TheUniverseisOnlySpacetime
Particles,ForcesandCosmology
DerivedfromtheSimplest
StartingAssumption
JohnA.Macken
SantaRosa,California
john@onlyspacetime.com
OriginalDraftFebruary2010
Revision6.2May2012
2010,2011,2012
Table of Contents
1 Confined Light Has Inertia 11
Light in a Reflecting Box Confined Black Body Radiation de Broglie Waves 8
ParticlelikePropertiesofaConfinedPhoton
2 Definitions and Concepts from General Relativity 21
Schwarzschild Solution Definition of Gravitational Gamma Schwarzschild
CoordinateSystemCoordinateSpeedofLightShapiroExperimentGravityIncreases
VolumeConnectionBetweentheRateofTimeandVolume
3 Gravitational Transformations of the Units of Physics 31
Why Are the Laws of Physics Unchanged When the Rate of Time Changes? Normalized
Coordinate System Length and Time Transformations Transformations Required to
PreservetheLawsofPhysicsInsightsFromtheTransformations
4 Assumptions 41
This Books Basic Assumption QM Model of Spacetime GR Model of Spacetime
Dipole Waves in Spacetime Planck Length/Time Limitation On Dipole Waves
Impedance of Spacetime 5WaveAmplitude Equations Bulk Modulus of Spacetime
TheSingleFundamentalForce
5 Spacetime Particle Model 51
Spacetime Vortex in a Sea of Vacuum Energy Particle Design Criteria Inertia from
ConfinedEnergyTheRotarModelofaParticleQuantumRadiusandQuantumVolume
ofaRotarRotatingGravFieldAnalysisofLobesDynamicTimeStrainAmplitudeH
ParticleSizeAnalysisStabilityMechanismHiggsBosonNotNeeded
6 Analysis of the Particle Model 61
Rotar Energy Test Rotars Angular Momentum Test Dipole Moment Quantum
Amplitude Equalities Circulating Power Rotars Theoretical Maximum Force Strong
ForceElectromagneticForceatDistanceR
q
RotarsGravitationalForceatDistanceR
q
1
P. A. M. Dirac, Classical Theory of Radiating Electrons, Proc. Royal Soc., vol. 168, (1939)
using an incorrect model. The approach taken in this book is to start over and build a new
modelutilizingthesimplestpossiblestartingassumption:Theuniverseisonlyspacetime.
This is such a restrictive assumption that if it is wrong it should quickly reveal its
incompatibility with the known laws and equations of physics. If it is correct, it should be a
narrowpaththatgivesnewinsightsintothelawsandequationsofphysics.Tomostscientists
thisstartingassumptionwillinitiallyseemimpossible.Howcanmatter,light,galaxiesandthe
forces of nature be obtained from what appears to be the empty vacuum of spacetime? Well,
spacetime is far from being a featureless void. It has properties such as a speed of light, a
gravitational constant, an impedance constant and a bulk modulus derived here. Most
important, the quantum mechanical version of spacetime is full of activity. Vacuum
fluctuationspossessavastenergydensity.Understandingthequantummechanicalproperties
of spacetime and the importance of quantized angular momentum reveals how the single
building block of dynamic spacetime can be the source of everything we perceive in the
universe. Furthermore, the biggest mysteries of quantum mechanics become conceptually
understandable when we adopt the model that builds particles and forces from the quantum
mechanicalpropertiesofspacetime.Limitationsofthehumanintellecthavenothingtodowith
our inability to conceptually understand the mysteries of quantum mechanics and general
relativity. We have been using the wrong models! The human intellect can understand
anythinginnatureprovidedthatweareusingthecorrectmodel.
The model of the universe described here not only is compatible with existing equations but
goes further. For example, this model gives new insights into the forces of nature. Gravity is
shown to be closely related to the other forces of nature. Simple equations show this close
relationshipandexplainwhygravityissuchaweakforcecomparedtotheotherforces.Anew
cosmologicalmodeloftheuniverseexplainstheBigBangandtheexpansionoftheuniverseas
a result of spacetime undergoing a transformation that continues today. Surprising new
insightsandpredictionsaremadefromthisanalysis.
Thecontentofthisbookwasnotfirstpresentedintechnicalpapersbecausethesubjectisjust
too large. It is necessary to lay out a series of introductory ideas, and then weave these
concepts into a single coherent theory. A large part of the appeal of this approach is how a
singlestartingassumptioncananswersomanydiversequestionsinphysics.
Note:Thefirstthreechapterslayimportantgroundworkthatpreparesthereadertounderstand
the proposed model. These chapters have a strong emphasis on physical interpretation and
definitions. To establish a common base of physical interpretation, it is necessary to sometimes
present explanations about quantum mechanics or general relativity that experts will find
elementary. The objective of introducing these elementary concepts is to provide a shared
explanation for the physical interpretations that are being used in the remainder of the book.
Developmentofthewavebasedmodeloftheuniversestartsinearnestinchapter#4.
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com
11
Chaptei 1
Confineu Light Bas Ineitia
At the enu of this chaptei theie is Appenuix A that gives a moie iigoious mathematical analysis
of the concepts fiist piesenteu using only algebiaic equations. It is theiefoie possible to ieau
this chaptei on two levels.
Light in a Reflecting Box: The concepts piesenteu in this book staiteu with a single insight. I
iealizeu that if it was possible to confine light in a hypothetical 1uu% ieflecting box, the
confineu light woulu exhibit many of the piopeities of a funuamental paiticle. In paiticulai, a
confineu photon woulu possess the same ineitia (iest mass) anu same weight as a paiticle with
equal inteinal eneigy (E = mc
2
). If the box is moving, a confineu photon also exhibits the same
kinetic eneigy, same ue Bioglie waves, same ielativistic length contiaction anu same time
uilation as an equal eneigy paiticle.
It is an axiom of physics that a photon is a massless paiticle. Nassless paiticles uo not have a
iest fiame of iefeience. They aie moving at the speeu of light in any fiame of iefeience.
Bowevei, if light is confineu in a box, it is foiceu to have a specific fiame of iefeience. This
confineu light then exhibits piopeities noimally associateu with a iest mass of equivalent
eneigy (m = Ec
2
) in the fiame of iefeience of the box. This will fiist be analyzeu using the
following special ielativity equation:
m
2
= [
L
c
2
2
[
p
c
2
wheie: p is momentum anu E is eneigy (equation 1)
Note to the ieauei: The fiist time symbols aie useu, they will be iuentifieu in the text. All the
symbols useu in the book anu the impoitant equations aie also available in Chaptei 1S. It is
iecommenueu that you take a moment anu look at chaptei 1S. If you aie ieauing this book
online, it is iecommenueu that you piint out Chaptei 1S (1u pages) as an essential quick
iefeience.
If a paiticle has eneigy of E = pc, then substituting this into the above equation gives:
m
2
= _
p
2
c
2
c
4
_ _
p
2
c
2
_ = u
In othei woius, when E = pc, then a paiticle has no iest mass. Now, momentum is a vectoi,
so a veiy inteiesting thing happens when we apply equation #1 to confineu light. Foi example,
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12
a single photon confineu between two ieflectois is a wave tiaveling both uiiections
simultaneously. The total momentum of this photon is zeio because the two opposite
momentum vectois nullify each othei. Substituting p = u into the equation #1 yielus:
(m = Ec
2
). In othei woius, confineu light satisfies the uefinition of iest mass.
Anothei example of a photon gaining iest mass is a photon piopagating thiough glass. If the
glass has an inuex of iefiaction of 1.S, then the photon piopagates at only 2S the speeu of light
in a vacuum anu the momentum of the photon is ieuuceu. The photon uoes not change eneigy
when it enteis the glass, but some of its momentum is impaiteu to the glass upon entiance anu
this momentum is ietuineu to the photon upon exit. While the photon is piopagating in the
glass, it can be thought of as possessing some iest mass because E = pc. In othei woius, glass
that has light piopagating thiough it has moie total mass (moie ineitia) than the same glass
without any light piopagation. It is also possible to analyze this moie ueeply anu get into
foiwaiu scattei anu phase shifts intiouuceu by the atoms of the glass. This analysis implies
that the light has unueigone paitial confinement as it piopagates thiough the glass at less than
the speeu of light in a vacuum. This paitial confinement auus a small amount of iest mass to
the glass.
The following example gives a ueepei physical insight into how it is possible foi confineu light
to exhibit mass. Suppose that a lasei cavity has a 1 metei sepaiation between two highly
ieflective miiiois. This is a 2 m (6.67 ns) iounu tiip foi light ieflecting within this cavity. Light
exeits photon piessuie on absoibing oi ieflecting suifaces. The foice exeiteu on an absoibing
suiface is F = Pc oi twice this foice is exeiteu on a ieflecting suiface F = 2Pc wheie F = foice
anu P = powei. If the lasei in this example hau 1.S x 1u
8
watts ciiculating between the two
miiiois (ieflecting suifaces), the eneigy confineu between the two miiiois woulu be equal to
1 }oule anu a foice exeiteu by the light on each miiioi woulu be one Newton in an ineitial
fiame of iefeience.
Suppose that the lasei is acceleiateu in a uiiection paiallel to the optical axis of the lasei. In the
acceleiating fiame of iefeience, theie woulu be a slight uiffeience in the fiequency of the light
stiiking the two miiiois because of the miiioi acceleiation that occuis uuiing the time
iequiieu foi the light to tiavel the uistance between the two miiiois. The fiont miiioi in the
acceleiation uiiection woulu be ieflecting light that has Bopplei shifteu to a lowei fiequency
compaieu to the light that is stiiking the ieai miiioi. If we ietuin to the example of 1.S x 1u
8
watts of light ciiculating between two miiiois sepaiateu by one metei, then the foice exeiteu
against the fiont miiioi woulu be slightly less than one Newton anu the foice exeiteu against
the ieai miiioi woulu be slightly moie than one Newton because of the uiffeience in Bopplei
shifts. This foice uiffeience can be inteipieteu as the foice exeiteu by the ineitia of 1 }oule of
confineu light. The ineitia of 1 }oule of confineu light exactly equals the ineitia of a mass with 1
}oule of inteinal eneigy (1.11 x 1u
17
kg). Foi compaiison, this mass is equal to about 6.6 billion
hyuiogen atoms.
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13
While geneial ielativity tieats eneigy in any foim the same, paiticle physics uoes not. The
Stanuaiu Nouel of paiticle physics suggests that leptons anu quaiks iequiie the hypothetical
Biggs fielu to cieate the ineitia of these paiticles. Theiefoie 6.6 billion hyuiogen atoms iequiie
a Biggs fielu foi ineitia but an equal eneigy of confineu light exhibits equal ineitia without the
neeu of a Biggs fielu. In fact, the ineitia exhibiteu by the confineu light is ultimately tiaceable
to the constancy of the speeu of light.
If we place the lasei with 1 }oule of confineu light stationaiy in a giavitational fielu, the
confineu light will exeit a net foice on the two miiiois equivalent to the weight expecteu fiom
6.6 billion hyuiogen atoms. If the lasei is oiienteu with its optical axis veitical, then the net
foice uiffeience comes fiom what is commonly calleu the giavitational ieublue shift. This
name is a misinteipietation that will be uiscusseu latei. The point is that moie foice is exeiteu
on the lowei miiioi than the uppei miiioi because of the giavitational giauient between these
two miiiois. If the lasei is oiienteu hoiizontally, theie will be giavitational benuing of the
light. The miiioi cuivatuie noimally incoipoiateu into lasei miiiois easily accommouates this
slight misalignment. Bowevei, the benuing of light intiouuces a uownwaiu vectoi component
into the foice being exeiteu against both miiiois. This vectoi component is the weight of the
light. It is tiue that geneial ielativity teaches that eneigy in any foim exhibits the same giavity.
Theiefoie the giavitational similaiity is expecteu. Bowevei, this uoes not automatically
tianslate into giving ineitia to quaiks anu leptons.
Confineu light also exhibits kinetic eneigy when it is confineu in a moving fiame of iefeience.
Suppose that the lasei with 1 }oule of confineu light tiavels at a constant velocity ielative to a
stationaiy obseivei. Also suppose that the obseivei sees the motion as tiaveling with the
optic axis of the lasei paiallel to the uiiection of motion. The stationaiy obseivei will peiceive
that light piopagation in the uiiection of motion is shifteu up in fiequency anu light
piopagating in the opposite uiiection is shifteu uown in fiequency. Combining these peiceiveu
changes in fiequency iesult in a net inciease in the total eneigy of the confineu light.
(Appenuix A) This eneigy inciease is equal to the kinetic eneigy which woulu be expecteu
fiom the ielative motion of a mass of equal inteinal eneigy. Appenuix A also shows that the
eneigy inciease (kinetic eneigy) is coiiect even foi ielativistic velocities. The kinetic eneigy of
the confineu light is ultimately tiaceable to the constancy of the speeu of light.
Confined Black Body Radiation: Thus fai, the example of confineu light has useu a lasei with
highly ieflecting miiiois. An alteinative example coulu use an oiuinaiy caiuboaiu box at a
tempeiatuie of SuuK with an inteinal volume of 1 m. The blackbouy iauiation within this
box woulu have infiaieu light being emitteu anu ieabsoibeu by the inteinal walls. Foi the
stateu conuitions, the blackbouy iauiation within the box woulu be about 6.1 x 1u
6
} of
iauiation in flight within the volume of the box at any instant. This eneigy is equivalent to the
annihilation eneigy of about 4u,uuu hyuiogen atoms. Even though the black bouy iauiation
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com
14
example is slightly haiuei to see, the iesult is similai to having ieflecting walls. The confineu
black bouy iauiation exhibits ineitia, weight anu ielative motion exhibits kinetic eneigy.
Caiiying this blackbouy iauiation example fuithei, lets consiuei the sun with a coie
tempeiatuie of about 1S,uuu,uuuK. At this tempeiatuie, the iauiation is piimaiily at xiay
wavelengths. This confineu xiay iauiation has ineitia equivalent to about a giam pei cubic
metei. At a highei tempeiatuie wheie a stai can buin caibon, the ineitia of the confineu xiays
is equivalent to the ineitia of an equal volume of watei (uensity = 1uuu kgm
S
). 0nce again,
no Biggs fielu is iequiieu foi confineu iauiation to exhibit ineitia.
The examples useu above hau biuiiectional light tiaveling in a lasei oi multi uiiectional light
tiaveling within a black bouy cavity. It woulu also be possible to confine light by having the
light tiaveling in a single uiiection aiounu a closeu loop. Foi example, light coulu be confineu
by tiaveling aiounu a loop maue of a tiaveling wave tube oi fibei optics. Also, it is not
necessaiy to limit the uiscussion to light. uiavitational waves aie also massless because they
piopagate eneigy at the speeu of light. Theie aie no known ieflectois foi giavitational waves,
but it is hypothetically possible to imagine confineu giavitational waves. If theie weie confineu
giavitational waves, they woulu also exhibit the iest mass piopeity of ineitia anu exhibit
kinetic eneigy when the confining volume exhibits ielative motion.
A photon is often uesciibeu as a massless paiticle. We now see that a qualification shoulu be
auueu because only a fieely piopagating photon is massless. A confineu photon possesses iest
mass (possesses ineitia). Both photons anu giavitational waves aie examples of eneigy
piopagating at the speeu of light. In chaptei 4 anothei foim of eneigy piopagating at the speeu
of light will be intiouuceu (waves in spacetime). This also exhibits ineitia when confineu.
Fiom these consiueiations, the following statement can be maue:
Energy propagating at the speed of light exhibits rest mass (inertia) when it is confined to a
specific frame of reference.
Constraint on Higgs Mechanism: Imagine what it woulu be like if confineu light (oi confineu
giavitational waves) exhibiteu a uiffeient amount of ineitia than a paiticle of equal eneigy. It
woulu be possible to make a machine that violateu the conseivation of momentum. Foi
example, suppose that we have a closeu system that is capable of conveiting eneigy between
photons anu electionposition paiis. If this closeu system has a uiffeient amount of ineitia
when eneigy is in the foim of photons compaieu to when this same eneigy is in the foim of
paiticles, then this woulu be a violation of the conseivation of momentum.
The stanuaiu mouel of paiticle physics explains the ineitia of a funuamental paiticle as
iesulting fiom an inteiaction with the hypothetical Biggs fielu. This explanation says that a
muon inteiacts moie stiongly than an election, theiefoie a muon has moie ineitia. Bowevei,
the Biggs mechanism uoes not have a piecise iequiiement foi exactly how much ineitia a
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15
muon oi an election shoulu possess. Now we leain that the ineitia of an election with S11 Kev
of inteinal eneigy must exactly match the ineitia of S11 Kev of confineu photons. Similaily, a
muon with inteinal eneigy of 1u6 Nev must exactly match the ineitia of 1u6 Nev of confineu
photons. Natching the ineitia of a funuamental paiticle to the ineitia of an equal amount of
eneigy piopagating at the speeu of light but confineu to a specific volume auus an auuitional
constiaint to any paiticle mouel. The paiticle mouel pioposeu latei in this book peifectly
matches the iequiieu ineitia constiaint. The Biggs mechanism uoes not cuiiently satisfy this
iequiiement.
de Broglie Waves: The similaiity between confineu light anu paiticles uoes not enu with the
confineu light possessing iest mass, weight anu kinetic eneigy when theie is ielative motion.
Next we will examine the similaiity between the wave chaiacteiistics of confineu light anu the
ue Bioglie wave patteins of funuamental paiticles. Foi example, paiticles with mass m anu
velocity v that pass thiough a uouble slit piouuce an inteifeience pattein which can be
inteipieteu as having a ue Bioglie wavelength
u
given by the equation:
u
= hp wheie
u
= ue Bioglie wavelength; h = Plancks constant; p = momentum
u
= hm
o
v wheie =
1
1
2
c
2
m
o
= paiticles iest mass
u
= Eh wheie
u
= ue Bioglie fiequency E = total eneigy
The ue Bioglie waves have a phase velocity w
u
= c
2
v anu a gioup velocity u
u
= v. The phase
velocity w
u
is fastei than the speeu of light anu the gioup velocity, u
d
, equals the velocity of the
paiticle, v.
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Theie is a stiiking similaiity between the ue Bioglie wave chaiacteiistics of a moving paiticle
anu the wave chaiacteiistics of confineu light in a moving lasei. Figuie 11 shows a moving
lasei with miiiois A anu B ieflecting the light waves of a lasei beam. Figuie 11 is a composite
because the light wave uepicts electiic fielu stiength in the Y axis while the miiiois aie shown
in cioss section. If the lasei is stationaiy, the stanuing waves between the miiiois woulu have
maximum electiic fielu amplituue that is unifoim at any instant. Bowevei, the lasei in Figuie
11 is moving in the uiiection of the aiiow shown at velocity v. Fiom the peispective of a
stationaiy obseivei, light waves piopagating in the uiiection of velocity v aie Bopplei shifteu
up in fiequency, anu light waves moving in the opposite uiiection aie shifteu uown in
fiequency. When these electiic fielu amplituues aie auueu, this piouuces the mouulation
envelope on the Bopplei shifteu biuiiectional light in the lasei as peiceiveu by a stationaiy
obseivei. This mouulation envelope piopagates in the uiiection of the tianslation uiiection
but the mouulation envelope has a velocity (w
m
) which is fastei than the speeu of light
(w
m
= c
2
v) (calculateu in appenuix A). This is just an inteifeience pattein anu it can
piopagate fastei than the speeu of light without violating the special ielativity piohibition
against supeiluminal tiavel. No message can be sent fastei than the speeu of light on this
inteifeience pattein. The mouulation envelope has a wavelength z
m
wheie:
m
=
x
y
c
m
= mouulation envelope wavelength;
to the eneigy of a paiticle of equivalent mass m. This will assume the non
ielativistic appioximation. Appenuix A will auuiess the moie geneial ielativistic case.
E =
hc
x
y
= mc
2
equating photon eneigy to mass eneigy theiefoie m =
h
cx
y
d
=
h
mv
d
= ue Bioglie wavelength;
d
=
x
y
c
=
m
ue Bioglie wavelength
d
= mouulation envelope wavelength
m
The mouulation envelope not only has the coiiect wavelength, it also has the coiiect phase
velocity (w
u
= w
m
= c
2
v). The stanuing optical waves also have a gioup velocity of v.
Theiefoie these waves move with the velocity of the miiiois anu appeai to be stanuing ielative
to the miiiois.
de Broglie Waves in Radial Propagation: It is easy to see how the optical equivalent of ue
Bioglie waves can foim in the example above with piopagation along the axis of tianslation.
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18
Bowevei, it is not as obvious what woulu happen if we tianslateu the lasei in a uiiection not
aligneu with the lasei axis. We will take this to the limit anu examine what happens when the
waves piopagate iauially into a S6u plane that is paiallel to the tianslation uiiection. To
unueistanu what happens, we will fiist look at figuie 12 that shows the Bopplei shifteu wave
pattein piouuceu by waves piopagating away fiom a point souice in a moving fiame of
iefeience. The souice is moving fiom left to iight as inuicateu by the aiiow. Waves moving in
the uiiection of ielative motion (to the iight) aie seen as shifteu to a shoitei wavelength anu
waves moving opposite to the uiiection of tiavel aie shifteu to a longei wavelength. Figuie 1S
is similai to figuie 12 except that only waves piopagating towaius the souice aie shown.
Figuie 14 shows what happens when we auu togethei the outwaiu anu inwaiu piopagating
waves shown in figuies 12 anu 1S. Also a ciosssectioneu cylinuiical ieflectoi has been
auueu to figuie 14. This ieflectoi can be thought of as the ieason that theie aie waves
piopagating towaius the centei. The cential lobe of figuie 14 can be thought of as a line focus
that iuns uown the axis of the cylinuiical ieflectoi.
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19
The veitical uaik banus in figuie 14 coiiesponu to the null iegions in the mouulation
envelope. These null iegions can be seen in figuie 11 as the peiiouic iegions of minimum
amplituue. Theie is a 18u phase shift at the nulls. This can be seen by following a paiticulai
fiinge thiough the uaik null iegion. If the wave is iepiesenteu by a yellow coloi on one siue of
the null, this same wave is a blue coloi on the othei siue of the null. This coloi change
inuicates that a 18u phase shift occuis at the null. In figuie 11, the ieason that the
wavelength of the mouulation envelope
m
is uefineu as incluuing two lobes is because of this
phase ieveisal that happens at eveiy null. Theiefoie it takes two lobes to ietuin to the oiiginal
phase anu foim one complete wavelength.
The main puipose of this figuie is to illustiate that ue Bioglie waves with a plane wavefiont
appeai even in light that is piopagating iauially. This is a mouulation envelope that is the
equivalent of a plane wave moving in the same uiiection as the ielative motion, but moving at a
speeu fastei than the speeu of light. Figuie 14 iepiesents an instant in a iapiuly changing
wave pattein.
Theie has also been an aitistic license taken in this figuie to help illustiate the point. Noimally
we woulu expect the electiic fielu stiength to be veiy laige along the focal line at the centei of
the cylinuiical ieflectoi anu ueciease iauially. Bowevei, accuiately showing this iauial
amplituue vaiiation woulu hiue the wave pattein that is the puipose of this figuie. Theiefoie
the iauial amplituue uepenuence has been eliminateu to peimit the othei wave patteins to be
shown. Anothei aitistic license is the elimination of the uuoy effect at the line focus. The
cential lobe of a cylinuiical focus shoulu be enlaigeu by wavelength to accommouate the 9u
phase shift piouuceu when electiomagnetic iauiation passes thiough a line focus. 0ltimately
we will be tiansfeiiing the concepts illustiateu heie to a uiffeient mouel that uoes not iequiie
this slight enlaigement.
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110
Figuie 1S is a S uimensional iepiesentation of the wave pattein piesent in figuie 14. In figuie
1S the Z axis is useu to iepiesent the electiic fielu. The cylinuiical ieflectoi has been iemoveu
fiom the illustiation to peimit the waves to be seen. Also as befoie, the iauial amplituue
uepenuence has been eliminateu to peimit the subtle mouulation envelope to be seen. If figuie
1S was set in motion, the concentiic ciiculai wave pattein woulu move as a unit. Bowevei,
supeiimposeu on this is the moving envelope of waves that aie moving thiough this wave
stiuctuie (waves on waves). This moving envelope of waves is moving fastei than the speeu of
light in the same uiiection as oveiall motion (w
m
= c
2
v).
The suipiising pait of figuie 14 anu 1S is that we obtain a lineai mouulation envelope
imposeu on the iauial piopagating waves. It uoes not make any uiffeience what the
piopagation angle is, the equivalent of ue Bioglie waves aie piouuceu foi all angles. The only
iequiiement is that the wave has biuiiectional piopagation. If latei we aie successful in
establishing a mouel of funuamental paiticles that exhibits biuiiectional wave motion, that
mouel will also exhibit ue Bioglie waves.
Next we aie going to talk about ielativistic length contiaction. Foi illustiation, we will ietuin to
figuie 11. This figuie shows the wave fiozen in time anu uesignates the uistance that
appioximately coiiesponus to the lasei wavelength . Actually, this uistance only piecisely
equals the lasei wavelength when theie is no ielative motion. In the example illustiateu in
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com
111
figuie 11, theie is ielative motion. The wave illustiateu is the iesult of auuing togethei a wave
that has been Bopplei shifteu up in fiequency to a wave that has been Bopplei shifteu uown in
fiequency. The combination piouuces a peak to peak uistance that is equal to the ielativistic
contiaction of the lasei wavelength.
This is ieasonable when you consiuei that theie aie a fixeu numbei of stanuing waves between
the two miiiois. If the uistance between the two miiiois unueigoes a ielativistic contiaction,
the stanuing waves must also exhibit the same contiaction to ietain the fixeu numbei of
stanuing waves. Bowevei, it is possible to ieveise this ieasoning. Rathei than saying that the
