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Faculty of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering Methods of Ship Production GEM314E

Introduction
Week 1

Objectives of the Course

The main aim of this module is to equip students with methods and tools for production of marine vessels. The objectives of the class are as follows:
A good knowledge of methods and tools for production of marine vessels An appreciation and good understanding of various issues in shipyard production operations. An ability to analyse system requirements before choosing appropriate production methods and tools

Students will:
Be given an understanding through practice of ship production Observe a shipyard in action through the site visits Be given instruction Experience the process of technical report writing

On completing this course students should:


Be familiar with the concepts of ship production system design Recognise the main hardware elements of shipyards Appreciate the relative merits of differing systems Understand the technical, and economic issues

COURSE OUTLINE Spring 2005


(Tuesdays1400-1700) Week 1 15 February Week 2 22 February

Title

Subjects Introduction to class. Introduction to ship production. A system view of the ship building. Rules of the game Statistical principles, overview, Applications Building methods, ship structures, Product Work Breakdown Structure (PWBS), Group Technology Planning and scheduing Costing and value engineering Welding in Shipbuilding (Theory)

Lecturers

Introduction

AYO

Statitics, accuracy control and tolerances

IHH

Week 3 1 March

Shipbuilding Process and Project Network Analysis

AYO

Week 4 8 March

Welding Basics

AYO JOTUN Mehmet Ali Kamacolu Jotun Boya Sanayi ve Tic.A.. Tuzla/stanbul Tel. 0216 423 5170 Fax. 0216 423 5174 Sedef Tersanesi Cumhur Kurtel Sedef Gemi naat A.. Tuzla/stanbul Tel.0216 395 4741 Fax. 0216 395 4740 Yldz Tersanesi Baki Gkbayrak Tel. 0216 395 4075 Fax. 0216 395 1290

Week 5 15 March

Surface preparation and Painting

Abrasive blasting and priming, finish coatings

Course Outline

Week 6 22 March

Shipyard Layout and Facility Planing Steel Prefabrication (Site visit)

Shipyard facilities, process lanes Material handling systems Steel cutting and forming, Steel fabrication

Week 7 29 March

Aluminum construction

Handling and storage, forming, welding General outfitting, Subcontractors work, Installation priorities, shafting, propellers, piping, electrical installations Mid-Term examination (Multiple choice / Books open)

Week 8 5 April Week 9 12 April

Outfitting and Machinary installation

AYO

EXAM

D311

EXAM

Week 10 19 April

Hull Materials and Welding

Welding and cutting methods, structural steels, non-ferrous alloys, non-metallic materials, non-destructive testing,

Oerlikon Hac Doluta Oerlikon Kaynak Elektrotlar ve San.A.. Sefaky/stanbul Tel.0212 411 1400 Fax.0212 579 3053 Trk Loydu Hasan Habibolu Trk Loydu Vakf Tuzla/stanbul Tel.0216 446 22 40 Fax.0216 446 22 46 YONTECH Ekber Onuk Yonca Teknik Tersanesi Tuzla/stanbul Tel.0216 392 9970 Fax. 0216 392 9969

Week 11 26 April

Welding

Welding procedures, Inspection of hull welding Activities of classification societies

Week 12 3 May

FRP Construction

Materials, methods of production

Course Outline (cont.)

Other Conditions

TERM-TIME ASSESSMENTS Quantity 1 4 2 Weight (@ points) %20 %20 %20 Compulsory % 60 % 40

Mid-Term Examination Quiz Assignment Attendance Contribution of term work on achievemet scores Contribution of final exam scores on achievement scores Prerequisites for attending final exam : 1) 2)

: :

70% attendance to class meetings. Submission of reports in full and on given deadlines

Forces in competition - The Ball-Game

SUBCONTRACTORS SUBCONTRACTORS AND SUPPLIERS AND SUPPLIERS

SHIP OWNERS SHIP OWNERS (BUYERS) (BUYERS) INTERNATIONAL INTERNATIONAL RULES AND RULES AND CONVENTIONS CONVENTIONS

BARGAINING FORCES BARGAINING FORCES

NEW NEW SHIPYARDS SHIPYARDS (e.g. FAR EAST) (e.g. FAR EAST)

