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Introduction to apparel manufacturing unit:

1.1 Name of the Organisation Orient Craft Ltd. Address Plot No. 13, Khandsa Road Sector 37, Udyog Vihar, Gurgaon, Haryana Name of the Owner Mr. Sudhir Dhingra (Chairman and Managing Director), Mr. K . K. Kohli, and Mr. Anup Thatai

Orient craft limited is one of the largest Export House in India established in 1978 having a turnover of around 725 crores. It is dealing with US and European buyers. Orient Craft is the India's leading garment export house which was born as a dream in 1978. Orient Craft exports include shirts, t - shirts, blouses, skirts, jackets, coordinates, childrens wear, and home furnishings. Orient Craft Embroidery and Lace Division are proud to introduce as one of the leading names in the apparel industry and being the Brand behind Brands like American Eagle Outfitters, Ann Taylor, Armani Exchange, Banana Republic, Debenhams, Esprit, GAP, Marks & Spencer, Next, Polo Ralph Lauren, Zara etc. to name a few. As an ISO 9001 2008 certified unit, they strive to enhance customer satisfaction and cater to the needs of their clients with products and services meeting international quality standards at economical prices delivered right on-time. 1.2 Brands they work for:1. Liaison Office- Macys, Marks & Spencer, GAP 2. Direct buyers- S Oliver

3. Buying house- Triburg, WECA, Li & Fung 1.3 USP of Organisation This organisation is mainly known for its knits division . Lead time of basic garments Minimum 2 days. Lead time of embellished garments It depends on the buyer specification that what time period they have mentioned in the purchase orders. 1.4 Types of Fabrics they source:They source all the types of millmade fabrics like knitted and woven fabrics such as honey comb , velvet, denims, canvas, chiffon, poplin , lycra, cambric, chambray , voile etc from Gupta Exim, Alok industries, Lacra brothers, Oswal- Ludhiana, Mercury, Mafat Lal, Nahar textiles. They use different width of the fabrics used according to the buyers specification. They use tublar and open width fabrics of various sizes such as 30, 45, 49, 32, 66 inches according to the buyers specifications. 1.5 Trims Sourcing

ACCESSORY Cartons VENDORS Classic packaging, Bangalore Adarsha packagaing, Bangalore Wadpack, Bangalore Srinivas polybags, Bangalore polymers, Bangalore Nikita Bangalore Ujjawal plastics,



Madura coats, Vardhaman, Mahavir spinning mills, Bangalore Kesha silks, Bangalore YKK, Multi Zip, Bangalore Mahalaxmi, Bangalore Renu creations, SLN Printek, Bangalore Mahalaxmi, Bangalore Vinayaka impex, Bangalore Bala Impex,




Bangalore Impetus Impex, Bangalore Tissue paper Bar code stickers Kesha sales, Bangalore Vectra Systems, Chennai Aero Webtex

1.6 Types of Products: Business Shirts

Denim pants Shorts Shirts Jackets Accessories such as shoes and ties

Polo T-shirts


1.7 Layout of the Factory a. RECEPTION

Reception is there at the entry of the building. If any person has to enquire about some department they can come there to solve their enquiries.

The showroom is at the third floor of the building. When a buyer is about to visit the factory, the showroom is designed for them with the exclusive pieces of garments and the pieces they wanted to see.

The Merchandising department is an important part of every industries they form the relation and negotiation between the company and its buyers and suppliers. The merchandisers are segregated according to the brands. Every brand has their own set of merchandisers who, on approvals of designs from the design department works towards the fabric procurement, buyer negotiations, vendor compliances and following up with the style and the orders till they have been received by the buyers as per buyer preferences.

The sampling section is a mini production floor where all the functions of a garment manufacturing unit are done on a small scale. All the functions ranging from cutting to sewing to finishing is accomplished here. The sampling section follows the make through system or producing the garments.