stanuing waves must contiact to fit between the ielativistic contiacteu miiioi sepaiation, it is
possible to say that we might be getting a funuamental insight into the mechanics of how
natuie accomplishes ielativistic contiaction of physical objects. If all funuamental paiticles anu
foices of natuie can ultimately be ieuuceu to biuiiectional waves in spacetime, then these
biuiiectional waves, will automatically exhibit ielativistic contiaction anu the mechanism of
ielativistic contiaction of even the nucleus of an atom woulu be conceptually unueistanuable.
Similaily, the mechanism of ielativistic time uilation woulu also become conceptually
unueistanuable. If we weie to time the oscillation fiequency of inuiviuual waves in the lasei of
figuie 11, we woulu finu that the oscillation fiequency that iesults when we auu these two
Bopplei shifteu waves togethei slows exactly as we woulu expect foi the ielativistic time
uilation of a moving object. Again this is tiaceable to the constant speeu of light piouucing
uiffeient Bopplei shifts on the components of the biuiiectional light. The sum of these two
fiequencies exhibits a net slowing that coiiesponus to ielativistic time uilation.
Theiefoie the analysis in this chaptei anu appenuix A shows that a confineu photon in a
moving fiame of iefeience has the following 8 similaiities to a funuamental paiticle with the
same eneigy anu same fiame of iefeience:
1) The confineu photon has the same ineitia (iest mass): m =
c
c
2
2) The confineu photon has the same kinetic eneigy: k
e
= V mv
2
= V (
o
c
2
) v
2
S) The confineu photon has the same weight as the paiticle.
4) The confineu photon (biuiiectional piopagation) has the same momentum.
S) The confineu photons envelope wavelength
s
is the same as the paiticles ue Bioglie
wavelength:
s
=
u
6) The confineu photons mouulation envelope phase velocity is the same as the paiticles
ue Bioglie phase velocity: v
s
= w = c
2
:
7) The photons gioup velocity is the same as the paiticles gioup velocity: v
u
= u
8) The confineu photon has the same ielativistic length contiaction: z
dd
= z
o
y
It is haiu to avoiu the thought that peihaps a paiticle is actually a wave with components
exhibiting biuiiectional piopagation at the speeu of light but somehow confineu to a specific
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com
112
volume. This confinement piouuces stanuing waves that aie simultaneously moving both
towaius anu away fiom a cential iegion.
Bo we have any tiuly funuamental paiticles. If I uefineu a funuamental paiticle by the ancient
uieek stanuaiu of inuivisibility anu incoiiuptibility, then theie aie none. An election anu a
position can be tuineu into two photons (anu vice veisa). An isolateu neution (2 uown quaiks
anu 1 up quaik) will uecay into a pioton (2 up quaiks anu 1 uown quaik) plus an election anu
an antineutiino. In fact, all 12 funuamental feimions of the stanuaiu mouel can be conveiteu
into othei feimions anu into photons. The simplest explanation foi this easy conveision
between funuamental paiticles is that theie is a wave stiuctuie to these feimions. The tiuly
funuamental builuing block of all feimions is the unueilying wave in spacetime that allows
these easy tiansfoimations. It is on the level of this tiuly funuamental builuing block that
theie is a similaiity between confineu light anu paiticles. This thought piocess will be
continueu in chaptei 4.
Note:
Chapteis 2 anu S lay giounuwoik that piepaies the ieauei to unueistanu the pioposeu mouel.
Bevelopment of the spacetime baseu mouel of paiticles anu foices staits in eainest in chaptei
4.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appendix A  1
Appendix A
Examination of the Similarities
Between Conned Light and a Particle
Chris Ray
Conned Light
This appendix will investigate a photon conned in per
fectly reecting resonator. It will be shown that such a con
ned photon exhibits many particlelike properties including
rest mass, relativistic contraction and a moving wave pattern
that is similar to de Broglie waves.
We will begin by examining a standing wave in a res
onator as viewed from a frame of reference in which the res
onator is moving.
First View: Counter Propagating Waves
A 1D standing wave can be modeled as a superposition
of right and left moving plane waves.
= e
i(k0x0t)
+ e
i(k0x0t)
where k
0
=
0
/c.
In the frame of reference where the resonator is at rest
there are standing waves in the resonator set up by the
counter propagating waves.
= e
i(k0x0t)
+ e
i(k0x0t)
= (e
ik0x
+ e
ikox
)e
iot
= 2 cos(k
0
x)e
iot
In the frame of reference where the resonator is moving
to the right with velocity v, we have counter propagating
waves with dierent frequencies, because the waves have been
doppler shifted:
R
= (1+)
0
and
L
= (1)
0
, where
= v/c and = 1/
1
2
. The wave then is given by
= e
i(k
R
x
R
t)
+ e
i(k
L
x
L
t)
where k
L
=
L
/c and k
R
=
R
/c.
Dene
+
and
as follows
+
1
2
(
R
+
L
)
=
1
2
((1 + )
0
+ (1 )
0
)
=
0
1
2
(
R
L
)
=
1
2
((1 + )
0
(1 )
0
)
=
0
Now dene k
+
and k
in a similar way.
k
+
1
2
(k
R
+ k
L
) =
1
2c
(
R
L
) =
c
=
0
c
k
1
2
(k
R
k
L
) =
1
2c
(
R
+
L
) =
+
c
=
0
c
Note that
k
L
= k
+
k
k
R
= k
+
+ k
AND
L
=
+
R
=
+
+
e
i(k x t)
+ e
i(k x t)
e
i(k+x+t)
= 2 cos(k
t)e
i(k+x+t)
The imaginary part of this is graphed below (in red) for
= 0.085 at t = 0.
This is a product of two traveling waves. We can com
pute wavelengths and velocities of these two parts.
v
+
=
+
k
+
=
+
/c
=
c
=
c
2
v
v
+
/c
= c = v
+
=
2
k
+
=
2c
0
=
0
=
2
k
=
2c
0
=
0
where
0
=
2c
0
is the wavelength in the rest frame of the
resonator.
First let us consider the  part of the wave. First we
note that this part of the wave moves with the velocity of
the resonator. Second we see that the wavelength has shrunk
by a factor of relative to the wavelength in the rest frame.
Thus the same number of wavelengths will t in the similarly
lengthcontracted resonator. Thus the cos() standing wave
pattern has shrunk to t the moving resonator and moves
with the resonator.
Now consider the + part of the wave. This part of
the wave moves with a velocity c
2
/v. Which is the same as
the phase velocity of a de Broglie plane wave for a massive
particle:
d
= e
ipx/ h
e
iEt/ h
.
v
phase
=
E/h
p/h
=
E
p
=
mc
2
mv
=
c
2
v
We can also see that the wavelength for the de Broglie plane
wave:
d
=
2 h
p
=
2 h
Ev/c
2
=
2 hc
E
=
2 hc
E0
is also the same, if
we assume that there is a single photon in the resonator and
thus that the energy in the rest frame is E
0
= h
0
. Since
+
=
2
k
+
=
2c
0
=
2hc
E
0
Thus we see that the + part of the resonator wave has the
wavelength and phase velocity of a de Broglie plane wave of
Appendix A  1
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appendix A  2
a massive particle with a rest energy equal to the energy of
the photon in the resonator.
General From
In the rest frame of a general standing wave the ampli
tude of the wave is given by
(x
, y
, z
, t
) = f(x
, y
, z
)e
i0t
(x
, y
, z
, t
)
with x
and t
= y and z
= z.
ct
ct
x
(ct x)
(x ct)
So that
(x, y, z, t) =
(x
, y
, z
, t
)
=
( (xct), y, z, (ctx)/c )
= f((x ct), y, z)e
i0(ctx)/c
= f((x vt), y, z)e
i0x/c
e
i0t
= f((x vt), y, z)e
i(kxt)
In the last line we used the following denition.
0
k
0
/c
As was the case with the counter propagating plane waves,
the wave function in the general frame is manifestly in the
form of a plane wave (e
i(kxt)
), with wavelength and veloc
ity of a de Broglie wave, modulated with an standing wave
pattern (f) that moves in the positive x direction with ve
locity v. In addition the characteristic length of the standing
wave pattern has been length contracted in the x direction by
the factor compared with the length in the rest frame. For
examples suppose that there are two features in the standing
wave, one at the position x
= x
b
x
a
=
b a
=
L
k
=
0
0
/c
=
c
=
c
2
v
Energy and Momentum
We can also nd the energy and momentum in the new
frame, using the relativistic transformation of energy and
momentum.
E
pc
E
0
p
0
c
h
0
0
h
0
h
0
h
hkc
(explaineu below)
uS = cu = the invaiiant quantity foi an inteival of spacetime
R = ciicumfeiential iauius (ciicumfeience2) explaineu below]
= a soliu angle in a spheiical cooiuinate system (u
2
= u
2
+ sin
2
u
2
)
c = the speeu of light constant of natuie
t = cooiuinate time (time infinitely fai fiom the mass effectively zeio giavity)
= piopei time time inteival on a local clock in giavity
The invaiiant quantity uS is the piopei length of a one uimensional line segment. (uS = cu).
This is actually an abstiact concept that is uefineu by the equation but uoes not have a cleai
physical inteipietation.
Circumferential radius: uiavity waips the space aiounu mass, so that the space aiounu the
test mass has a non Eucliuian geometiy. The ciicumfeience of a ciicle aiounu the mass uoes
not equal 2 times the iauial uistance to the centei of mass. To accommouate this waipeu
space, the Schwaizschilu equation uses a special uefinition of uistance to specify the cooiuinate
uistance in the iauial uiiection. Names like Rcooiuinate anu ieuuceu ciicumfeience aie
sometimes useu to uesciibe this iauial cooiuinate that cannot be measuieu with a metei stick
oi a pulse of light. The name that will be useu heie is ciicumfeiential iauius anu uesignateu
with the symbol R. This is a uistance that is calculateu by measuiing the ciicumfeience of a
ciicle that suiiounus a mass, then uiviuing this ciicumfeience by 2. If we measuie the iauius
using a hypothetical metei stick oi tape measuie, then the piopei iauial uistance will be
uesignateu by i. We can see fiom the Schwaizschilu metiic that if we set ut = u, uS = cu = ui
anu u = u then:
ui = uR
Gravitational Gamma : The metiic has been wiitten in teims of the quantity which this
book will iefei to as the giavitational gamma . The basic uefinition of is:
= utu =
1
_1+[
2
c
2
=
1
_1[
2Gm
c
2
R
=
1
g
cc
wheie = giavitational gamma anu = umR giavitational potential
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com
23
= utu in the static case when uR = u anu u = u.
g
oo
is a metiic coefficient commonly useu in geneial ielativity
The symbol of uppei case gamma was chosen because this equation can also be wiitten as
follows:
=
1
_1_
v
c
2
c
2
]
wheie v
e
_
20m
R
= escape velocity
The similaiity between anu of special ielativity is obvious since: =
1
_1_
v
2
c
2
]
This analogy between the escape velocity in geneial ielativity anu the ielative velocity in
special ielativity extenus fuithei in the weak giavity appioximation. The time uilation uue to
giavity appioximately equals the time uilation uue to ielative motion when the ielative motion
is equal to the giavitational escape velocity (weak giavity).
The Schwaizschilu univeise with only one mass has effectively zeio giavity at any location
infinitely fai fiom the mass. At such a location = 1. The opposite extieme of the maximum
possible value of is the event hoiizon of a black hole wheie = . If the eaith was in an
empty univeise, then the suiface of the eaith woulu have a giavitational gamma of:
= 1 + 7 x 1u
1u
. It is impoitant to iemembei that is always laigei than 1 when giavity is
piesent.
A stationaiy clock infinitely fai away fiom the mass in Schwaizschilus univeise is uesignateu
the cooiuinate clock with a iate of time uesignateu ut. In the same stationaiy fiame of
iefeience, the local iate of time in giavity (neai the mass) is uesignateu u. The ielationship is:
= utu
Theie is a useful appioximation of that is valiu foi weak giavity.
= 1 +
um
c
2
R
weak giavity appioximation of
Gravitational Magnitude : The giavitational gamma has a iange of possible values that
extenus fiom 1 to infinity. Theie is anothei ielateu concept wheie the stiength of the
giavitational effect on spacetime ianges fiom u to 1 wheie u is a location in zeio giavity anu 1
is the event hoiizon of a black hole. This uimensionless numbei will be calleu the giavitational
magnituue anu is uefineu as:
1
d:
dt
= 1  _1
2um
c
2
R
= 1
1
= giavitational magnituue
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24
In weak giavity the following appioximation is accuiate:
=
um
c
2
= umR anu R
s
= umc
2
= classical Schwaizschilu iauius
=
dtd:
dt
the iate of time appioximation foi weak giavity
All of these appioximations will be consiueieu exact when uealing with the extiemely weak
giavity of single funuamental paiticles in subsequent chapteis.
Zero Gravity: Schwaizschilu assumeu an empty univeise with only a single mass. Such a
univeise appioaches zeio giavity as the uistance fiom the mass appioaches infinity. Bowevei,
is theie anywheie in oui obseivable univeise that can tiuly be uesignateu as a zeio giavity
location. Theie aie vast volumes with viitually no giavitational acceleiation compaieu to the
cosmic miciowave backgiounu. Bowevei, this is not the same as saying that these volumes
have a giavitational gamma of = 1 compaieu to a hypothetical empty univeise. Eveiywheie
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com
25
in the ieal univeise theie is giavitational influence fiom all the masseneigy in the obseivable
univeise. In the chapteis on cosmology, an attempt is maue to estimate the backgiounu (omni
uiiectional) giavitational gamma of oui obseivable univeise compaieu to a hypothetical empty
univeise. While the piesence of a unifoim backgiounu foi the univeise has implications foi
cosmology, we can only measuie uiffeiences in . Theie is ample eviuence that geneial
ielativity woiks well by simply ignoiing the unifoim backgiounu of the univeise. Effectively
we aie assigning = 1 to the backgiounu giavitational gamma of the univeise anu
piopoitionally scaling fiom this assumption.
Theiefoie, a uistant location which we uesignate as having = u oi = 1 will be iefeiieu to as
a zeio giavity location oi simply zeio giavity. The teim zeio giavity in common usage
usually implies the absence of giavitational acceleiation as might be expeiienceu in fiee fall.
Bowevei, in this book zeio giavity liteially means that we aie using the Schwaizschilu mouel
of a uistant location which has been assigneu cooiuinate values of = u anu = 1. The iate of
time at this cooiuinate location will be uesignateu ut anu calleu cooiuinate iate of time. A
clock at this location will be uesignateu as the cooiuinate clock.
Gravitational Effect on the Rate of Time: The equation ut = u is peihaps the most
impoitant anu easiest to inteipiet iesult of the Schwaizschilu equation. It says that the iate of
time uepenus on the giavitational gamma . This equation has been pioven coiiect by
numeious expeiiments. Touay the atomic clocks in uPS satellites aie ioutinely calibiateu to
account foi the uiffeient iate of time between the lowei gamma at the uPS satellite elevation
anu the highei gamma at the Eaiths suiface. Without accounting foi this giavitational
ielativistic effect, the uPS netwoik woulu accumulate eiiois anu cease to function accuiately
aftei about one uay. (Theie is also time uilation causeu by the ielative motion of the satellite.
This is a much smallei coiiection than the giavitational effect anu in the opposite uiiection.)
The uiffeience in the iate of time with iespect to iauial uistance in giavity will be calleu the
giavitational iate of time giauient. The giavitational iate of time giauient is not a tiual effect.
An acceleiating fiame of iefeience has no tiual effects, yet it exhibits a iate of time giauient.
0ui objective is to pioviue an equation that ielates the acceleiation of giavity g to the iate of
time giauient anu utilizes piopei length in the expiession of the iate of time giauient. Foi
example, insiue a closeu ioom it is possible to measuie the giavitational acceleiation. If we
cannot measuie any tiual effects, theie is no infoimation about the object piouucing the giavity
(mass anu uistance). Is it possible to ueteimine the local iate of time giauient (expiesseu using
piopei length anu piopei time) fiom just the giavitational acceleiation.
It has been shown
1
that a unifoim giavitational fielu with piopei acceleiation g (measuieu
locally), has the following ielationship between ieushift anu giavitational acceleiation:
1
Edward A. Desloge, The Gravitational Redshift in a Uniform Field Am. J . Phys. 58 (9), 856858 (1990)
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com
26
o
= 1 g1c
2
wheie:
o
= fiequency as measuieu at the souice location with iate of time u
o
= fiequency as measuieu at the uetectoi location with iate of time u
1 = veitical uistance (piopei length) between the souice anu uetectoi
g = acceleiation of giavity
Refeience 1] shows that this equation is exact if the following qualifications aie placeu on the
above uefinitions. These qualifications aie: 1) the souice location (subsciipt o) shoulu be at a
lowei elevation than the uetectoi location. 2) the sepaiation uistance 1 shoulu be the piopei
length as measuieu by a time of flight measuiement (iauai length) measuieu fiom the souice
location. A slightly uiffeient iauai length woulu be obtaineu if this uistance was measuieu
fiom the uetectoi elevation oi measuieu with a iulei. Bowevei, in the limit of a giauient
(infinitely small 1), this uisciepancy uisappeais. Theiefoie with these qualifications:
o
= 1 g1c
2
is exact. It shoulu be noteu that the height uiffeience 1 is a piopei uistance
(iauai length measuieu fiom the souice) anu not ciicumfeiential iauius.
As will be show in the next chaptei, the giavitational ieushift is ieally causeu by a uiffeience in
the iate of time at uiffeient elevations. Theie is no accumulation of wavelengths, so
o
= 1u
o
anu = 1u. Aftei making these substitutions, this equation becomes:
g = c
2
d:d:
c
d: d1
This is also an exact equation if the above qualifications aie obseiveu. Beie the iatio
(u u
o
)uu1 will be iefeiieu to as the giauient in the iate of time. Theie aie two points to
be noticeu. Fiist, the giauient in the iate if time is able to be ueteimineu fiom the acceleiation
of giavity with no knowleuge about the mass oi uistance of the bouy piouucing the giavity. Foi
example, a giavitational acceleiation of g = 1 ms
2
is piouuceu by a iate of time giauient of
1.11S x 1u
17
seconusseconu pei metei. The eaiths giavitational acceleiation of 9.8 ms
2
neai
the eaiths suiface is causeu by a iate of time giauient of about 1u
16
seconusseconu pei metei
of elevation uiffeience in the eaiths giavity. The most accuiate atomic clocks using a lasei
cooleu single atom of meicuiy oi aluminum cuiiently have an accuiacy of ioughly 1 pait in
1u
16
. An atomic clock with this accuiacy has a iesolution compaiable to one metei elevation
change in the eaiths giavity.
The seconu impoitant point is that the iate of time giauient is a function of piopei length in the
iauial uiiection. Even though utu is a function of ciicumfeiential iauius, the ielationship
between iate of time giauient anu giavitational acceleiation is not a function of ciicumfeiential
iauius. This fact will become impoitant in the next chaptei when we examine how natuie
keeps the laws of physics constant when theie is an elevation change. The connection between
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com
27
giavitational acceleiation anu iate of time giauient will also be an impoitant consiueiation
when we examine the cosmological mouel of the univeise (chapteis 1S & 14).
Pieviously, we uefineu the concept of giavitational magnituue as: = 1 uut. It is also
possible to ielate the acceleiation of giavity to the giauient in the giavitational magnituue.
g = c
2
[
d[
d1
Inertial Frame of Reference: The concept that giavity can be simulateu by an acceleiating
fiame of iefeience sometimes leaus to the eiioneous inteipietation that an ineitial fiame of
iefeience eliminates all effects of giavity. Being in fiee fall eliminates the acceleiation of
giavity, but the giavitational effect on the iate of time anu the spatial effects of the giavitational
fielu iemain. Anothei way of saying this is that the effects of the giavitational gamma on
spacetime aie still piesent, even if a mass is in an ineitial fiame of iefeience. A clock in fiee fall
still expeiiences the local giavitational time uilation.
A iigoious analysis fiom geneial ielativity confiims this point, but two examples will be given
to also illustiate the concept. Suppose that theie was a hollow cavity at the centei of the eaith.
A clock in this cavity woulu expeiience no giavitational acceleiation anu woulu be in an ineitial
fiame of iefeience. The giavitational magnituue in this cavity is about Su% laigei than the
giavitational magnituue on the suiface of the eaith (~1u.S x 1u
1u
compaieu to 7 x 1u
1u
). Foi
example, ignoiing aii fiiction, the escape velocity staiting fiom this cavity is highei than
staiting fiom the suiface of the eaith. The clock in the cavity has a slowei iate of time than a
clock on the suiface. The ineitial fiame of iefeience uoes not eliminate the othei giavitational
effects on the iate of time anu the giavitational effect on volume.
A seconu example is inteiesting anu illustiates a slightly uiffeient point. The Anuiomeua
galaxy is 2.S million light yeais (~2.4 x 1u
22
m) away fiom Eaith anu has an estimateu mass of
about 2.4 x 1u
42
kg (incluuing uaik mattei). The giavitational acceleiation exeiteu by this
galaxy at the uistance of the Eaith is only about 2.8 x 1u
1S
ms
2
. To put this minute
acceleiation in peispective, a 1u,uuu kg spaceciaft woulu acceleiate at about this iate fiom the
thiust of the light leaving a 1 watt flashlight. In spite of the minute giavitational acceleiation,
the uistant piesence of Anuiomeua slows uown the iate of time on the suiface of the eaith
about 1uu times moie than the Eaiths own giavity. This is possible because the giavitational
magnituue ( = umc
2
i foi weak giavity) uecieases at a iate of 1i while the giavitational
acceleiation uecieases with 1i
2
. At the eaiths suiface, Anuiomeuas giavitational magnituue
is about:
= umc
2
i = (uc
2
) (2.4 x 1u
42
kg2.4 x 1u
22
m) = 7 x 1u
8
Anuiomeuas at eaith
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com
28
Since the eaiths giavity piouuces = 7 x 1u
1u
at the suiface, Anuiomeuas effect on the iate of
time at the eaiths suiface is about 1uu times gieatei than the effect of the eaiths giavity. It
uoes not mattei whethei a clock is in fiee fall ielative to Anuiomeua oi whethei the clock is
stationaiy ielative to Anuiomeua anu expeiiences the minute giavitational acceleiation. In
both cases the giavitational effect on time anu volume exist. This example also hints that
masseneigy in othei paits of the univeise can have a substantial cumulative effect on oui local
iate of time anu oui local volume. This concept will be uevelopeu latei in the chapteis uealing
with cosmology.
Schwarzschild Coordinate System: The stanuaiu Schwaizschilu solution uses cooiuinates
that simplify giavitational calculations. The spheiical cooiuinate system uses ciicumfeiential
iauius R as cooiuinate length in the iauial uiiection anu uses ciicumfeiential iauius times an
angle foi the tangential uiiection. While theie is no uistinction in piopei length foi the iauial
anu tangential uiiections, we will tempoiaiily make a uistinction by uesignating piopei length
in the iauial uiiection as L
R
anu uesignating piopei length in the tangential uiiection as L
T
.
This uistinction uoes not exist in ieality since: cu = uL = uL
T
= uL
R
. Bowevei, using these
uesignations, the ielationship between piopei length anu Schwaizschilus cooiuinate length is:
uL
R
= uR iauial length L
R
conveision to Schwaizschilu iauial cooiuinate R
uL
T
= R u tangential length L
T
to Schwaizschilu tangential cooiuinate length
The equation uL
R
= uR is obtaineu by setting ut = u. If we aie using the piopei uistance
between two points as measuieu by a iulei, oi the calculateu ciicumfeiential iauius, then this
zeio time assumption is justifieu.
Next we will calculate the cooiuinate speeu of light C foi the iauial anu tangential uiiections by
staiting with the stanuaiu Schwaizschilu metiic:
uS
2
= (1
2
)c
2
ut
2
2
uR
2
R
2
u
2
foi light set uS
2
=u,
(1
2
) c
2
ut
2
=
2
uR
2
+ R
2
u
2
c
2
=
4
dR
2
dt
2
+
2
R
2
dU
2
dt
2
If we sepaiate this cooiuinate speeu of light into its iauial component (C
R
) anu its tangential
component (C
T
), we obtain:
C
R
=
uRut = c
2
C
R
= cooiuinate speeu of light in the iauial uiiection (u = u)
C
T
= Ruut = c C
T
= cooiuinate speeu of light in the tangential uiiection (uR = u)
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29
This appaient uiffeience in the cooiuinate speeu of light foi the iauial anu tangential uiiections
is not expiessing a physically measuiable uiffeience in the piopei speeu of light. The
uiffeience follows fiom the stanuaiu (nonisotiopic foim) of the Schwaizschilu metiic. If we
choose the isotiopic foim of the Schwaizschilu metiic the uiffeience will uisappeai anu
C
R
= C
T
= c
2
. Bowevei, the isotiopic foim has its own set of complexities, so we will be using
the stanuaiu Schwaizschilu metiic.
The Shapiro Experiment: Next, we aie going to switch to a uiscussion about the giavitational
effect on piopei length, piopei volume anu the cooiuinate speeu of light. In 1964, Iiwin
Shapiio pioposeu an expeiiment to measuie the ielativistic uistoition of spacetime causeu by
the Suns giavity. This nonNewtonian time uelay is obtaineu fiom the Schwaizschilu solution
to Einsteins fielu equation. The Sun is a goou appioximation of an isolateu mass auuiesseu by
the Schwaizschilu solution. The implication is that giavity affects spacetime so that it takes
moie time foi light to make the iounu tiip between two points in space when the mass
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com
210
(giavity) is piesent than when the mass (giavity) is absent. Shapiio anu his colleagues useu
iauai to tiack the planet venus foi about two yeais as venus anu the Eaith oibiteu the Sun.
Buiing this time, venus passeu behinu the Sun as seen fiom the Eaith (neaily supeiioi
conjunction). The oibits of venus anu the Eaith aie known accuiately, so it was possible to
measuie the auuitional time uelay in the iounu tiip time fiom the eaith to venus anu back. The
effect of the suns giavity on this iounu tiip time coulu be calculateu fiom multiple
measuiements maue ovei the two yeai time peiiou. Figuie 21 shows Shapiios giaph of the
excess time uelay ovei the two yeai peiiou. The peak uelay at supeiioi conjunction was 19u s
on a half houi iounu tiip tiansit time.
vaiiations of this expeiiment have been iepeateu numeious times in the noimal couise of the
space piogiam. Spaceciaft on theii way to the outei planets often stait with an oibital path
that at some point iesults in neaily supeiioi conjunction ielative to the Eaith. The most
accuiate measuiement to uate was with the Cassini spaceciaft. It was equippeu with
tiansponueis at two uiffeient iauai fiequencies, theiefoie it was possible to ueteimine anu
iemove the effect of the Suns coiona on the time uelay. The iesult was an agieement with the
