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Risk Assessment Data Directory

Report No. 434 12 March 2010

Occupational risk
International Association of Oil & Gas Producers

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Global experience
The International Association of Oil & Gas Producers has access to a wealth of technical knowledge and experience with its members operating around the world in many different terrains. We collate and distil this valuable knowledge for the industry to use as guidelines for good practice by individual members.

Consistent high quality database and guidelines


Our overall aim is to ensure a consistent approach to training, management and best practice throughout the world. The oil and gas exploration and production industry recognises the need to develop consistent databases and records in certain fields. The OGPs members are encouraged to use the guidelines as a starting point for their operations or to supplement their own policies and regulations which may apply locally.

Internationally recognised source of industry information


Many of our guidelines have been recognised and used by international authorities and safety and environmental bodies. Requests come from governments and non-government organisations around the world as well as from non-member companies.

Disclaimer
Whilst every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of the information contained in this publication, neither the OGP nor any of its members past present or future warrants its accuracy or will, regardless of its or their negligence, assume liability for any foreseeable or unforeseeable use made thereof, which liability is hereby excluded. Consequently, such use is at the recipients own risk on the basis that any use by the recipient constitutes agreement to the terms of this disclaimer. The recipient is obliged to inform any subsequent recipient of such terms. This document may provide guidance supplemental to the requirements of local legislation. Nothing herein, however, is intended to replace, amend, supersede or otherwise depart from such requirements. In the event of any conflict or contradiction between the provisions of this document and local legislation, applicable laws shall prevail.

Copyright notice
The contents of these pages are The International Association of Oil and Gas Producers. Permission is given to reproduce this report in whole or in part provided (i) that the copyright of OGP and (ii) the source are acknowledged. All other rights are reserved. Any other use requires the prior written permission of the OGP. These Terms and Conditions shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of England and Wales. Disputes arising here from shall be exclusively subject to the jurisdiction of the courts of England and Wales.

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contents
1.0 1.1 1.2 2.0 2.1 2.2 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 4.0 5.0 6.0 6.1 6.2 Scope and Definitions ........................................................... 1 Application ...................................................................................................... 1 Definitions ....................................................................................................... 1 Summary of Recommended Data ............................................ 2 Fatal Accident Rates....................................................................................... 2 Causes of Fatal Accidents ............................................................................. 3 Guidance on use of data ........................................................ 5 General validity ............................................................................................... 5 Uncertainties ................................................................................................... 5 Risk calculation for QRA................................................................................ 5 Review of data sources ......................................................... 5 Recommended data sources for further information .............. 6 References ............................................................................ 7 References for Sections 2.0 to 4.0 ................................................................ 7 References for other data sources................................................................ 7

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Abbreviations:
CMPT CS DNV E&P FAR FSU IRPA LTIF OGP OSHA QRA UK UKCS Centre for Marine and Petroleum Technology Continental Shelf Det Norske Veritas Exploration and Production Fatal Accident Rate Former Soviet Union Individual Risk Per Annum Lost Time Injury Frequency International Association of Oil & Gas Producers (US) Occupational Safety and Health Administration Quantitative Risk Assessment (sometimes Analysis) United Kingdom United Kingdom Continental Shelf

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1.0 1.1

Scope and Definitions Application

This datasheet presents (Section 2.0) occupational risks in the global E&P (Exploration & Production) industry, for both onshore and offshore facilities. The occupational risks include transport risks, which are often analysed separately in QRAs. Some indication is given as to how the occupational risks presented can be adjusted to remove transport risks.

1.2

Definitions

Fatality risks are presented in terms of the FAR (Fatal Accident Rate). This is defined as: FAR = number of fatalities per 108 exposed hours.

Onshore, exposed hours are working hours. Onshore work [1]: All activities and occupations that take place within a land mass, including those in swamps, rivers and lakes. Activities in bays, major inland seas, or in other inland seas directly connected to oceans are counted as offshore (see below).

