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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Victor Grignard

Full name Born Died Age of death Cause of death Gender Race or Ethnicity Nationality Military service Occupation Father Mistress

: Franois Auguste Victor Grignard : 6 May 1871, Cherbourg, France : 13 December 1935, Lyon, France : 63 : Infection : Male : White : France : French Army (1892-93, and again during WWI) : Chemist : Thophile Henri Grignard (marine carpenter) : Marie Hbert Grignard 1

Wife Son Son Award Field

: Augustine Marie Boulant (m. 1910, one son, one daughter) : Robert Paindestre (stepson) : Roger Grignard (chemist, b. 1911) : Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1992 (with Paul Sabatier) : organic chemistry : 41

Age at the time of award

Affiliation at the time of the award: Nancy University, Nancy, France Prize motivation : "for the discovery of the so-called Grignard reagent, which in recent years has greatly advanced the progress of organic chemistry" Other awards : Cahours Prize 1901, 1902; Berthelot Medal 1902; Jecker Prize 1905; Lavoisier Medal 1912; French Legion of Honor Chevalier (1912; French Legion of Honor Officer (1920); French Legion of Honor Commander (1933)

Education Background: University: cole Normale Spcial, Cluny, France (attended, 1889-91) University: BS Chemistry, University of Lyon (1894) University: PhD Chemistry, University of Lyon (1901) Scholar: Chemistry, University of Lyon (1901-05) Scholar: Chemistry, University of Besanon (1905-06)

Working experience: Teacher: Chemistry, University of Lyon (1906-08) Professor: Chemistry, University of Lyon (1908-09) Professor: Organic Chemistry, University of Nancy (1909-19) Professor: General Chemistry, University of Lyon (1919-35) Administrator: Director, cole de Chimie Industrielle de Lyons (1921-35) British Chemical Society Foreign Member French Academy of Sciences French Society of Industrial Chemistry Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences Foreign Member

BIOGRAPHY

Franois Auguste Victor Grignard which known as Victor Grignard is a French chemist that shared the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1992 with Paul Sabatier [1,2,4,5]. He was born on 6 May 1871 at Cherbourg, France [2, 4, 5]. His father's' Thophile Henri Grignard is a marine carpenter. Like other normal children, he attended the local primary school there. In 1889, Grignard got scholarship to attend Normale Special de Cluny, a school for modern teachers of secondary schools. However, the school closed in 1891 due to disputes between proponents o f classical and modern education [1]. After that, he was transferred to the Faculte des Sciences of the University of Lyons, where he studied science and mathematics. His initial failure prompted him to complete his military service (French Army) in 1892, and in 1893 he returned to Lyons to successfully receive the Licencie es Sciences Mathematiques in 1894 [1, 4].

In 1894, Victor Gridnard convinced to take the job in the Faculte des Sciences in Lyon even though chemistry is not his field of study. He is working under the developer Bouveault Aldehyde Synthesis, Professor Louis Bouveault [1]. After get promoted to prparateur, he began to get along and working closely with Philippe Barbier, of the Barbier reaction. Philippe Barbier are well known as father of organometallic chemistry for the synthesis of the first organomagnesium compound [1]. After obtained the degree Licenci-s-Sciences Physiques, he was promoted to become chef des travaux pratiques in 1898. In 1901, He was awarded the degree Docteur s Sciences de Lyons after submitted his first paper which jointly with Barbier, thesis on organic magnesium compounds Sur les Combinaisons organomagnsiennes mixtes [1]. He was awarded professeur-adjoint in 1908. After that, he transferred to Nancy University, Nancy, France because he cannot rise further at Lyon.

Within a year at the Universite de Nancy, he was promoted to professeur titulaire. In 1910, he was married to Augustine Marie Boulant[1]. Two years later, he received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1912 (share with Paul Sabatier) for the discovery and develop Grignard reagent [1-4]. His prize motivation is "for the discovery of the so-called Grignard reagent, which in recent year has greatly advanced the progress of organic chemistry" [2].

Grignard was mobilized as corporal at the beginning of World War I in 1914. However, after that, Grignard was commissioned for study on dichloroethyl sulfide (mustard gas) for use as chemical weaponry in Nancy and Paris. Once War 1 ended, he joins the Universite de Lyon as Professor of General Chemistry [1]. In 1992 he was promoted as Directeur de lEcole de Chimie Industrielle de Lyons [1]. Grignard became the Dean of the Faculty of Sciences in 1929. Unfortunately, he got an infection that causing death at the age of 63 years old, on 13 December 1935 at Lyon, France [5]. During his life time, he also involved in different analysis areas, like condensation of aldehydes and ketones, ketone splitting of tertiary alcohols, chemical action and dehydrogenation underneath reduced pressure, and quantitative ozonolysis[1,5]. Grignard not only be remembered as successful professor and chemical researcher in Nancy and Lyon; where he tutored many of doctoral candidates but he also being honored by world as there 170 publications on his research are available all around the world.

THE GRIGNARD REACTION Previous literature stated that the Grignard reaction is important in organic synthesis to prepare organic compounds from smaller precursor molecules [1, 5]. Grignard Reagent can be classified as extremely reactive and unstable chemical compounds. This reagent has being used to synthesize alcohols, carboxylic acids, hydrocarbons, and other compounds [3]. Grignard is most noted for devising a new method for generating carbon-carbon bonds using magnesium to couple ketones and alkyl halides. It occurs in two steps which is formation of the Grignard reagent and addition Grignard reagent to carbonyl. In the formation of the "Grignard reagent", which is an organomagnesium compound made by the reaction an organohalide, R-X (R = alkyl or aryl; and X is a halide, usually bromide or iodide) with magnesium metal. The Grignard reagent is usually described with the general chemical formula R-Mg-X, although its structure is more complex. Grignard reaction procedure is: R-X + Mg R-X.- + Mg.+ R-X. - R. + XX- + + Mg. + XMg. R. + XMg. RMgx

Figure 1 : Grignard reaction procedure (source: chemistry.tutorvista.com)

Aforementioned, the second step is addition of the carbonyl (ketone or aldehyde) to the solution that contains Grignard reagent. The carbon atom that is bonded to Mg transfers to the carbonyl carbon atom, and the oxygen of the carbonyl carbon becomes attached to the magnesium to give an alkoxide. The reaction is an example of a nucleophilic addition to a carbonyl. After the addition, the reaction mixture is treated with aqueous acid to give an alcohol, and the magnesium salts are subsequently discarded [3].

REFERENCES 1. "Victor Grignard - Biographical". Nobelprize.org. Nobel Media AB 2013. Web. 20 Nov 2013. http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1912/grignard-bio.html 2. "Victor Grignard - Facts". Nobelprize.org. Nobel Media AB 2013. Web. 24 Nov 2013. http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1912/grignard-facts.html 3. "Victor Grignard - Nobel Lecture: The Use of Organomagnesium Compunds in Preparative Organic Chemistry". Nobelprize.org. Nobel Media AB 2013. Web. 23 Nov 2013. http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1912/grignard-lecture.html 4. Victor Grignard. Todayinsci. Today in Science History 1999-2013. WEB. 23 Nov 2013. http://todayinsci.com/5/5_06.htm#GrignardVictor 5. Victor Gridnard and Paul Sebatier. Humantouchofchemistry.com. NNDB tracking the entire world. WEB. 23 Nov 2013. http://humantouchofchemistry.com/victor-grignard-paulsabatier.htm