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# ANALYSIS OF EXTERNAL LOADS ON BURIED PIPE

Project

: 13404

## Pipeline : 6" Jet fuel pipeline

1.) EARTH LOAD Total dry unit weight, unit weight of water , height of water above pipe, Water buoyancy factor, Earth Load,Pv = 2.) LIVE LOAD Concentrated load at the surface above pipe, Ps = offset distance from pipe to line of application of surface load d = Impact factor, Pressure Transmitted to pipe, F' = Pp = = 3.) OVALITY Pipe Outside Diameter, Bedding constant, thickness of pipe, thicknes of liner, thicknes of coating , D= t = tL = tc = r = rw = hw = Rw = = =

FLOODED

NON-FLOODED

3 18.86 kN/m

1.50 m
3 9.81 kN/m

1.50 m

PSI

18000 0 1.15

lb inch

## F'*3Ps/(2**C2[1+(d/C)2]2.5) 2.83 PSI

6.625 INCH 0.1 0.280 INCH 0 INCH 0.1063 INCH 7.71 PSI 53016.52 (D1.K.P)/((EI)eq/R^3 + 0.061 E') 0.001 INCH

Deflection lag factor, D1(~1.0 -1.5) = Modulus of sol reaction, Youngs modulus of pipe, modulus of elasticity of liner, E` = E= EL =

K (~0.1) =

## modulus of elasticity of coating, Ec=

Pressure on pipe due to load, P = Equi. pipe wall stiffness, (EI)eq = Ovality , dy/D =

Ovality percentage =

0.15%

## Check Ovality <3%

OK

Generally in steel pipelines, buckling typically occurs when the ovality reached 20%, however as per API RP-1102 recommends to limit cross section ovality to 3%

4.) RING BUCKLING PRESSURE FS= factor of safety Factor of safety, FS Empirical coeff of elastic support, B'= 2.5 1/(1+4e^(-0.065C/D)) 0.309 Critical Ring buckling Pressure Qrb= (1/FS)*sqrt(32.Rw.B'.E'.(ET)eq/D^3)) 310.64 PSI 2.5 for C/D=>2 3 for (C/D)<2

Notes:1.) The surface loads are assumed to be acting as a point load 2.) The analysis is carried out for empty condition of pipe

Track Crossing Calculation-Uncased (as per API 1102) PROJECT: 13404 PIPELINE: 6" Jet Fuel Pipeline
Initial Design information Pipe and operational characteristics: Outside Diameter, D (inches) Design/Oper. Pressure, p (bar g) Line Pipe Steel Grade Specified min. yield strength, SMYS (psi) Design Factor, F Allowable Design Factor, Fa Longitudinal joint Factor, E Temperature derating Factor T Design Wall Thickness, t (mm) Corrossion Allownace, c (mm) Corroded Wall Thickness, tw (mm) Installation Temp Deg C Maximum operating Temp Deg C Installation and Site Characteristics Depth H (Meters) Bored diameter, Bd Soil Type Modulus of soil reaction, E' (ksi) Resilient modulus, Er (ksi) Unit Weight of soil, Lamda , lbs/in Type of Longitudinal Weld Design Wheel Load from axle, Ps/t (kips) Pavement type (Flexible / No Pavement / Rigid) Ap (Area of Tire Contact)sq.m = Critical Axle Configuration Other Steel Properties Young's modulus, Es Poisson's ratio, Vs Coefficient of Thermal Expansion mm/mm/deg C Check Allowable Barlow Stress Equation 8a, (Shi=p.D/2.tw) less than or equal to FxExTxSMYS p= 1.96 MPa D= 168.3 mm tw= 7.11 mm F= 0.72 E= 1 SMYS= 240 MPa T= 1 Shi (Barlow) Barlow Criteria fulfilled (Shi less than F.E.T.SMYS) Circumferential Stress Due to Earth Load tw/D E' From Figure 3 of API RP1102, KHe Dia of earth surrounding the pipeline Bd H/Bd From Figure 4 of API RP1102, Factor Be = Bd /D = From Figure 5 of API RP1102 Factor Ee = Unit Weight of Soil Lamda SHe from Equation 1 of API RP1102, (SHe=KHe.Be.Ee.Lamda .D)

= Barg = psi

## 168.3 mm 284.3 1.960 Mpa 240 MPa

mm mm mm C C

1.5 m 168.3 mm Loose Sand & Gravel 0.5 ksi = 5 ksi = 0.070 lbs/in = SMLS 17.8125 = Rigid 0.053 m Single