COMPETING COMPETING SHIPYARDS SHIPYARDS


SUBSIDY FORCES SUBSIDY FORCES

CHANGING FORCES CHANGING FORCES GOVERNMENT GOVERNMENT POLICY POLICY

SUBSTITUTE SUBSTITUTE PRODUCTS PRODUCTS

Competition and Turkish Shipbuilding Industry

? ?
USA

Direction 1

JAPAN

<%1 ? ? ?
Direction 2
SOUTH KORE

% 40
TURKISH SHIPBUILDING INDUSTRY

FUTURE ?
RUSSIA POLOND UKRAINE NORWAY

Environment

% 20

% 17

CHINA VETNAM

EU

% 21
Direction .

Marketing Techniques

Right product Right market Right price and payment terms Right marketing tools Customer relations

Order Winning Criteria - Ship Owners Point of View

Price and payment conditions Quality Delivery Time Shipyard reliability Customer relations

Shipbuilding Definition and Key Issues

Ship production is a manufacturing operation whereby procured material, machinery and equipment is converted into a defined functional product (i.e. Ship, offshore platform, etc) through organized use of knowledge purchased material, labor and shipyard facilities. Knowledge manifests itself in design (especially through adopted design standards and productionkindly practices), production methodology, process engineering (methods, jigs & tools), production and procurement planning and programming and quality management. Information flow is a key issue in productivity management and improvement. Shipyard facilities dictate what is not possible. As such in the development of a production methodology available facilities play a significant role. Management of labor is both a technical and management issue. On the technical side topics such as information of construction logic, methods, labor skills and the design and use of appropriate jigs and tools play on important role. The management side involves the operational effectiveness of labor mix and their control. Flows Coordination of information, material and work flow are indispensable contribution in successful ship production.

CONCEPT DESIGN
The objective of the conceptual design stage can be stated to be: To establish overall features of a design to meet owner or mission requirements. The content of the stage can be defined as a series of inputs and outputs. Inputs may be presented in the form of an outline specification, or one may be developed as a basis for the conceptual design. Inputs and outputs are listed below: Inputs Service requirements Routes Market forecasts Technical change in ship components and equipment Outputs Preliminary general arrangement, midship section Preliminary specification Preliminary calculations (dimensions, capacities, etc) Preliminary body plan If at this stage a shipbuilder has been identified, the following production inputs and outputs are essential: Production Inputs Shipbuilding policy Type plan Facility dimensions Interim product types Production Outputs Preliminary block breakdown Zone identification

Concept (Preliminary) Design - Outputs

CONTRACT DESIGN (1/2)


The objective of contract design is to establish the features of a design in sufficient detail to form the basis of a contractual arrangement. The stage can be defined in terms of a series of inputs and outputs. One major input will be the output from a conceptual design. The main inputs and outputs are listed below: Inputs Conceptual design Functional requirements Regulations Design standards

Production Inputs Shipbuilding policy Company standards and industry standards including: Material sizes Modules Service runs Block sizes Spatial analysis

CONTRACT DESIGN (2/2)


Outputs General arrangement, midship section Specification Body plan Ship calculations Propulsion calculations Accommodation arrangements Machinery arrangements Piping Diagrams Electrical load analysis Plan list Preliminary build strategy: planning units Equipment identification. long lead items Material requirements: quantities long lead

Production Outputs

Contract Design - Outputs

FUNCTIONAL DESIGN
Functional design follows contract signing and is intended to establish features of a design for the purposes of classification and other approval and material specification, The various inputs and outputs are listed below: Inputs Contract design Functional requirements Production Inputs Preliminary build strategy Standards Production Processes Facilities Outputs Ship design: hull form, capacities, etc Structural design: approval drawings, scantling plans Machinery installation: arrangements, piping diagrams electrical fittings, etc. Accommodation design Ship systems design Hull outfit Production Outputs - Contract build strategy - Schedules:erection/installation, assembly, manufacture - Production information - Purchasing information