time uelay pieuicteu by geneial ielativity accuiate to 1 pait in Su,uuu. With this type of
agieement, it woulu seem as if theie aie no iemaining mysteiies about this effect anu the
physical inteipietation shoulu be obvious.
Bow exactly uo length, time anu the speeu of light combine to piouuce the obseiveu time uelay
in the Shapiio effect. Foi simplicity, we woulu like to look at the time uelay associateu with a
iauai beam tiaveling only in the iauial uiiection. In the limit, we can imagine ieflecting a iauai
beam off the suiface of the Sun. This path woulu be puiely iauial. To make a measuiement we
neeu to have a iounu tiip, but foi simplicity of uiscussion, we will talk about the time uelay foi
a one way tiip. Foi light uS = u, so the metiic equation gives us that foi light moving in the
iauial uiiection:
[
1
cut = uR  ut = [
2
c
uR
We can compute the time t it takes to move between two uiffeient iauii: i
1
anu i
2
(wheie
i
2
>i
1
).
ct = ]c Jt = ] I
2
JR
2
1
ct = [
20m
c
2
ln [
1
+ [
2um
c
2
ln [
1
2
2
2
weak giavity: ln [
1
2
2
2
= u
t = [
2um
c
3
ln [
1
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211
Substituting the Suns mass, iauius anu uistance gives t = Su s. Theiefoie, in auuition to a
non ielativistic time uelay (about 8 minutes), the one way ielativistic time uelay woulu be
about an auuitional Su s. The 19u s uelay obseiveu by Shapiio is ioughly 4 times the one
way Su s uelay fiom the eaith to the sun because of the auuitional leg to venus anu then the
iounu tiip uoubling of the time.
Noimally, on Eaith we woulu inteipiet a Su s uelay in a iauai beam as inuicating an
auuitional uistance of about 1S km. Bow much uoes the suns giavity uistoit space anu
inciease the iauial uistance between the eaith anu the suns suiface compaieu to the uistance
that woulu exist if we hau Eucliuian flat space. The auuitional non Eucliuian path length will be
uesignateu (L). Staiting fiom: uL
R
= uR
L = ] I JR
2
1
L = [
um
c
2
ln [
1
set i
2
= 1.S x 1u
11
m, i
1
= 7 x 1u
8
m anu m = 2 x 1u
Su
kg
L = 7.S km nonEucliuian auuitional piopei uistance between the Eaith anu Sun
Suppose that it was possible to stietch a tape measuie fiom the eaith to the suiface of the sun.
The uistance measuieu by the tape measuie (piopei uistance) woulu be about 7.S km gieatei
than a uistance obtaineu fiom an assumption of flat space anu a Eucliuian geometiy calculation.
The use of a tape measuie means that we aie using piopei length as a stanuaiu.
Gravity Increases Volume: If we use piopei length as oui stanuaiu of length iathei than
ciicumfeiential iauius, then we must auopt the peispective that giavity incieases the volume of
the univeise. Bowevei, an inteipietation baseu on piopei volume is often ignoieu since the
cooiuinate volume iemains unchangeu in giavity (flat space) if we use ciicumfeiential iauius
as cooiuinate length.
In the Shapiio expeiiment, we calculateu that theie was a non Eucliuian inciease in uistance
between the eaith anu the sun of 7.S km. Suppose that we imagine a spheiical shell with a
iauius equal to the aveiage iauius of the eaiths oibit (a iauial uistance equal to one
astionomical unit A0 = 1.S x 1u
11
m). The suns mass is = 2 x 1u
Su
kg anu the suns
Schwaizschilu iauius is i
s
= 29Su meteis. What is the change in volume (v) insiue this
spheiical shell if we compaie the Eucliuian volume of the shell (v
o
) anu the non Eucliuian
volume of the shell (v) when the Sun is at the centei of the shell.
v =]JI = ]4nR
2
JR
Aftei integiation, the uiffeience v = v v
o
is appioximately:
v = (SS)i
s
(i
2
2
i
1
2
) set i
2
= 1.S x 1u
11
m, i
1
= 7 x 1u
8
m anu i
s
= 29Su meteis
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com
212
v = S.46 x 1u
26
m
S
non Eucliuian volume inciease
To put this non Eucliuian volume inciease in peispective, the suns giavity has incieaseu the
piopei volume within a iauius of 1 A0 by about S.S x 1u
26
m
S
which is moie than Suu,uuu times
laigei than the volume of the eaith (eaiths volume is = 1.u8 x 1u
21
m
S
). Stateu anothei way,
the volume inciease is about 2u% smallei than the volume obtaineu by multiplying the non
Eucliuian iauial length inciease (~ 7,Suu m) times the suiface aiea of the spheiical shell with a
iauius of 1 A0. 0bviously this non Eucliuian volume inciease woulu be much laigei if we hau
chosen a laigei shell iauius (foi example, the size of the obseivable univeise). The
implications of this will be exploieu in the chapteis on cosmology.
Concentric Shells Thought Experiment: The concept that giavity incieases the volume of the
univeise is impoitant enough that anothei example will be given. Suppose that theie aie two
concentiic spheiical shells aiounu an oiigin point in space. The insiue spheiical shell is
4.4 x 1u
9
m in ciicumfeience (about the ciicumfeience of the Sun). The outsiue shell is 2
meteis laigei ciicumfeience. With no mass at the oiigin anu infinitely thin shells, this means
that theie is exactly a 1 metei gap between the shells. We coulu confiim the 1 metei spacing
with a metei stick oi a pulse of light anu a clock.
Next we intiouuce the Sun's mass at the oiigin. This intiouuces giavity into the volume
between the two shells with an aveiage value of about = 1 + 2 x 1u
6
. The ciicumfeience of
each shell (piopei length) uoes not change aftei we intiouuce giavity. Bowevei, the uistance
between the two shells woulu now be about 1 + 2 x 1u
6
meteis. This is 2 micions laigei than
the zeio giavity uistance. This 2 micion inciease in sepaiation incieases the piopei volume
between the two shells by ioughly 1u
1S
m
S
.
In this example of two concentiic shells we accepteu the piopei length of the ciicumfeience of
the shells (tangential piopei length). The question is whethei theie was also a ueciease of this
tangential length (ielative to a flat cooiuinate system) when the suns mass was intiouuceu at
the oiigin. It is possible to consiuei both iauial anu tangential uiiections affecteu equally. This
iesults in giavity piouucing an even laigei inciease in piopei volume than pieviously
calculateu. This will be uiscusseu fuithei in the chapteis on cosmology.
Connection Between the Rate of Time and Volume: We aie going to compute the effect of
the giavitational gamma on piopei volume using the stanuaiu Schwaizschilu metiic. The use
of this metiic means that the stanuaiu Schwaizschilu conuitions apply: a static noniotating anu
unchaigeu spheiically symmetiic mass uistiibution in an empty univeise. This calculation
involves teiminology fiom geneial ielativity that is not explaineu heie. Reaueis unfamiliai
with geneial ielativity shoulu skip the shaueu calculation section below anu move on to the
conclusion.
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213
If we know metiic equations, we can compute the Suimensional volume anu the 4uimensional
volume (incluues time). The easiest way to uo it is to use the following uiagonal metiic:
uS
2
= g
uu
(ux
u
)
2
+ g
11
(ux
1
)
2
+ g
22
(ux
2
)
2
+ g
SS
(ux
S
)
2
Then the Suimensional volume uv(S) is:
uv(S) = (g
11
g
22
g
SS
)
12
ux
1
ux
2
ux
S
Anu foi 4uimensional volume uv(4)
uv(4) = ( g
uu
g
11
g
22
g
SS
)
12
ux
u
ux
1
ux
2
ux
S
In the paiticulai case of the stanuaiu Schwaizschilu metiic:
g
uu
= 1
2
; g
11
=
2
; g
22
= R
2
, g
SS
= R
2
sin
2
The uiffeientials of 4 uimensional cooiuinates in this case aie:
(ux
u
) = cut; (ux
1
) = uR; (ux
2
) = u; (ux
S
) = u So:
uv(S) = (
2
R
2
R
2
sin
2
)
12
uR u u
uv(S) = R
2
sin uR u u note that volume (S) scales with
v(4) = ( ( 1
2
)
2
R
2
R
2
sin
2
)
12
cut uR u u
uv(4) = R
2
csinutuRuu note that this is inuepenuent of
The above calculation shows that piopei volume (S spatial uimensions) scales with the
giavitational gamma . This suppoits the pievious examples involving the volume inciease
inteipietation of the Shapiio expeiiment anu also the volume inciease that occuis in the
thought expeiiment with two concentiic shells. When we incluue the time uimension anu
calculate the effect of the giavity geneiateu by a single mass on the suiiounuing spacetime, we
obtain the answei that the 4 uimensional spacetime volume is inuepenuent of giavitational
gamma . The iauial uimension incieases ( = uL
R
uR) anu the tempoial uimension uecieases
( = utu). These offset each othei iesulting in the 4 uimensional volume iemaining constant.
Theie is a simplei way of expiessing this concept. Since = [
dt
d:
= [
dL
R
dR
theiefoie:
uuL
R
= utuR
This concept will be uevelopeu fuithei when we uevelop paiticles out of 4 uimensional
spacetime anu it also has application to cosmology.
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The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com
31
Chaptei S
uiavitational Tiansfoimations of the 0nits of Physics
Covariance of the Laws of Physics: Fiom the event hoiizon of a black hole to the most
isolateu volume in the univeise, theie aie big uiffeiences in the iates of time thioughout the
univeise. Bow uo the laws of physics iemain the same when the iate of time is uiffeient
between locations. Why uoes a iate of time giauient also not affect the laws of physics. It is an
oveisimplification to imagine that changing the iate of time is similai to iunning a movie in
slow motion while keeping the laws of physics unchangeu.
We aie going to be looking at how natuie maintains the laws of physics when the iate of time
changes with giavitational gamma. This is not just an acauemic question. uiavity piouuces a
iate of time giauient anu a giauient in the cooiuinate speeu of light. Theiefoie, even in eaiths
giavity, the simple act of lifting an object to a uiffeient elevation means that the object is moveu
to a location wheie theie is a uiffeient iate of time anu a uiffeient cooiuinate speeu of light.
Acknowleuging that theie aie changes in the iate of time leaus to suipiising new physical
insights.
When the iate of time is uiffeient between two locations, but the laws of physics aie the same,
theie must also be othei changes in the units of physics to offset the uiffeience in the iate of
time. Foi example, momentum scales piopoitional to 1t, foice scales piopoitional to 1t
2
,
powei scales piopoitional to 1t
S
anu the fine stiuctuie constant is inuepenuent of time (1t
u
).
This is time iaiseu to foui uiffeient poweis, yet the laws of physics aie constant even with this
uiffeience in time uepenuence. What auuitional changes aie iequiieu to offset the change in
the iate of time anu pieseive the laws of physics unchangeu in uiffeient giavitational
potentials.
If theie is a cooiuinate iate of time in a zeio giavity location that is uiffeient fiom the iate of
time in a location with giavity, anu if the cooiuinate speeu of light is uiffeient in the two
locations, shoulunt theie also be a uiffeience in at least some of the othei units of physics. Foi
example, is one }oule of eneigy oi one Newton of foice also uiffeient in the zeio giavity location
compaieu to the giavity location. To make a meaningful compaiison of the units of physics
between locations with uiffeient giavitational potentials, it woulu be necessaiy to use a single
iate of time. This point is easy to see. The moie uifficult question is: Bow uo we tieat length in
this exeicise.
It is impossible to uiiectly compaie length between two locations with a uiffeient giavitational
potential. Also vectois aie ambiguous when compaieu between locations with uiffeient
giavitational potential. Foi example, the uiiection of a vectoi can be uiffeient uepenuing on
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com
32
the path chosen to tianspoit a vectoi between two locations with uiffeient giavitational
potentials. Theiefoie auopting the locally measuieu piopei length as a stanuaiu of length foi
that location eliminates ambiguity, but is it the length stanuaiu we aie seeking.
To be cleai, this exeicise is not inteiesteu in calculating the geneial ielativistic effects on space
anu time. We will obtain this infoimation fiom stanuaiu geneial ielativity calculations.
Theiefoie, we piesume that we alieauy know the giavitational gamma ( = utu) foi each
location of inteiest. Insteau we aie inteiesteu in unueistanuing how the laws of physics
accommouate the spatial anu tempoial uiffeiences associateu with these uiffeient values of .
The laws of physics always scale in a way that keeps the speeu of light constant (c = uLu).
Foi example, a zeio giavity obseivei might peiceive that that a location in giavity has a slow
iate of time. Bowevei, the zeio giavity obseivei also peiceives that this location in giavity also
has a piopoitionately slow cooiuinate speeu of light. A speeu of light expeiiment peifoimeu in
giavity always iesults in the univeisal constant c because a zeio giavity obseivei peiceives a
slow cooiuinate speeu of light being timeu by a slow clock. This iesults in not only a constant
piopei speeu of light (c) but also the zeio giavity obseivei can consiuei piopei length as
constant (inuepenuent of ). In othei woius, when the zeio giavity obseivei applies hishei
iate of time anu aujusts foi the uiffeient cooiuinate speeu of light, then the unit of length (L)
can be consiueieu constant.
All the foices scale with piopei length. This is tiue foi not only the electiomagnetic foice, but
even giavitational acceleiation scales with piopei length. In the last chaptei we showeu that
g = c
2
T1u. In this equation 1 is an inciement of piopei length in the elevation uiiection.
ueneial ielativity tells us that theie is a uiffeience between ciicumfeiential iauius R anu
piopei length L. Theie is also one peispective wheie the tangential piopei length uecieases
ielative to cooiuinate tangential length when giavity is intiouuceu into a volume of spacetime.
Bowevei, feimions, bosons anu foices know nothing about the geneial ielativistic effects
involving ciicumfeiential iauius oi cooiuinate tangential length. These paiticles anu foices all
scale with piopei length. If giavity piouuces non Eucliuian spatial geometiy, these paiticles
anu foices meiely accept the piopei volume at a paiticulai location anu scale with piopei
length. Theiefoie since funuamental paiticles anu foices scale with piopei length anu piopei
volume, foi this exeicise we neeu to auopt a cooiuinate system that iecognizes piopei length
as a stanuaiu.
Normalized Coordinate System: The conclusion of this is that the analysis we wish to peifoim
on the covaiiance of the laws of physics is best accomplisheu by auopting a cooiuinate system
that uses cooiuinate iate of time fiom geneial ielativity as the time stanuaiu anu piopei length
as oui length stanuaiu. This is an unconventional cooiuinate system that is a hybiiu between
the Schwaizschilu cooiuinate system (cooiuinate time anu ciicumfeiential iauius) anu the
stanuaiu cooiuinates that use piopei time anu piopei length. This cooiuinate system will be
useu to analyze the covaiiance of the laws of physics when two locations have uiffeient
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com
33
giavitational potentials anu uiffeient iates of time. In this analysis we always assume both a
constant uistance between locations anu static giavity. Fuithei suppoit foi the use of this
cooiuinate system will be offeieu by actually peifoiming this analysis using this hybiiu
cooiuinate system anu seeing if the iesults aie ieasonable.
The hybiiu cooiuinate system that uses piopei length anu cooiuinate iate of time will be calleu
the noimalizeu cooiuinate system. The speeu of light utilizing this cooiuinate system will be
calleu the noimalizeu speeu of light. We will also be iefeiiing to the noimalizeu unit of
eneigy, foice, etc. All of these units use piopei length anu zeio giavity iate of time. The
noimalizeu cooiuinates cannot be useu foi geneial ielativity calculations to ueteimine
spacetime cuivatuie. The equations become so simplifieu that impoitant infoimation is lost.
Insteau, the noimalizeu cooiuinate system accepts the value of obtaineu fiom geneial
ielativity anu utilizes this infoimation to analyze othei aspects of physics. By auopting piopei
length as oui cooiuinate length anu zeio giavity iate of time we achieve a cooiuinate system
that woiks well with quantum mechanics anu gives insights into the foices of natuie.
Length and Time Transformations: The following analysis will use uimensional analysis anu
theiefoie we will be using the symbols of uimensional analysis. These aie: N, L, T, Q, anu to
iepiesent mass, length, time, chaige anu tempeiatuie iespectively. Foi example, the units of
eneigy aie: kg m
2
s
2
. The conveision to uimensional analysis teiminology is:
kg m
2
s
2
 NL
2
T
2
.
Also, the calculations to follow will be making tiansfoimations between the vaiious units of
physics when changes. Foi example, to unueistanu how the laws of physics aie maintaineu
going fiom a hypothetical location in zeio giavity ( = 1) to a location with stiong giavity
( > 1), we will be woiking with uisciete units such as a }oule oi a Newton. This means that
the tiansfoimation of oui cooiuinates also iequiies the use of uisciete units of length anu time
iathei than the uiffeiential foim.
Foi example, ut = u ielates the iate of cooiuinate time (ut) to the iate of piopei time in
giavity (u). In this case ut > u. Bowevei, suppose we compaie a unit of time, such as one
seconu in a location with zeio giavity to one seconu in a location with giavity. If each location
sent out a light pulse lasting 1 seconu (accoiuing to a local clock), then any obseivei
(inuepenuent of ) woulu agiee that the light pulse fiom the location in giavity lasteu longei
than the light pulse fiom the zeio giavity location. This will be iepiesenteu as T
g
> T
o
. The
subsciipt g iepiesents a location in giavity anu o iepiesents a location with zeio giavity.
Theiefoie, T
g
> T
o
iepiesents that a unit of time in giavity is laigei (longei) than a unit of time
in zeio giavity. When we conveit ut = u to expiess a ielationship between units of time it
becomes:
T
o
= T
g
unit of time tiansfoimation fiom zeio giavity to giavity
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34
Theie is no new physics being expiesseu heie. The uiffeience is compaiable to compaiing a
iate of pulses expiesseu as pulse pei seconu compaieu to the time between pulses expiesseu
as seconus pei pulse.
Since piopei length is auopteu as oui stanuaiu of length, this means that we aie not making a
uistinction between piopei length in any location oi oiientation. The way that this is
expiesseu is:
L
o
= L
g
unit of length tiansfoimation fiom zeio giavity to giavity
Normalized Speed of Light: When the noimalizeu cooiuinate system uses piopei length anu
the zeio giavity iate of time, then the noimalizeu speeu of light (uesignateu with a capital C)
becomes: C = uLut. In othei woius, the noimalizeu speeu of light in the noimalizeu
cooiuinate system is the change in piopei length uiviueu by the iate of cooiuinate time ut.
C uLut = cuut = c C = noimalizeu speeu of light
C
o
= c C
o
= noimalizeu speeu of light in zeio giavity (when = 1)
C
g
= c C
g
= noimalizeu speeu of light in a location with giavity (when > 1)
C
o
= C
g
ielationship between C
o
anu C
g
If theie aie two locations (1 anu 2) that have giavitational gammas
1
anu
2
iespectively, then
they will have noimalizeu speeu of light of C
1
anu C
2
. The ielation between these two uiffeient
noimalizeu speeus of light is:
1
C
1
=
2
C
2
= c.
In the equation C
o
= C
g
we have eliminateu the neeu foi
1
because in zeio giavity = 1 anu
the neeu to mention
1
uisappeais. It is infoimative to give an example of C
o
= C
g
. The
giavitational gamma at the suiface of the sun is: = 1.uuuuu2. If we set the noimalizeu
speeu of light in zeio giavity to C
o
= 1, then the suiface of the sun has C
g
= u.999998. Since
piopei length is cooiuinate length in the noimalizeu cooiuinate system, the nonEucliuian
piopeities of space aie inteipieteu as giavity cieating auuitional piopei volume in the space
suiiounuing a mass. Theiefoie the non Eucliuian volume suiiounuing the sun is meiely
accepteu by the noimalizeu cooiuinate system. If a beam of light passes thiough this non
Eucliuian volume of space, then the uiffeience in optical path length acioss the wiuth of the
beam is taken into account. This uiffeience in path length contiibutes to benuing of the light.
Comparison of Coordinate Speed of Light: We pieviously uesignateu the cooiuinate speeu
of light using Schwaizschilu cooiuinates as C
R
anu C
T
. The compaiison of the noimalizeu speeu
of light in giavity C
g
to the Schwaizschilu cooiuinate speeu of light is:
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com
35
Length Cooiuinate Speeu of Light Cooiuinates
Tiansfoimation Speeu of Light Conveision
L
o
= L
g
C
g
= uLut c = C
g
Noimalizeu speeu of light conveision
uR = uL
R
C
R
= uRut c =
2
C
R
Schwaizschilu cooiuinates (iauial)
Ru = uL
T
C
T
= Ruut c = C
T
Schwaizschilu cooiuinates (tangential)
The noimalizeu speeu of light is similai to the piopei speeu of light c in the sense that both aie
inuepenuent of oiientation (iauial oi tangential). The only uiffeience is that the noimalizeu
speeu of light uses cooiuinate time which is an absolute stanuaiu foi the iate of time anu also is
a fastei iate of time compaieu to the piopei iate of time in giavity (stationaiy fiame of
iefeience).
Internally Self Consistent: Anothei impoitant similaiity between the noimalizeu speeu of
light anu piopei speeu of light is:
uL = Cut = c u
The above ielationship inuicates that the noimalizeu cooiuinate system is inteinal self
consistency. By uefinition, the following is always tiue: cu = uL (any oiientation oi
giavitational ). So also the following is always tiue: Cut = uL (any oiientation oi giavitational
).
In giavity, the noimalizeu speeu of light is slow (C
g
= c). Bowevei, a unit of time in giavity
T
g
is longei than the same unit of time in zeio giavity (T
g
= T
o
). The combination of these
two factois offset each othei, theieby piouucing a constant length: C
g
T
g
= (c) ( T
o
) = L
o
.
The combination of these two factois achieves the same length in any oi oiientation.
Theiefoie it is possible to say that L
o
= L
g
anu have a cooiuinate system that is inteinally
consistent.
Energy Transformation: We know the tiansfoimation of units of length (L
o
= L
g
) anu time
(T
o
= T
g
), but we neeu to ueteimine the tiansfoimation foi units of mass befoie all othei
tiansfoimations can be easily calculateu. It is not obvious what tiansfoimation mass woulu be
if we useu a stanuaiu unit of mass in zeio giavity (N
o
) to quantify the same piopei unit of mass
in giavity (N
g
). Nass is not synonymous with mattei. Nass is a quantification of ineitia which
implies foice anu acceleiation. Both of these involve time, so it shoulu be expecteu that mass
may have some uepenuence on the iate of time. Since we cannot uiiectly ieason to the mass
tiansfoimation, it is necessaiy to ueteimine some othei tiansfoimation between zeio giavity
anu giavity that can be ueteimineu by physical ieasoning. Then we will use that
tiansfoimation to ueuuce the mass tiansfoimation inuiiectly. Foitunately, theie aie two
auuitional tiansfoimations (eneigy anu momentum) that can be ueteimineu by physical
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com
36
ieasoning. The mass tiansfoimation can be ueteimineu fiom eithei of these. We will use the
following pioposeu eneigy tiansfoimation:
E
o
= E
g
pioposeu eneigy tiansfoimation equation
Befoie pioceeuing, I just wanteu to ieview the meaning of E
o
= E
g
. The teim E
o
iepiesents a
unit of eneigy (such as 1 }oule oi 1 ev) in a location with zeio giavity ( = 1). Similaily, E
g
iepiesents the same unit of eneigy in a location with giavity ( > 1). Fuitheimoie, we assume
that both souices of eneigy can be consiueieu essentially stationaiy ielative to each othei.
Theiefoie since gamma is gieatei than one ( > 1) the equation E
o
= E
g
says that 1 }oule in
zeio giavity iepiesents moie eneigy than 1 }oule in a location with giavity ( > 1). The iatio of
these two eneigies is E
o
E
g
= .
To make this compaiison, both E
o
anu E
g
must be measuieu using the same stanuaiu of eneigy
which implies using the same iate of time foi both measuiements. Peihaps it is convenient to
imagine using the zeio giavity (cooiuinate) iate of time foi both eneigy measuiements, but the
only iequiiement is that the same iate of time be useu. Foi anothei example, an election
(S11,uuu ev) in giavity has less eneigy than an election in zeio giavity when the eneigies aie
compaieu using the same iate of time. The piopoitionality constant is the giavitational gamma:
I =
1
__1 
2Gm
c
2
R
]
=
dt
d:
This concept is best explaineu with a thought expeiiment. Suppose that theie is a planet that is
in a highly elliptical oibit aiounu a stai. The planets kinetic eneigy changes fiom a minimum
kinetic eneigy at the oibital apogee to a maximum kinetic eneigy at the peiigee. Boes this
change in kinetic eneigy piouuce any change in the giavity piouuceu by the combination of the
planet anu stai as the planet oibits the stai. (Assume a piobe mass locateu fai fiom the
staiplanet). We know fiom geneial ielativity that the total giavity piouuceu by a closeu
system iemains constant when theie is no tiansfei of eneigy into oi out of the closeu system.
The planets total eneigy iemains constant in fiee flight. The moie geneial piinciple is that a
bouy in fiee fall maintains a constant eneigy as it falls. This can be expiesseu as: E
o
= E
g
+ E
k
wheie:
E
o
is the inteinal eneigy of a mass m in zeio giavity (E
o
= m
o
c
2
) measuieu using the zeio
giavity stanuaiu of eneigy.
E
g
is the inteinal eneigy of a mass in giavity but measuieu using the zeio giavity stanuaiu of
eneigy (measuieu using the cooiuinate clock).
E
k
is the kinetic eneigy of mass m in fiee fall fiom infinity to uistance i in the giavity of laigei
mass N. Also E
k
is measuieu using the zeio giavity stanuaiu of eneigy.
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com
37
Theiefoie: E
k
= um
o
Ni = E
o
(uNc
2
i). In the following calculation we will use the
appioximation: E
o
(uNc
2
i) = E
g
(uNc
2
i). This appioximation is acceptable in weak giavity
anu in the context that it is useu below.
We will ueiive E
o
= E
g
fiom E
o
= E
g
+ E
k
using weak giavity appioximations foi simplicity.
E
o
= E
g
+ E
k
E
k
= E
g
(uNc
2
i) appioximation fiom above
E
o
= E
g
(1 + uNc
2
i) set: = 1 + uNc
2
i
E
o
= E
g
this appioximation is exact in a iigoious analysis
The giavitational ieublue shift can cause some confusion in the uiscussion of stanuaius of
eneigy anu will be uiscusseu latei. Also, this equation can easily be misinteipieteu if piopei
units of eneigy aie useu to measuie E
g
iathei than always using noimalizeu units of eneigy.
Mass Transformation from Energy: Next we will solve foi the mass tiansfoimation using
E
o
= E
g
; L
o
= L
g
anu
T
o
= T
g
. Eneigy has units of kg m
2
s
2
which in uimensional analysis
teims will be expiesseu as: E  N L
2
T
2
E
o
= E
g
set: E
o

