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MEKANIKA TEKNIK Introduction to Statics

MEKANIKA TEKNIK Introduction to Statics

Dr. Eng. Munadi

Pendahuluan

Pendahuluan 2
3
3

Tujuan Perkuliahan:

Memahami

kesetimbangan partikel dan kesetimbangan benda tegar Mampu melakukan pemodelan terhadap struktur, mesin/komponen mesin dalam kondisi setimbang guna analisis gaya dan momen (DBB) Mampu melakukan analisis gaya-gaya reaksi dan gaya dalam serta momen lentur pada struktur dan mesin sederhana dalam kondisi setimbang Mampu menentukan karakteristik struktur dan mesin/komponen mesin yang meliputi: titik berat dan momen inersia

meliputi

prinsip-prinsip

statika

yang

Perkembangan Ilmu Mekanika

Mekanika adalah ilmu Fisika yang mempelajari keadaan status benda, baik dalam keadaan diam atau bergerak akibat pengaruh gaya-gaya yang bekerja.

Static konsen kesetimbangan benda dibawah aksi gaya

Dynamic konsen gerakan benda

Mechanics

Type title here

Rigid Bodies Deformable Bodies Fluids (Things that do not change shape) (Things that do change
Rigid Bodies
Deformable Bodies
Fluids
(Things that do not change shape)
(Things that do change shape)
Fluids (Things that do not change shape) (Things that do change shape) Statics Dynamics Incompressible Compressible
Fluids (Things that do not change shape) (Things that do change shape) Statics Dynamics Incompressible Compressible

Statics

Dynamics

Fluids (Things that do not change shape) (Things that do change shape) Statics Dynamics Incompressible Compressible
Fluids (Things that do not change shape) (Things that do change shape) Statics Dynamics Incompressible Compressible

Incompressible

Compressible

Perkembangan Ilmu Mekanika

1. Mekanika Fluida a).Aliran Fluida Newtonian (ideal : non viscous, inkompresibel) b).Aliran FluidaViscous c).Aliran Fluida Kompresibel d).Aeromechanics e).Viscoelastics Fluids Topik Lanjut : Aliran fluida non-newtonian, Hypersonics (kecepatan di atas kecepatan suara),Viscoelastisitas

2. Mekanika Benda Padat (Rigid body) a). Statika Benda Kaku b). Dinamika Benda Kaku (Kinematika dan Dinamika) Topik Lanjut : Getaran (vibration), Elastisitas (Elasticity), Plastisitas (Plasticity)

3. Mekanika Kontinum (Deformable Body) a). Mekanika benda yang mudah berubah bentuk (Mekanika Kekuatan Bahan) b). Mekanika Partikel Topik Lanjut : Mekanika Ruang (Space Mechanics), Mekanika Giroskop (Gyromechanics)

Konsep Dasar

Ruang (space) : ruang wilayah geometris yang diduduki oleh benda yang posisinya digambarkan oleh pengukuran linear dan angular terhadap sistem koordinat.

Waktu (time) : ukuran suksesi peristiwa dan merupakan kuantitas

dasar dalam dinamika

Massa (mass) : ukuran inersia benda yang merupakan ketahanan thd perubahan kecepatan

Gaya (force) : aksi dari suatu benda terhadap benda lain

Partikel (particle) : benda yang dimensinya dapat diabaikan

Benda kaku/tegar (rigid body): suatu benda yang tidak akan

berubah bentuknya setelah diberikan suatu gaya pada benda itu

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Skalar dan Vektor

Scalars

Examples:

Characteristics:

mass, volume

It has a magnitude

(positive or negative)

Addition rule:

Special Notation:

Simple arithmetic

None

Vectors

force, velocity

It has a magnitude

and direction

Parallelogram law

Bold font, a line or an arrow

8

Vektor Operation

8 Vektor Operation Scalar Multiplication and Division
8 Vektor Operation Scalar Multiplication and Division
8 Vektor Operation Scalar Multiplication and Division

Scalar Multiplication and Division

Vector addition using either the

parallelogram law or triangle

Parallelogram Law:

Triangle method (always „tip to tail‟):

addition using either the parallelogram law or triangle Parallelogram Law: Triangle method (always „tip to tail‟):
addition using either the parallelogram law or triangle Parallelogram Law: Triangle method (always „tip to tail‟):

Resolution of a Vector

“Resolution” of a vector is breaking up a vector into components. It is kind of like using the parallelogram law in reverse.

of a vector is breaking up a vector into components. It is kind of like using

Cartesian Vector Notation

Cartesian Vector Notation • We „resolve ‟ vectors into components using the x and y axes

We „resolve ‟ vectors into components

using the x and y axes system

Each component of the vector is shown as a magnitude and a direction.

The directions are based on the x and y axes. We use the “unit

vectors” i and j to designate the x and y axes.