4.92 feet

## 30000000 psi 0.3 0.0000117

206842.772 MPa

23.197 OK

< or =

172.80 MPa

0.0422 3.4 800 168.3 mm 8.91 1.300 1.00 0.820 1926 kg/m 2.71 MPa

2711 KPa

Page 2/6

Impact Factor Fi and Applied Design Surface Pressure, w Fi from Figure 7 & Sect 4.7.2.2.2 Ap (Area of Tire Contact)sq.m = w = Pt/Ap lbs/in2 Cyclic Circumferential Delta SHh From Fig 14 of API RP1102, for tw/D and Er values KHh = From Fig 15 of API RP1102, GHh = From Table 2 of API RP1102, R = From Table 2 of API RP1102, L = From Equation 5 of API RP1102, Delta SHh = KHh.GHh.R.L.Fi.w Cyclic Longitudinal Delta SLh From Fig 16 of API RP1102, for tw/D and Er values KLh = From Fig 17 of API RP1102, GLh = From Eqn 6 of API RP1102, Delta SLh =KLh.GLh.R.L.Fi.w Circumferential Stress Due to Internal Pressure From Eqn 7 of API RP1102, SHi =p(D-tw)/2.tw Principle Stresses S1, S2, & S3 From Eqn 9 of API RP1102, Circumferential S1 =SHe+Delta SHh+Shi From Eqn 10 of API RP1102, Longitudinal S2 = From Eqn 11 of API RP1102, Radial S3 = -p = -MAOP From Equation 12, Page 2, Seff = Check Allowable Effective Stress Total effective stress in pipeline, Seff not to exceed SMYSxFa SMYS x Fa

25673 KPa

34436 KPa

22.22 MPa

22217 KPa

## Check Fatigue F = 0.72

From Table 3 of API RP 1102 Delta SLh = SFG x F = 34.44 MPa 59.57 MPa Girth Welds Delta SLh < = SFG x F Girth Welds OK for Fatigue SFG = 12000 psi = 82.74 MPa

Longitudinal welds F = 0.72 SFL = From Table 3 of API RP 1102 21000 psi = 144.79 MPa Delta SHh shall be less than or equal to SFL x F Delta SHh = 25.67 MPa SFL x F = 104.25 MPa Longitudinal welds Delta SHh < = SFL X F Longitudinal Welds OK for Fatigue

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## ANALYSIS OF EXTERNAL LOADS ON BURIED PIPE

(Based on ALA - Guidlines for the design of Buried steel pipe)

Project

: 13404

## Pipeline : 3" Jet fuel pipeline

1.) EARTH LOAD Total dry unit weight, unit weight of water , height of water above pipe, Water buoyancy factor, Earth Load,Pv = 2.) LIVE LOAD Concentrated load at the surface above pipe, Ps = offset distance from pipe to line of application of surface load d = Impact factor, Pressure Transmitted to pipe, F' = Pp = = 3.) OVALITY Pipe Outside Diameter, Bedding constant, thickness of pipe, thicknes of liner, thicknes of coating , D= t = tL = tc = r = rw = hw = Rw = = =

FLOODED

NON-FLOODED

3 18.86 kN/m

1.50 m
3 9.81 kN/m

1.50 m

PSI

18000 0 1.15

lb inch

## F'*3Ps/(2**C2[1+(d/C)2]2.5) 2.83 PSI

3.5 INCH 0.1 0.216 INCH 0 INCH 0.984 INCH 7.71 PSI 33380.52 (D1.K.P)/((EI)eq/R^3 + 0.061 E') 0.001 INCH

Deflection lag factor, D1(~1.0 -1.5) = Modulus of sol reaction, Youngs modulus of pipe, modulus of elasticity of liner, E` = E= EL =

K (~0.1) =

## modulus of elasticity of coating, Ec=

Pressure on pipe due to load, P = Equi. pipe wall stiffness, (EI)eq = Ovality , dy/D =

Ovality percentage =

0.12%

## Check Ovality <3%

OK

Generally in steel pipelines, buckling typically occurs when the ovality reached 20%, however as per API RP-1102 recommends to limit cross section ovality to 3%

4.) RING BUCKLING PRESSURE FS= factor of safety Factor of safety, FS Empirical coeff of elastic support, B'= 2.5 1/(1+4e^(-0.065C/D)) 0.428 Critical Ring buckling Pressure Qrb= (1/FS)*sqrt(32.Rw.B'.E'.(ET)eq/D^3)) 756.12 PSI 2.5 for C/D=>2 3 for (C/D)<2

Notes:1.) The surface loads are assumed to be acting as a point load 2.) The analysis is carried out for empty condition of pipe