M
c
L
c
2
1
c
2
anu E
g

M
g
L
g
2
1
g
2
M
c
L
c
2
1
c
2
= _
M
g
L
g
2
1
g
2
] set: L
g
= L
o
anu
T
g
= T
o
M
c
L
c
2
1
c
2
= [
M
g
L
c
2
2
1
c
2
N
o
= N
g
units of mass tiansfoimation obtaineu fiom the eneigy tiansfoimation
Again, both N
o
anu N
g
iepiesent the same units of stationaiy mass such as 1 kilogiam.
Fuitheimoie, both units of mass aie measuieu using a single iate of time. As suspecteu
pieviously, the connection between mass anu ineitia means that the noimalizeu unit of mass
has a uepenuence on the iate of time ( uepenuence).
The tiansfoimation N
o
= N
g
looks stiange because it says that the noimalizeu mass unit
incieases as giavity incieases (as incieases). This will be analyzeu latei, but it ielates to the
ineitia measuieu by a zeio giavity obseivei. Foi now we will use this mass tiansfoimation
along with the length anu time tiansfoimations to geneiate all of the othei tiansfoimations
natuie iequiies to maintain the laws of physics when the iate of time changes because of a
change in giavitational potential. To summaiize, heie aie the key tiansfoimations:
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com
38
L
o
= L
g
unit of length tiansfoimation
T
o
= T
g
unit of time tiansfoimation
N
o
= N
g
unit of mass tiansfoimation
This same mass tiansfoimation can be obtaineu fiom the conseivation of momentum
tiansfoimation: p
o
= p
g
. Bowevei, iathei than going thiough this ueiivation, it will meiely be
shown that the thiee tiansfoimations (which incluues the mass tiansfoimation), gives p
o
= p
g
.
Momentum p : p
o

H
o
I
o
I
o
=
_
H
g
]I
g
I
g
I
 p
g
Appenuix B at the enu of this chaptei shows the uetails of ueiivation of the vaiious
tiansfoimations. Essentially this is just uimensional analysis wheie the uimensions of mass,
length anu time aie tiansfoimeu fiom zeio giavity to giavity. The following tiansfoimation of
foice is typical of the othei tiansfoimations.
Force F: F
o

M
c
L
c
1
c
2
=
[
M
g
L
g
T
g
2
I
2
 F
g
F
o
= F
g
foice tiansfoimation
The table on the following page gives all of the impoitant tiansfoimations.
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com
39
uiavitational Tiansfoimation of 0nits anu Constants: The following aie tiansfoimations of
units of physics fiom zeio giavity = 1 to a location in giavity > 1. The ielationships aie
expiesseu assuming a single iate of time anu piopei length. The giavitational gamma is
uefineu as:
dt
d:
=
1
_1[
20m
c
2
R
= 1 + umc
2
R. The symbols of uimensional analysis L, T, N, Q
anu aie useu to iepiesent length, time, mass, chaige anu tempeiatuie iespectively.
Noimalizeu Tiansfoimations
L
o
= L
g
unit of length tiansfoimation
T
o
= T
g
unit of time tiansfoimation
N
o
= N
g
unit of mass tiansfoimation
Q
o
= Q
g
unit of chaige expiesseu in coulombs not stat coulombs
o
=
g
unit of tempeiatuie tiansfoimation
C
o
= C
g
noimalizeu speeu of light tiansfoimation
uL = uR piopei length anu ciicumfeiential iauius tiansfoimation
E
o
= E
g
eneigy
v
o
= v
g
velocity
F
o
= F
g
foice
P
o
=
2
P
g
powei
u
o
=
S
u
g
giavitational constant
0
o
= 0
g
eneigy uensity
"
o
= "
g
piessuie
o
=
g
fiequency
o
=
g
uensity
k
o
= k
g
Boltzmanns constant
o
=
2
g
StefanBoltzmann Constant
o
=
g
electiical cuiient
v
o
= v
g
voltage
oo
=
og
peimittivity of vacuum
oo
=
og
peimeability of vacuum
0nits anu Constants That Bo Not Change in uiavity
p
o
= p
g
momentum is conseiveu
L
o
= L
g
angulai momentum is conseiveu
o
=
g
Plancks constant (angulai momentum is conseiveu)
o
=
g
fine stiuctuie constant (uimensionless constant is conseiveu)
o
=
g
electiical iesistance
B
o
= B
g
magnetic flux uensity
Z
oo
= Z
og
impeuance of fiee space
Z
so
= Z
sg
impeuance of spacetime
Funuamental Equations
E
o
= E
g
+ E
k
ielationship of inteinal eneigy anu giavitational kinetic eneigy E
k
E
o
= E
g
E
po
ielationship of inteinal eneigy anu giavitational potential eneigy E
po
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com
310
Conversion to Normalized Perspective: When we calculate eneigy, velocity, foice, mass,
powei, voltage, etc. using piopei time, because of the covaiiance of the laws of physics, we
obtain an answei that numeiically equals the value in zeio giavity. Theiefoie, to conveit this
piopei value into noimalizeu values, we meiely substitute the piopei value into the above
tiansfoimations by ieplacing the zeio giavity teim (E
o
, v
o
, F
o
, etc.) anu solve foi the noimalizeu
value (E
g
, v
g
, F
g
, etc.). Foi example, an election has eneigy of 8.187 x 1u
14
}oules. In the
noimalizeu peispective, this is ieally the eneigy of an election in zeio giavity. Bowevei, the
covaiiance of the laws of physics allows us to use this eneigy in locations with > 1. To
conveit to noimalizeu eneigy, we meiely substitute the zeio giavity eneigy (8.187 x 1u
14
}oules) foi E
o
in the equation E
g
= E
o
anu solve foi E
g
. Since > 1 foi a location in giavity,
this means that E
g
< E
o
. Foi example, at the suiface of the sun = 1 + 2 x 1u
6
. Theiefoie an
election at the suiface of the sun has only u.999998 the eneigy of an election in zeio giavity.
Insights fiom Tiansfoimations
Energy Transformation: We noimally closely associate mass anu eneigy. Bowevei, the
noimalizeu tiansfoimations tieat mass anu eneigy uiffeiently. When an object is moveu to a
location with a laigei giavitational gamma (anu slowei iate of time), the noimalizeu eneigy of
the object uecieases anu the noimalizeu mass (ineitia) of the object incieases. The mass
tiansfoimation is uiscusseu below, but when we tiansfoim E = mc
2
into the noimalizeu time
peispective, the giavitational effect on the noimalizeu speeu of light is squaieu anu the
giavitational effect on mass is iaiseu only to the fiist powei. The iesult is: E
o
= E
g
. This
equation applies only to stationaiy objects because this was an assumption useu in the
ueiivation. The teim stationaiy means no change as a function of time in the optical path
length between two objects oi points.
The equation E
o
= E
g
says that a unit of eneigy in zeio giavity is laigei than the same unit of
eneigy in a location with giavity. This applies to all foims of eneigy such as: the annihilation
eneigy of mass, the eneigy stoieu in capacitois, the eneigy of chemical ieactions, theimal
eneigy, oi the eneigy of atomic tiansitions. In all cases the noimalizeu eneigy of stationaiy
objects in giavity is uiminisheu by the giavitational gamma factoi. The loss of eneigy when an
object moves to stiongei giavity is easy to see. A meteoi stiiking the eaith geneiates heat.
This heat is the lost inteinal eneigy of the meteoi. The atoms of the meteoi that iemain in the
eaiths giavity have less inteinal eneigy than they hau in space (once the heat is iemoveu).
If we elevate a one kilogiam mass by 1 metei in eaiths giavity, we say that we have given the
mass potential eneigy of 9.8 }oules. Wheie is this eneigy stoieu. I want to see anu unueistanu
this mysteiious giavitational potential eneigy. If we ignoie the change in time ovei the one
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com
311
metei elevation, then the souice of giavitational potential eneigy is a mysteiy. Bowevei, if we
acknowleuge that the iate of time is uiffeient when we change elevation, then we aiiive at the
conclusion that the eneigy expiesseu in noimalizeu units of eneigy is also uiffeient at the two
elevations. This insight allows us to obtain a paitial insight into the stoiage of giavitational
potential eneigy. The pioposeu paiticle mouel piesenteu latei will give a moie complete
explanation. Below, we will use the tiansfoimation E
o
= E
g
anu compaie E
g
at two uiffeient
elevations (1 anu 2 wheie elevation 2 is highei than 1). We will use weak giavity
appioximations anu the following symbols:
Noimalizeu eneigy in giavity at elevation 1 anu 2: E
g1
anu E
g2
,
Laige mass (planet) anu small test mass N anu m
Rauius fiom the centei of the laige mass to elevation 1 anu 2: i
1
anu i
2
uiavitational gamma anu beta foi elevation 1 anu 2:
1
,
2
,
1
, anu
2
E
g2
=
E
o
I
2
anu E
g1
=
E
o
I
1
noimalizeu eneigy tiansfoimations
E
g2
E
g1
=
E
o
I
2
E
o
I
1
= E
o
[
1
I
2
1
= E
o
(
1
2
) set:
1
I
= 1
E
g2
E
g1
= j[
0H
c
2
1
[
uM
c
2
2
[mc
2
= [
1
2
(uNm)
since r
2
r
1
<< r
1
substitute: [
1
2
=
2
1
1
2
E
g2
E
g1
= (i
2
i
1
)[
uM
1
2
m set i
2
i
1
= 1 anu acceleiation
uM
1
2
= g
E
g2
E
g1
= gm 1 giavitational potential eneigy
Theiefoie, the change in the noimalizeu eneigy between level 1 anu 2 (E
g2
E
g1
) equals the
giavitational potential eneigy foi mass m in giavitational acceleiation g foi a height change of
1 = i
2
i
1
. It is inteiesting to uo a numeiical example using a one kilogiam mass being
elevateu by one metei in the eaiths giavity.
N = S.976 x 1u
24
kg mass of the eaith
i
1
= 6.S78 x 1u
6
m iauius of the eaith
1
= 1 + uNc
2
i
1
= 1 + 6.977 x 1u
1u
giavitational gamma of the eaith at sea level
2
=
1
+ (
1
1)(i
2
i
1
) i
1
] = 1 + 6.977 x 1u
1u
+ 1.u91 x 1u
16
2
1
= 1.u91 x 1u
16
uiffeience in when 1 = i
2
i
1
= 1 metei
E
2
E
1
= (
2
1
) E
1
= 1.u91 x 1u
16
x mc
2
mc
2
= 8.99 x 1u
16
} foi 1 kg mass
E
2
E
1
= 9.8 } uiffeience in noimalizeu eneigy of a 1 kg mass elevateu 1 m
Theiefoie, when we use noimalizeu units (cooiuinate time anu piopei length), we finu that the
inteinal eneigy of a mass changes with elevation by exactly the amount of giavitational
potential eneigy. Foi example, a one kilogiam mass has 9.8 }oules moie eneigy when it is at an
elevation 1 metei above sea level than it has when it is at an elevation of sea level when eneigy
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com
312
is expiesseu in noimalizeu units of eneigy. Theie is also a change in the noimalizeu speeu of
light anu in the noimalizeu mass. The combination of these factois iesults in a change in the
noimalizeu eneigy of a mass that is elevateu oi loweieu in a giavitational fielu. The
ielationship between inteinal eneigy in zeio giavity E
o
, the noimalizeu inteinal eneigy in
giavity E
g
anu giavitational potential eneigy E
is:
E
o
= E
g
E
The minus sign in fiont of E
is the iesult of consiueiing potential eneigy to be a negative
numbei. This equation leaus to the equation E
o
= E
g
+ E
k
uiscusseu above. A bouy in fiee fall
uoes not change its noimalizeu eneigy. Pieviously, a stai anu planet in an elliptical oibit weie
useu in an example. Sensing the giavity of the staiplanet combination by the use of a uistant
piobe mass is equivalent to sensing the zeio giavity eneigy of the staiplanet combination.
Mass Transformation: The noimalizeu mass tiansfoimation N
o
= N
g
looks countei
intuitive because it inuicates that noimalizeu mass incieases when giavitational gamma
incieases. Theie is no auuitional mattei being cieateu, theie is just a change in the peiceiveu
ineitia when we conveit to a single iate of time anu quantify units of ineitia in locations with
uiffeient values of . The ineitia (mass) exhibiteu by a bouy is uefineu by the foice geneiateu
when a bouy is acceleiateu. Both foice anu acceleiation incoipoiate units of time theiefoie
mass (ineitia) also exhibits a uepenuence on the iate of time. A combination of factois iesults
in a unit of mass (ineitia) in giavity being laigei than the same unit of mass (ineitia) in zeio
giavity
Even though noimalizeu mass incieases in giavity, noimalizeu eneigy uecieases as explaineu
above. Since it is easiei to conceptually unueistanu eneigy uecieasing in giavity, peihaps it is
easiei to imagine eneigy being moie funuamental than mass (ineitia). It is only a histoiical
acciuent that we use mass as one of the S uimensional units of physics. In paiticle physics,
eneigy is consiueieu moie funuamental than mass anu units of ev oi Nev aie common. If
eneigy ieplaceu mass as one of the S uimensional units, then the eneigy tiansfoimation woulu
be the single factoi that offsets the giavitational effect on time.
The weak equivalence piinciple says that theie is no uiffeience between giavitational mass anu
ineitial mass. This is tiue because they both scale piopoitionately to the giavitational gamma
when a constant iate of time is useu. Neiely elevating a mass in the eaiths giavitational fielu
changes both the noimalizeu giavitational mass anu the noimalizeu ineitial mass. The
giavitational fielu piouuceu by the one kilogiam mass scales with total eneigy, so elevating this
mass incieases the eneigy of the elevateu mass. This eneigy inciease exactly offsets the
ueciease in eneigy of whatevei means was useu to elevate the mass. The total noimalizeu
eneigy anu total giavitational fielu of the eaith is unchangeu.
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313
Gravitational Redshift: The giavitational ieublue shift is often misinteipieteu
1
. Above it was
shown that the inteinal eneigy of an atom changes with elevation by exactly the uiffeience in
the giavitational potential eneigy. Not only is theie a change in the inteinal eneigy of an atom
when it changes elevation, theie is also a piopoitional change in the eneigy of the atoms
eneigy levels when theie is a change in elevation. Theiefoie, fiom the peispective of someone
in zeio giavity (noimalizeu time), a paiticulai atomic tiansition in giavity is less eneigetic anu
this tiansition emits a compaiatively low eneigy anu low fiequency photon. This low eneigy is
not uetectable locally because all eneigy compaiisons (such as 1 ev) have been similaily
shifteu to a lowei eneigy by the giavitational effect on time anu mass.
Now we will auuiess the giavitational ieushift. The foimula foi the ieublue shift is:
o
=
g
wheie:
g
= wavelength in giavity anu
o
= wavelength in zeio giavity
Suppose a photon in giavity staits at a lowei elevation (level 1) anu enus at a highei elevation
(level 2). If the photons eneigy is measuieu at level 1 anu 2 with local instiuments, then a loss
of eneigy is obseiveu at level 2. This ieushift appeais to be a ueciease in fiequency, a ueciease
in eneigy anu an inciease in wavelength. If it was possible to measuie wavelength, fiequency
anu eneigy fiom a single elevation (single iate of time), then it woulu appeai as if theie was no
change in eneigy, no change in fiequency, but the same inciease in wavelength that was
obseiveu with a local measuiement. The eneigy anu fiequency uisagieement occuis because
uiffeient iate of time anu eneigy scales aie being useu at uiffeient elevations. The agieement
in wavelength occuis because the tiansfoimation L
o
= L
g
says that all obseiveis aie using the
same length stanuaiu to measuie wavelength.
If we look only at wavelength, then theie is such a thing as giavitational ieushift. This is
because fiom all giavitational potentials, the same change in wavelength is obseiveu.
Bowevei, if we look at eithei eneigy oi fiequency using zeio giavity iate of time, then theie is
no such thing as giavitational ieushift. The appaient change in fiequency anu eneigy occuis
because we measuie eneigy anu fiequency using local stanuaius of the beginning anu enuing
elevations. At these uiffeient elevations (uiffeient values of ), it is oui local stanuaius of
eneigy anu time that have changeu, not the photons eneigy anu fiequency.
Theie is an inteiesting question that I woulu like to piopose. We know that theie appeais to be
a giavitational blue shift when a photon is geneiateu at a high elevation (height 2) anu is
analyzeu at a lowei elevation (height 1). In othei woius, the photon seems to have gaineu
eneigy. The question is: What woulu happen if we tiappeu a photon in a ieflecting box at
height 2, then loweieu the box to height 1. Woulu the photon in a box have the same eneigy as
a fieely piopagating photon when it ieacheu height 1.
1
L.B. Okun; Am. J . Phys. 68 (2), February 2000
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com
314
I contenu that the photon loweieu in a box woulu appeai to have less eneigy than the fieely
piopagating photon. Fiom a local peispective, the fieely piopagating photon appeais to gain
eneigy (blue shifteu) anu the photon in a box woulu appeai to have the same eneigy as the
eneigy at height 1. Fiom the peispective of a zeio giavity obseivei, the fieely piopagating
photon ietaineu its oiiginal eneigy when it piopagateu fiom heights 2 to 1 anu the photon in a
box lost eneigy. This lost eneigy was iemoveu fiom the photon in the loweiing piocess. As
pieviously explaineu, a confineu photon exhibits weight. Loweiing a box containing a confineu
photon tiansfeis eneigy fiom the photon to the appaiatus useu to lowei the box. Theie aie
numeious ways to analyze this pioblem anu I content that they all give the answei uesciibeu
heie. Bowevei, this is a little off the subject, so I will not elaboiate fuithei.
Anothei question is: Bow is it possible foi the wavelength to change with elevation if theie is
no change in the noimalizeu fiequency. The answei is that the noimalizeu speeu of light
changes with elevation (C
o
= C
g
). If a photon piopagates fiom a lowei elevation to a highei
elevation, theie is no change in fiequency, but the noimalizeu speeu of light C
g
incieases with
elevation. This inciease in the noimalizeu speeu of light incieases the uistance tiaveleu pei
cycle time (incieases the wavelength). This change in wavelength is obvious fiom any location,
but the constant fiequency is only obseivable when all measuiements aie maue fiom a single
elevation (a single iate of time).
Finally, a woiu of caution about not using the ieushift foimula (
o
=
g
) in tiansfoimations as
a substitute foi length. It is not coiiect to equate wavelength with the unit of length when
theie is a change in . A photon geneiateu fiom a local atom has a wavelength that is a goou
stanuaiu of length. Bowevei, a photon geneiateu at anothei giavitational potential has a
wavelength that changes with . Theiefoie, a photon that is not geneiateu locally cannot be
useu as a stanuaiu of length.
Electrical Charge Transformation: The tiansfoimation of electiic chaige neeus special
explanation
.
The tiansfoimations of
o
=
g
is only coiiect if chaige is expiesseu in coulombs
iathei than stat coulombs. Coulombs anu stat coulombs aie funuamentally uiffeient. The NKS
unit of coulomb is 6.24 x 1u
18
elections but the CuS unit of stat coulomb is ielateu to
electiostatic foice anu has units of HI
3
I.
The iesult is that chaige is conseiveu in
giavitational tiansfoimations if chaige is expiesseu as a numbei of elections (coulombs), but it
is not conseiveu if chaige is expiesseu in stat coulombs with units of HI
3
I. If an
electiostatic foice equation is wiitten in CuS units, then
o
is missing anu theie is no
noimalization of peimittivity. The following tiansfoimation must be useu foi chaige expiesseu
in stat coulombs:
Q
o
=
Q
g
(chaige in stat coulombs)
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315
Testing: The objective of these tiansfoimations is to offset the giavitational effect on the iate
of time anu keep the laws of physics covaiiant in any giavitational potential. It is inteiesting to
make substitutions into vaiious equations of physics anu see that the tiansfoimations uo
inueeu keep the same equations of physics when theie is a tiansfoimation of giavitational
gamma. This is saying that these tiansfoimations exhibit inteinal self consistency. Bowevei, it
is also possible to see the implieu physics behinu these tiansfoimations upon close
examination.
Shapiro Revisited: In the last chaptei we talkeu about the Shapiio expeiiment uetecting a
ielativistic inciease in the time iequiieu foi iauai to tiavel iauially in the suns giavity. The
uelay was equivalent to a Su s uelay in the time iequiieu foi light to tiavel one way fiom the
eaith to the suns suiface. If we use Schwaizschilu cooiuinates, then the Su s uelay is uue
entiiely to the slowing of the cooiuinate speeu of light which scales accoiuing to the local value
of
2
along the iauial path between the eaith anu the sun (c =
2
C
R
=
2
uRut).
Bow uo we inteipiet the Su s uelay using the noimalizeu cooiuinates. If a tape measuie
coulu be useu to measuie the uistance between the eaith anu the suiface of the sun, the
uistance measuieu by a tape measuieu woulu be about 7.S km longei than the ciicumfeiential
iauius uistance calculateu by uiviuing the ciicumfeience by 2. The noimalizeu cooiuinate
system uses piopei length (tape measuie length) as cooiuinate length. Theiefoie, the
noimalizeu cooiuinates gives the iauai pulse cieuit foi having tiaveleu the auuitional 7.S km of
nonEucliuian uistance between the eaith anu the sun. It takes about 2S s foi speeu of light
tiavel to covei 7.S km, so the noimalizeu cooiuinates attiibutes half the Su s uelay to the time
iequiieu to tiavel the nonEucliuian uistance geneiateu by the suns giavity. The othei half is
uue to the noimalizeu speeu of light being sloweu accoiuing to c = C
g
= uL
R
ut. Integiating
ovei the changing along the optical path gives the auuitional 2S s uue to this slowing.
Theiefoie, the Su s total uelay is the same, but the inteipietation is uiffeient.
The following chapteis will piimaiily use the stanuaiu uefinition foi the speeu of light. This
stanuaiu uefinition will be uesignateu by lowei case c. 0ccasionally we will switch into using
noimalizeu speeu of light to give anothei peispective. In this case we will use an uppei case
C. Attention will be calleu to this change.
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com
316
Appenuix B
This appenuix gives the uetails of the ueiivation of some of the auuitional tiansfoimations
enumeiateu in the table titleu uiavitational Tiansfoimations of 0nits anu Constants. This
appenuix can be skippeu without the loss of any impoitant infoimation to the main points of
this book if this backup infoimation is not of inteiest to the ieauei.
velocity v: v
o

