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Dependent variables Indiv

personal or biographical characteristics such as age, gender, and marital status; personality characteristics; an inherent emotional framework; values and attitudes; and basic ability levels. There is little management can do to alter them, yet they have a very real impact on employee behavior.

groups are influenced by:

a. b. c. d. e. Acceptable standards of behavior by the group Degree of attractiveness to each other Communication patterns Leadership and power Levels of conflict

Organization Organizational culture, human resource policies and practices, and organizational structure and design.

Turnover High turnover rate is a problem for an organization only if the employees leaving are its most high performing employees else turnover is good. In TMH,most docors are satisfied and turnover is low by market standards. On an average , the turnover rate for doctors is around 5 doctors per year. The turnover is more for contract nurses with 30-40 nurses resigning every year. The reasons for these observations can be explained via the following independent variables : - Personal or Biological Characteristics Age : It was found that the doctors who were leaving were comparatively young.They were mostly in their mid thirties or early forties. Thus younger doctors are leaving for greener pastures as they are more ambitious. They want better opportunities for themselves and their family. Even among nurses, the young nurses leaving were more in number than older nurses. Marital Status: Nurses who leave are mostly those who have just recently got married and have had to relocate for their husbands. The older married nurses are comparatively more stable and satisfied with their jobs. - Ability : Doctors who were more qualified and capable are the ones who are leaving. They are only using TMH as an opportunity to leverage their careers. They wait for the right breaks and whenever they get them, they do not think twice before leaving. Hence turnover is inversely related to turnover. Perception : Doctors which perceived the hospital in a positive light were satisfied with their work and showed very low tendency to leave the organization. However, there were doctors who did not hold the hospital in such high esteem. They felt that TMH is nowhere as good as Tata Memorial Hospital which has the same acronym as Tata Main Hospital. Many of these doctors were resigning from TMH.

Absenteeism Abseentism is not a problem as far as doctors are concerned. However the absenteesism among nursing staff and attendants is around 3 percent. The factors affecting absenteeism here are as follows : Workplace characteristics: Since nurses and attendant staff work in hazardous areas, they are prone to illness and infection which leads to absenteeism. Among other departments and doctors, this factor has no effect on absenteeism. Attitude : Employees who showed enthusiasm and had a positive orientation towards their work, had low absenteeism. They enjoyed their work and exhibited punctuality and commitment. Group level : Team Orientaton : Nurses working in different wards had different teams of nurses for the three shifts. These teams were headed by Shift In charges and all teams worked well in co-ordination with each other and with other teams to ensure that patient care is never compromised. They mutually balanced their work according to their individual commitments and as a whole showed low absenteeism. Productivity Since Tata Main Hospital is among the best hospitals in Jamshedpur, it treats a large number of patients who are employees of Tata Steel as well as non-employees. The factors affecting its overall productivity are as follows: Individual level Experience/Age : TMH has many senior consultants who have been with TMH for more than 30 years. These doctors impart a culture of learning and mentoring among younger doctors. Their wealth of experience contributes to the smooth functioning of the hospital and improves its productivity. Values : Majority of the doctors and staff whom we met at TMH showed strong commitment towards TMHs policy of following ethical practices and providing the best possible heath care to patients. This level of dedication leads to enhanced productivity of the hospital. Group level: Communication : Different departments such as surgery, radiology pathology etc work in coordination with each otherto ensure that patients are satisfied. This is achieved by proper communication among different departments such that patients get the best services. The motto at TMH is to prove immediate medical relief to patients who require it. Thus ,proper communication ensures improved productivity. Leadership: TMH is lead form the front by two very senior professionals Dr Madhusudanan GM(MS) and Dr Ramadoss( Chief,TMH). Both are effective leaders and are pro active. The Chief ensures that

regular meetings are held and any concerns of employees and patients are effectively resolved. TMH is now growing in leaps and bounds under the two leaders.

TQM practices : The hospital has recently received ISO-9001: 2008 certification. Small Group Activity (SGA) ensures all employees contribute to the improvement initiatives through Kaizens in their area of work.These improvement activities are reviewed regularly in the departmental weekly review meetings and in the operational and strategy steering committee group meetings to ensure that the Medical Divisions goals are met.These quality inititiatives are leading to increases productivity

deviant behaviour organizational commitment job satisfactiom