Anda di halaman 1dari 22

An Analysis of the Influence of Perceived Risk in Hong Kong Tourist Decision Making Process toward an Asia Developing Country

India as a Touris! Destination

Circle Yuen Higher Diploma in International Hotel and Tourism Management HTMi Switzerland

Negative image of India due to recent consecutive news related to female safety is in the spotlight This not only drew local residents! outrage and government!s attention" #ut also the worldwide awareness Since India government has #een promoting its golf" polo" rural" eco" medical and wellness" cruise and heliport" adventure as well as caravan tourism to the world $Ministry of Tourism %overnment of India" &'()* +ccording to the India tourism statistic at a glance report $Ministry of Tourism %overnment of India" &'(&*" there is a continuously increasing num#er of foreign tourist travels to India from &'') to &'((" e,cept &''- The author would li.e to analyse the influences of those une,pected negative incidents in India on Hong /ong travelling tourist process The way people communicate their needs is wants 1ased on different cultures as well as individual personality" people with it need can have e,tremely different wants 2eople tend to select products" which are the most value for money $/otler et al " &'('* 1lac. #o, model will #e used to introduce the #asic concept of consumer #ehaviour 3hen tourists realise a 4ourney will #e less en4oya#le due to visi#le or percepti#le dangers" another destination is tend to #e selected $Hall et al " &'')* 1lac.well et al $&''(* mentioned" there is no motivation on purchasing a product if an individual cannot accept the perceived ris.s +ccording to Schiffman $&'('*" every single tourist has its own perception on ris." they can #e divided into two main groups" narrow categorizers and #road categorizers Thus" different types of perceived ris.s and tourist responses would #e discussed in this paper 5urthermore" 2owell $(--6* and 1a.ewell $&''7* found that female and male tend to have different style on ris. management Santana $&'') cited in +vraham" &''7* pointed out that pu#lic!s perception towards a destination can #e shaped #y international media" thus" a positive image of one city or

country is essential in order to #ecome a famous tourist destination +uthor will use India as the case study and to e,amine the potential of India #ecome a worldwide tourist destination Numerous research was found to #e discussing retail #uyers #ehaviour $%anesan and 3eitz" (--78 Choi and %as.ill" &'''8 9osen#aum and /untze" &'':8 Insch et al " &'((*" however" less has #een done on tourist #ehaviour $Insch et al " &'(( and 2ongyeela" &'(&* 3hen discussing traveller decision" researchers mainly concentrate on e,amining factors influencing tourist decision and purchasing intention on selecting destination $1eerli et +l " &''6* 3ong and Yeh $&''-* concentrated on several reasons of tourist hesitation and their #ehaviour of changing destination Some previous studies have #een focusing on the relationship #etween process of travel and the perception towards a developed country $+zim" &'('* Moreover" tourist security feeling and perception on developed destinations has also #een discussed $2age et al" &'':* 1ased on the research from 2owell $(--6* and 1a.ewell $&''7*" there are significant different approaches of female and male managing ris.s and decision Thus" the

influences of perceived ris. on tourist from different gender decision on travelling to developing countries will #e the main focus of this research paper

Tourists Decision Making Process " Models# Theory and Concepts

5igure & ( (; : stages #uying process model $Solomon et al cited in 1othz<n &'')* This : stages #uying process can #e used to e,plain tourists! #uying #ehaviour It includes =need recognition!" =information search!" =alternatives evaluation!" =purchase! and =post0purchase! Murray $(-:(" in Shah and %ardner" &''>* said that when a need is aroused to #e satisfied" people would #e motivated to achieve the goal ?ansson0 1oyd $&'('* classified two types of needs are innate needs and ac@uired needs 5ormer one is the primary need related to physical re@uirement while later one is secondary need normally lin.ed with psychological re@uirement 1usiness travelling is definitely motivated #y the ac@uired need" whereas leisure travel can #e related to the innate need of physical rela,ation +s long as the needs and wants are identified" process is then #egins The uncertainty that appear #efore people purchase and use the product are considered as perceived ris. $1owman" (->& cited in 5iegen#aum and Thomas" (->>* 1ettman $(-6)* claimed that if the level of perceived ris. were higher than the individual accepta#le level" the consumer would ta.e action to reduce ris. the second step0information search can fulfill this ris. reduction #ehaviour Information search can #e classified into internal and e,ternal" the former one means personal mind of the