L
c
1
c
= I
g
1
g
 v
g
v
o
= v
g
noimalizeu velocity v
g
uecieases in giavity (just like C)
uiavitational Constant u: u
o

L
c
3
M
c
1
c
2
=
L
g
3
[
M
g
_
T
g
2
2
_

S
u
g
u
o
=
S
u
g
noimalizeu giavitational constant (see comment below)
Eneigy Bensity 0: 0
o

M
c
L
c
1
c
2
=
M
g
L
g
_
T
g
2
2
_
 0
g
0
o
= 0
g
noimalizeu eneigy uensity
Electiical Chaige: Next we come to tiansfoimations that have uimensions that incluue
electiical chaige in Coulombs. These incluue peimittivity
o
, peimeability
o
, cuiient I, voltage
v anu the impeuance of fiee space Z
o
. Foi this exeicise, the symbol
oo
will iepiesent
o
in zeio
giavity anu
og
will iepiesent
o
in giavity. Similaily we will use the symbols
oo
,
og
, Z
oo
, anu
Z
og
. A unit of chaige will be iepiesenteu by Q
o
anu Q
g
.
It is not possible to use the above substitutions to ueteimine the tiansfoimation of a unit of
electiical chaige when compaiing change between zeio giavity Q
o
anu a unit of chaige in
giavity Q
g
using a single iate of time. It is tiue that the uimension of chaige (expiesseu in
Coulombs) uoes not contain eithei time oi mass, so the two uimensions known to have
uepenuence aie missing (stat Coulombs will be uiscusseu latei). So supeificially it seems as if
theie shoulu be no change in a unit of chaige when the iate of time changes uue to a change in
. Bowevei, we neeu to supplement this with some auuitional physical ieasoning using the
laws of physics.
Fiom the conseivation of chaige anu the Faiauay law we know that chaige is conseiveu when
theie is a change in elevation. This inuicates that Q
o
= Q
g
. Theie is auuitional suppoit foi this
contention because the impeuance of fiee space Z
o
has units that scale with 1Q
2
(uimensional
analysis symbol Q). If theie was a giavitational uepenuence on chaige, then the impeuance of
fiee space woulu have a giavitational uepenuence. Theie woulu be a slight impeuance
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com
317
mismatch when light changes elevation in giavity. This impeuance mismatch woulu cause
scatteiing of electiomagnetic iauiation fiom giavitational fielus. Foi all these ieasons we will
assume that:
Q
o
= Q
g
A unit of electiical chaige in giavity (Coulombs) equals a unit of electiical chaige in zeio
giavity. We will now use this tiansfoimation to geneiate auuitional electiical tiansfoimations.
Permittivity
o
:
oo

c
2
1
c
2
L
c
3
M
c
=
g
2
_
T
g
2
I
2
_
L
g
3
[
M
g

og
oo
=
og
noimalizeu peimittivity
Impedance of Free Space Z
o
: Z
oo

M
c
L
c
2
1
c
c
2
=
[
M
g
L
g
2
[
T
g
g
2
 Z
og
Z
oo
= Z
og
impeuance of fiee space
Voltage v: v
o

M
c
L
c
2
1
c
2
c
=
[
M
g
L
g
2
_
T
g
2
2
_
g
 v
g
Temperature : Finally we come to the tiansfoimation of Boltzmanns constant k anu
tempeiatuie. Boltzmanns constant is typically uesciibeu as: k = 1.S8 1u
2S
}oulemolecule
0
Kelvin. This numbei, measuieu locally, uoes not change when giavitational gamma is
changeu. Bowevei, the stanuaiu of what constitutes a unit of eneigy (}oule) changes accoiuing
to the pieviously ueiiveu tiansfoimation: E
g
= E
o
. Theiefoie, to an obseivei using
noimalizeu time, the eneigy pei molecule pei uegiee Kelvin uecieases in giavity. Theiefoie, an
acceptable inteipietation foi the zeio giavity obseivei is that tempeiatuie in giavity equals the
same tempeiatuie in zeio giavity, but the Boltzmann constant uepenus on .
o
=
g
tempeiatuie is unaffecteu by an change in giavity
Boltzmann Constant: k
B
 NL
2
T
2
k
B
= 1.S8 1u
2S
}oulemolecule
0
Kelvin  NL
2
T
2
molecule
k
Bo

M
c
L
c
2
1
c
2
u
c
molecule =
[
M
g
L
g
2
_
T
g
2
2
_u
g
molecule  k
Bg
k
Bo
= k
Bg
noimalizeu Boltzmanns constant
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318
StefanBoltzmann Constant:
o

