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Arab Spring in Egypt

Historically speaking, Egypt has been a republic since 1953, with the head of state holding the position of president. . n power ca!e "eneral #uha!!ad $aguid, who was rapidly o%erthrown by "a!ar Abdel $asser, who in turn was replaced by Anwar Sadat, who after being assassinated during his ca!paign, he being the only candidate, was followed by Hosni #ubarak. &nce he ca!e to power, #ubarak's party, the $ational (e!ocratic )arty beca!e the only party in the country. #ubarak rules by !eans of a constant state of e!ergency, so!ething which increased his own power and that of the police, allowing for !any abuses to be co!!itted, and allowed the president to closely keep tabs on anyone who !ight try to replace hi!. E%entually the people's patience ca!e to an end, and inspired by the success of the re%olt in *unis, they took into the streets, wanting to acco!plish the sa!e thing as the *unisians. )rotests in Egypt began on +5 ,anuary +-11 and ran for 1. days. /eginning around !idnight on +. ,anuary, the Egyptian go%ern!ent atte!pted, so!ewhat successfully, to eli!inate the nation0s nternet access, in order to inhibit the protesters0 ability use !edia acti%is! to organi1e through social !edia. 2ater that day, as tens of thousands protested on the streets of Egypt0s !a3or cities, )resident Hosni #ubarak dis!issed his go%ern!ent, later appointing a new cabinet. #ubarak also appointed the first 4ice )resident in al!ost 3- years. (uring the uprising the capital city of 5airo was described as 6a war 1one6 and the port city of Sue1 saw fre7uent %iolent clashes. *he protesters defied the go%ern!ent i!posed curfew and the police and !ilitary did not enforce it. &n 1- 8ebruary, #ubarak ceded all presidential power to 4ice )resident, but soon thereafter announced that he would re!ain as )resident until the end of his ter!. Howe%er, protests continued the ne9t day, and Sulei!an 7uickly announced that #ubarak had resigned fro! the

presidency and transferred power to the Ar!ed 8orces of Egypt. *he !ilitary i!!ediately dissol%ed the Egyptian )arlia!ent, suspended the 5onstitution, and pro!ised to lift the nation0s thirty:year 6e!ergency laws6. *he !ilitary 3unta, announced on 13 8ebruary that the constitution would be suspended, both houses of parlia!ent dissol%ed, and that the !ilitary would rule for si9 !onths until elections could be held. He was replaced by the first de!ocratically elected president in Egyptian history, #oha!ed #orsi. *he new president constantly postponed the adoption of a new constitution, in which ci%il liberties, the separation of powers, a syste! of checks and balances, as well a !ulti:party syste! would ha%e been included. Howe%er, this will not be the case, pro%ing thus that constitutionalis! was dearly lacking e%en now. He continued this policy in +-13, when he had !anaged to be the e!bodi!ent of two of the three powers, na!ely the e9ecuti%e and the legislati%e, and was !aking atte!pts to bring the 3udicial under his control as well. #oreo%er, he was an sla!ist president, who wanted to abolish the secular state, so!ething which tens of !illions of Egyptians were opposed. ;ith a dire increase in prices, in fuel and a continuous decrease in li%ing standards, it is only e9pected that a new uprising was inbound. t e%entually started on the 3-th of ,une, when 1< !illion Egyptians took to the street. t was reported by so!e news agencies as being one of the biggest, if not the biggest, protest in world history. &n the 1st of ,une the ar!y issued its ulti!atu!, stating that if the politicians can not fulfill the wishes of the people, then they will ha%e no choice but to inter%ene. &n the + nd of ,une, while people were dying by the do1ens in the streets, with countless street battles taking place e%erywhere in 5airo, #orsi re3ected the ar!y's ulti!atu!, stating that he will find a solution by itself. So!ething which will be confir!ed on the 3 rd of ,une, when the ar!y, led by "eneral Abdul 8atah al:Sisi, re!o%ed the president fro! power, suspended the constitution and appointed an interi! president who would led the new technocratic state until elections will take place.