decision" such as memory and the later one includes advertising strategy" media and word of mouth $2erner" &'('* The higher cost or investment of the decision" the more e,ternal research are to #e done #y the individual" for e,ample" when someone #uy an apple" it is more li.ely to refer to the previous e,perience" nonetheless" when someone purchase a house" it is suggested to as. for others! ideas and see. help from professionals +fter doing the information search" more alternatives may rise up" and then #ecomes stage ) evaluations on the choices +t this stage" consumer use the information found in the previous stage to evaluate and ran. all the alternatives The one #rings the most #enefit might not #e the #est choice as it is depends on the cost of selecting the alternative Aast #ut not least" the final stage is post0purchase #ehaviour Decision will compare the actual gain and loss to the e,pectation If the purchasing e,perience is #etter than the e,pected result" the satisfaction of the consumer will #e increased $i#id* This is not a completed model as the final stage can affect the first stage" for instance" the possi#ility of re0purchase will #e increased if customers are satisfied #y this purchasing e,perience" as well as will recommend others to select the same product or service Nevertheless" if the product is out of e,pectation and unaccepta#le to the individual" the purchasing process will end up in this stage $+#dallat and Bmam" &'()* +s a conse@uence" a cycle should #e more suita#le for e,plaining tourist #ehaviour rather than the unidirectional approach 5urthermore" %il#ert $(--( cited in Swar#roo.e and Horner" &'(&* challenged that this model has omitted one of the .ey impacts which is decision!s personal perception" attitude and personality

Consu!er Decision Making $ra!e %ork

5igure & ( & (; Consumer Decision 5rame 3or. $%il#ert" (--( cited in Swar#roo.e and Horner" &'(&*

The a#ove model suggested #y %il#ert $(--( cited in Swar#roo.e and Horner" &'(&* shows that factors affecting consumer can #e categorized in two levels The inner level is the first level" includes influences closely related to the decision itself" such as motivation" perception toward the product" personal attitude and .nowledge heCshe has The second level of influence is factors that #eing developed in the socialization process" for instance" socioeconomic" cultural" family as well as reference group In other words" second level is all the factors" which affect the others instead of the decision itself In level one" referring to Han and Aerner $&''6*" there are two types of ris. perception" which are certainty ris. and uncertainty ris. Certainty ris. is controlla#le whereas uncertainty ris. is

uncontrolla#le #y an individual Aerner and /eltner $&''(* discovered that an individual!s emotion could affect the ris. perception +ngry people can afford a higher level of ris." which might not have #ig influence to the ris. perception" hence" they will insist to the decision made Nevertheless" fear people can only afford a limited level of ris." they will #e affected #y the certainty ris. and ta.e longer time to evaluate the given choices to select the lowest ris. alternative 9egarding second level" 1riley et al $&'''* #elieved and proved that individual process is affected #y the cultural factor since culture will affect how people thin. and act" it gives guidelines on decision 5amily can #e one of the factors influencing individual travel #ehaviour 2eople in different family life cycle stages" such as married" single" with children and so forth" have different responses to the travel decision 5amily concept actually #eing recognized as one of the .ey varia#le that affect individual trip #ehaviour for years and it is agreed #y several scholars

$Dimmerman" (->& cited in %rigolon et al" &'(&8 /itamura and /ostyniu." (->7 cited in /itamura" (->>8 Collins and Tisdell" &''&* +ccording to 1lac.well et al $&''(*" any person or groups that influence others! #ehaviours heavily are defined as reference group" their #eliefs" attitude and #ehaviours can affect others easily" to clarify teenagers are highly affected #y idols and peers" these people are then #ecome the reference group of youngster Since there is no lin.age #etween level one and two inner and outside varia#les" thus" it is suggested the model can #e presented in the #elow way as to show a clear level of varia#les
Consumer Internal Factors External Factors

5igure & ( & &; +mended Consumer Decision 5rame 3or.

