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ADVANCEMENT AND USE OF METRO ETHERNET SERVICES


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OUTLINE
Introduction Synchronization over Packets

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Conclusion

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Characteristics of Carrier Ethernet

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Basics of Ethernet Protocols

Drivers for metro/carrier Ethernet

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Evolving Architectures for Metro Ethernet/Packet Transport Networks

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References

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INTRODUCTION

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Ethernet frame is made up: 7bytes of Preamble field 1byte of Start Frame Delimiter 6bytes of Destination Address 6bytes of Source Address 2bytes of Length/Type field 46-1500bytes of Protocol Data Unit (PDU is made up of MAC Client Data and Pad and 4bytes of Frame Check Sequence.)

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Ethernet was originally designed for simple data transfer over local area networks.

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INTRODUCTION

Fig1: IEEE 802.3 frame structure

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INTRODUCTION

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1972 Bob Metcalfe et al. develop first experimental 2.94 Mbps Ethernet at Xerox Parc (called alto aloha network, 1973, changed as ethernet) 1980 DEC-INTEL-XEROX present formal specifications for 10 Mbps Ethernet (Ethernet Blue Book) 1983 IEEE approves standard for 10 Mbps Ethernet over coax cable 1989 International Organization for Standards (ISO) approves Ethernet standard (ISO88023) 1990 Start-up Kalpana ships first full-duplex Ethernet switch, the Etherswitch 1993 IEEE approves standard 10 Mbps Ethernet over fiber

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INTRODUCTION

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1995 IEEE approves standard 100 Mbps Fast Ethernet over twisted pair and fiber 1997 IEEE approves standard for full duplex Ethernet 1998 IEEE approves standard 1000 Mbps (Gigabit Ethernet) over fiber and coax 2000 Nortel Networks announces first WAN-compatible 10 Gigabit Ethernet interfaces 2002 IEEE's 802.3 Ethernet standards group approved the final draft of the 10 Gigabit Ethernet standard 2006 IEEE 802.3 High Speed Study Group (HSSG) investigates 100Gbps Ethernet 2010 IEEE P802.3ba Ethernet Task Force ratified the final draft of 40Gbps/100Gbps Ethernet

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INTRODUCTION

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Fig2: Ethernet Evolution

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INTRODUCTION

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Today we have Ethernet over fiber of different lengths and Ethernet passive optical Networks.

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Later, Star topology on twisted pair copper cables.

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Ethernet started as a bus topology on coaxial cables.

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CHARACTERISTICS OF CARRIER ETHERNET


The MEF has defined Carrier Ethernet as a ubiquitous, standardized, carrier-class Service and Network defined by five attributes that distinguish Carrier Ethernet from familiar LAN based Ethernet.

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Standardized Services Scalability Reliability Quality of Service Service Management

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CHARACTERISTICS OF CARRIER ETHERNET


Standardized Services E-Line: Point to Point Ethernet Service

Ideally suited to converged voice, video & data networks Wide choice and granularity of bandwidth and quality of service options

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E-Tree: Multipoint to Multipoint Ethernet Service

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E-LAN: Point to Multipoint Ethernet Service

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CHARACTERISTICS OF CARRIER ETHERNET


Scalability The ability for millions to use a network service that is ideal for the widest variety of business, information, communications and entertainment applications with voice, video and data

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Scalability of bandwidth from 1Mbps to 10Gbps and beyond, in granular increments

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Spans Access & Metro to National & Global Services over a wide variety of physical infrastructures implemented by a wide range of Service Providers

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CHARACTERISTICS OF CARRIER ETHERNET


Reliability The ability for the network to detect & recover from incidents without impacting users

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Rapid recovery time when problems do occur, as low as 50ms

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Meeting the most demanding quality and availability requirements

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CHARACTERISTICS OF CARRIER ETHERNET


Quality of Service Wide choice and granularity of bandwidth and quality of service options

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Provisioning via SLAs that provide end-to-end performance based on CIR, frame loss, delay and delay variation characteristics

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Service Level Agreements (SLAs) that deliver end-to-end performance matching the requirements for voice, video and data over converged business and residential networks

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CHARACTERISTICS OF CARRIER ETHERNET


Service Management The ability to monitor, diagnose and centrally manage the network, using standards-based vendor independent implementations

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Rapid service provisioning

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Carrier-class OAM

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CHARACTERISTICS OF CARRIER ETHERNET

Fig3: Ethernet Layers

Ethernet can be described in the context of three major components: services aspects, network layer, and physical layer.