Offshore, exposed hours are sometimes defined (e.g. by OSHA) as offshore working hours only (12 hours per day), elsewhere (e.g. Norway) as all hours spent offshore (24 hours per day). The offshore FAR values presented in Section 2.0 are for working hours only. Offshore work [1]: All activities and occupations that take place at sea, including major inland seas (e.g. Caspian Sea) and other inland seas directly connected with oceans. Includes transportation of people and equipment from shore to the offshore location either by vessel or helicopter.

Factors are given to modify the overall fatality risks presented for different functions: Exploration, Drilling and Production, defined as follows in [1]: Exploration: Geophysical, seismographic and geological operations, including their administrative and engineering aspects, construction, maintenance, materials supply, and transportation of personnel and equipment; excludes drilling. Drilling: All exploration, appraisal and production drilling and workover as well as their administrative, engineering, construction, materials supply and transportation aspects. It includes site preparation, rigging up and down and restoration of the drilling site upon work completion. Drilling includes ALL exploration, appraisal and production drilling. Production: Petroleum and natural gas producing operations, including their administrative and engineering aspects, minor construction, repairs, maintenance and servicing, materials supply, and transportation of personnel and equipment. It covers all mainstream production operations including wireline. It does not cover production drilling and workover.

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2.0

Summary of Recommended Data

It is recommended, wherever possible, to use local operator specific data for occupational risk (see Section 5.0). Where these are not available, the data presented below can be used.

2.1

Fatal Accident Rates

Table 2.1 presents overall worldwide FAR values by work location (onshore/offshore) for all personnel and separately for company employees and contractors. Note that these values include fatalities due to air and land transport incidents, except where indicated. Table 2.2 presents modification factors that can be used to factor the values in Table 2.1 for different functions: exploration, drilling, production and offshore catering/stewards (but see also Table 2.4 for drilling FAR values). Table 2.3 gives multiplication factors for different regions of the world that can be applied to the worldwide FAR values given in Table 2.1 to obtain region-specific FAR values. Note that the values presented in Table 2.1 and Table 2.3 are based on data published by OGP and the data presented in Table 2.4 are based on data published by IADC: see Section 3.1 regarding their validity. Table 2.1 Overall W orldwide FAR Values Personnel Events All* Excl. Air Transport Excl. Land Transport All* All* All Locations 4.44 4.16 N/A 2.08 5.34 Onshore 4.71 3.13 2.24 5.74 Offshore 3.56 N/A 1.37 4.15

All Personnel

Com pany Em ployees Contractors


* See Section 4.0 for definition of All. These values are given as often air and land transport are analysed separately in a QRA. No separate values are given for onshore and offshore as the relative contributions to each cannot be determined from the data.

Table 2.2 Modification Factors for Specific Functions Function Modification Factor W orldwide North Onshore & Sea Offshore Offshore 1.1 1.1 1.6 0.7 1.6 0.1 0.1

Exploration Drilling Production Offshore Catering/Stewards

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Table 2.3 Multiplication Factors for Different Regions 1 (Apply to Table 2.1 FAR Values)
Personne l All Locatio n Onshore Offshore All Company Onshore Offshore All Contract or Onshore Offshore All Africa Asia/ Australasia 0.36 0.56 0.40 0.29 0.72 0.35 0.35 0.53 0.39 Europ e 0.71 1.05 0.79 0.75 2.94 1.14 0.93 0.88 0.81 FSU Middle East 0.98 0.82 0.98 1.19 0.00 1.15 0.94 0.84 0.95 North America 0.74 1.52 0.90 0.41 0.47 0.41 0.97 1.86 1.17 South America 0.86 0.92 0.88 0.64 0.00 0.55 0.82 1.10 0.88

1.54 1.22 1.49 1.19 1.00 1.17 1.46 1.17 1.42

1.38 0.69 1.42 2.14 0.00 2.25 1.28 0.68 1.32

Table 2.4 FAR Values for Personnel Engaged in Drilling Operations Country/Region USA Canada Central / South America Europe Africa Middle East Asia Pacific Industry Average FAR values Onshore Offshore Com bined 16.10 7.30 13.17 18.68 0.00 12.19 5.53 5.13 5.41 3.68 2.21 2.45 7.11 6.06 6.49 3.08 5.44 3.69 6.53 5.96 6.17 7.53