Decision Making Process &ased on 'eg!entation

2owell and +nsic $(--6* found that female usually have lower ris. preference which means that they may give up the current made decision due to uncertainty and

opportunity costs Nonetheless" ris. preference is not attri#uted to hidden cost During the decision process" female relatively refer to information found" thus" the length of time is longer #etween the information searching process until the decision made 3e#er $&''(* suggested E domains to investigate different #ehaviour of female and male when decision" which are gam#ling" health" and recreational and social decisions In the research" they agreed that gender difference has significant impacts on process $I#id and" &''>* Harris and ?en.ins $&''7* #elieve that the chance of re0purchase the same product or service is low in #oth male and female +part from that" Aevin et al $&''6* noted that people with different education level view things divergently" which will also have impacts on process

Tourist Decision Making Process toward Developed Country 'tudies $&'(&* has underwent a research investigate the relationship #etween tourist ris. perception and decision in %hana which situated in South +frica It was found that there is a very close association #etween these two parties 2eople ris. perception toward one destination together with the individual characteristic need to #e ta.en into account at the same time 2age et al $&'':* has #een analysing tourist in4ury cases in Scotland and New Dealand as well as to give solutions to avoid similar situation happens on tourists

Perceived Risk as factor affecting travelling decision

Sonmez F %raefe $(-->* claimed that security is one of the most crucial elements of one destination!s allure Destination fails to provide security will lose the competitive power as it will stop tourist travelling to the particular destination and encourage su#stitute consuming $" &'(&* 2revious researchers have identified different

ris.s" financial ris.s $Som et al" &'((*" physical ris.s $Sonmez F %raefe" (-->*" social ris.s $Carter" (-->* and health ris.s $Aarsen et al" &''6* +ll of these ris.s pull people to stop travel or to change travel destination due to the uncertainty $Sira.aya F 3oodside" &'':* /night $(-E>* was the first researcher developed the concept that the level of perceived ris.s affects economic activities Chaudhuri $(--6* came up with the idea of perceived ris.s and uncertainty varia#les will encourage changes on decision of travelling

Destination (ackground " India

5igure & ) (; India International Tourist +rrivals $The 3orld Tourism Grganization" &'(&*

+ccording to the report from HN3TG $The 3orld Tourism Grganization" &'(&*" also shown a#ove" there are an increasing num#er of international tourist arrivals in India from &''- to &'(( Hnfortunately" there was a (E>I leap of reported se, criminal rate in India recorded from ?anuary to March &'() $+non" &'()* 9esearch found

that since the first gang rape issue occurred in Decem#er &'(&" the num#er of female tourists .eep going down #y &:I as of March while the decreased of female travellers is ):I $+ssocham India" &'()* +ssociated Cham#ers of Commerce and Industry of

India $cited in ?amieson" &'()* attri#uted the dropped in num#er of visitors in whole country to the se, crime The India %overnment noticed that the issue related to women safety in India has put threat to the domestic and international female travellers" thus they have made a note on the tourism #oard to clarify the current issue as well as to reinsure women tourist that 4ourney to India will #e an en4oya#le and safe e,perience $Incredi#le India" &'()* %overnment claimed that the previous sad incidents are a#errations as they received over & 7 million female visitors travelling to India in &'(& In addition" among this huge amount of in#ound lady tourists" there was no single report stating that female is facing se,ual molestation" which proves that apparently incidents are simply a#errations $I#id*

Conclusion and Reco!!endations

In this report" the : stages consumer #uying process and consumer #uying framewor. are used to analyse the impact of perceived ris. of Hong /ong tourist toward an +sia developing country" India This research uses @uantitative approach to e,amine the effectiveness of the models mentioned +fter analysing all the information found" it is o#vious that security issue is a crucial factor" which affects tourist!s travelling #ehaviour Since there is continues se, criminal in India" it changes people perception of the safety concern in India Considering female and male has different ris. tolerance level" it may results in dramatically decreasing num#er of female travellers to India in a short period of time In order words" the tourism industry will #e harmed as well as the revenue generated #y foreign tourist will #e reduced in a short period of time In the future" @ualitative approach is suggested to #e adopted in future research to generate a more in0depth view from the respondents 5urther research can #e #ase on international tourists!