M
c
1
c
3
u
c
4
=
M
g
_
T
g
3
3
_u
g
4

g
2
o
=
2
g
noimalizeu StefanBoltzmann constant
The StefanBoltzmann constant is the constant associateu with the intensity of a black bouy
emission J = T
4
wheie = StefanBoltzmann Constant, = emissivity, T is tempeiatuie anu
is the uimension of tempeiatuie. The equation J = T
4
suppoits the iuea that
g
=
o
because tempeiatuie is iaiseu to the fouith powei. If theie was a tempeiatuie uepenuence on
, we woulu have a
4
uepenuence.
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com
41
Chaptei 4
Assumptions
Theie has nevei been a law of physics that uiu not uemanu
space anu time foi its statement.
}ohn Aichibalu Wheelei
Starting Assumption: Physics touay has a laige bouy of expeiimental obseivations anu
mathematical equations that coiiesponu to the expeiimental obseivations. Theiefoie, on a
supeificial level it woulu appeai that we have a goou theoietical unueistanuing of natuie up to
a limit that will be calleu the fiontiei of knowleuge. Bowevei, theie aie many countei intuitive
physical inteipietations of the mathematical equations anu expeiimental obseivations. This
book pioposes alteinative physical inteipietations that fit both the equations anu the
expeiiments, but offei impioveu conceptual unueistanuing anu new insights.
If we aie looking foi the fableu theoiy of eveiything", it is best to stait the quest with the
simplest possible staiting assumption. 0nly if the simplest assumption is pioven to be
inauequate, shoulu we ieluctantly move on to a moie complex assumption. When I examineu
the similaiities between light confineu in a ieflecting box anu paiticles, I was stiuck by a big
iuea. This iuea is:
Basic Assumption: The universe is only spacetime.
This iuea will be taken as a basic assumption foi the iemainuei of this book. If this simple
staiting assumption is coiiect, it shoulu be possible to invent a mouel of the univeise that uses
only the piopeities of 4 uimensional spacetime. 0ltimately, all mattei, eneigy, foices, fielus
anu laws of physics shoulu logically be obtainable fiom just 4 uimensional spacetime. This is a
laige pioject that encompasses all of physics. It giew into this book length explanation iathei
than a few technical papeis.
Initially, this might seem impossible because spacetime appeais to be just a quiet vacuum that
possesses thiee spatial uimensions plus time. Bowevei, the quantum mechanical mouel of
spacetime has a vast eneigy uensity also known as vacuum eneigy, quantum fluctuations, zeio
point eneigy, etc. The spacetime mouel that is capable of foiming mattei, eneigy, foices anu
fielus is a composite of quantum mechanical anu geneial ielativistic chaiacteiistics. Besiues a
specific speeu of light anu a giavitational constant, spacetime also possesses impeuance, bulk
mouulus, eneigy uensity etc. The combination of these piopeities peimits spacetime to
become the basic builuing block foi all mattei anu foices.
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42
Spacetime uoes have some ieal auvantages as the basic builuing block of eveiything in the
univeise. Spacetime is the stiffest of all possible meuiums that suppoit wave piopagation. A
uistuibance in spacetime piopagates at the speeu of light. The chaiacteiistics of spacetime
peimit it to suppoit any fiequency wave up to Planck fiequency (~1u
4S
Bz). This is a
tiemenuous auvantage if we aie attempting to finu a meuium that can hypothetically suppoit
the laige eneigy uensity iequiieu to builu a pioton, foi example. Some waves in spacetime will
be shown to be capable of mouulating the spatial anu tempoial piopeities of spacetime. This
can seive as the basic builuing block of mattei, foices anu fielus.
The simplicity of the staiting assumption uoes have one auvantage. It shoulu be ielatively easy
to piove oi uispiove. 0nlike stiing theoiy, this staiting assumption haiuly pioviues any wiggle
ioom. If the assumption is wiong, the eiioi shoulu be quickly eviuent. If the assumption is
coiiect, the extieme limitations uefine a naiiow path that shoulu leau to both confoimations
anu new insights. I will summaiize the conclusions of chaptei #1.
A confineu photon in a moving fiame of iefeience has the following 8 similaiities to a
funuamental paiticle with the same eneigy anu same fiame of iefeience:
1) the same ineitia, 2) the same weight, S) the same kinetic eneigy when moving 4)
the same ue Bioglie wavelength S) the same ue Bioglie phase velocity, 6) the same ue
Bioglie gioup velocity, 7) the same ielativistic length contiaction, 8) the same
ielativistic time uilation. It is haiu to avoiu the thought that peihaps a paiticle is
actually a wave with components exhibiting biuiiectional piopagation at the speeu of
light but somehow confineu to a specific volume. This confinement piouuces stanuing
waves that aie simultaneously moving both towaius anu away fiom a cential iegion.
The assumption that the univeise is only spacetime causes us to exploie the possibility that
waves in spacetime (uynamically cuiveu spacetime) aie the basic builuing blocks of paiticles,
foices anu fielus. It also offeis the oppoitunity to give a physical uesciiption of quantum
mechanical opeiations such as the collapse of the wave function oi making a measuiement of a
quantum mechanical state. The ultimate test is whethei this assumption logically leaus to
giavity anu compatibility with quantum mechanics.
The starting assumption that the universe is only spacetime requires that the reader change
perspective about what is a cause and what is an effect. The standard physical
interpretation of general relativity is that matter causes curved spacetime. The reverse
perspective would be that a special type of curved spacetime (dynamic spacetime) causes
matter. The static curved spacetime, normally assumed to be caused by matter, will be
shown to be a minor residual effect of dynamic spacetime.
Creative Challenge: I staiteu with two positions that aie cuiiently not connecteu. 0n the
one hanu, theie is the cuiient unueistanuing of the funuamental paiticles, foices anu physical
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com
43
laws. 0n the othei hanu, theie is the basic assumption that the univeise is only spacetime. An
attempt to biing these two uisconnecteu positions togethei iequiies a cieative look at both the
piopeities of spacetime anu the piopeities of paiticles, foices anu physical laws. The
expeiimentally veiifieu physical facts anu equations aie assumeu to be coiiect, but it is not
necessaiy to auopt the physical inteipietations cuiiently useu to explain these facts anu
equations. Foi example, the equations of geneial ielativity accuiately uesciibe giavity anu the
univeise. Bowevei, the accuiacy of these equations uoes not guaiantee the accuiacy of the
physical inteipietations cuiiently associateu with these equations. The iuea that giavity is not
a foice, but the iesult of the geometiy of spacetime is a physical inteipietation of the equations
of geneial ielativity. Rathei than focusing on explaining giavity oi uniting quantum mechanics
anu geneial ielativity, I meiely stait with what I believe is the simplest possible staiting
assumption (the univeise is only spacetime) anu attempt to ieconcile this assumption with
eveiything known to exist in the univeise.
Spacetime Nouels
Spacetime: The Quantum Mechanical Model: The quantum mechanical view of space anu
time (incluuing QEB anu QCB) is veiy uiffeient than the geneial ielativistic view. We will fiist
enumeiate the quantum mechanical uesciiption. In quantum mechanics both space anu time
aie quantizeu. Space is a locally violent meuium filleu with vacuum fluctuations. At the basis of
the unceitainty piinciple theie is eneigetic spacetime that is in a continuous state of flux. The
uistance between two points can only be specifieu to a limiteu accuiacy (Planck length)
because of the effect of these fluctuations on spatial measuiement. Similaily the eneigy at a
point unueigoes wilu fluctuations. This is usually consiueieu as justification foi the foimation
anu annihilation of viitual paiticle paiis, but this eneigy fluctuation can also be consiueieu
meiely an eneigetic uistoition of spacetime. Even the iate of time at aujacent points can
fluctuate slightly piouucing vaiiations (uiffeiences between clocks) that can uiffei by Planck
time.
These fluctuations piouuce measuiable iesults. Foi example, the Casimii effect piouuces a
foice on two closely space metal plates which has been measuieu to an accuiacy of S% of the
theoietical pieuiction. In a hyuiogen atom theie is an inteiaction between the election anu the
vacuum fluctuations that piouuces a small shift in the eneigy of the
2
S
12
eneigy level. This
Lamb shift has been accuiately pieuicteu anu expeiimentally measuieu. vacuum
polaiization is anothei impoitant effect in QCB which involves the inteiaction of a chaigeu
paiticle anu shieluing of that chaige piouuceu by viitual paiticles cieateu in the vacuum.
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com
44
An election has a magnetic moment which woulu be piecisely equal to 2 except foi the
anomalous magnetic uipole moment causeu by vacuum fluctuations. This election spin gfactoi
(g
s
) has been pieuicteu by QEB calculations anu expeiimentally veiifieu to bettei than 1u
significant figuies foi the anomalous contiibution. The iesult is: g
s
= 2.uu2S19Su4S6. This
means that the magnetic moment of an election is the most accuiate pieuiction in all of
physics. This accuiacy uepenus on the accuiacy of the quantum mechanical mouel of the
fluctuations in spacetime. All of these examples aie meant to illustiate that quantum
mechanics iequiies that vacuum has vacuum fluctuations at a veiy laige eneigy uensity.
0ne way of quantifying these fluctuations is to visualize a vacuum as being filleu with haimonic
oscillatois at a tempeiatuie of absolute zeio. The lowest quantum mechanical eneigy of each
oscillatoi is E = V = V c (wheie c = anu is pionounceu lambua bai). This is the
famous zeio point eneigy. Each oscillatoi can be visualizeu as occupying a volume of v = k
S
wheie k is a numeiical factoi neai 1. Foi example, a wave can be confineu in a ieflecting cavity
that is V wavelength on a siue. The wave amplituue is zeio at the walls anu maximum in the
centei foi this size cavity. Since we aie stanuaiuizing on the use of foi fiequency anu foi
wavelength, it is possible to say that the wave has been confineu to a volume of
S
if we ignoie
numeiical factois neai 1. 0sing this volume uesignation, this means that the eneigy uensity 0
at fiequency is: 0
=
S
= c
4
=
4
c
S
. In woius, the eneigy uensity at a specific
fiequency incieases with the fouith powei of fiequency.
What is the total eneigy uensity of zeio point eneigy at all fiequencies. If is assumeu to have
no limit (infinite fiequency) then the implieu eneigy uensity woulu also be infinite. If we
assume that zeio point eneigy is associateu with the piopeities of spacetime (pioven latei)
then the maximum fiequency that spacetime can suppoit is Planck fiequency
p
which is the
inveise of Planck time
p
= 1T
p
=(c
S
u)
12
= 1.8S x 1u
4S
s
1
. Assuming Planck fiequency
p
,
the implieu eneigy uensity of the quantum mechanical mouel of spacetime is Planck eneigy
uensity 0
p
=
p
4
c
S
= 4 x 1u
11S
}m
S
. This shocking laige numbei will be extensively analyzeu
seveial uiffeient places latei in this book. Foi now we will meiely iecognize that this is pait of
the quantum mechanical mouel of spacetime.
Spectral Energy Density: The noimal way of tieating eneigy uensity at a paiticulai fiequency
is to uesignate the spectial eneigy uensity which eneigy uensity pei unit fiequency inteival.
We will uesignate this spectial eneigy uensity as: 0()u. Eveiy point in spacetime is tieateu
like it is a quantizeu haimonic oscillatoi with eneigy E = V . This concept leaus to a
spectial eneigy uensity 0()u that is:
0()u = k [
o
3
c
3
u
This spectium with its
S
uepenuence of spectial eneigy uensity is unique in as much as
motion thiough this spectial uistiibution uoes not piouuce a uetectable Bopplei shift. It is a
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com
45
Loientz invaiiant ianuom fielu. All ineitial obseiveis aie equivalent. Any paiticulai spectial
component unueigoes a Bopplei shift, but othei components compensate so that all
components taken togethei uo not exhibit a Bopplei shift. Theiefoie this spectial eneigy
uistiibution satisfies the iequiiement that it shoulu not be possible to uetect any uiffeience in
the laws of physics in any fiame of iefeience (at least up to the cut off fiequency). It shoulu
also be noteu that neithei cosmological expansion noi giavity alteis this spectium
1
. The
implications of having a finite cut off fiequency aie uiscusseu as pait of the cosmological
analysis in chaptei 14.
Quantum Foam: In 19SS, }ohn Wheelei pioposeu that spacetime is highly tuibulent at the
scale of Planck length. Be pioposeu that as the scale of time anu length appioaches Planck time
anu Planck length, the eneigy fluctuations in spacetime inciease. These fluctuations on the
smallest scale possible cause spacetime to uepait fiom its smooth macioscopic chaiacteiistic.
}ohn Wheelei suggesteu the teim quantum foam to uesciibe spacetime on this smallest scale.
In the book Einstein's vision, }ohn Wheelei pioposeu that elementaiy paiticles weie exciteu
eneigy states (iesonances) of the vacuum eneigy fluctuations. Be pointeu out that the uensity
of a nucleus was ~ 1u
18
kgm
S
anu this uensity is negligibly small compaieu to the equivalent
uensity of spacetime (~ 1u
97
kgm
S
oi an eneigy uensity of ~ 1u
11S
}m
S
). While }ohn
Wheeleis uesciiption of spacetime has the same basic components as the spacetime mouel
pioposeu in this book, his concept of how spacetime foims paiticles anu foices is uiffeient.
To summaiize, the quantum mechanical mouel of vacuum, spacetime is a sea of eneigetic
activity that can be visualizeu seveial uiffeient ways. The unceitainty piinciple has uistance,
momentum, time anu eneigy unueigoing fluctuations. Fielu theoiy has a sea of haimonic
oscillatois, each with zeio point eneigy of E = V . Paiticle physics has viitual paiticle paiis
anu viitual photons coming into existence anu going out of existence. QCB has viitual paiticles
with both coloi chaige anu electiical chaige piouucing vacuum polaiization. The quantum
mechanical mouel of vacuum iequiies a minimum vacuum eneigy uensity of at least 1u
Su
}m
S
foi many QCB calculations anu some vaiiations iequiie the full Planck eneigy uensity of
~ 1u
11S
}m
S
.
Spacetime: The General Relativity Model: ueneial ielativity visualizes spacetime as a
smooth, well behaveu meuium consisting of S spatial uimensions plus time. Spacetime can be
cuiveu by eneigy in any foim but it is not subject to the ianuom fluctuations of the quantum
mechanical mouel. ueneial ielativity is a classical theoiy that uoes not iecognize Plancks
constant, Planck length oi Planck time. The uistance between two closely spaceu points is not
consiueieu to fluctuate but theie is a limit as to the piecision of the measuiement. This
piecision limit is set by the possibility of foiming a black hole if too much eneigy is iequiieu to
1
Puthoff, H.E. Phys. Rev. A Volume 40, p.4857, 1989 Errata in Phys. Rev A volume 44, p. 3385, 1991 See also
New Scientist, volume 124, p.36, Dec. 2, 1089
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com
46
make the measuiement. Bowevei, even this limit is a mixtuie of quantum mechanics anu
geneial ielativity. In geneial ielativity theie aie no quantizeu opeiations.
ueneial ielativity (uR) teaches that eneigy in any foim geneiates giavity. Accoiuing to geneial
ielativity the univeise woulu collapse into a black hole if the eneigy uensity of the univeise
exceeus the ciitical eneigy uensity. The cosmologically obseiveu eneigy uensity of the
univeise (about 1u
9
}m
S
) appeais to be within the maigin of eiioi (within 1%) of equaling
the ciitical eneigy uensity of the univeise. Theiefoie, accoiuing to geneial ielativity the
quantum mechanical mouel of vacuum must be wiong because the quantum mechanical mouel
iequiies eneigy uensity vastly exceeuing the ciitical uensity of about 1u
9
}m
S
. Accoiuing to
geneial ielativity, an eneigy uensity of 1u
11S
}m
S
is iiuicules. This eneigy uensity woulu foim
a black hole even foi a spheie that is Planck length in iauius.
ueneial ielativity uoes have its shaie of pieuictions not shaieu by quantum mechanics. Foi
example, the iate of time uepenus on giavity in uR while quantum mechanics consiueis the
iate of time to be constant. Also, uR pieuicts that piopei volume also is affecteu by giavity.
Quantum mechanics uoes not iecognize a giavitational effect on volume.
Reconciling the QM and GR Models: The uisciepancy between the quantum mechanical
eneigy uensity of vacuum (~1u
11S
}m
S
) anu the cosmologically obseiveu eneigy uensity of the
univeise (~1u
9
}m
S
) is the laigest numeiical uisciepancy in all of physics. The uiffeience is a
factoi of about 1u
122
but this is usually iounueu off to meiely a factoi of 1u
12u
. The stanuaiu
inteipietation is that theie must be some othei effect that cancels out what appeais to be a
iiuiculously laige quantum mechanical eneigy uensity. Bowevei, theie is goou eviuence that
the vacuum fluctuations exist. They aie iequiieu foi many cuiient quantum mechanical
effects. They cannot simply be canceleu by anothei effect that somehow eliminates all the
effects of these fluctuations. Fuitheimoie, canceling out 1u
11S
}m
S
woulu iequiie an equally
laige effect in the opposite uiiection. No effect that cancels 1u
11S
}m
S
has been pioposeu.
0n close examination we ieally uo not neeu a tiue cancelation of eneigy. We meiely neeu one
oi moie mechanisms that allow the quantum mechanical vacuum eneigy to exist but not
inteiact with us oi oui obseivable univeise except thiough the quantum mechanical
inteiactions mentioneu. It will be pioposeu latei that the quantum mechanical mouel of
spacetime is coiiect iegaiuing the eneigy uensity of spacetime at the quantum scale of Planck
length anu Planck time. Also, the geneial ielativity mouel is coiiect iegaiuing the eneigy
uensity of spacetime on the macioscopic scale that uoes not iecognize fluctuations at the scale
of Planck length anu Planck time. Since the uR pieuictions aie viitually univeisally accepteu,
we will concentiate on the eneigy uensity pieuictions of quantum mechanics which aie
geneially piesumeu to be eliminateu by some unknown offsetting piopeity of spacetime. This
seems obvious since we uo not macioscopically inteiact with this tiemenuous eneigy uensity
noi has it causeu the univeise to collapse as implieu by geneial ielativity.
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com
47
It is proposed here that spacetime is a composite of the quantum mechanical model and the
general relativity model. The quantum mechanical model with its quantum fluctuations
and tremendous energy density is describing the portion of the universe that lacks
quantized angular momentum and is as homogeneous as quantum mechanics allows. The
general relativity model only recognizes the small portion of the energy in the universe that
possesses quantized angular momentum (fermions and bosons). This portion is capable of
forming energy concentrations such as massive bodies which distort the macroscopic
homogeneity of the quantum mechanical model to form curved spacetime.
The iest of this book is uevoteu to explaining vaiious aspects of the above statement.
The factoi of 1u
12u
uisciepancy between the two mouels is the uiffeience between the minute
fiaction of eneigy (paiticles, photons, etc.) that possesses quantizeu angulai momentum anu
the vastly laigei vacuum eneigy uensity that uoes not possess quantizeu angulai momentum.
This vacuum eneigy will latei be shown to be a homogeneous supeifluiu anu have othei
piopeities that pievent giavitational collapse. These statements aie only maue to aleit the
ieauei that the obvious objections will be auuiesseu latei.
Anothei objection auuiesseu latei is the contention that the laige eneigy uensity of vacuum
fluctuations is impossible because the volume of the univeise is expanuing yet the vacuum
eneigy uensity is peiceiveu to iemain constant. This seems to imply that a vast amount of new
eneigy is being auueu to the univeise each seconu to accompany the new volume being
cieateu. This answei iequiies two chapteis (1S & 14) foi a complete explanation, but a key
point in this explanation is that spacetime is unueigoing a tiansfoimation that staiteu at the
Big Bang anu continues touay. The expansion of the piopei volume of the univeise is one
iesult of this tiansfoimation. Anothei iesult is that oui stanuaiu of a unit of eneigy is
shiinking. A uecieasing stanuaiu will make a constant amount of eneigy on an absolute scale
appeai to giow on oui shiinking scale. New eneigy is not being auueu to the univeise but the
piopeities of the vacuum fluctuations aie changing. This will be explaineu in moie uetail in
chapteis 1S anu 14.
Vacuum Fluctuations and Vacuum Energy: In the iemainuei of this book the teims
vacuum eneigy anu vacuum fluctuations will be useu inteichangeably. In both cases they
iefei to the quantum mechanical mouel of spacetime with eneigy uensity of about 1u
11S
}m
S
.
Foi example, vacuum fluctuations implies quantum mechanical fluctuations of the vacuum
(fluctuations of spacetime) which will be uesciibeu in the next section of this book. Such
fluctuations also can be uesciibeu as vacuum eneigy. The ieason foi using two uiffeient
teims is because sometimes it is uesiiable to emphasize the eneigy chaiacteiistics anu
sometimes it is uesiiable to emphasize the fluctuation chaiacteiistic.
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48
In this book the teims vacuum eneigy anu vacuum fluctuations will nevei imply uaik
eneigy oi the cosmological constant. These aie concepts fiom cosmology that imply a vastly
lowei eneigy uensity anu a uiffeient explanation. Baik eneigy will be uiscusseu in chapteis 1S
anu 14. A mouel of the univeise will be piesenteu that is baseu on spacetime unueigoing a
tiansfoimation that piouuces the obseiveu inciease in piopei volume anu othei obseivations
without the neeu of uaik eneigy.
Bipole Waves in Spacetime
Thus fai we have talkeu about vacuum fluctuations anu infeiieu that these can be consiueieu
waves in spacetime. Now it is time to be moie specific about the piopeities of these waves in
spacetime. Since the staiting assumption of this book is that the univeise is only spacetime, the
goal is see if it is possible to piove that all paiticles, fielus anu foices aie foimeu out of 4
uimensional spacetime. A ciitical step is to invent a mouel of waves in spacetime that coulu
possibly be the univeisal builuing block of all paiticles anu foices. 0nce such a mouel is
postulateu, it must be testeu to see if it in fact coiiesponus to ieality.
If funuamental paiticles aie ultimately confineu waves in spacetime, it is necessaiy to look foi
an explanation that incoipoiates waves in spacetime with chaiacteiistics that can be the basic
builuing block foi all mattei anu foices. uiavitational waves uo not have the necessaiy
piopeities to be both vacuum fluctuations anu the basic builuing block of all paiticles anu
foices. We aie looking foi a wave in spacetime that changes both the iate of time (uistoits the
time uimension) anu changes the uistance between points in a way that changes piopei
volume. We know fiom geneial ielativity that mass affects both the iate of time anu piopei
volume (mass cuives spacetime). Therefore, if we are trying to build matter out of waves in
spacetime, we must use waves in spacetime that possess the ability to affect both the rate of
time and the distance between two points. We must use waves that have the ability to
uynamically cuive spacetime. The only wave in spacetime that affects the iate of time anu
affects piopei volume is a hypothetical uipole wave in spacetime.
The immeuiate pioblem is that uipole waves in spacetime aie foibiuuen by geneial ielativity.
In stanuaiu texts on geneial ielativity the subject of uipole waves waiiants just a biief mention
because they aie consiueieu impossible. Foi example, peihaps the most authoiitative text on
geneial ielativity is the 1Suu page tome titleu uiavitation by Chailes Nisnei, Kip Thoine anu
}ohn Aichibalu Wheelei. 0n page 97S of the 24
th
piinting, uipole waves in spacetime ieceive a
thiee line mention to the effect that theie can be no mass uipole iauiation because the seconu
time ueiivative of the mass uipole is zeio (
u
2
Z
J = intensity; B = amplituue; = angulai fiequency; Z = impeuance;
8
Blair, D. G. (ed.): The Detection of Gravitational Waves. p 45. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge New
York Port Chester (1991)
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com
416
k = a uimensionless constant
We will fiist illustiate the use of this geneial equation using acoustic waves. The acoustic
impeuance is: Z
a
= c
a
wheie is uensity anu c
a
is the speeu of sounu in the meuium (acoustic
speeu). Acoustic impeuance has units of kgm
2
s using SI (uimensional analysis units of
NL
2
T ). The amplituue of an acoustic wave is uefineu by the uisplacement of paiticles
oscillating in an acoustic wave. The amplituue teim in acoustic equations has units of length
such as meteis.
When this equation is useu foi giavitational waves, the amplituue teim is a uimensionless iatio
which in its simplest foim can be expiesseu as B = LL. This iatio is expiessing a stiain in
spacetime which can also be thought of as the maximum slope of a giaph that plots
uisplacement veisus wavelength. When the amplituue teim is uimensionless stiain amplituue,
then foi compatibility the impeuance of spacetime Z
s
must have uimensions of masstime
(NT).
Even though J = k B
2
2
Z is a univeisal waveamplituue equation, it can only be useu if
amplituue B anu impeuance Z aie expiesseu in units compatible with this equation. Foi
example, electiomagnetic iauiation is usually expiesseu with amplituue in units of electiic fielu
stiength anu the impeuance of fiee space Z
o
in units of ohms. This way of stating wave
amplituue anu impeuance uoes not have the coiiect units iequiieu foi compatibility with the
above intensity equation. As uiscusseu in chaptei 9, theie aie othei ways of expiessing these
teims that make electiomagnetic iauiation compatible with this univeisal equation.
The intensity of giavitational waves can be complex because of nonlineaiities anu iauiation
patteins. Bowevei, this intensity can be expiesseu simply if we assume plane waves anu the
weak giavity limit. 0sing these assumptions, the giavitational wave intensity J is often
expiesseu as:
J = [
nc
3
4u
2
B
2
wheie: = fiequency
Bowevei, this can be ieaiiangeu to yielu the following equation:
J = kB
2
2
(c
S
u) Wheie:
J = intensity of a giavitational plane wave
k = a uimensionless constant
B = LL = stiain amplituue wheie L is measuiement length anu L is the change in length
= angulai fiequency
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com
417
It is obvious compaiing this equation to the geneial equation J = k B
2
2
Z that the two
equations have the same foim anu that the impeuance teim must be: Z = c
S
u. I have chosen to
call this the impeuance of spacetime uesignateu by the symbol Z
s
.
Z
s
=
c
3
u
5 WaveAmplitude Equations: Now that we aie aimeu with the impeuance of spacetime, the
equation foi intensity (J) can be conveiteu into equations that expiess eneigy uensity (0),
eneigy (E) anu powei (P). If we aie iestiicteu to waves piopagating at the speeu of light, then
we can also conveit the intensity equation into an expiession of the foice (F) exeiteu by the
wave. This conveision incoipoiates the equation F = Pc wheie P is powei piopagating at the
speeu of light. These will be calleu the S waveamplituue equations. These equations also
use the symbols of:
A = aiea (m
2
), v = volume (m
S
) anu k = uimensionless constant neai 1
5 WaveAmplitude Equations
J
= k B
2
2
Z J = intensity (wm
2
)
0
= k B
2
2
Zc 0 = eneigy uensity (}m
S
) (0 = Jc) anu 0 = " = piessuie
E
= k B
2
2
Z vc E = eneigy (}) (E = Jvc)
P
= k B
2
2
Z A P = powei (}s) (P = JA)
F
= k B
2
2
Z Ac F = foice (N) (F = JAc)
These S equations will be useu numeious times in the iemainuei of the book. It is pioposeu
that all eneigy, foice anu mattei is ueiiveu fiom waves in spacetime anu these S equations will
be useu to suppoit this contention. The amplituue teim B neeus fuithei explanation. We aie
piesuming waves piopagating at the speeu of light anu we aie tempoiaiily excluuing
electiomagnetic waves until chaptei 9. This leaves giavitational waves anu uipole waves in
spacetime. We neeu to stanuaiuize how we uesignate the amplituue of these waves.
Foi giavitational wave expeiiments wheie the wavelength is much longei than the
measuiement path length (>>L), it is acceptable to uesignate the stiain amplituue as