For example,

F = Fx i

+

Fy

j

or

For example, F = Fx i + Fy j or F' = F'x i - F'y

F'

= F'x i

-

F'y

j

F = Fx i + Fy j or F' = F'x i - F'y j The

The x and y axes are always perpendicular to each other. Together, they can be directed at any inclination.

Addition of several vectors

13

Addition of several vectors 13 • Step 1 is to resolve each force into its components

Step 1 is to resolve each force into its components

Step 2 is to add all the x components

together and add all the y components together. These two totals become the resultant vector. Step 3 is to find the magnitude and angle of the resultant vector.

These two totals become the resultant vector.  Step 3 is to find the magnitude and

You can also represent a 2-D vector with a magnitude and angle.

You can also represent a 2-D vector with a magnitude and angle. 14
You can also represent a 2-D vector with a magnitude and angle. 14
You can also represent a 2-D vector with a magnitude and angle. 14

VECTOR ADDITION USING

ANALYTICAL FORMULATION

C B C B
C
B
C
B

Law of cosines,

2 2 P P  Q  Q R R 
2
2
P
P  Q 
Q
R R 

2

2
2

PQ

cos B

Law of sines,

sin A

Q

sin

B

Q R R  2 2 PQ cos B • Law of sines, sin A Q

R

sin C

 2 2 PQ cos B • Law of sines, sin A Q sin B R

A

Vector addition is commutative,

cos B • Law of sines, sin A Q sin B R sin C A •

P Q

cos B • Law of sines, sin A Q sin B R sin C A •
cos B • Law of sines, sin A Q sin B R sin C A •

Q P

EXAMPLE

EXAMPLE Given: Three concurrent forces acting on a bracket. Find: The magnitude and angle of the

Given: Three concurrent forces acting on a bracket.

Find:

The magnitude and angle of the resultant force.

Plan:

a) Resolve the forces in their x-y components.

b) Add the respective components to get the resultant vector.

c) Find magnitude and angle from the resultant components.

EXAMPLE (continued) F1 = { 15 sin 40 i + 15 cos 40 j }

EXAMPLE (continued) F1 = { 15 sin 40

i + 15 cos 40

j } kN

= { 9.642 i + 11.49 j } kN

F2 = { -(12/13)26 i + (5/13)26 j } kN

= { -24 i + 10 j } kN

F3 = { 36 cos 30

i

36 sin 30

j } kN

= { 31.18 i 18 j } kN

Summing up all the i and j components respectively, we get,

FR = { (9.642 24 + 31.18) i + (11.49 + 10 18) j } kN

= { 16.82 i + 3.49 j } kN

FR = ((16.82) 2 + (3.49) 2 ) 1/2 = 17.2 kN

i + 3.49 j } kN FR = ((16.82) 2 + (3.49) 2 ) 1 /

= tan -1 (3.49/16.82) = 11.7

y

i + 3.49 j } kN FR = ((16.82) 2 + (3.49) 2 ) 1 /

FR

i + 3.49 j } kN FR = ((16.82) 2 + (3.49) 2 ) 1 /
i + 3.49 j } kN FR = ((16.82) 2 + (3.49) 2 ) 1 /

x

3D Vector

3D Vector 18

Unit Vector

The unit vectors in the Cartesian axis system are i, j, and k. They are unit vectors along the positive x, y, and z axes respectively.

Cartesian axis system are i , j , and k . They are unit vectors along

3-D CARTESIAN VECTOR TERMINOLOGY

3-D CARTESIAN VECTOR TERMINOLOGY Consider a box with sides A X ,A Y , and A

Consider a box with sides A X ,A Y , and A Z meters long.

The vector A can be defined as

A = (A X i + A Y j + A Z k)

m

The projection of the vector A in the x-y plane is A . The magnitude of this projection, A , is found by using the same approach as a 2-D vector: A = (A X 2 + A Y 2 ) 1/2 .

The magnitude of the position vector A can now be obtained as

A

= ((A ) 2 + A Z 2 ) ½

=

(A X 2 + A Y 2 + A Z 2 ) ½

TERMS (continued)

The direction or orientation of vector A is defined by

the angles

,
,
.
.

, and

These angles are measured between the vector and

the positive X,Y and Z axes, respectively. Their

range of values are from 0

to 180

axes, respectively. Their range of values are from 0 to 180 Using trigonometry, “direction cosines” are

Using trigonometry, “direction cosines” are found using the formulas

“direction cosines” are found using the formulas These angles are not independent. They must satisfy the

These angles are not independent.They must satisfy the following equation.

cos ²

+
+

cos ²

They must satisfy the following equation. cos ² + cos ² + cos ² = 1

+ cos ²

satisfy the following equation. cos ² + cos ² + cos ² = 1 This result

= 1

This result can be derived from the definition of a coordinate direction angles and the unit vector. Recall, the formula for finding the unit vector of any position vector:

formula for finding the unit vector of any position vector: or written another way, u A

or written another way, u A = cos

formula for finding the unit vector of any position vector: or written another way, u A

i +

cos

formula for finding the unit vector of any position vector: or written another way, u A

j + cos

formula for finding the unit vector of any position vector: or written another way, u A

k

.