#ehaviour instead of focusing on Hong /ong tourist only since cultural diversity might #e another varia#le affecting individual!s perception of perceived ris.s +part from that" it is worth to evaluate the difference sections within one segment as well as to investigate which group of people are the most easily affected #y perceived ris. +fter that" people can wor. on esta#lishing the theory to regain or reposition India to strengthen it potentials to #ecome a world0class popular destination Bffectiveness of the promotion strategy of India might #e investigated in the future as well Aast #ut not least" it is also the high time for India government to understand the importance of enhancing the positive image of India #y controlling and reducing se, criminal" which happens every day

+#dallat" M M + and Bmam" H B S B $&'()* Consumer 1ehaviour Models in Tourism Faculty of Tourism and Archeology. +vaila#le

from;http;CCfaculty .su edu saC6)-EECDocAi#:CConsumerI&'1ehavior I&'ModelsI&'andI&'ConsumerI&'1ehaviorI&'inI&'Tourism doc J+ccess &7 +pril &'()K +ltinay" A and 2aras.evas" + $&''>* Planning Research in Hospitality and Tourism 1urlington" M+; 1utterworth0Heinemann +vaila#le from;

http;CC#oo.s google chC J+ccessed (> +pril &'()K +non $&'()* 9eported Se, Crimes Hp +fter Indian %ang09ape +vaila#le from; http;CCwww news com auCworld0newsCmore0victims0of0se,0crimes0coming0 forward0say0indian0policeCstory0fndir&ev0(&&77'-7>:(E' J+ccessed (6 +pril &'()K +ssocham India $&'()* +tithi Devo 1ahava! a hit; +SSGCH+M8 &:I decline in foreign tourists inflow The Associated Chambers of Commerce and Industry of India. +vaila#le from; http;CCwww assocham orgCprelsCshownews phpLidM)-E6 J+ccessed (> +pril &'()K

+vraham" B $&''7* Tourism" Security and Safety N 5rom Theory to 2ractice Hnited States of +merica; 1utterworth Heinemann +vaila#le from;

http;CCwww sciencedirect comC J+ccessed '> 5e#ruary &'()K

+zim" T S + $&'('* The 9elationship #etween the 2erception of 9is. and the Decision 2rocess of Travel of 5rench Tourists N The Case of Bgypt Tourisms: An International Multidisciplinary ournal of Tourism! : $&*" &-0E6

+vaila#le from; http;CCmpra u# uni0muenchen deC J+ccessed '6 5e#ruary &'()K

1a.ewell" C $&''7* Male "ersus female consumer decision ma#ing $tyles +vaila#le from; www sciencedirect com J+ccessed '- 5e#ruary &'()K

1eerli" + " Meneses" % and %il" S $&''6* Self0Congruity and Destination Choice +nnals of Tourism 9esearch" )E $)*" :6(0:>6 +vaila#le from;

http;CCwww sciencedirect com J+ccessed (: March &'()K

1eins" 1 C $&''-* Research Methods: A Tool for %ife " &nd ed 1oston; 2earson Bducation 1ettman" ? 9 $(-6)* 2erceived 9is. and Its Components; + Model and Bmpirical Test ournal of Mar#eting Research" (' $&*" (>E0(-' +vaila#le from;

http;CCscholar google chCscholarL@M1ettmanO I&>(-6)I&-F#tn%MFhlMenFasPsdtM'I&C:FasPvisM( J+ccessed &' +pril &'()K 1lac.well" 9 D " Miniard" 2 3 and Bngel" ? 5 $&''(* Consumer &eha"ior -th ed Hnited Sates of +merica; Thomson Aearning 1lanche" M T " 1urrheim" / and 2ainter" D $&''6* Research in Practice &nd ed South +frica; Hniversity of Cape Town 2ress +vaila#le from; http;CC#oo.s google chC J+ccessed &) +pril &'()K" / $&''>* An empirical in"estigation into tourism oriented crimes: Focus on