For the UK and Norway Continental Shelfs (offshore), Alberta, Canada (onshore), and the USA (oil and gas extraction), the following FAR values are available. Note that these exclude helicopter accidents and are based on 2000 working hours per year. UKCS: FAR = 3.78 Norway: FAR = 0.94 Alberta: FAR = 8.26 USA: FAR = 11.42

2.2

Causes of Fatal Accidents

Figure 2.1 shows the proportions of fatal accidents due to different causes. They apply to the FAR value in Table 2.1 for all events, all locations (i.e. onshore and offshore). Transport fatalities account for almost 24% of the total. Figure 2.2 shows the causal breakdown excluding transport (air and vehicle incidents) and unknown causes.

Note that, as these are ratios of FAR values rather than absolute values, the All values do not necessarily lie between the corresponding Onshore and Offshore values.
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Figure 2.1 Causes of Fatal Accidents

Figure 2.2 Causes of Fatal Accidents, excluding Transport and Unknown

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3.0 3.1

Guidance on use of data General validity

The occupational risk values given in Table 2.1 and Table 2.3 can be applied to E&P facilities worldwide or in the specific regions presented in Table 2.3. However, they are based on data provided to OGP by OGPs members, and may not be representative in all geographical areas. The occupational risk values given in Table 2.4 for personnel engaged in drilling operations are based on data provided to IADC by IADCs members. If drilling operations are undertaken by a contractor that is not a member of IADC, the values in Table 2.4 may not be applicable.

3.2

Uncertainties

The data presented in Section 2.0 are in the main based on that obtained by OGP from its members. OGPs reports [1] do not discuss data quality, i.e. whether the data from each of the members and the countries where each member operates are subject to consistent reporting criteria and verification. Discrepancies may also occur in that not all companies report contractor hours. A further consideration is that the data do not reflect non OGP members and so may not be representative of the industry as a whole. The overall size of the database, as regards both working hours and fatalities, is sufficiently large (see Section 4.0) that the statistical uncertainties associated with the FAR values in Table 2.1 are small compared to the variations between regions and operators. Uncertainties are dominated by local variations. Even within geographically close countries, such as within the EU, variations can be large. Hence, as discussed in Section 5.0, it is preferable wherever possible to use local operator specific data.

3.3

Risk calculation for QRA

In QRAs, risks are frequently calculated and presented in terms of Individual Risk Per Annum (IRPA). FAR values therefore need to be converted to IRPA values using actual work pattern data. For example:

Working 2000 hours per year:

Offshore, as personnel are exposed to risk whilst off shift and in the TR, their risks are sometimes presented on the basis of 24 hours per day exposure whilst offshore. In this case, the contributions from the on shift and off shift FAR values need to be summed. The off shift FAR value for all workers can be estimated by applying the factor given in Table 2.2 for catering/stewards to the appropriate FAR value in Table 2.1.

4.0

Review of data sources

The principal source of the data presented in Section 2.0 is the data published by OGP [1] for the period 2002-6. During this period, the worldwide FAR has been roughly constant, and significantly lower than in the 1990s. It is therefore believed that it is reasonably representative of current occupational risks. The data for the individual years (both exposure and fatalities) have been summed over the 5-year period to calculate the FAR values given in Section 2.1.