B = LL. Bowevei, when we aie uealing with an aibitiaiy wavelength which might be small,
it is necessaiy to specify stiain as the maximum slope of a giaph that plots uisplacement veisus
wavelength. This maximum slope occuis when the uisplacement is zeio anu the stiain is
maximum. If we uesignate the maximum uisplacement as L, anu the wavelength as , then the
maximum stiain (maximum slope) is B = L. wheie = 2. This example piesumes that
we aie woiking with a uisplacement of length. uiavitational waves only piouuce a mouulation
of length in such a way that theie is no mouulation of volume anu no mouulation of the iate of
time. Theiefoie, giavitational waves aie not subject to the Planck lengthtime limitation that
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com
418
applies to uipole waves. As pieviously explaineu, uipole waves have a maximum spatial
uisplacement amplituue of L = L
p
anu a maximum tempoial amplituue of T = T
p
. Theiefoie,
when the maximum stiain amplituue B
max
of uipole waves is:
B
max
= L
p
=
p
= 0
2
c
5
Impedance of Spacetime from the Quantum Mechanical Model: Now that we aie equippeu
with the S waveamplituue equations, the uipole wave hypothesis anu B
max
= L
p
, it is possible
to analyze zeio point eneigy fiom a new peispective. If zeio point eneigy is ieally uipole wave
fluctuations in the meuium of spacetime, then it shoulu be possible to uo a calculation which
suppoits this iuea. Foi ieview, the quantum mechanical mouel of spacetime has spacetime
filleu with zeio point eneigy (quantum oscillatois) with eneigy of E = V . If we aie ignoiing
numeiical factois neai 1, theiefoie we can consiuei each quantum oscillatoi as occupying a
volume v =
S
. This means that the eneigy uensity of the quantum mechanical mouel is
0 =
S
=
4
c
S
. Now we aie ieauy to calculate the impeuance of spacetime obtaineu fiom
the quantum mechanical mouel using the pieviously obtaineu equation foi eneigy uensity
0 = B
2
2
Zc. Reaiianging teims we have:
Z = 0cB
2
2
Set: 0 =
4
c
S
anu B = B
max
= 0
2
c
5
Z = c
S
u = Z
s
Link between QN anu uR Nouels of Spacetime: This is a fantastic outcome! We took the
eneigy uensity of zeio point eneigy anu combineu that with the stiain amplituue of a uipole
wave in spacetime. When we solveu foi impeuance we obtaineu c
S
u. This is the same
impeuance of spacetime that giavitational waves expeiience as they piopagate thiough
spacetime. To me, this implies that the chaiacteiistics of spacetime obtaineu fiom geneial
ielativity agiee with the quantum mechanical mouel of spacetime filleu with zeio point eneigy
anu exhibiting eneigy uensity of 1u
11S
}m
S
. Bow can this be. The geneial ielativity mouel
incoipoiates cosmological obseivation anu sets the eneigy uensity of the univeise at about 1u
9
}m
S
.
Actually this is an eiioneous compaiison. The quantum mechanical mouel of spacetime is
giving the homogeneous inteinal eneigy uensity of spacetime itself. When giavitational waves
piopagate thiough spacetime, they aie inteiacting with this inteinal stiuctuie of spacetime anu
the giavitational waves expeiience impeuance of Z
s
= c
S
u. The eneigy uensity of 1u
9
}m
S
obtaineu by cosmological obseivation is not seeing the inteinal stiuctuie of spacetime with its
tiemenuous eneigy uensity of uipole waves. Insteau, the cosmological obseivations aie just
looking at the eneigy uensity of the hauions, bosons anu uaik eneigy (uiscusseu latei). This
is not the same thing as the inteinal stiuctuie of spacetime. uiavitational waves can piopagate
thiough spacetime that contains no hauions oi bosons anu still expeiience Z
s
= c
S
u. Assuming
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419
that the total eneigy uensity of the univeise is 1u
9
}m
S
is like looking only at the foam on the
suiface of the ocean anu ignoiing all the watei that makes up the ocean.
The fiist pait of ieconciling the uiffeience between the geneial ielativity anu quantum
mechanical mouels of spacetime is to view the quantum mechanical mouel as uesciibing the
inteinal stiuctuie of spacetime. Neanwhile, the geneial ielativity mouel is uesciibing the
macioscopic chaiacteiistics of spacetime anu the inteiactions with mattei.
If spacetime can piopagate waves such as giavitational waves (oi uipole waves), it implies that
spacetime must have elasticity. This elasticity iequiies the ability to stoie anu ietuin eneigy as
the wave piopagates. The meuium itself must have eneigy uensity. The quantum mechanical
mouel of space is filleu with a sea of eneigetic fluctuations (uipole waves). If these aie
visualizeu as eneigetic waves in spacetime, then a new wave can be visualizeu as compiessing
anu expanuing these pieexisting waves. If this new wave causes the pieexisting waves to
slightly change theii fiequency anu uimensions as they aie being compiesseu anu expanueu,
then this pictuie pioviues the necessaiy elasticity anu eneigy stoiage to spacetime.
This might sounu like a ciiculai aigument since each wave contiibutes to the elasticity
iequiieu by all othei waves. What about the fiist wave. This subject will be uiscusseu
fuithei in the two cosmology chapteis 1S anu 14. Bowevei, it will be pioposeu that theie was
no fiist wave. Spacetime came into existence alieauy filleu with these vacuum fluctuations.
Eneigetic waves aie simply a funuamental piopeity of spacetime. In fact, spacetime uoes not
have waves; spacetime IS the sea of vacuum fluctuations (waves) uesciibeu by the quantum
mechanical mouel. Spacetime nevei was the quiet anu smooth meuium assumeu by geneial
ielativity. Theiefoie theie nevei was a time when a fiist wave was intiouuceu into a quiet
spacetime. This wave stiuctuie with its Planck lengthtime limitation can be ignoieu on the
macioscopic scale but spacetime has a quantum mechanical basis.
The task is not to finu a mechanism that causes cancelation of this tiemenuous eneigy uensity.
This eneigy uensity is ieally piesent in spacetime anu is necessaiy to give spacetime the
piopeities uesciibeu by geneial ielativity. Insteau the focus neeus to tuin to finuing the ieason
that this high eneigy uensity is not moie obvious anu why it uoes not geneiate giavity. Is theie
something about the eneigy in vacuum fluctuations that makes it uiffeient than the eneigy in
mattei anu photons. This question will be answeieu latei.
Thoughts on the Impeuance of Spacetime: It shoulu be emphasizeu that the impeuance of
spacetime is one of the few tiuly funuamental piopeities of spacetime. Foi example, latei it
will be shown that it is possible to make a system of units that use only the piopeities of
spacetime. 0ne of the thiee piopeities of spacetime useu foi this system of units is Z
s
, the
impeuance of spacetime. In Planck units, the impeuance of spacetime is equal to 1 (Z
s
= 1).
Also, the impeuance of spacetime has the following connection to othei Planck teims:
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com
420
Z
s
= m
p
p
= F
p
c = p
p
L
p
wheie: m
p
= Planck mass,
p
= Planck fiequency; F
p
= Planck foice, p
p
= Planck momentum
Besiues showing these basic ielationships, the auuitional point is that the impeuance of
spacetime is intimately connecteu to all the Planck teims. These Planck teims iepiesent the
limiting values of mass, foice, length, momentum, etc. The impeuance of spacetime is the
maximum possible value of impeuance. In oiuei foi giavitational waves to piopagate at the
speeu of light in the meuium of spacetime, the iequiieu impeuance is Z
s
.
In chaptei S we saw how a change in the giavitational gamma affecteu the units of physics. It
shoulu be noteu that the impeuance of spacetime Z
s
is one of the few teims that is unaffecteu by
a change in . Theie is an analysis (not piesenteu heie) that concluues that Z
s
must be
inuepenuent of in oiuei foi all the laws of physics to be covaiiant when theie is a change in
giavitational potential.
Energy Density Equals Pressure: Eneigy uensity 0 is funuamentally equivalent to piessuie "
when we aie uealing with eneigy piopagating at the speeu of light. Even though the units look
uiffeient (}m
S
veisus Nm
2
), in uimensional analysis notation the uimensions of both eneigy
uensity anu piessuie aie the same: NLT
2
(masslength time
2
). Foi example, Black bouy
iauiation insiue a unifoim tempeiatuie closeu containei has iauiation piessuie being exeiteu
on the walls anu has a iauiation eneigy uensity filling the containei. The ielationship between
eneigy uensity anu piessuie foi black bouy iauiation (electiomagnetic iauiation) is 0 = S".
The factoi of S in a containei filleu with blackbouy iauiation is tiaceable to S spatial
uimensions. A lasei with collimateu electiomagnetic iauiation ieflecting between 2 miiiois
woulu eliminate the factoi of S anu have 0 = ". We aie ignoiing numeiical factois neai 1 in
these conceptual equations theiefoie we will equate 0 = ". The ielationship between eneigy
uensity anu piessuie is impoitant in cosmology because iauiation piessuie insiue a stai
pievents the stai fiom unueigoing a giavitational collapse. Foi example, the centei of the sun
is at a tempeiatuie of ioughly 1S million uegiees Kelvin. At this tempeiatuie, the photon
eneigy uensity is about S x 1u
1S
}m
S
anu the photon piessuie is about 1u
1S
Nm
2
.
The ielationship between piessuie anu eneigy uensity in a gas oi liquiu is moie complex. The
simplest example of the eneigy stoiage of the piessuie component in a fluiu can be illustiateu
by the following. Imagine two helium atoms colliuing in a vacuum. This collision is vieweu
fiom the fiame of iefeience wheie the atoms aie initially piopagating at equal speeu in
opposite uiiections. The kinetic eneigy of each atom can be associateu with a typical
tempeiatuie using the Boltzmann constant. When the atoms colliue, the speeu momentaiily
uiops to zeio in this fiame of iefeience anu the tempeiatuie of each atom also momentaiily
uiops to zeio. The kinetic eneigy (tempeiatuie) is tempoiaiily conveiteu to inteinal eneigy in
each atom iesulting in a uistoition of the election clouu of each helium atom. In a high
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421
piessuie gas theie aie many such collisions pei seconu. The eneigy associateu with the
piessuie of the gas can be tiaceu to the fact that atoms in the gas spenu pait of the time with a
uistoiteu election clouu that has highei eneigy than an isolateu atom with no uistoition. A
high piessuie monatomic gas has S eneigy contiibutions to its total eneigy uensity; 1) the
inteinal eneigy (E = mc
2
) of the inuiviuual atoms, 2) the kinetic eneigy of the tempeiatuie anu
S) the piessuie component iesulting in a uistoiteu election clouu.
Now we will look at the much simplei case of confineu light. Even though each photon has
eneigy of E = , still the total eneigy uensity of the confineu light is 0 = S" foi chaotic S
uimensional piopagation such as confineu black bouy iauiation. It is pioposeu that the
equivalence between eneigy uensity anu piessuie applies in all cases because the units aie the
same (NLT
2
) anu the physical inteipietation of these units is the same. Theie aie a few cases
in physics wheie two uissimilai uefinitions can have the same units when expiesseu as length,
time anu mass. Foi example, toique anu eneigy both have units of NL
2
T
2
. Bowevei, it is cleai
that toique is foice applieu thiough a iauial length i without motion (no woik). Eneigy is foice
applieu thiough a uistance (NLT
2
)L]. The units of eneigy have to be inteipieteu as iequiiing
motion thiough a uistance (woik). Theie is nevei an example wheie a unit of toique is equal
to a unit of eneigy because the physical inteipietation of the units is funuamentally uiffeient.
In the case of eneigy uensity anu piessuie, the physical inteipietation is the same. It is
pioposeu that at the most funuamental level, eneigy uensity ALWAYS implies piessuie.
It is pioposeu that even the eneigy uensity of a pioton oi election implies piessuie. It is not
possible to casually ignoie the eneigy uensity of a pioton anu assume that since theie is no
obvious containei iestiaining the implieu piessuie that the equivalence between eneigy
uensity anu piessuie has somehow been bioken. The stanuaiu mouel assumes that theie is no
inteinal stiuctuie anu no volume to funuamental paiticles. Even stiing theoiy has one
uimensional stiings with no volume. Theiefoie, both of these iequiie infinite eneigy uensity
which implies infinite piessuie. No conceptually unueistanuable explanation is uemanueu.
This book pioposes a quantum mechanical mouel of spacetime wheie the eneigy uensity of
uipole waves in spacetime is 1u
11S
}m
S
anu the implieu piessuie is 1u
11S
Nm
2
. Theiefoie the
pictuie that emeiges is that the quantum mechanical mouel of spacetime not only has a
tiemenuous eneigy uensity, but it also is capable of exeiting any piessuie up to Planck
piessuie of about 1u
11S
Nm
S
. If the piessuie is unequal on opposite siues of an object, then
this unequal piessuie woulu be consiueieu a foice. Fuitheimoie, this foice coulu be
consiueieu eithei an attiactive oi iepulsive foice uepenuing on the uiiection of the object
causing the mysteiious foice. Latei in this chaptei it will be shown that the maximum
piessuie that spacetime can exeit foi a paiticulai size object is the limiting factoi foi the size
(iauius) of a black hole. Also, all funuamental paiticles will be shown to possess eneigy uensity
anu piessuie that is stabilizeu by an inteiaction with the eneigy uensity anu piessuie of the
uipole waves in spacetime.
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422
Interactive Bulk Modulus of Spacetime K
s
: If spacetime is visualizeu as the acoustic meuium
which peimits the piopagation of giavitational waves, then this acoustic meuium shoulu have a
bulk mouulus in auuition to having impeuance. Next we will calculate the inteiactive bulk
mouulus of spacetime uesignateu with the symbol K
s
. The teim inteiactive is useu heie
because it will be shown that spacetime has an unusual type of bulk mouulus that is
wavelengthfiequency uepenuent. This bulk mouulus only ieveals itself when theie is an
inteiaction with a wave in spacetime.
The bulk mouulus of an acoustic meuium can be thought of as the stiffness of the mateiial. It
has the uimensions of piessuie. The bulk mouulus of a fluiu is K
A"
Av v
which is the change in
volumetotal volume in iesponse to a change in piessuie ". In uiscussions of giavitational
waves it is often saiu that the ieason that giavitational waves aie so haiu to uetect is the fact
that spacetime is so stiff. Now we can quantify the stiffness of spacetime in iesponse to a wave
with angulai fiequency anu ieuuceu wavelength .
We will stait by making an analogy to a fluiu containeu in a cylinuei with cioss sectional aiea
A
o
anu initial length L
o
. This fluiu is compiesseu by a piston also with aiea A
o
. A foice F
exeiteu on the piston causes the length L
o
of the fluiu column to compiess by L. We will use
foice F anu L to obtain the elastic potential eneigy E
el
anu the elastic potential eneigy uensity
0
el
given to the fluiu (ignoiing numeiical factoi k). The change in volume is uesignateu v,
theiefoie we have:
vv = A
o
LA
o
L
o
= LL
o
K =
A"
Avv
=
P
A
c
,
AL
L
c
,
=
PL
c
A
c
AL
F = KA
o
(LL
o
)
E
el
= ]FJI = ]
K A
c
AL
L
c
JI =
K
A
c
AL
2
2L
c
wheie E
el
= elastic potential eneigy (uiop V)
0
el
= E
el
v = E
el
A
o
L
o
= K
[
AL
L
c
2
wheie 0
el
= eneigy uensity of elastic potential eneigy
Now we neeu to switch to a wave uoing the compiession iathei than a piston. It will be shown
latei that funuamental paiticles easily pass thiough the sea of uipole waves in spacetime
without meeting any iesistance. 0nly waves which uynamically uistoit spacetime aie
inteiacting with spacetime in a way that can sense the eneigy uensity in a volume of spacetime.
Bowevei, to make a calculation we will assume an impeivious cylinuei that is a half
wavelength iesonant cavity. This length of the cavity can also be expiesseu as L
o
= V = k
anu we aie ignoiing k. This means that vv = L anu 0
el
= K(L)
2
. We aie going to
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423
equate the elastic eneigy uensity 0
el
to the eneigy uensity of a wave in spacetime. If we have a
wave of eneigy confineu to a volume of k
S
(ignoie k), this eneigy uensity will be
uesignateu 0
=
S
= c
4
. This eneigy uensity can also be obtaineu fiom one of the S
waveamplituue equations: 0
= B
2
2
Z
s
c.
0
=
H
2
o
2
z
s
c
= [
AL
x
2
[
c
x
2
[
c
3
u
[
1
c
= [
AL
x
2
[
P
p
x
2
0
= eneigy uensity of
S
[
AL
x
2
[
P
p
x
2
=K
s
[
AL
x
2
(set 0
= 0
el
)
K
s
=
P
p
x
2
K
s
= uynamic bulk mouulus of spacetime
The name inteiactive bulk mouulus of spacetime is intenueu to imply that waves (inteiactive
compiession anu expansion) aie iequiieu foi spacetime to exhibit a bulk mouulus. The bulk
mouulus of spacetime is unlike the bulk mouulus of a noimal liquiu such as watei. Foi
example, a constant piessuie on watei piouuces a constant compiession (vv is constant).
With spacetime the bulk mouulus is uepenuent on fiequency (wavelength). If the fiequency is
zeio, then the bulk mouulus also is equal to zeio. This is unueistanuable when it is iealizeu
that the vacuum fluctuations (waves) iequiie uynamic compiession iesulting fiom the passage
of a wave in spacetime to ieveal theii piesence. The maximum possible value of the bulk
mouulus of spacetime occuis when = L
p
. Then the inteiactive bulk mouulus is equal to Planck
piessuie: K
s
= "
p
= c
7
u
2
.
Interactive Energy Density U
i
of Spacetime: We pieviously saiu that we can leain about the
piopeities of an acoustic meuium by examining the acoustic piopeities of the meuium.
uiavitational waves aie waves piopagating in the acoustic meuium of spacetime. Theiefoie,
we will extenu the impeuance of spacetime Z
s
anu the bulk mouulus of spacetime K
s
to see if we
can obtain any fuithei insights into how waves in spacetime inteiact with the eneigy uensity of
spacetime. Specifically, uo waves in spacetime of uiffeient wavelengthfiequency expeiience
uiffeient eneigy uensity.
In acoustic wave piopagation theie is the equation K
a
= c
a
2
incoipoiating the acoustic bulk
mouulus (K
a
), the acoustic speeu of sounu (c
a
), anu the uensity of the acoustic meuium. Foi
spacetime it is possible to extiact eneigy uensity by setting K
a
= K
s
, c
a
= c anu = 0
i
c
2
wheie
0
i
is inteiactive eneigy uensity of spacetime. While the total eneigy uensity of all fiequencies
of the uipole waves in spacetime is Planck eneigy uensity, that eneigy uensity is only
expeiienceu by waves with Planck angulai fiequency. Lowei fiequency waves inteiact with
the spectium of fiequencies uiffeiently. This can be calculateu as follows:
K
s
= c
2
= 0
i
0
i
= F
p
2
= (c
2
u)
2
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424
Similarity of K
s
and U
i
: The equation K
s
= 0
i
= F
p
2
neeus to be explaineu. This is one of the
iaie cases wheie two concepts can be mathematically equal but not be conceptually equivalent.
Recall that the bulk mouulus of a mateiial is uefineu as: K
A"
Av v
. Eneigy uensity is equivalent
to piessuie but neithei eneigy uensity noi piessuie contain the iatio vv in theii uefinition.
Theiefoie, the concepts of 0
i
anu K
s
aie funuamentally uiffeient even though they aie both
equal to F
p
2
. What this equivalency is telling us is that theie is a limiting piessuie (limiting
eneigy uensity) that achieves vv = 1. That maximum possible piessuie is "
max
= F
p
2
(Planck foice ovei aiea
2
). It will be shown below that F
p
2
is also the eneigy uensity of a
black hole with iauius equal to . Theiefoie, this black hole conuition also achieves vv = 1.
It is quite ieasonable that the conuition that achieves a black hole also achieves K
s
= 0
i
. This
can even be consiueieu as confoimation of the accuiacy of these equations.
Importance of High Frequency Vacuum Fluctuations: A giavitational wave oi uipole wave
in spacetime is compiessing all haimonic oscillatois (all othei waves) within its volume of
influence. Bowevei, the efficiency of compiession uepenus on the fiequency mismatch. The
elasticity of spacetime uepenus on the fiequency iange being piobeu. A wave in spacetime
inteiacts most efficiently with vacuum fluctuations in the same fiequency iange which have
about the same eneigy uensity, piessuie contiibution anu elasticity. Bowevei, this uoes not
imply that high fiequency oscillations in spacetime aie unimpoitant foi ielatively low
fiequency waves. The eneigy uensity of the oscillatois in spacetime incieases piopoitional to
4
. Theiefoie, even with a bulk mouulus mismatch, the high fiequency fluctuations aie still
impoitant in ueteimining the total inteiactive eneigy uensity of spacetime expeiienceu by
ielatively low fiequency waves in spacetime. The tiemenuous inciease in uensity at high
fiequencies (piopoitional to
4
) fai outweighs the ieuuction in coupling uue to the fiequency
mismatch (piopoitional to 1
2
). The iesult is the (
p
)
2
scaling ielative to Planck eneigy
uensity: 0
i
= (
p
)
2
0
p
. Foi compaiison, a single haimonic oscillatoi (zeio point eneigy) at
angulai fiequency has eneigy uensity of only 0 = (
p
)
4
0
p
. The uiffeience between
(
p
)
2
anu (
p
)
4
foi a wave with a muons Compton fiequency (
c
= 1u
2u
) is about a
factoi of 1u
4u
. The point is that Planck fiequency haimonic oscillatois (uipole waves in
spacetime) make an impoitant contiibution to the piopeities of spacetime at all fiequencies.
Energy Density of a Black Hole: The inteiactive eneigy uensity 0
i
= F
p
2
is a veiy laige
eneigy uensity. Bow uoes this eneigy uensity compaie to the eneigy uensity of a black hole
(symbol 0
bh
). We will uesignate the black holes eneigy as E
bh
anu its classical Schwaizschilu
iauius as R
s
. Ignoiing numeiical factois neai 1 we have:
0
bh
=
L
bh
R
s
3
= [
R
s
c
4
u
[
1
R
s
3
=
P
p
R
s
2
Theiefoie, since 0
i
= F
p
2
anu 0
bh
= F
p
R
s
2
it can be seen that if = R
s
then 0
i
= 0
bh
. This
gives an insight into both black holes anu the inteiactive eneigy uensity.
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Rauius of Black Boles Beteimineu by vacuum Piessuie: We now have enough infoimation to
begin making a connection between the chaiacteiistics of black holes anu the quantum
mechanical mouel of spacetime. Suppose that we imagine a black hole that is pieuominately
maue of ciiculating photons. These photons woulu be consiueieu confineu light anu theiefoie
exhibit the ineitia uiscusseu in chaptei 1. They also aie eneigy piopagating at the speeu of
light anu theiefoie the equivalency between eneigy uensity anu piessuie cleaily holus. What
pioviues the opposing piessuie to confine these photons. ueneial ielativity avoius this
question by meiely saying that we aie uealing with cuiveu spacetime. Bowevei, even cuiveu
spacetime must have an unueilying physical mechanism that contains (opposes) the piessuie
geneiateu by the photons. 0ne of the objectives of this book is to conceptually explain the
unueilying causality that iesults in the effect we call cuiveu spacetime.
Fiist, we will imagine two ieflecting hemispheiical shells confining photons at eneigy uensity
of about S }m
S
. This photon eneigy uensity stiiking a ieflecting suiface geneiates piessuie of
1 Nm
2
. To holu togethei the two hemispheiical shells woulu take two opposing foices of 1
Newton times the cioss sectional aiea of the hemispheies. Next we will imagine incieasing the
photon eneigy uensity to the point that it meets the eneigy uensity of a black hole with a iauius
equal to the iauius of the hemispheiical shells. Ignoiing giavity, the foice iequiieu to holu the
black hole size spheiical shells togethei is always equal to Planck foice (times a constant neai
1) no mattei what the iauius of the spheiical shells (iauius of the black hole). When we incluue
the foice of giavity, the conclusion is that spacetime is supplying piessuie that is equivalent to
supplying Planck foice to the hemispheiical shell.
The smallest possible black hole consisting of photons woulu be a single photon with Plank
eneigy in a volume Planck length in iauius. A confineu photon of this eneigy uensity woulu
geneiate Planck piessuie (~1u
11S
Nm
2
). To confine this eneigetic photon to the iestiicteu
volume of a black hole, it is necessaiy foi spacetime to be able to exeit an opposing piessuie of
~1u
11S
Nm
2
. Since giavity accomplishes the task of confining black holes, it is possible to gain
an insight into the implieu piopeities of spacetime by looking at the size of a black hole that is
foimeu to contain a paiticulai eneigy uensity.
We pieviously founu that 0
bh
= F
p
R
s
2
anu 0
i
= F
p
2
. A ieuuceu wavelength piopagating in
spacetime is inteiacting with the same eneigy uensity as the eneigy uensity of a black hole with
R
s
= . The point of this is to give anothei example of how black holes fiom geneial ielativity
suppoit the quantum mechanical mouel of spacetime with its laige eneigy uensitypiessuie.
Black holes maue of photons aie exeiting a piessuie that iequiieu the piessuie of the quantum
mechanical mouel of spacetime to stabilize. Latei it will be shown that even a black hole maue
of feimions still has eneigy uensity that exeits piessuie that must be offset by a piessuie
exeiteu by the vacuum eneigypiessuie of spacetime. The size of a black hole is ueteimineu by
the maximum piessuie that spacetime can exeit ovei a spheiical volume.
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426
Insight into the Speed of Light: The speeu of light is usually accepteu as a constant of natuie
anu no attempt is given to tiy to unueistanu what the chaiacteiistics of spacetime must be in
oiuei foi theie to be a specific speeu of light. In fact, if a photon is visualizeu like a quantizeu
eneigy paiticle that tiavels thiough space, then the speeu of light uoes not appeai to be ueiiveu
fiom the piopeities of spacetime.
We aie visualizing spacetime as an elastic meuium with vacuum fluctuations at all fiequencies
up to Planck angulai fiequency. Any given fiequency has stiain amplituue of B = L
p
=
p
anu eneigy uensity of 0 =
S
=
4
c
S
. We can conveit one of the S waveamplituue
equations into:
Piopagation speeu =
H
2
o
2
z
s
0
set B
2
= (L
p
)
2
= u
2
c
S
; Z
s
= c
S
u; anu 0 =
o
4
c
3
Piopagation speeu = c
This can be vieweu as just a tiivial ieaiiangement of teims. Bowevei, the equation:
piopagation speeu = c is intenueu to convey the iuea that the speeu foi wave piopagation is
c in a meuium that has the eneigy uensity, impeuance anu amplituue chaiacteiistics of
spacetime. In chapteis 1u anu 11 we will examine the piopeities of a photon piopagating in
the quantum mechanical mouel of spacetime.
Vacuum Energy and the Einstein Field Equation: Theie is also a similaiity to the Einstein
fielu equation which can be consiueieu a statement that eneigy uensity equals piessuie.
Ignoiing the cosmological constant, the Einstein fielu equation can be wiitten as:
T
= [
1
8n
[
c
4
u
u
set [
c
4
u
= F
p
anu [
1
8n
= k
T
= kF
p
u
The left siue of this equation has T
which is the Einstein tensoi that expiesses cuivatuie with units of: 1length
2
. Theiefoie,
the iight siue of this equation is foiceaiea = piessuie. Theiefoie fiom the uimensions a valiu
inteipietation of this equation is that the fielu equation is an expiession of:
eneigy uensity = k piessuie. The piopoitionality factoi is equal to Planck foice times a
numeiical factoi neai 1. In the limit of maximum cuivatuie, Einsteins fielu equation says that
Planck foice is the maximum possible foice in the univeise. Foi example, two equal size black
holes exeit Planck foice on each othei at uistance i
s
. We noimally uo not associate giavity with
a piessuie but latei in this book giavity will be ielateu to vacuum eneigypiessuie. Foi now,
we will meiely point out that if giavity is associateu with piessuie, then the maximum piessuie
that the univeise can exeit is Planck foice F
p
fiom the quantum mechanical mouel of spacetime.
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427
Foice
If the univeise is only spacetime, anu if eneigy is a wave in spacetime (uynamic spacetime),
then foice must also be the iesult of a uynamic uistoition of spacetime. The following
assumption can be maue:
Thiiu Assumption: There is only one fundamental force: F
r
= P
r
c. This is a repulsive force
that occurs when waves in spacetime, traveling at the speed of light, are deflected.
This single funuamental foice exeiteu by the ueflection of waves in spacetime will be calleu the
ielativistic foice F
i
.
F
i
= ielativistic foice (foice exeiteu by the emission, absoiption oi ueflection of waves in
spacetime piopagating at the speeu of light)
P
i
= ielativistic powei (powei containeu in waves in spacetime that aie being ueflecteu)
The ielativistic foice is the only foice ueliveieu by uipole waves in spacetime. This eneigy
always piopagates at the speeu of light, even when it seems to be confineu to a limiteu volume.