Cape Coast! 'umasi and Accra. Cape Coast" %hana; Hniversity of Cape Coast" / + $&'(&* Tourists! views on safety and vulnera#ility0+ study of some selected towns in %hana Tourism Management" ))" )&60))) +vaila#le from; www sciencedirect com J+ccessed (' March &'()K 1othz<n" D $&'')* Consumer &eha"ior (nline ) *o the traditional Fi"e)$tage Model of the Consumer &uying Process still apply+ +vaila#le from;

http;CCwww freewe#s comC J+ccessed (' 5e#ruary &'()K 1riley " D + " Morris" M 3 and Simonson" I $&'''* 9easons as Carriers of Culture; Dynamic vs Dispositional Models of Cultural Influence on Decision ournal of Consumer Research" &6" (:60(6> +vaila#le from;

http;CCwor.s #epress comCcgiCviewcontent cgiLarticleM('''Fconte,tM#riley J+ccessed (6 +pril &'()K 1ryman" + $&'(&* Social 9esearch Methods Eth ed New Yor.; G,ford

Carter" S $(-->* Tourists! and travellers! social construction of +frica and +sia as ris.y locations Tourism Management" (- $E* )E-0):> +vaila#le from;

http;CCwww sciencedirect comC J+ccessed (7 March &'()K

Chaudhuri" + $(--6* Consumption Bmotion and 2erceived 9is.; + Macro0+nalytic +pproach ournal of &usiness Research" )- $&*" >(0-& +vaila#le from;

http;CCwww sciencedirect comC J+ccessed (6 March &'()K

Choi" Y B and %as.ill" A 9 $&'''* +n +nalysis of Mental 2rocess" 1ehaviors" and ?o# Satisfaction of +pparel 2roduct Developers and Traditional 9etail 1uyers ournal of &usiness Research" E- $(*" (:0)E +vaila#le from; www sciencedirect com J+ccessed '- 5e#ruary &'()K

Collins" D ournal

and Tisdell" C $&''&* %ender and Differences in Travel Aife Cycle of Tra"el Research" E(" ())0(E) +vaila#le from;

http;CC4tr sagepu# comCcontentCE(C&C()) full pdfOhtml J+ccessed (6 +pril &'()K 5iegen#aum" + and Thomas" H $(->>* +ttitudes Toward 9is. and The 9is.09eturn 2arado,; 2rospect Theory B,planations Academy of Management ournal" )( $(*" >:0('7 +vaila#le from; http;CCam4 aom orgCcontentC)(C(C>: full J+ccessed (: March &'()K %anesan" S and 3eitz" 1 + $(--7* The impact of staffing policies on retail #uyer 4o# attitudes and #ehaviors ournal of Retailing" 6& $(*" )(0:7 +vaila#le from;

www sciencedirect com J+ccessed '- 5e#ruary &'()K %rigolon" + " /emperman" + and Timmermans" H $&'(&* 5acet01ased +nalysis of Qacation 2lanning 2rocess; + 1inary Mi,ed Aogit 2anel Model Tourism Research" :& $&*" (-&0&'( +vaila#le ournal of from;

http;CC4tr sagepu# comCcontentC:&C&C(-& full pdfOhtml J+ccessed (6 +pril &'()K Hall" C M and Timothy" D ? and Duval" D T $&'')* Safety and Security in Tourism; 9elationships" Management and Mar.eting 1inghamton" NY; The Haworth

Hospitality 2ress +vaila#le from; http;CC#oo.s google chC J+ccessed &' +pril &'()K

Han" S " Aerner" ? S and /eltner" D $&''6* 5eelings and Consumer Decision; The +ppraisal0Tendency 5ramewor. (:>0(7> ournal of Consumer Psychology" (6$)*" +vaila#le from;

http;CCconferences wcfia harvard eduCfilesClernerla#CfilesClernerPhanP.eltnerP&''6 pdf J+ccessed &7 +pril &'()K Harris" C 9 and ?en.ins" M $&''7* %ender Differences in 9is. +ssessment; 3hy do 3omen Ta.e 5ewer 9is.s than MenL udgement and *ecision Ma#ing" ( $(*"