Various samples which are being developed at different stages are being mentioned below:Proto Sample Fit Sample Sales Sample Pre Production Sample / Top Of Production Sample Size Set Sample a). Proto Sample: Proto sample is the rough interpretation of the enquiry done to acquaint the tailors with the style. It is usually done on the substitute fabrics, and using accessories, what is available and then checked on the dress form. The quality inspectors from the respective buying houses or the buyer checks the sample, makes the necessary changes pertaining to the fit, the drape, the style details etc. Once this stage is completed, its time to move on to the next stage. b). Fit Sample: the fit of the garment assumes the pivotal importance in this sample. It is usually done on the substitute / actual fabrics and substitute trims and accessories. It is sent directly to the buyer for necessary alterations to be made. Depending upon the changes or the comments of the buyer, the revised fit samples are made till the final approval is obtained. c). Sales Sample: The sales sample is done when the buyer requests for a certain no. of pieces for the promotion of the product yet to come. It gives the buyer certain types of feedback about his product and leaves him better equipped to decide on the production quantity. It usually consists of 6 to 7 pieces in each size and color. d). Pre Production sample: / Top of production sample: it is done on the actual fabric using the actual trims and the fit has to be perfect. It is simply a prelude to the actual production. e). Size Set Sample: it is done according to the buyers request. It is almost equivalent of the pre production sample except that it was done in all the sizes or in the jumping sizes s per the buyers request.

This department includes-: Sampling manager Pattern makers makers Cutting incharg e Tailors Stitching supervisor Finishing supervisor Record keepers

Embroide r Thread cutter Press men

f. Quality Control

The company has in-house lab testing for garments, fabrics, and trims. The labs are equipped to test for all parameters including colour fastness to light.

g. Fabric store and trims department

The trims store is another part of the inventory where the trims that is thread, zipper, buttons, and labels etc. are stored and given to the departments as per requirements. Also, all the various trims required for hand embroidery are also stored and issued from the trims store. All the raw materials (i.e. the shell fabric, the pocketing fabric, fusing, trims and accessories, etc.) are ordered and purchased by the stores department and issued to the various departments. Fabric is sourced from the following vendors - The buyer either specifies the vendors from where the material is to be sourced or the company sources it from the local vendors like: 1. Mafat Lal, 2. Nahar textiles Store deals with following activities: 3. Requisition of material 4. Acquisition of Material When the material is delivered from the buyer as per requisition, it goes through number of checks. First it is checked at the gate physically to ensure that the right fabric, to the right unit address, from the right vendor and in the right quantity has arrived. If there are any discrepancies in any of the details then proper actions are taken as per the problem. If it is approved at the gate, then a request is send to the fabric store and material is send there in the fabric store, the entry is made in to their register of the fabric, and then it goes through various inspections. The defects is checked on the basis of the four point system. Defect length(in inches) 0-3 3-6 6-9 >9 Issue of Material points Identification stickers Yellow Green Navy Red

1 2 3 4

2. Introduction to brand: Marks & Spencer Marks and Spencer plc (also known as M&S) is a major British retailer headquartered in the City of Westminster, London, with 703 stores in the United Kingdom and 361 stores spread across more than 40 countries. They have 26 stores in india located in- Amritsar, Banglore, Chennai, Delhi, Gurgaon, Noida, Hyderabad, Kolkata, Mumbai and Pune. The Robinson Group manages six retail entities that trade under the following brands - Robinsons, John Little, Marks & Spencer, Trucco, Coast, and River Island. 2.1 The History of Marks & Spencer Marks & Spencer began with Michael Marks selling penny goods from a market stall in Leeds (UK) in 1884. He sold quality small goods all for one penny, using the slogan "Don't ask the price, it's a penny". In 1894, Michael asked Tom Spencer to join him and the famous partnership of Marks & Spencer was born. Marks & Spencer became a Public Limited Company in London in 1926. The St. Michael trademark was introduced in 1928 as a guarantee of quality and value. Initially used only on selected foods, the St. Michael range was extended so that by the late 1950s all goods sold bore the name. This logo is no longer used but Marks & Spencer is still the dominant brand trademark, with M&S being used more frequently in recent years in the UK. Over the years, our brand name has become synonymous with quality, value, service, innovation and trust. The business and its employees are focused on our customers and driven by these principles. 2.2 Stores and employees They employ over 78,000 people in the UK and abroad, and have 885 stores in the United Kingdom and with over 600 domestic and 285 international stores too. It is the largest clothing retailer in the United Kingdom, as well as being an up market food retailer, and as of 2008, it was rated the 43rd largest retailer in the world. They offer stylish, high quality, great value clothing and home products, as well as outstanding quality foods, responsibly sourced from around 2,000 suppliers globally. Overall, their clothing and home ware sales account for 49% of our business. The other 51% of our business is in food, where they sell everything from fresh produce and groceries, to partly-prepared meals and ready meals.