Functional Design - Outputs

TRANSITION DESIGN
Transition design is considered here as a distinct stage, although in some aspects it runs parallel to the functional design process through all the stages. The objective of transition design is to translate the features of the design from the system orientation, necessary to establish functional performance, to a planning unit orientation, necessary to establish production requirements. Transition design develops elements of systems into steel and outfit zone composites. It should be based on the spatial analysis of earlier design stages. However, for effective design for production to take place, production needs and capacities should be highlighted from the earliest stage: Inputs Conceptual design Contract design Functional design Outputs Process analysis Interim products Work package information Work station drawing information

Transition Design - Outputs

DETAIL DESIGN
The objective of detail design is to establish the features of the design necessary to allow local purchasing, part manufacturing and subsequent assembly to be carried out. Detail design is carried out by planning unit, on those elements of the ship which have been developed to the stage where all functional and approval requirements have been satisfied. It can be defined in terms of inputs and outputs: Inputs Functional design Transition design Build strategy Standards Work station capacities Process analysis Outputs Work instructions Work station drawings Material lists Dimensional requirements

Detail Design - Outputs

DESIGN FOR PRODUCTION & PRODUCIBILITY

Preparing design with full cognition of production facilities and difficulties in fabrication and erection is known as design for production. The main issues of design for production are: o Reduction of variety and use of standard details o Use of standard components o Employment of modularity and cellularity concepts for distributed systems o Full knowledge of shipyard production facilities and capabilities

The main elements of design for production are establishment of shipyard standards and continuing dialogue between designers, planners, procurement and production personnel. .

Producibility in Hull Form

Producibility in Structural Design

Rationalisation of Bulkhead arrangement Appropriate choice of panel & grillage configuration

Use of standard for plates & stiffeners Use of standard 2-D element Straight line brackets Reduction of lugs Asymmetric face flats Thin panel deflection avoidance Tolerance selection Co-ordination with HM & E design groups
A) Gross weight higher More difficult scrap arrangement Subject to buckling failure, failure often seen at early stage of hydrostatic test before ship leaves yard More difficult erection butt and face plate welding - use of alternative erection joints, e.g. laps B) Net weight higher

Lower production hours due to straight lines and machine application Subject to fatigue failure, failure seen after a number of years in service Good for fast erection, although accurate alignment should be maintained Lends itself to future more fundamental approach, e.g. plastic design or bracketless

Producibility in Detail Design and Fabrication

Method used by Shipyard A

Method used by Shipyard B

Complete double bottom assembly

Producibility in Engineering Systems Design

Requirement verification by functional system evaluation techniques

Adoption of design standards ( A restricted subset)

Use of modular component Clash avoidance by design Design features to encourage pre-fabrication (e.g. use of common supports for pipe & cable highways)

Coordination with structural and other engineering design groups

Space allocation for cable support structures (Clash avoidance & Modularisation)

Product Life Cycle

Requirements & Specifications

Contract Design Detail Design & Planning Component Production Product Integration

Progression

Correction

Installation & Acceptance Maintenance

DEFINITION

STANDARD A standard is that which has been selected as a model to which objects or actions may be compared. In every case, a standard provides a criterion for Judgement and its form thus depends on what is to be Judged and how it is to be Judged. (From Encyclopedia Britanica)

STANDARDIZATION The process of developing and bringing about the utilization of standards. While standardization of some kind or degree is part of almost every human activity planned and systematic industrial standardization is meant in normal usage of the term. (From Encyclopedia Britanica) .