E>07) +vaila#le from; http;CC4ournal s4dm orgC4dm'7'(7 pdf J+ccessed &E +pril &'()K Incredi#le India $&'()* ,ote on $afety and $ecurity of -omen Tourists. +vaila#le from; http;CCincredi#leindia orgCwomen0sefety J+ccessed (6 +pril &'()K Insch" + " 2rentice" 9 and /night" ? % $&'((* 9etail 1uyers! and 1uy National Campaigns Australasian Mar#eting ournal! (- $E*" &:60&77 +vaila#le from; www sciencedirect com J+ccessed '- 5e#ruary &'()K ?amieson" + $&'()* Female Tourists $hun India After .ang Rape / Murder. ,&C ,e0s +vaila#le from;

http;CCworldnews n#cnews comCPnewsC&'()C'EC'(C(6::)67-0female0tourists0 shun0india0after0gang0rape0murderLlite J+ccessed (> +pril &'()K ?ansson01oyd" C Q $&'('* Consumer Psychology NY; Mc%raw0Hill Bducation +vaila#le from; http;CC#oo.s google chC J+ccessed &( March &'()K /autish" 2 $&'('* An Analytical $tudy on Perspecti"es of &rand A0areness and Its Impact upon Consumer &uying &eha"ior 0ith a 1ie0 to Facilitate Managerial

*ecision Ma#ing in (rgani2ations +vaila#le from; http;CCwww grin comCenCe0 #oo.C(>)EE>Can0analytical0study0on0perspectives0of0#rand0awareness0and0its0 impact0upon J+ccessed (E +pril &'()K /itamura" 9 $(->>* Aife0style and Travel demand $pecial Report 334: A %oo# Ahead: 5ear 3434! Transportation Research &oard 3ashington" DC; National 9esearch Council (E-0(>+vaila#le from;

http;CClin. springer comCarticleC(' (''6Cs((((70''-0-&EE07Rpage0( J+ccessed (6 +pril &'()K /night" 9 A $(-E>* The role of ma4or genes in the evolution of economic characters ournal of .enetics" E> $)*" )6'0)>6 +vaila#le from;

http;CClin. springer comCarticleC(' (''6C15'&->77)6 J+ccessed (7 +pril &'()K

/otler" 2 " 1owen" ? T and Ma.ens" ? M $&'('* Mar#eting for Hospitality and Tourism :th ed Hnited States of +merica; 2earson Bducation Inc Aarsen" S " 1run" 3 " Ggaard" T and Selstad" A $&''6* Su#4ective food0ris. 4udgements in tourists Tourism Management! &> $7*" (:::0(::- +vaila#le from; http;CCwww sciencedirect com J+ccessed (: March &'()K

Aerner" ? S " F /eltner" D $&''(* 5ear" anger" and ris. $ocial Psychology" >(" (E7N(:-

ournal of Personality /

Aevin" I 2 " Aauriola" M and Hart" S S $&''6* Common and distinct factors in decision under am#iguity and ris.; + psychometric study of individual differences (rgani2ational &eha"ior and Human *ecision Process" ('E $&*" ()'0

(E- +vaila#le from; http;CCwww sciencedirect com J+ccessed (: March &'()K

Ministry of Tourism %overnment of India $&'(&* India tourism statistic at a glance New Delhi; 9esearch Division & +vaila#le from;

http;CCtourism gov inCwritereaddataCCMS2age2ictureCfileCmar.etresearchCINDI+TGH 9ISMST+TICS$BN%AISH* pdf J+ccessed )' March &'()K Ministry of Tourism %overnment of India $&'()* Tourism Infrastructure

*e"elopment. +vaila#le from; http;CCtourism gov inC J+ccessed )' March &'()K Newman" I and 1enz" C 9 $(-->* 6ualitati"e)7uantitati"e Research Methodology: 89ploring the Interacti"e Continuum HS+; 1oard of Trustees +vaila#le from; http;CC#oo.s google chC J+ccessed &: +pril &'()K 2age" S " 1entley" T and" A $&'':* Tourist safety in New Dealand and Scotland Annals of Tourism Research" )& $(*" (:'0(77 +vaila#le from;

http;CCwww sciencedirect comC J+ccessed '- 5e#ruary &'()K 2erner" A $&'('* Consumer &eha"iour Aos +ngeles" C+; Hniversity of Southern California +vaila#le from;