Now more than ever, theyre also known for their green credentials as a result of their five-year eco plan, Plan A, which will see them, amongst other things, become carbon neutral and send no waste to landfill by 2012 2.3 Their Vision

To be a uniquely inspirational 21st century retail organisation in the regions we choose to operate. Their Mission


2. 3.

To provide a retail experience which exceeds our customers' expectations in terms of customer service, product range, quality and value. To adequately reward our staff To generate a satisfactory return for our shareholders

2.4 Product categories

Womens wear Personal (women's) fit Summer classics Classic collection Seasonal classics Beachwear Sportswear The Indigo collection Portfolio Per Una Autograph Autograph Weekend Buy me now or lose me for ever- limited editions: their discounted product line. Breakthrough Breast Cancer: M&S markets charitable clothes for Breakthrough Breast Cancer. Lingerie and hosiery Shoes Childrens wear Furniture Paul Hervey-Brookes Gardening Gifts. A range of gifts for

gardeners designed by English garden designer Paul Hervey-Brookes Baby wear Percy Pig and Colin Caterpillar sweets Menswear Perfect seasonal clothes Cosmetics and Perfumes Home ware Technology Food and drink Gastro pub(ready meals) Alcohol Gift shop/Christmas gift shop M&S Money Marks and Spencer Financial Services M&S Energy Electricity & Gas (in partnership with Scottish & Southern) and Home Insulation Plus Fit (overweight childrens wear) The childrens (online only) Living the Dream range

2.5 Sub brands of Marks & Spencer:The retailer had launched several brands, sub-brands and lines of women's wear and children's wear in recent years such as Indigo Collection Junior, Indigo Collection and Portfolio. Indigo Collection aimed at women over 30s, while Portfolio 45s. Overall, M &S has 10 women's wear sub-brands and sub-sub-brands, such as Per Una, Maternity, socks and Autograph, but only six menswear brands, such as Blue Harbour, North Coast, St. michael and Collezione by 2010. Per Una Per Una was launched on 28 September 2001 as a joint venture between M&S and Next founder George Davies with the contribution of Julie Strang. The Per Una brand has been a major success for the company, and in October 2004, M&S bought the brand in a 125 million, two-year service contract with George Davies. Mr. Davies was to stay on for at least two years to run the company, with 12 months notice required if he wished to leave. The teenagers' line called Per Una Due was launched in early 2004, but sales were poor and it was discontinued in the May 2004, whilst the adult lines had flourished by 2010.

Limited collection Brand Line Customer gender Unisex Products

Limited Collection

Limited collection Junior -

Kids' Partywear, posh clothes, smart shoes, designer clothes and party-ware Smart-casual clothing, lingerie and hosiery. Smart-casual clothing, aimed at a young 'edgy' style.

Limited Collection (larger stores only) Limited Collection (limited stores only and online) Per Una Brand Line



Customer gender Female


Per Una

Designer fashion garments, belts, tunics, hats, shoes, bags, scarfs, night clothes, bags, umbrellas, belts, lingerie and hosiery. Per Una's discounted and one off special edition designer clothes

Per Una

Buy me now or lose me for everlimited stock. Per Una Petite (only available online)


Per Una


Per Una's small clothes


North Coast Brand Line Customer gender Men Products Cool, easy and relaxed casuals, scarfs and hats.

North Coast Portfolio Brand Line

Customer gender


Portfolio Perfect Unisex

Coats, posh skirts, tunics, scarfs, belts, lingerie and hosiery.

The shoes, trouser suits, blouses and frocks will be UK sourced and the T-shirts will involve Fair trade cotton from India, Bangladesh and Pakistan. It has incorporated some products from the former 'Perfect' and 'Essential' sub-brands. Portfolio Cashmere had absorbed the other male and female M and S cashmere jumper lines. Portfolio recently began to issue Speziale fashion trousers and Jeggings in a final bid for customers in late 2010. The Portfolio brand is currently being phased out. Indigo Collection Brand Line Customer gender Female Products

Indigo Collection Indigo collection Indigo collection

Casual women's clothes, scarfs, gloves, hand bags and belts Women's jeans





Women's casual tops


The Indigo collection junior The Indigo collection junior Indigo baby

Indigo Company


Casual shirts, casual jeans and play ware


Posh cloths for kids


Hats, baby clothes, blanket sleepers, Romper suits, cot blankets, babies' and bibs by the Indigo line. Children's high-end/upmarket jeans.