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QinQ is a way to overcome the limitations on the VLAN identifier space. QinQ has been standardized as 802.1ad (provider bridge)

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QinQ/PB: VLAN Stacking QinQ (802.1Q in 802.1Q) enables VLAN stacking, which supports the appending of multiple VLAN tags to the Ethernet frame to create a hierarchy, thus preserving customer VLAN settings and providing transparency across a provider network.

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EVOLVING ARCHITECTURES FOR METRO ETHERNET/PACKET TRANSPORT NETWORKS

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It functions by turning off MAC learning, broadcasting unknown and STP, and using a management plane (or optionally a GMPLS control plane) to populate the switch bridging tables for a specific range of VID/MAC addresses.

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It is also referred to as MAC-in-MAC.

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Provider Backbone Bridge (802.1ah) PBB is used to bridge several PBNs (802.1ad). In other words, it allows the interconnection of multiple Provider Bridge Networks while preserving customer VLANS.

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EVOLVING ARCHITECTURES FOR METRO ETHERNET/PACKET TRANSPORT NETWORKS

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Tunnels carry raw Ethernet frames or 802.1ad.

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Forwarding is based on the static forwarding database (FDB) entries; dynamic MAC learning is not used.

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Uses a subset of PBB (no learning, no STP)

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PBB-TE: Provider Backbone Bridge Traffic Engineering Provider Backbone Bridge Traffic Engineering (802.1Qay) eliminates broadcasting or flooding, by using only the loopfree forwarding paths configured by management.

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EVOLVING ARCHITECTURES FOR METRO ETHERNET/PACKET TRANSPORT NETWORKS

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Fig5: PBB/PBB-TE

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Fig4: 802.1Q-in-802.1Q (Courtesy of www.h3c.com)

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EVOLVING ARCHITECTURES FOR METRO ETHERNET/PACKET TRANSPORT NETWORKS

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Fig6:

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802.1Q

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QinQ/PB

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PBB/PBB-TE

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EVOLVING ARCHITECTURES FOR METRO ETHERNET/PACKET TRANSPORT NETWORKS

MPLS-TP (MPLS Transport Profile) MPLS-TP is transport technology combined with Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS). MPLS-TP or MPLS Transport Profile is a connectionoriented packet-switched (CO-PS) application designed for use as a network layer technology in transport networks. MPLS-TP is to be based on the same architectural principles of layered networking that are used in longstanding transport network technologies like SDH, SONET and OTN. MPLS-TP maps client signals into MPLS frames and forwards those using mechanisms such as label switching or label stack.

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EVOLVING ARCHITECTURES FOR METRO ETHERNET/PACKET TRANSPORT NETWORKS

Fig7: MPLS-TP Generic Encapsulation Format

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The payload convergence sub-layer is primarily responsible for encapsulating the payload in VC Protocol Data Units (VC-PDUs). The sequencing sub-layer performs three functions: frame ordering, frame duplication detection, and frame loss detection. The timing sub-layer performs two functions: clock recovery and timed delivery. IP services can be directly mapped into T-LSP or indirectly mapped by means of dual labels.

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EVOLVING ARCHITECTURES FOR METRO ETHERNET/PACKET TRANSPORT NETWORKS

DRIVERS FOR METRO/CARRIER ETHERNET


The optimal transition path toward Carrier Ethernet depends on several parameters, including cost, technology, scalability, operational impact and the carrier's existing infrastructure.