ADDITION/SUBTRACTION OF VECTORS

Once individual vectors are written in Cartesian form, it is easy to add or subtract them. The process is essentially the same as when 2-D vectors are added.

For example, if

A

=

A X i

B

=

B X i

+ A Y

+

B Y

j

+ A Z

k

and

j

+ B Z

k ,

then

A

+

B

=

(A X + B X ) i

+

(A Y + B Y ) j

+

(A Z + B Z ) k

or

A

B

=

(A X - B X ) i

+

(A Y - B Y ) j

+

(A Z -

B Z ) k .

G
G

EXAMPLE

Given:Two forces F and G are applied to a hook. Force F is shown in the figure

and it makes 60

Y plane. Force G is pointing up and

has a magnitude of 80 N with

angle with the X-

.

up and has a magnitude of 80 N with angle with the X- . = 111

=

up and has a magnitude of 80 N with angle with the X- . = 111

111

and

= 69.3

Find: The resultant force in the Cartesian

vector form.

Plan:

1) Using geometry and trigonometry, write F and G in the

Cartesian vector form.

2)Then add the two forces.

Solution : First, resolve force F.

F z = 100 sin 60 F' = 100 cos 60

= 86.60 N

= 50.00 N

F x = 50 cos 45

= 35.36 N

F y = 50 sin 45

= 35.36 N

Now, you can write:

F = {35.36 i 35.36 j + 86.60 k} N

cos 45 = 35.36 N F y = 50 sin 45 = 35.36 N Now, you
cos 45 = 35.36 N F y = 50 sin 45 = 35.36 N Now, you

Now resolve force G.

We are given only

Recall the formula cos ² (

Now substitute what we know. We have

cos ² (111

Solving, we get

substitute what we know. We have cos ² (111 Solving, we get and . Hence, first
substitute what we know. We have cos ² (111 Solving, we get and . Hence, first

and

. Hence, first we need to find the value of =

we get and . Hence, first we need to find the value of = ) +

) + cos ² (

. Hence, first we need to find the value of = ) + cos ² (

) + cos ² (

)
)

1.

)
)

) + cos ² (69.3

value of = ) + cos ² ( ) + cos ² ( ) 1. )

= 30.22

) + cos ² (

=

1.

.
.

Now using the coordinate direction angles, we can get U G, and determine G = 80 U G N.

G = {80 ( cos (111

G = {- 28.67 i + 28.28 j + 69.13 k } N

) i + cos (69.3

) j + cos (30.22

Now, R = F + G

R = {6.69 i 7.08 j + 156 k}

or

N

) k )} N

Hukum Newton

1. Benda yang dalam keadaan diam akan mempertahankan keadaannya untuk tetap diam dan

benda yang sedang bergerak lurus beraturan akan cenderung mempertahankan keadaannya

untuk bergerak lurus beraturan dalam arah yang sama selama tidak ada gaya yang bekerja padanya.

Sifat benda untuk mempertahankan keadaannya yang diam tetap diam, yang bergerak

lurus beraturan tetap bergerak lurus beraturan disebut inersia benda.

2. Percepatan sebuah benda yang diberi gaya adalah sebanding dengan besar gaya dan berbanding terbalik dengan massa benda F = m . a

3. Setiap ada gaya aksi, maka akan selalu ada gaya reaksi yang besarnya sama tetapi arahnya berlawanan setiap ada gaya aksi akan timbul gaya reaksi yang besarnya sama tetapi arahnya berlawanan. Ciri gaya aksi reaksi : besarnya sama. arah berlawanan.

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Sistem Satuan

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Konversi Satuan

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Hukum Gravitasi Bumi

Gravitasi bumi merupakan salah satu ciri bumi, yaitu benda- benda ditarik ke arah pusat bumi.

Gaya tarik bumi terhadap benda-benda ini dinamakan gaya

gravitasi bumi.

Berdasarkan pengamatan, Newton membuat kesimpulan

bahwa gaya tarik gravitasi yang bekerja antara dua benda

sebanding dengan massa masing-masing benda dan

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berbanding terbalik dengan kuadrat jarak kedua benda. Kesimpulan ini dikenal sebagai hukum gravitasi Newton.

benda dan 29 berbanding terbalik dengan kuadrat jarak kedua benda. Kesimpulan ini dikenal sebagai hukum gravitasi
benda dan 29 berbanding terbalik dengan kuadrat jarak kedua benda. Kesimpulan ini dikenal sebagai hukum gravitasi