The Indigo collection junior

Denim junior


The Indigo collection This is a new range, aimed at the core, 3045, feminine businesswoman type. It is meant to offer all that is close to her feminine side. The shoes, trousers and jeans will be UK and Bangladeshi-sourced and the T-shirts will involve Fair trade cotton from Senegal, Bangladesh, India and Pakistan. Beachwear may be added to the list if the success continues. It has a sub-brand product range called Denim which deals with women's jeans. Babywear was reduced to woolly hats, gloves, socks and bed linen- after its baby clothes, blanket sleepers, Romper suits, cotblankets, babies' bibs, non-woolly hats, socks and cot linen were turned in the Indigo Baby line in the January 2011. Autograph Brand Line Customer gender Unisex Products


Unisex and/or mixed ranges of hats, belts, scarves, gloves, bags, plus women's lingerie, tunics and hosiery. Smart-casual clothing exclusively designed for M&S by designers such


as Nigel Hall, Jeffery West and Timothy Everest. Autograph Autograph Casual Autograph weekend Formal Fair trade Male Unisex Smart-casual clothing Smart and casual clothes

Autograph Autograph

Male Unisex

Formal shirts, ties, and suits As the name suggests, it is for fair trade cotton Tshirtsfrom India, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Bulgaria and Senegal Boys' smart clothes, bags, belts, shoes, coats and partyware Up market knitwear for men

Autograph junior Autograph




Marks and Spencer Brand Line Customer gender Female Linen clothes Products

Marks and Spencer Marks and Spencer Marks and Spencer

Linen with love

Skirts (major stores only) Original and authentic laundry, soft linen cloths


cheap, utilitarian 'good value' skirts


Linen casual tops


Marks and Spencer

Original and authentic linen issue Original and authentic laundry, lovingly laundered Original and authentically crumpled Basic Jeans


Linen clothes

Marks and Spencer


Linen tops

Marks and Spencer


Linen shirts and blouses

Marks and Spencer Marks and Spencer


cheap, good value, utilitarian jeans

Fair trade


As the name suggests, it is for fair trade cotton T-shirts and jeans from India, SriLanka, Pakistan, Bangla desh and Senegal A line of serious sportswear for dedicated female athletes Up market T-shirts.

Marks and Spencer Marks and Spencer Marks and Spencer Marks and Spencer

Performance sportswear Perfect-tee





cheap, good value, utilitarian umbrellas Girl's cheap, good value, utilitarian jeans

Basic Jeans junior



Marks and Spencer


Girl's shoes.

Linen shop is the department in larger stores which sells the various linen articles listed above along with some linen items from other lines and brands. Classic Collection Brand Line Customer gender Female Products

Classic Collection Classic Collection Classic

Seasonal Classics Summer Classics -

Smart and smart casual seasonal clothes, scarves and hats Smart and smart casual seasonal clothes, scarves and hats Underwear, scarves, socks and pyjamas



Classic collection This is a new seasonal range, aimed at the core 55+ retired woman. It is meant to offer all that is close to her feminine side. The shoes, skirts, blouses and frocks will be UK sourced and the T-shirts will involve Fair trade cotton from India and Pakistan. It has a 'Seasonal Classics' and 'Summer Classics' lines Blue Harbour Brand Blue Harbour Line Customer gender Men Products Britain's largest men's casual brand. Britain's largest men's casual brand Higher-end casual clothing Golf clothing

Blue Harbour Heritage Men Blue Harbour Luxury Blue Harbour Golf Men Men


Blue Harbour Britain's largest men's casuals brand, includes the sub-brands Heritage, Luxury and Golf.


