Anda di halaman 1dari 19

Overview and Theory of Distributions Histogram Normal Probability Plots Identifying a Distribution Data Examples

Delphi. All rights reserved.

Core tools I 032707HO

Properties Of A Normal Distribution


The normal distribution is the concept that is the basis for most statistical tests. Completely described by its mean and 200 standard deviation Tails extend to 100 Area under curve represents 100% of 0 possible observations Curve is symmetrical; 50% each side of mean
Frequency
Delphi. All rights reserved.

300

60

70

80

90

100

110

120

Days

Core tools I 032707HO

Normal Distribution
The mean and standard deviation are required to fully describe the distribution.
Compare the means of each distribution.

1st Distribution 2nd Distribution

3rd Distribution

Mean

The means are the same but the standard deviations differ.
Delphi. All rights reserved. Core tools I 032707HO

The Standard Normal Curve


The standard normal curve is a special case of the normal distribution where the mean = 0 and the standard deviation = 1.
Theoretical Empirical
68.26%

.60-75% .90-98% .99-100%

95.44%

99.73%

-4

-3

-2

-1

99.7% of the population is within approximately Core tools Iof 032707HO Delphi. All rights reserved. 3 standard deviations the mean.

Histogram

1 5

Purpose: To show the shape of the data Applications:


Show Variation or range of data Performance of data around a nominal target To understand the amount of data at a given point To find outliers in the process

10

20.5

23.5 26.5 29.5

32.5 35.5

38.5 41.5
Core tools I 032707HO

Delphi. All rights reserved.

Anatomy Of A Histogram
A. Vertical axis Either Frequency or the Percentage of data points in each Class B. Modal Class Class with the highest frequency C. Frequency Number of data points found in each Class D. Class Each bar is one Class, or interval, or bin E. Horizontal axis Scale of measure for the element being plotted
A
60 50

B C D

Frequency

40 30 20 10 0

E
6

Delphi. All rights reserved.

100

200

300

400

500Core 600 800 tools I700 032707HO

900

Follow-me Histogram Example


Open MINITAB data file: 12a_Basic_Stats.mpj Run: Stat Basic Statistics Display Descriptive Statistics Highlight all columns from Normal to PS 2 and click Select
Note that the mean and StDev of Normal, Pos Skew and Neg Skew are identical.
Variable Normal Pos Skew Neg Skew Mystery PS 2 N Mean 500 70.000 500 70.000 500 70.000 500 100.00 500 70.010 Median StDev 69.977 10.000 65.695 10.000 73.783 10.000 104.20 32.38 66.000 9.981
Core tools I 032707HO

12a_ Basic_Stats.MPJ

Delphi. All rights reserved.

SE Mean 0.447 0.447 0.447 1.45 0.446

Histogram in Minitab
Remembering that the means and standard deviations of the first three data sets were the same Lets graph them using histograms Run: Graph Histogram (Select Simple, Click OK) Enter Normal, Pos Skew and Neg Skew into Graph Variables field Click OK

Delphi. All rights reserved.

Core tools I 032707HO

What The Graphs Show: 3 Different Distributions


Histogram of Normal
70 60 50 Frequency 40 30 20 10 0

30

40

50

60

70 Normal

80

90

100

Histogram of Neg Skew


250 140 120 200 100 Frequency Frequency 150 80 60 40 50 20 0 0

Histogram of Pos Skew

100

12

24

Delphi. All rights reserved.

36 Neg Skew

48

60

72

70

80

90

Core tools I 032707HO

100 Pos Skew

110

120

130

Histogram with Groups


Using the data file: 12a_Basic_Stats.mpj Graph Histogram With fit and Groups Select Normal Mystery as graph variables

Delphi. All rights reserved.

Core tools I 032707HO

Histogram with Groups


Mean & Std Dev for 2 data sets

Delphi. All rights reserved.