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The database from which the OGP reports [1] are drawn contains records of incidents resulting in 532 fatalities over 12 ! 109 working hours during that period. Fatalities due to all causes are included, including vehicle incidents and air transport as well as being struck, explosion/burn, electrical, drowning, falls, and caught between. Fatality rate data are available going back to 1997, facilitating trend analysis. In the most recent report, the data have been contributed by 41 companies representing activities in 84 countries. Data quality is not discussed in the OGP reports and hence judgment as to its completeness cannot be presented here. However, from a review of other potential sources and bearing in mind that activities of OGP members extend worldwide, this is believed to be the most comprehensive source. To determine the modification factors by function for the North Sea (Table 2.2), more local sources [2],[3],[4] were compared and approximate averages taken. The same value for offshore catering/stewards is also suggested for Worldwide use; the other factors in Modification Factors for Specific Functions come from the OGP data. The United Kingdom and Norway Continental Shelf FAR values are given in [5]. They are for the period 2001 to the first half of 2007. The Alberta FAR can be calculated from data given in [6]. The USA oil and gas extraction FAR was calculated from data given in [7]: these data give fatalities per 100,000 employees and it is necessary to make an assumption about annual working hours per employee: for consistency with the OGP data, 2000 hours were assumed.

5.0

Recommended data sources for further information

Lost time injury frequencies (LTIFs) for specific countries are given in the OGP reports [1], however there is no breakdown by company/contractor, onshore/offshore or function. It might be thought that the FAR/LTIF ratio could be used as a surrogate either to obtain country specific FAR values or to obtain a more detailed breakdown of LTIF values. However, a review of the data shows a wide variation in that ratio such that this would be an unreliable approach. Country specific data are available from some statutory authorities (see Section 6.2 for references and URLs):

UK Norway Denmark Netherlands USA Canada

As most operators maintain incident databases (data from which have been gathered into the OGP database [1]), it may be preferable to use operator specific data. However, if these have not been analysed in a form suitable for QRA, the values presented in Section 2.0 can be used. In any case, these should be used as to validate any operator specific risks calculated.

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6.0 6.1

References References for Sections 2.0 to 4.0

[1] OGP, 2007. Safety performance indicators 2006 data, Report No. 391. Also corresponding reports for 2001-2005 data. http://www.ogp.org.uk/Publications/index.asp. [2] Spouge et al., 1999. A Guide to Quantitative Risk Assessment for Offshore Installations, App. XIV, ISBN 1 870553 365, Publication 99/100, Centre for Marine and Petroleum Technology (CMPT). Now available from the Energy Institute: http://www.energyinst.org.uk/index.cfm?PageID=5. [3] DNV, 2000. Occupational Risks for Workers on Offshore Installations, Revision 0, report for BP Amoco, DNV Order No. 30400100. [4] BP, 2003. Occupational Risk for Offshore Workers, Rev 0, BP Report No. D/UTG/051/03. [5] Petroleum Safety Authority Norway, 2008. Risk Levels in the petroleum industry Summary Report Norwegian Continental Shelf 2007, Ptil-08-03: http://www.ptil.no/getfile.php/PDF/Summary_rep_2008.pdf. [6] Alberta Employment, Immigration and Industry, 2007. Lost-Time Claims, Disabling Injury Claims and Claim Rates, Upstream Oil and Gas Industries 2002 to 2006.
http://employment.alberta.ca/documents/WHS/WHS-PUB_oid_2006_oil_and_gas.pdf

[7] Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2007. Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI): http://www.bls.gov/iif/oshwc/cfoi/CFOI_Rates_2006.pdf. Previous years reports can be found at: http://www.bls.gov/iif/oshcfoil.htm.

6.2

References for other data sources

UK http://www.hse.gov.uk/offshore/statistics/hsr0607.pdf (2006/7; earlier years also available) Norway [5] above: follow link to The Trends in Risk Levels report 2006; summary report in English; the full report is only in Norwegian, available via the following link: http://www.ptil.no/nyheter/risikonivaaet-2007-god-utvikling-men-flere-alvorlige-hendelser-article4466-24.html Denm ark http://www.ens.dk/graphics/Publikationer/Olie_Gas_UK/Oil_and_Gas_Production_in_De nmark_2006/html/chapter05.htm Netherlands
http://www.sodm.nl/data/jvs/jvs2006_eng.pdf: see Appendix F.

USA
http://www.mms.gov/incidents/IncidentStatisticsSummaries.htm#2006-2010:

presentation of inform-ation lacks exposure data. Also available to purchase: API - Survey on Petroleum Industry Occupational Injury and Illness Report:
http://www.api.org/ehs/health/measuring/index.cfm

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