Size ranges of Marks & Spencer

Womens size:

UK size European size Bust (inches) Waist (inches) Hips (inches) Tall & Long Size: Bust (inches) Waist (inches) Hips (inches) Womens- plus Size: Bust (inches) Waist (inches) Hips (inches)

8-10 Small 32-34 25-27 35-37

12-14 Medium 34-38 28-31 37-41

16-18 Large 38-42 31-35 41-45

20-22 XLarge 42-46 35-40 45-50

24-26 XXLarge 47-51 40-44 50-54

28-30 XXXLarge 52-56 45-49 55-59

8-10 (Small) 32-34 25-27 35-37

12-14 (Medium) 34-38 27-31 37-41

16-18 (Large) 38-42 32-35 41-45

20-22 (XL) 42-47 35-40 45-50

22 44 38.5 46.5

24 46 41 48.5

26 48.5 43 50

28 50 45 52.5

30 52 47 54.5

Mens sizes
Casual Tops, Shirts & Coats

Small Neck (inches) Chest (inches)

Formal Shirts

Medium 15.5-16 38-40

Large 16.5-17 41-43

X Large 17.5-18 44-46

XX Large 18.5-19 47-49

14.5-15 Up to 37


Neck (inches) Chest (inches)

14.5 36

15 38

15.5 40

16 42

16.5 44

17 46

17.5 48

18 50

18.5 19 52 54

Formal Trouser Length

Waist/Length (inches) 29 (inches) 30 (inches) 31 (inches) 32 (inches) 33 (inches) 34 (inches) 35 (inches)

30 29 30 31 32 33 34 35

32 29 30 31 32 33 34 35

34 29 30 31 32 33 34 35

36 29 30 31 32 33 34 35

38 29 30 31 32 33 34 35

40 29 30 31 32 33 34 35

42 29 30 31 32 33 34 35

44 29 30 31 32 33 34 35

46 29 30 31 32 33 34 35

Casual Trouser Lengths

Small Waist (inches) up to 31 29 Leg (inches) 31 33

Medium 32-34 29 31 33

Large 35-37 29 31 33

X Large 38-40 29 31 33

XX Large 41-43 29 31 33

XXX Large 44-46 29 31 33





3. Study of the two Garments selected for this project 3.1 3433T, Long sleeve tunic 3.1.1 Fabric Sourcing100% Woolen Jersey-Marvel (Ludhiana) Cotton Sued- City Textile (Faridabad)

3.1.2 Trims Sourcing Stitching Thread- Vardhman Mill Texturised Thread- Vardhman Mill

3.1.3Washing Process 1. Normal WashMake a lot Load in washing Machine 2nd rinse in water Add chemical Nonionic Hydro Tumble Dry

1st rinse in water Temperature < 60 2. Softner WashMake a lot

Load in washing Machine 2nd rinse in water Dip - 10 min

Add chemical Nonionic Add chemical silicon softner Hydro Tumble Dry

1st rinse in water Run machine - 10 min Temperature < 60 3. Enzyme WashMake a lot

Load in washing Machine Add chemical Enzyme Temp. - 55 Hydro

Add chemical Nonionic PH. With acitic acid 1st rinse in water

1st rinse in water PH. With citric acid 2nd rinse in water

19 Tumble Dry

3.1.4 Quality Parameters1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. No broken needles No stains No broken stitches, skip stitches, broken stitches, wavy stitches, puckering. Proper Stitch per inch should be given as per the tech pack. Pleats distance as per the tech pack and sample. Baby overlocks SPI to be maintained as per the sample. Joints to be matching on the sleeve hem. Joints to be matched at neck binding also. Joint at the flat lock should be matching at side seam .


3.2 3434T,Embellished skirt 3.2.1 Fabric SourcingSingle Jersey Polyester-Xiamen Golden (China)

3.2.2 Trims sourcing

Stitching Thread- Vardhman Mill Texturised Thread- Vardhman Mill Chains- local market Elastic- Spyka

3.2.3 Washing Process

1. Normal WashMake a lot Load in washing Machine 2nd rinse in water Add chemical Nonionic Hydro Tumble Dry

1st rinse in water Temperature < 60 2. Softner WashMake a lot

Load in washing Machine 2nd rinse in water Dip - 10 min

Add chemical Nonionic Add chemical silicon softner Hydro Tumble Dry

1st rinse in water Run machine - 10 min Temperature < 60

3.2.4 Quality Parameters

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. No broken needles No stains No broken stitches, skip stitches, broken stitches, wavy stitches, puckering. Proper Stitch per inch should be given as per the tech pack. Gathers at waist band should be balanced as per the technical package. The waist seam should have a stretch and it should not crack. Waist band height should be even on front and back.


1. 2. 3. 4.