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EEE C364/INSTR C 364

Analog Electronics
Lecture 10
13-02-2014
Comparators
Comparators and Schmitt Triggers
Voltage level detectors
Comparators Applications
Zero-Crossing Detector
Comparators Applications
Voltage Limiters
Time Marker Generator
IC COMPARATORS
Response Time
Positive output level
Negative output level
Strobe current
Strobe release time
Saturation voltage
IC Comparators
Schmitt Triggers
Schmitt Trigger Circuits
( )
sat UT
V
R R
R
V +
+
=
2 1
1
( )
sat LT
V
R R
R
V
+
=
2 1
1
( ) | |
sat sat LT UT H
V V
R R
R
V V V +
+
= =
2 1
1
Schmitt Trigger Circuits
Schmitt Trigger Circuits
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
2 1
1
2 1
1
2 1
1
2 1
1 1 2
2 1
1
2 1
2
2 1
1



R R
R
V V V
V V
R R
R
V
R R
R
V
R R
R R R
V
R R
R
V
R R
R
V
R R
R
V
ref sat ref
ref ref sat
ref sat
ref sat UT
+
+ =
+
+
+ +
+
=
+
+
+
+ +
+
=
+
+
+ +
+
=
2 1
1
2
R R
V
R V V V
sat
LT UT H
+
= =
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
2 1
1
2 1
1
2 1
1
2 1
1 1 2
2 1
1
2 1
2
2 1
1



R R
R
V V V
V V
R R
R
V
R R
R
V
R R
R R R
V
R R
R
V
R R
R
V
R R
R
V
ref sat ref
ref ref sat
ref sat
ref sat LT
+
+ =
+
+
+
+
=
+
+
+
+
+
=
+
+
+
+
=
ANALOG SWITCH
Electronic switches whose state is voltage-programmable
Applications:
D-A converters
Function generators
S/H amplifiers
Switching power supplies
(a) Ideal switch and (b) its characteristics
IDEAL SWITCH
ANALOG SWITCH
IDEAL SWITCH
ANALOG SWITCH
CMOS transmission gate and its resistance as a function of V
i
CMOS transmission gate
Examples: CD4066 quad bilateral switch
CD4051 eight channel multiplexer/demultiplexer
MOSFET SWITCH
ANALOG SWITCH
OTHER SWITCH CONFIGURATIONS
ANALOG SWITCH
SWITCH ARRANGEMENT
ANALOG SWITCH
Programmable Gain Amplifier (PGA)
Programmable Gain Amplifier (PGA)
APPLICATIONS OF ANALOG SWITCH
ANALOG SWITCH
APPLICATIONS OF ANALOG SWITCH
ANALOG SWITCH
Performance Characteristics of Analog Switches
Vs, analog signal range
R
on
, on Resistance
V
AI
,V
AH
, input thresholds
I
A
, input leakage current
T
A
, T
on
, T
off,
access time
T
open
, break-before-make delay
C
S
(off),C
D
(off), C
D
(on), C
DS
(off),C
A
OFF Isolation
SPST ANALOG SWITCH IC (MAX325)
ANALOG SWITCH
SPST ANALOG SWITCH IC (MAX325)
BASIC CIRCUIT
SAMPLE-AND-HOLD CIRCUITS
(

|
.
|

\
|

=
RC
t
V t V
A d
exp 1 ) (
BASIC CIRCUIT
SAMPLE-AND-HOLD CIRCUITS
PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS
SAMPLE-AND-HOLD CIRCUITS
ANALOG MULTIPLEXING
ANALOG MULTIPLEXERS
A TWO-CHANNEL ANALOG MULTIPLEXER
ANALOG MULTIPLEXERS
Differential Four Channel
Analog Multiplexer
Inhibit Digital
Input A
Digital
Input B
Values at
the output
0 0 0 0X, 0Y
0 0 1 1X, 1Y
0 1 0 2X, 2Y
0 1 1 3X, 3Y
1 X X None
Differential Four Channel Analog Multiplexer
Wide range of digital and analog signal levels
- Digital 3-20V
- Analog <=20 p-p
Low ON resistance 125 O
High OFF resistance, leakage current 100 pA
Logic Level conversion for digital addressing signals of 3-20V
to switch analog signals to 20 V p-p (Vdd-Vee= 20V)
Very low power dissipation 0.2 W
Binary address decoding on chip
Input voltage range: V
IH
= 7V (min) and V
IL
= 3V (max)
Propagation delay 15 ns
Break before-make switching eliminates channel overlap
Difference Amplifier
Difference Amplifier with input Buffering
Voltage follower
Variable gain Instrumentation Amplifier