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Cost Evolution of Transport Networks Mobile Backhaul Broadband Multi-play

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DRIVERS FOR METRO/CARRIER ETHERNET


Cost Ethernet offers the lowest cost per bit when compared to TDM (SDH/PDH).

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Carrier Ethernet platforms brings a significant cost saving to the carriers by removing multiple layers of protocols from hardware and software.

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Overlaying Ethernet on SDH is more expensive than Ethernet over dark-fiber or Ethernet over WDM.

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DRIVERS FOR METRO/CARRIER ETHERNET


Mobile Backhaul The Abis over IP solution enables operators to use IP and Ethernet transport networks to connect RBSs to the BSC and thereby benefit from the lower costs of IP- and Ethernet-based transport services.

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In classic TDM-based Abis interface, the subordinate 16kbps timeslot on the Abis interface is permanently allocated to a traffic channel (TCH) for voice service and will never be available to carry EDGE data.

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Evolution of Transport Networks:

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DRIVERS FOR METRO/CARRIER ETHERNET


Mobile Backhaul With packet Abis the transport resources make up a common pool that is used by the traffic offered at each moment in time.

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The solution also opens the door to shared transport with WCDMA and to integrated transport solutions for RBS sites.

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Evolution of Transport Networks:

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DRIVERS FOR METRO/CARRIER ETHERNET


Broadband Multi-play Ethernet has ushered in a new era of one network, multiple services.

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Ethernet services provide secure traffic separation and full service transparency, allowing the enterprise to maintain in-house control over routing information and security and encryption techniques.

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A single, familiar Ethernet interface enables convergence of all services over a common network infrastructure, simplifying operations.

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Evolution of Transport Networks

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SYNCHRONIZATION OVER PACKETS

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PTP employs hardware-based time-stamping to synchronize all real-time clocks distributed throughout the packet network.

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IEEE 1588-2008 (PTP) enables accurate distribution of time and frequency over packet-based networks.

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IEEE 1588-2008 IEEE 1588-2008, also known as Precision Time Protocol (PTP) or IEEE 1588v2 enables network endpoint devices to maintain precise timing and synchronization over Ethernet/IP based networks.

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SYNCHRONIZATION OVER PACKETS


IEEE 1588-2008 PTP employs server/client architecture.

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The server continuously exchanges time-stamped packets with its clients to ensure that they are all synchronized to the same time and frequency reference point.

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The IEEE 1588 Grandmaster Clock is a primary reference source for all of the PTP clients within its network domain.

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SYNCHRONIZATION OVER PACKETS

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Synchronous Ethernet (SyncE) is the ability to provide PHY-level frequency distribution through an Ethernet port. It can be considered one of the critical building blocks of the NGN.

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Using similar external references as a source, SyncE aims to achieve the same function.

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Synchronous Ethernet (SyncE) Previously, SDH and SONET gear were used in conjunction with external timing technology to provide accurate and stable frequency reference.

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CONCLUSION

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REFRENCES

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IEEE Communications Magazine, March 2008, Vol.46,No.3 MEF, "Introducing the Specifications of the Metro Ethernet Forum". Nortel Networks, "Service delivery technologies for Metro Ethernet Networks", White Paper Muneyoshi Suzuki, "Requirements for 802.1AD Provider Bridges", June 2003. Mick Seaman, "Large Scale Q-in-Q (1) Scalable address learning". MPLS-TP; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MPLS-TP Zhang Yongjun, Zhang Zhihui, Gu Wanyi Service Adaptation and Label Forwarding Mechanism for MPLS-TP, ZTE white paper Virtual Bridged Local Area Networks, IEEE 802.1Q, December 1998 TDM to Ethernet Evolution: http://www.ecitele.com Cisco SyncE white paper: http://www.cisco.com Ciena: White Paper - Delivering True Carrier Ethernet Business Services

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THANK YOU
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