53] and Wang et al. [70] found

nearly the same increment for 5 vol.% of Al

2

O

3

water nanoids

but chandrasekar et al. [2] found different increment (more than

them) for the same type of nanouids. Timofeeva et al. [107] report

that viscosity of nanouids has a strong relation with base uids

but weak dependence with nanoparticle material.

Viscosity and rheological properties are essential parameters to

know for practical applications of nanouids. In this study, it has

been shown that a great amount of research has been done consid-

ering viscosity of nanouids. However these do not seem to be suf-

cient to estimate any standard about viscosity of nanouids, as

there are some inconsistencies among the published results. For

example, some authors reported that nanouids were Newtonian

uids [2,5557,77,78,88,90,95,103,131,132], while others observed

a non-Newtonian behavior [4,58,79,87,88,97,104].

Some authors showed relative viscosity is independent of tem-

perature [5557] and some authors showed viscosity of nanouids

decreases non-linearly or exponentially [4,60,78,90,92,94] with the

increase of temperatures.

From another aspect, some researchers showed viscosity in-

creases linearly [55,80] with the increase of volume concentra-

tions, while others showed nonlinear trend [3,5658,88,89,91,95,

133]. Also, for the same nanouids with same concentration dem-

onstrate different viscosity enhancement. Debates also exist about

the particle size effect on viscosity of nanouids. Some researchers

report that particle size has not signicant effect on viscosity [55]

but most of the researcher showed particle size and shape has a

noticeable effect over viscosity. While a number of researchers

showed that viscosity increases with the decrease in particle size

[5961,81,85], some expressed a reverse trend in viscosity change

due to the increase in particle size [3,58,82].

Graphene is a promising nanostructured material [134136].

Savithiri et al. [46] determine the dynamic viscosity of water/

graphene nanouids based on the correlation of Brinkman [111]

for the investigation of slip mechanisms in nanouids. However

the authors did not include any data that directly related to viscos-

ity of water/graphene nanouids. Also, no article is available in lit-

erature about the viscosity of graphene synthesis nanouids.

Furthermore a relative lack of experimental data about the viscos-

ity of nanouids is felt to exist throughout the research in this eld.

As a result more extensive investigations dedicated to the viscosity

of this newly introduced type of uids and the effective factors

seem to be required to fulll the existing gaps and also to obtain

reliable ndings for generating a benecial standard.

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to acknowledge University of Malaya for

nancial support. This work is supported by Fundamental Research

Grant Scheme (FRGS) fund (Project No. FP017/2010B, FRGS) and

Postgraduate Research Grant (PPP) (No. PV013/2011A).

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O

3

/

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