Track Crossing Calculation-Uncased (as per API 1102) PROJECT: 13404 PIPELINE: 3" Jet Fuel Pipeline
Initial Design information Pipe and operational characteristics: Outside Diameter, D (inches) Design/Oper. Pressure, p (bar g) Line Pipe Steel Grade Specified min. yield strength, SMYS (psi) Design Factor, F Allowable Design Factor, Fa Longitudinal joint Factor, E Temperature derating Factor T Design Wall Thickness, t (mm) Corrossion Allownace, c (mm) Corroded Wall Thickness, tw (mm) Installation Temp Deg C Maximum operating Temp Deg C Installation and Site Characteristics Depth H (Meters) Bored diameter, Bd Soil Type Modulus of soil reaction, E' (ksi) Resilient modulus, Er (ksi) Unit Weight of soil, Lamda , lbs/in Type of Longitudinal Weld Design Wheel Load from axle, Ps/t (kips) Pavement type (Flexible / No Pavement / Rigid) Ap (Area of Tire Contact)sq.m = Critical Axle Configuration Other Steel Properties Young's modulus, Es Poisson's ratio, Vs Coefficient of Thermal Expansion mm/mm/deg C Check Allowable Barlow Stress Equation 8a, (Shi=p.D/2.tw) less than or equal to FxExTxSMYS p= 1.96 MPa D= 88.9 mm tw= 5.49 mm F= 0.72 E= 1 SMYS= 240 MPa T= 1 Shi (Barlow) Barlow Criteria fulfilled (Shi less than F.E.T.SMYS) Circumferential Stress Due to Earth Load tw/D E' From Figure 3 of API RP1102, KHe Dia of earth surrounding the pipeline Bd H/Bd From Figure 4 of API RP1102, Factor Be = Bd /D = From Figure 5 of API RP1102 Factor Ee = Unit Weight of Soil Lamda SHe from Equation 1 of API RP1102, (SHe=KHe.Be.Ee.Lamda .D)

## 88.9 mm 1.960 Mpa 240 MPa

mm mm mm C C

1.5 m 88.9 mm Loose Sand & Gravel 0.5 ksi = 5 ksi = 0.070 lbs/in = SMLS 17.8125 = Rigid 0.053 m Single

4.92 feet

## 30000000 psi 0.3 0.0000117

206843 MPa

15.869 OK

< or =

172.80 MPa

0.0618 3.4 400 88.9 mm 16.87 1.350 1.00 0.820 1926 kg/m 0.74 MPa

744 KPa

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Impact Factor Fi and Applied Design Surface Pressure, w Fi from Figure 7 & Sect 4.7.2.2.2 Ap (Area of Tire Contact)sq.m = w = Pt/Ap lbs/in2 Cyclic Circumferential Delta SHh From Fig 14 of API RP1102, for tw/D and Er values KHh = From Fig 15 of API RP1102, GHh = From Table 2 of API RP1102, R = From Table 2 of API RP1102, L = From Equation 5 of API RP1102, Delta SHh = KHh.GHh.R.L.Fi.w Cyclic Longitudinal Delta SLh From Fig 16 of API RP1102, for tw/D and Er values KLh = From Fig 17 of API RP1102, GLh = From Eqn 6 of API RP1102, Delta SLh =KLh.GLh.R.L.Fi.w Circumferential Stress Due to Internal Pressure From Eqn 7 of API RP1102, SHi =p(D-tw)/2.tw Principle Stresses S1, S2, & S3 From Eqn 9 of API RP1102, Circumferential S1 =SHe+Delta SHh+Shi From Eqn 10 of API RP1102, Longitudinal S2 = From Eqn 11 of API RP1102, Radial S3 = -p = -MAOP From Equation 12, Page 2, Seff = Check Allowable Effective Stress Total effective stress in pipeline, Seff not to exceed SMYSxFa SMYS x Fa

15212 KPa

38880 KPa

14.89 MPa

14889 KPa

## Check Fatigue F = 0.72

From Table 3 of API RP 1102 Delta SLh = SFG x F = 38.88 MPa 59.57 MPa Girth Welds Delta SLh < = SFG x F Girth Welds OK for Fatigue SFG = 12000 psi = 82.74 MPa

Longitudinal welds F = 0.72 SFL = From Table 3 of API RP 1102 21000 psi = 144.79 MPa Delta SHh shall be less than or equal to SFL x F Delta SHh = 15.21 MPa SFL x F = 104.25 MPa Longitudinal welds Delta SHh < = SFL X F Longitudinal Welds OK for Fatigue

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