http;CCwww consumerpsychologist comCintroPConsumerP1ehavior html J+ccessed (: +pril &'()K 2ongyeela" + $&'(&* The Decision 2rocess of ?ewelry 1uyers in Thailand Procedia 8conomics and Finance" )" (>>0(-& +vaila#le from;

http;CCwww sciencedirect comC J+ccessed '- 5e#ruary &'()K

2owell" M $(--6* %ender Differences in 9is. 1ehaviour in 5inancial Decision0; +n B,perimental +nalysis ournal of 8conomic Psychology" (> $7*" 7':0

7&> +vaila#le from; http;CCwww sciencedirect comC J+ccessed '- 5e#ruary &'()K 2owell" M F +nsic" D $(--6* %ender Differences in ris. #ehaviour in financial; an e,perimental analysis ournal of 8conomic Psychology! (> $7*"

7':07&> +vaila#le from; http;CCwww sciencedirect comC J+ccessed (: March &'()K

9osen#aum" M S and /untze" 9 $&'':* good at the retailer!s e,pense; investigatin unethical retail disposition #ehaviour among compulsive #uyers ?ournal of 9etailing and Consumer Services" (& $)*" &(60&&: www sciencedirect com J+ccessed '- 5e#ruary &'()K +vaila#le from;

9u#in"+ and 1a##ie" B $&'('* 8ssential Research Methods for $ocial -or# &nd ed 1elmont" C+; 1roo.sCCole" Cengage Aearning +vaila#le from;

http;CC#oo.s google ch J+ccessed &E +pril &'()K

Schiffman" A % and /anu." A A $&'('* Consumer &eha"iour. ('th ed Hnited States of +merica; 2earson Bducation Inc Shah" ? Y and %ardner" 3 A $&''>* Handboo# of Moti"ation $cience NY; %uilford +vaila#le from; http;CC#oo.s google chC J+ccessed &6 March &'()K Sira.aya" B F 3oodside" + % $&'':*1uilding and Testing theories of decision #y travellers Tourism Management! &7 $7*" >(:0>)& +vaila#le from; http;CCwww sciencedirect comC J+ccessed (: +pril &'()K

Som" + 2 M " Shirazi" S 5 M " Marzu.i" + and ?usoh" ? $&'((* + Critical +nalysis of Tourist Satisfaction and Destination Aoyalty $(* +vaila#le ournal of .lobal Management" & from;

http;CCwww glo#alresearch com myC4ournalCmanagementPv'&n'(n'&C''(&P+rticl ePE-:P5inalP2%(6>P(>) pdf J+ccessed (: +pril &'()K Swar#ro.e" ? and Horner" S $&'(&* Consumer &eha"iour in Tourism. &nd ed Hnited States of +merica; 9outledge Taylor" % 9 $&'':* Integrating 6uantitati"e and 6ualitati"e Methods in Research. &nd ed G,ford" H/; Hniversity 2ress of +merica The 3orld Tourism Grganization $&'(&* :,-T( Tourism Highlights &'(& ed Spain; HN3TG +vaila#le from; J+ccessed

http;CCm.t unwto orgCsitesCallCfilesCdocpdfCunwtohighlights(&enhr pdf (> +pril &'()K

Qanderstoep" S 3 and ?ohnston" D D $&''-* Research Methods for 8"eryday %ife: &lending 6ualitati"e and 6uantitati"e Approaches. San 5rancisco; ?ohn 3iley F Sons Qeal" + ? $&''7* Research Methods for %eisure and Tourism)A Practical .uide )rd ed Bngland; 2earson Bducation 3e#er" B H $&''(* 2ersonality and 9is. International 8ncyclopedia of the $ocial / &eha"ioral $ciences" ((&6E0((&67 +vaila#le from;

http;CCwww sciencedirect comC J+ccessed '- 5e#ruary &'()K

3ong" ? Y and Yeh" C $&''>* Tourist Hesitation in Decision Annals of Tourism Research" )7 $(*" 70&) +vaila#le from; http;CCwww sciencedirect comC J+ccessed '- 5e#ruary &'()K