Core tools I 032707HO

Data Sets Come in Various Shapes


Bell Shape The Normal Distribution
Ex: Random Variation on a stable process

Right Skewed (Positively Skewed)


Ex: Tool Wear during machining process

Left Skewed (Negatively Skewed)


Ex: Torque, capacity of a container

Uniform Distribution
Ex: Pre Sorting, Measurement System not sensitive enough

Bimodal Distribution
Ex: Pre Sorting, Measurement System not sensitive enough
Delphi. All rights reserved. Core tools I 032707HO

Normal Probability Plots


Normal probability plots are a graphical technique to determine if a distribution is normally distributed Using the previous data file: 12a_Basic_Stats.mpj Stat Basic Stats Normality Test Select Normal as Variable

12a_ Basic_Stats.MPJ

Delphi. All rights reserved.

Core tools I 032707HO

13

Interpreting The Normal Probability Plot


Normally distributed data will appear on the plot as a straight line
P r o b a b ility P lo t o f N o r m a l
Norm a l
9 9 .9 99 95 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 5 1 0 .1 M ean S tD e v N AD P - V a lu e 7 0 .0 0 1 0 .0 0 500 0 .4 1 8 0 .3 2 8

Percent

30

40

50

60

70 No r m a l

80

90

100

110

Generate plots for Pos Skew, Neg Skew, and Mystery Are they normal?
Core tools I 032707HO

Delphi. All rights reserved.

14

Normal bell shaped


Normal Probability Plots
1 00

Examples:
.999 .99 .95

P-value: 0.328
Norm al Distribution

Frequency

Probability

.80 .50 .20 .05 .01 .001

50

0 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 1 00 1 1 0
Average: 70 Std Dev: 10 N of data: 500

26

36

46

56

66

76

86

96

1 06

Normal
Anderson-Darling Normality Test A-Squared: 0.418 p-value: 0.328

C1

Not Normal Positive Skewed


Normal Probability Plots
300

P-value: 0.000
Positive Skewed Distribution
.999 .99 .95 .80 .50 .20 .05 .01 .001 60 70 80 90 1 00 1 1 0 1 20 1 30

Frequency

200

1 00

0 60 70 80 90 1 00 1 1 0 1 20 1 30
Average: 70 Std Dev: 10 N of data: 500

Probability

Pos Skew
Anderson-Darling Normality Test A-Squared: 46.447 p-value: 0.000

C2

Delphi. All rights reserved.

Core tools I 032707HO

Anderson-Darling Test
If the p-value from the Anderson-Darling test < alpha of .05, the data is not normal per that test, however: The Anderson-Darling test is not robust to small sample sizes so for samples less than 50 it is best to rely on the Fat Pencil test. If a fat pencil can cover all of the points on the normal probability plot, the data may safely be treated as normal For large samples the Anderson-Darling can measure slight departures from normality that will have little or no effect on the level of analysis that we will be performing. Again use the Fat Pencil test to determine reasonable normality. 16
Core tools I 032707HO

Delphi. All rights reserved.

Identifying an appropriate distribution


This function allows you to fit your data with 14 distributions. Use individual distribution identification to find a useful distribution to fit the data if a normal distribution does not fit the data well. Why? In capability analysis, finding an appropriate distribution to fit the data is extremely important.
Roughness.MPJ

Open the data file: Roughness.mpj Choose Stat Quality Tools Individual Distribution Identification Complete the dialog box as shown Delphi. All rights reserved.

Core tools I 032707HO

Interpreting your results

Delphi. All rights reserved.

Core tools I 032707HO

Identifying an appropriate distribution


Assess the probability plots and the Anderson-Darling test results to identify a distribution that fits the data well. In this example, Normal (transformed), Loglogistic and Largest Extreme Value distributions appear to fit the data well. (Analyze using PGA). NOTE Using solely the P-value as criterion to select a distribution may not be the best approach. If you have historical or theoretical knowledge of the distribution, use it.

THINKING IS STILL REQUIRED!


Delphi. All rights reserved. Core tools I 032707HO