TYPE OF STANDARDS
INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS ISO (International Organization for Standardization) IEC (International Electrotechnical Committee) REGIONAL STANDARDS ASAC (Asian Standards Advisory Committee) CEN (European Committee for Standardization) NATIONAL STANDARDS JIS (Japanese Industrial Standards) BS (British Standards) DIN (Deutche Normen) ANSI (American National Standards) NF (Norm Franaise) Others INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATION STANDARDS ASTM (American Society of Testing and Materials) ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers) SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) Others COMPANY INTERNAL STANDARDS

CATEGORIZATION OF COMPANY IN-HOUSE STANDARDS

1 2 3 4 5

Part and Product Standards Design Engineering Standards Production Process Standards Testing and Inspection Standards Accuracy and Tolerance Standards

(Hard) (Soft) (Soft) (Soft) (Soft)

STANDARDIZATION GOALS (1/2)


Standardization goals should be planned and developed to provide full benefits to the entire company including ship owners, vendors, regulatory bodies, etc. The following items indicate the goals which should be pursued: 1. 2. 3. Design and Engineering Simplification and improvement of communications between related parties Reduction of design/engineering manhours Enhance reliability of design/engineering plans Simplify approval procedures and reduce approval time Minimize design changes Improve product quality and reliability Avoid over design due to multiple requirements Purchasing Improve communications with vendors/suppliers Shorten delivery time Minimize custom made products Simplify purchasing procedures Vendors/Suppliers Stabilize technical level and improve product quality Improve production methods Simplify or eliminate approval procedures Improve, product reliability

STANDARDIZATION GOALS (2/2)


4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Inspection Minimize repetitious inspection Eliminate overlapping and duplication of inspection by regulatory agencies Reduce inspection time/cost Product Accuracy Unify product accuracy Improve product reliability and safety Production Methods Improve producibility, productivity and safety Improve production methods Shipowner / Operator Improve communications with shipyard Improve operation efficiency by applying products with proven reliability, performance and safety Improve interchangeability of components Improve ability to obtain spare parts from other than the original equipment manufacturer Regulator Bodies/Classification Societies Simplify approval procedures and reduce workload Reduce testing/inspection workload Improve communication with shipyards vendors

Management of Technology in Successful Operations

THEME

FACTORS INFLUENCING ITS DEVELOPMENT Industrial labs and R&D organisations regarded as an aid to practical problem solving; dependent on the training and experience of supervisors and middle managers. Long and Short Term needs determine the research agenda; orientation of R&D personnel to practical affairs. Origins in chemical and electrical industries; existing equipment and methods considered always improvable. Complexity of products; systematic and integrative nature of innovation.

Technological development is evolutionary; progress occurs in steady and successive steps. A close and intimate interaction between technology development work and potential problems (in plant or market) is essential. Product and process innovation are intimately related. Progress occurs through organised effort; team-work and collaboration across functional boundaries and critical.

Technical and Economic Success in Technology Improvement

TECHNICAL SUCCESS :

Technical success refers to the successful implementation of a new operating technology which provides reductions in errors and effort requirements due to the elimination of paper driven steps, growth in enabling capability and functionality and improved change management.

ECONOMIC SUCCESS :

Economic success refers to the realisation of productivity increase, non-productivity benefits (e.g. reduced lead time, quality improvements, increased flexibility etc.) and translation of these benefits into cost reduction and competitive gain.

DESIGN AND DATA INTEGRATION CONTRIBUTE MAINLY TO TECHNICAL SUCCESS WITH TANGIBLE ECONOMIC GAINS REAL ECONOMIC SUCCESS IS ACHIEVED THROUGH DECISION AND ORGANISATION INTEGRATION

The Manufacturing Cycle

Engineering design Engineering drawing Process planning Methods, time and motion study Routing

Management Forecasting & customer orders Master production schedule

Requirement plannin Capacity planning

Inventory control

Purchasing Dispatching Expediting

Auxiliary services

Job recording Shop floor

NEXT WEEK : DEFINITIONS...

Task :

to search, find and present the definitions of the following words in the context of GEM314E course

effectiveness efficiency productivity utilisation performance capacity

End of Week 1

Questions ?