The limiteu volume is the iesult of speeu of light piopagation in a closeu loop anu inteiacting
with the suiiounuing vacuum eneigy (explaineu latei). I piopose that the ielativistic foice is
the only tiuly funuamental foice in the univeise. All othei foices of natuie aie just uiffeient
manifestations of this foice. The ielativistic foice is ueiiveu fiom the only eneigy in the
univeise (uipole waves in spacetime).
It is a common assumption among physicists that the foices of natuie weie all uniteu at the
high eneigy conuitions that existeu shoitly aftei the Big Bang. It is tiue that a hypothetical
paiticle with Planck mass woulu have a giavitational foice ioughly compaiable to the
electiomagnetic foice oi even compaiable to the stiong foice at shoit uistances. Accoiuing to
the commonly helu view, the foices of natuie sepaiateu when the univeise expanueu anu the
eneigy uensity uecieaseu. The implication is that touay the foices of natuie aie funuamentally
uiffeient. Fuitheimoie, giavity is not incluueu in the stanuaiu mouel anu geneial ielativity
uoes not consiuei giavity to be a foice.
Theiefoie, the above assumption is a iauical uepaituie fiom conventional thought. It is
pioposeu that all foices, (the stiong foice, the electiomagnetic foice, the weak foice anu the
giavitational foice), aie the iesult of the ueflection of waves in spacetime tiaveling at the speeu
of light. The case will be maue that even touay the foui foices of natuie (incluuing giavity) aie
still closely ielateu.
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428
The foice F = Pc is well known as the foice associateu with photon piessuie wheie P is the
powei of a beam of light. Foi example, the emission oi absoiption of S x 1u
8
watts of light
piouuces a foice of 1 Newton. The woiu ueflection is useu to covei any change in
piopagation. Foi example, even the absoiption of a photon by an election in an atom is
chaiacteiizeu heie as an inteiaction between waves in spacetime that involves a ueflection. In
latei chapteis it will be shown that the electiomagnetic foice, the stiong nucleai foice anu even
the giavitational foice aie all the iesult of uipole waves in spacetime inteiacting anu being
ueflecteu.
Attractive Forces: The above assumption is suipiising because it claims that theie is only one
funuamental foice anu because it claims that this single funuamental foice is only iepulsive.
The obvious question is: Bow can attiactive foices such as giavity, the stiong foice oi the
electiomagnetic foice be the iesult of a single foice that is only iepulsive. The uetaileu answei
to this question iequiies auuitional infoimation coveieu in subsequent chapteis. Bowevei, it is
possible to give a biief intiouuctoiy explanation heie.
It was pieviously explaineu that vacuum fluctuations have eneigy uensity equal to Planck
eneigy uensity. Fiom the equivalence of eneigy uensity anu piessuie, it follows that vacuum
fluctuations aie capable of exeiting a maximum piessuie equal to Planck piessuie = 1u
11S
Nm
2
. Latei it will be shown that the pioposeu spacetime baseu mouel of funuamental
paiticles has a specific eneigy uensity anu this iequiies that vacuum eneigypiessuie exeit an
offsetting piessuie to achieve stability. Foi example, the piessuie on an isolateu election is
about 1u
2S
Nm
2
. Stateu anothei way, an isolateu election expeiiences a balanceu iepulsive
foice exeiteu on all siues. If the election comes neai a pioton anu expeiiences what we
consiuei to be a foice of attiaction, it will be shown that this is actually an unbalanceu vacuum
piessuie exeiteu by vacuum eneigypiessuie. In this mouel theie aie no exchange paiticles.
All action at a uistance is ultimately tiaceable to a localizeu imbalance in vacuum piessuie.
Theie aie also no attiactive foices. Theie is only an unbalanceu iepulsive foice (unbalanceu
piessuie) exeiteu on funuamental paiticles by the uipole waves that aie vacuum fluctuations.
The net foice appeais to be an attiactive foice between the paiticles. This intiouuctoiy
explanation lacks many essential uetails that will be pioviueu latei.
Exchange Particles: The stanuaiu mouel uses exchange paiticles to tiansfei foice. Foi
example, the electiomagnetic foice is supposeuly the iesult of the exchange of viitual photons
between chaigeu point paiticles. These viitual photons tiavel at the speeu of light, so the
electiostatic foice is commonly explaineu as iesulting fiom the emission oi absoiption of
eneigy tiaveling at the speeu of light. Theiefoie, the powei (P) of viitual photons iequiieu to
geneiate a given foice is also: F = Pc. Similaily, giavitons aie believeu by many scientists to
be the exchange paiticle that conveys the giavitational foice. While the spacetime baseu
mouel of the univeise uoes not iequiie exchange paiticles, the point is that giavitons
supposeuly also tiavel at the speeu of light anu the foice they geneiate woulu also be F = Pc.
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429
Foi example, a peison weighing 7u kg is supposeuly being pulleu towaius the eaith by about
2uu billion watts of giavitons anu this is being iesisteu by about 2uu billion watts of viitual
photons stiiking the bottom of a peisons shoes to keep the peison fiom sinking into the Eaith.
It is pioposeu heie that giavitons anu viitual photons aie ieplaceu with an equally laige powei
of inteiacting waves in spacetime.
uluons have been ignoieu so fai, but they aie also vieweu as having an explanation associateu
with waves in spacetime (uiscusseu latei). The weak foice has alieauy been uniteu with the
electiomagnetic foice to foim the electioweak foice. Theiefoie, in the uiscussion to follow, I
will concentiate on ueteimining the ielationship between the stiong foice, the electiomagnetic
foice anu the giavitational foice. Bowevei, a biief examination of the weak foice will be maue
latei.
Note that I have useu the teims the stiong foice anu the giavitational foice. Both of these
teims aie cuiiently out of favoi among physicists. At one time the stiong foice was
commonly useu to uesciibe the foice that bounu piotons anu neutions togethei in the nucleus
of an atom. Since the uiscoveiy of quaiks, it was necessaiy to name the foice that binus quaiks
togethei anu the teim the stiong inteiaction is now commonly useu. With this change in
teiminology, the foice that binus piotons anu neutions is now the iesiuual stiong inteiaction.
I neeu a simple name foi the stiongest of all foices. I choose to iesuiiect the teim the stiong
foice anu ieuefine this as the iesultant foice fiom an inteiaction between quaiks (wave
mouel) anu vacuum eneigy (wave mouel) that binus quaiks togethei.
Newton consiueieu giavity to be a foice, but geneial ielativity consiueis giavity to be the iesult
of the geometiy of spacetime. The equations of geneial ielativity aie commonly inteipieteu as
uesciibing cuiveu spacetime. Bowevei, the concept of cuiveu spacetime uoes not leau to a
conceptually unueistanuable explanation of how a foice is geneiateu when a mass is helu
stationaiy in a giavitational fielu. It will be shown that giavity is a ieal foice that is closely
ielateu to both the electiomagnetic foice anu the stiong foice. Theiefoie, the teim the
giavitational foice will be useu even piioi to offeiing this pioof.
Fields: If the univeise is only spacetime, then the following assumption can be maue:
Coiollaiy Assumption: There is only one truly fundamental field. This single field is the
dipole wave vacuum fluctuations of spacetime.
The piesently accepteu physics mouel incoipoiates numeious uiffeient fielus. The concept of
an electiic fielu anu a magnetic fielu was combineu into a single electiomagnetic fielu by
Naxwell. Bowevei, this is consiueieu sepaiate fiom a giavitational fielu oi the fielu of viitual
paiticle paiis that aie continuously coming into existence anu going out of existence. In
geneial, the 4 foices aie usually associateu with sepaiate fielus. Zeio point eneigy also has the
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430
piopeities of a fielu. This backgiounu is given because the pioposal piesenteu heie is that all
these fielus aie just uiffeient uistoitions of vacuum fluctuations which have eneigy uensity of
about 1u
11S
}m
S
. These fluctuations aie uipole waves in spacetime that aie exeiting a
piessuie. This piessuie can piouuce a foice between objects up to a maximum of Planck foice
(F
p
= c
4
u =1u
44
N). In latei chapteis auuitional uetails will be given to show how uistoitions
of vacuum fluctuations piouuce a giavitational fielu oi an electiomagnetic fielu.
Summary Properties of Spacetime: In upcoming chapteis we aie going to attempt to
constiuct the univeise (paiticles, foices anu photons) using only the piopeities of spacetime.
Besiues the stanuaiu piopeities of spacetime uesciibeu by geneial ielativity, it is useful to
summaiize the auuitional piopeities of spacetime that we have auueu to oui tool bag. These
auuitions aie:
1) We have concluueu that spacetime has a quantifiable impeuance (Z
s
= m
p
p
= c
S
u),
bulk mouulus (K
s
= F
p
2
) anu inteiactive eneigy uensity (0
i
= F
p
2
).
2) The quantum mechanical mouel of spacetime has a sea of high fiequency, small
amplituue vacuum fluctuations at Planck eneigy uensity ~ 1u
11S
}m
S
. This mouel is
auopteu because even the impeuance of spacetime obtaineu fiom geneial ielativity
suppoits this mouel.
S) Bipole waves aie alloweu to exist in spacetime but they aie subject to the Planck
lengthtime limitation pieviously uiscusseu. vacuum fluctuations anu zeio point
eneigy aie actually uipole waves in spacetime.
4) We aie aimeu with the S waveamplituue equations obtaineu by combining a geneial
wave equation with the ielativistic foice equation.
S) We piesume that the only tiuly funuamental foice is the ielativistic foice (F
R
= Pc)
which is the iepulsive foice exeiteu when eneigy tiaveling at the speeu of light is
ueflecteu. The uipole waves in spacetime aie always moving at the speeu of light even
when they aie confineu to a limiteu volume.
6) Fiom the equivalence of eneigy uensity anu piessuie, it follows that the laige eneigy
uensity of vacuum fluctuations (uipole waves) is exeiting an equally laige vacuum
piessuie.
7) Bistoitions of these uipole wave vacuum fluctuations aie iesponsible foi all fielus
Elementaiy paiticles iepiesent a peicentagewise almost completely negligible change in the
locally violent conuitions that chaiacteiize the vacuumIn othei woius, elementaiy paiticles
uo not foim a ieally basic staiting point foi uesciibing natuie.
}ohn Aichibalu Wheelei
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51
Chaptei S
Spacetime Paiticle Nouel
Think of a paiticle as built out of the geometiy of space; think of a paiticle as a
geometiouynamic excitation.
}ohn Aichibalu Wheelei
Early WaveParticle Model: In 1926, Eiwin Schiouingei oiiginally pioposeu the possibility
that paiticles coulu be maue entiiely out of waves. Bowevei, in an exchange of letteis, Beniik
Loientz ciiticizeu the iuea. Loientz wiote,
A wave packet can nevei stay togethei anu iemain confineu to a small volume
in the long iun. Even without uispeision, any wave packet woulu spieau moie
anu moie in the tiansveise uiiection, while uispeision pulls it apait in the
uiiection of piopagation. Because of this unavoiuable bluiiing, a wave packet
uoes not seem to me to be veiy suitable foi iepiesenting things to which we
want to asciibe a iathei peimanent inuiviuual existence.
Schiouingeis iuea of a wavepaiticle was a gioup of uiffeient fiequency waves that, when
auueu togethei, foimeu a uaussian shapeu oscillating wave confineu to a small volume (Fouiiei
tiansfoimation). Schiouingei eventually agieeu with Loientz that the waves that foimeu such
a paiticle woulu uispeise. Bowevei, this initial failuie shoulu not be inteipieteu as
conuemning all possible wave explanations foi paiticles. Foi example, optical solitons aie
compact pulses of lasei light (waves) that piopagate in nonlineai optical mateiials without
spieauing. They exhibit paiticlelike piopeities anu will be uiscusseu latei.
In this chaptei a mouel of a funuamental paiticle will be pioposeu maue entiiely out of a uipole
wave in spacetime. Even though this mouel gives a stiuctuie anu physical size to an isolateu
funuamental paiticle, the ieauei is askeu to ieseive juugment about this mouel until it can be
fully explaineu. Even though the spacetime baseu mouel of a funuamental paiticle has waves
with physical size, this mouel will be shown to be consistent with expeiiments that inuicate no
uetectable size in collision expeiiments. Also the spacetime baseu mouel explains how an
election can inciease its size anu foim a clouulike uistiibution unuei the bounuaiy conuitions
of a bounu election in an atom.
Brief Summary of the Cosmological Model: We will stait with a biief uesciiption of the
cosmological mouel pioposeu to be compatible with the staiting assumption. The cosmological
mouel is coveieu in uetail in chapteis 1S anu 14. If the univeise is only spacetime touay, it
must have always been only spacetime. The highest eneigy uensity that spacetime can suppoit
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52
is Planck eneigy uensity (~ 1u
11S
}m
S
). 0ne point of possible confusion is that this is also the
cuiient eneigy uensity of the vacuum eneigy in the univeise. Bowevei, theie aie some key
uiffeiences involving spin anu the iate of time that uistinguish the conuitions at the stait of the
Big Bang fiom the conuitions that exist touay in vacuum eneigy. These uiffeiences aie
explaineu in chaptei 1S, but one easy to unueistanu uiffeience is that vacuum eneigy in the
cuiient univeise lacks quantizeu spin. vacuum eneigy can be saiu to have a tempeiatuie of
absolute zeio because it lacks any quantizeu units anu tempeiatuie is uefineu as eneigy pei
quantizeu unit. The same eneigy uensity at the stait of the Big Bang was in the foim of 1uu%
quantizeu spin units. The eneigy pei quantizeu unit was equal to Planck eneigy anu theiefoie
the tempeiatuie at the stait of the Big Bang was equal to Planck tempeiatuie.
Even though 1u
11S
}m
S
is an incieuibly laige numbei, it is not a singulaiity which woulu be
infinite eneigy uensity. Foi spacetime to ieach Planck eneigy uensity (0
p
) spacetime must
have uipole waves at the highest possible fiequency (
p
= Planck fiequency) anu the laigest
possible amplituue (B = 1).
0 = B
2
2
Zc set: B = 1, =
p
= c
5
0
= 1.9 x 1u
42
s
1
Z = Z
s
= c
S
u
0 =
c
u
2
= 4.6 x 1u
11S
}m
S
= Planck eneigy uensity
These waves aie still subject to the Planck lengthtime limitation but at this fiequency a
uisplacement of Planck length anu Planck time achieves Planck eneigy uensity 0
p
. Spacetime at
this highest possible eneigy uensity anu with maximum quantizeu spin will be calleu Planck
spacetime.
In oiuei foi this staiting conuition to be capable of evolving into the piesent univeise, one
auuitional chaiacteiistic of Planck spacetime is iequiieu. The uipole waves that foim Planck
spacetime must be uiviueu into quantizeu units with each unit possessing angulai momentum
of . Theiefoie 1uu % of the eneigy in Planck spacetime possesseu quantizeu angulai
momentum. If we jump foiwaiu in time, touay only about 1 pait in 1u
122
of the total eneigy in
the univeise (incluuing vacuum eneigy) possesses quantizeu angulai momentum of oi V .
Fuitheimoie, this fiaction is continuously uecieasing because of the cosmic ieushift anu
anothei chaiacteiistic uesciibeu latei. All the funuamental paiticles anu foices that we can
uetect aie the 1 pait in 1u
122
that possesses quantizeu angulai momentum. The vastly laigei
eneigy in the univeise is the sea of vacuum fluctuations (uipole waves in spacetime) that uoes
not possess angulai momentum. The only hint we have that this vast eneigy uensity exists is
the quantum mechanical effects such as the Lamb shift, Casimii effect, vacuum polaiization, the
unceitainty piinciple, etc. Bowevei, it will be shown that this sea of vacuum fluctuations is
essential foi the existence of funuamental paiticles anu foices.
Vacuum Energy Has Superfluid Properties: If we aie going to be ueveloping a mouel of
funuamental paiticles incoipoiating waves in spacetime, it is impoitant to unueistanu the
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53
piopeities of the meuium suppoiting the wave. In the last chaptei we enumeiateu many
piopeities of spacetime. The point was maue that the piopeities of vacuum fluctuations aie an
integial pait of the piopeities of spacetime. Bowevei, one piopeity of vacuum eneigy was
intentionally saveu foi this chaptei because it is paiticulaily impoitant in the explanation of
funuamental paiticles foimeu out of waves in spacetime.
It is proposed that vacuum energy has the property that it does not possess angular
momentum. Any angular momentum present in the midst of the sea of vacuum energy is
isolated into units that possess quantized angular momentum. These quantized angular
momentum units have different properties than vacuum energy.
This concept is easiest to explain by making an analogy to supeifluiu liquiu helium oi a Bose
Einstein conuensate. When the helium isotope
4
Be is cooleu to about 2 K, it changes its
piopeities anu paitly becomes a supeifluiu. Cooling the liquiu fuithei incieases the peicentage
of the helium atoms that aie in the supeifluiu state. Cooling some othei atoms to a
tempeiatuie veiy close to absolute zeio changes theii piopeities anu a laige fiaction of these
atoms can occupy the lowest quantum state anu exhibit supeifluiu piopeities. This is a Bose
Einstein conuensate. Since supeifluiu liquiu helium is a special case of a BoseEinstein
conuensate, they will be uiscusseu togethei.
When a gioup of atoms occupy a single quantum state, the gioup must exhibit quantizeu spin
on a macioscopic scale. The quaiks anu elections that foim atoms inuiviuually aie feimions.
Bowevei, a BoseEinstein conuensate oi supeifluiu
4
Be exhibits quantizeu spin on a
macioscopic scale. The gioup of funuamental paiticles can possess eithei zeio spin oi an
integei multiple of spin units ielateu to . If we have a gioup of atoms in a BoseEinstein
conuensate anu we intiouuce angulai momentum (stii the conuensate), then we can foim
quantizeu voitices that possess quantizeu angulai momentum within the laigei volume of
BoseEinstein conuensate that uoes not possess macioscopic angulai momentum. Theiefoie a
quantum voitex is a gioup of atoms that has a uiffeient angulai momentum quantum state
(uiffeient spin) than the laigei gioup of suiiounuing atoms that foims the supeifluiu
4
Be oi
BoseEinstein conuensate. This effect was fiist uiscoveieu with supeifluiu liquiu helium
1
.
Biamatic pictuies aie also available of multiple quantum voitices in a BoseEinstein
conuensate
2,S
.
1
E.J . Yarmchuk, M.J . Gordon and R.E. Packard, Observation of stationary vortex arrays in rotating superfluid
helium, Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 214217 (1979)
2
K. W. Madison, F. Chevy, W. Wohlleben and J . Dalibard, Vortex lattices in a stirred BoseEinstein
condensate condmat/0004037[eprint arXiv].
3
Ionut Danaila, Threedimensional vortex structure of a fast rotating BoseEinstein condensate with
harmonicplusquartic connement, http://arxiv.org/pdf/condmat/0503122.pdf
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com
54
It is pioposeu that the quantum fluctuations of spacetime aie a Loienz invaiiant fluiu that is
the most iueal supeifluiu possible. 0nlike the funuamental paiticles (feimions) that foim a
BoseEinstein conuensate, the vacuum fluctuations uo not possess any quantizeu angulai
momentum. Bowevei, vacuum fluctuations aie similai to a supeifluiu oi BoseEinstein
conuensate because it isolates angulai momentum into quantizeu units. These quantizeu
angulai momentum units that exist within vacuum eneigy aie pioposeu to be the feimions anu
bosons of oui univeise. The same way that the quantizeu voitices cannot exist without the
suiiounuing supeifluiu, so also the feimions anu bosons cannot exist without being
suiiounueu by a sea of vacuum eneigy.
The total angulai momentum piesent in the quantum fluctuations of spacetime at the stait of
the Big Bang piobably auueu up to zeio. Bowevei, even though countei iotating angulai
momentum can cancel, still theie shoulu be offsetting effects that shoulu statistically pieseive
the quantizeu angulai momentum units fiom the Big Bang to touay (calculateu in chaptei 1S).
Bipole waves in spacetime that possess angulai momentum woulu not be the same as the
uipole waves that foim vacuum fluctuations. A unit that possesses quantizeu angulai
momentum loses its iueal supeifluiu piopeities because it can inteiact with anothei unit of
eneigy that possesses quantizeu angulai momentum (foi example, exchange angulai
momentum).
Spacetime Eddy in a Sea of Vacuum Energy: It is pioposeu that what we consiuei to be the
funuamental paiticles touay (quaiks anu leptons) aie the spacetime equivalent of the voitices
that caiiy quantizeu angulai momentum in a supeifluiu. Bowevei, the quantizeu angulai
momentum in spacetime aie bettei visualizeu as chaotic euuies that exists in the vacuum
fluctuations of spacetime. We can only uiiectly inteiact with the uipole waves in spacetime that
possess quantizeu angulai momentum. We aie unawaie of the vast amount of supeifluiu
vacuum eneigy that suiiounus us because it only inuiiectly has any influence on us.
In the spacetime based model of the universe, fundamental particles are dipole waves in
spacetime that possess quantized angular momentum. They are living in a sea of
superfluid vacuum fluctuations that cannot possess angular momentum. Fundamental
particles cannot exist without the support provided by this sea of superfluid vacuum
fluctuations.
Rotar: The simplest foim of quantizeu angulai momentum that can exist in a sea of uipole
waves in spacetime woulu be a iotating uipole wave that foims a closeu loop that is one
wavelength in ciicumfeience. A uipole wave in spacetime is always piopagating at the speeu of
light, even if it foims a closeu loop. This iotating uipole wave in spacetime is still subject to the
Planck lengthtime limitation, so it can be thought of as being at the limit of causality. Its
iotation is chaotic iathei than being in a single plane. It has a uefinable angulai momentum,
but all iotation uiiections aie peimitteu with uiffeient piobabilities of obseivation. (The exact
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com
55
opposite of the expectation uiiection has zeio piobability). Theiefoie, the pioposeu mouel of
an isolateu funuamental paiticle is a uipole wave in spacetime that foims a iotating closeu loop
that is one wavelength in ciicumfeience.
This obviously is a uiastic uepaituie fiom the stanuaiu uefinition of the woiu paiticle. The
stanuaiu mouel of a funuamental paiticle is a mass that has no uisceinible physical size, but
somehow exhibits wave piopeities, angulai momentum anu ineitia. It is an axiom of quantum
mechanics that the function has no physical inteipietation. This vagueness will be ieplaceu
with a tangible physical mouel that explains many of the piopeities exhibiteu by funuamental
paiticles. A new name is iequiieu to uistinguish between the stanuaiu concept of a
funuamental paiticle anu the pioposeu mouel of a iotating uipole wave in spacetime. The new
name will be: rotar. It is with gieat ieluctance that a new woiu is coineu, but this is
necessaiy foi claiity anu bievity in the iemainuei of this book.
The name iotai iefeis specifically to the spacetime uipole mouel of a funuamental paiticle that
exhibits iest mass. This mouel, anu its vaiiations, is uesciibeu in uetail latei. 0bjects without
iest mass, such as a photon, have a uiffeient mouel anu aie not coveieu by the teim iotai.
Theie will be a spacetime mouel of a photon, but that will be intiouuceu latei. The woiu
paiticle will be useu whenevei the common uefinition of a paiticle is appiopiiate oi when it
is not necessaiy to specifically iefei to the spacetime paiticle mouel. Foi example, the name
paiticle acceleiatoi uoes not neeu to be changeu. Even the teim funuamental paiticle will
occasionally be useu in the iemainuei of this book when the emphasis is on uistinguishing a
quaik oi lepton fiom composite objects such as hauions oi molecules.
Trial and Error: It is pioposeu that the Big Bang staiteu with spacetime being in the most
eneigetic foim possible in the sense that all of the eneigy was obseivable because all the
uipole waves in spacetime initially possesseu quantizeu angulai momentum. Touay, almost all
the eneigy in the univeise is in the foim of vacuum fluctuations which uo not possess angulai
momentum. These vacuum fluctuations aie not obseivable except thiough quantum
mechanical inteiactions such as viitual paiticle foimation anu annihilation. It will be shown in
the chapteis on cosmology that it is possible to extiapolate backwaius fiom the cuiient
univeise to the conuition that existeu when the univeise was in its most piimitive foim at an
age of one unit of Planck time (~S x 1u
44
s). This extiapolation will inuicate that the uensity of
quantizeu spin in the univeise touay is the amount that woulu be expecteu if theie was
appioximately no loss of quantizeu spin units. The lowei uensity of quantizeu spin units touay
is uue to the expansion of the piopei volume of the univeise. This statement shoulu not be
confuseu with the touays eneigy pei quantizes spin unit. Touay almost all the quantizeu spin
in the univeise is in the foim of cosmic miciowave backgiounu (CNB) photons anu neutiinos.
The spin containeu in othei leptons anu quaiks is less than one pait in 1u
8
compaieu to CNB
photons anu neutiinos.
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56
The angulai momentum piesent in touays iotais was piesent at the Big Bang. Bowevei, this
angulai momentum is always tiying to finu the most stable foim. The eaily univeise was
iauiation uominateu but eneigetic photons can combine to foim matteiantimattei paiis.
Bowevei, theie is a slight piefeience foi mattei (about one pait in a billion). As the eaily
univeise expanueu (tiansfoimeu), the chaotic uipole waves in spacetime exploieu eveiy
alloweu combination of fiequency anu amplituue in an effoit to finu a suitable foim to holu the
unwanteu angulai momentum. By tiial anu eiioi, ielatively long liveu spacetime iesonances
weie founu that both helu quantizeu angulai momentum anu also weie compatible with the
piopeities of the vacuum eneigy uipole waves in spacetime. These spacetime iesonances aie
pioposeu to be the funuamental paiticles (funuamental iotais). It will be shown latei that the
funuamental iotais aie iesonances that have fiequencies between about 1u
2u
anu 1u
2S
Bz.
In the pioposeu eaily stages of the Big Bang, the most eneigetic spacetime paiticles (iotais)
foimeu fiist. Foi example, tauons (tau leptons) foimeu befoie muons. These weie paitially
stable iesonances. They suiviveu foi peihaps 1u
11
cycles, but not inuefinitely. They then
uecayeu into othei eneigetic iotais anu photons. The iauiation uominateu univeise was
unueigoing a laige ieushift pei seconu. Eneigy was being iemoveu fiom photons anu
tiansfoimeu into vacuum eneigy. This loweieu the tempeiatuie of the obseivable poition of
the univeise that possesses angulai momentum (photons, neutiinos anu iotais). Eventually,
othei funuamental spacetime iesonances (iotais) weie foimeu at lowei fiequencies (lowei
eneigy). Eventually, tiuly stable iesonances foimeu anu these weie elections anu the up anu
uown quaiks that founu stability by foiming piotons anu neutions.
WaveParticle Duality: Befoie launching into a moie uetaileu uesciiption anu analysis of a
iotai, it is inteiesting to initially stanu back anu look at the philosophical uiffeience in
peispective iequiieu to imagine a paiticle maue entiiely of uipole waves in spacetime waves.
At fiist, the iuea of a paiticle maue out of waves in spacetime seems to be intuitively
unappealing. The essence of a paiticle is something that acts as a unit. Waves, on the othei
hanu, aie imagineu to be infinitely uivisible, peihaps like a sounu wave. When a paiticle
unueigoes a collision, it iesponus as a single unit in a collision. This piopeity seems
incompatible with a iotai maue entiiely of waves. The teim wavepaiticle uuality was coineu
to explain the contiauictoiy piopeities of both paiticles anu photons.
Below, I will postulate a new piopeity of natuie calleu unity. This piopeity is closely ielateu
to entanglement. It peimits a uipole wave possessing quantizeu angulai momentum to
communicate inteinally fastei than the speeu of light anu iesponu to a peituibation as a single
unit. This piopeity woulu impait a paiticle like piopeity to a quantizeu uipole wave in
spacetime. Bowevei, the quantizeu wave woulu not exhibit classical paiticle piopeities.
Finuing the paiticle woulu become a piobabilistic event because we aie ieally uealing with
inteiacting with a wave caiiying quantizeu angulai momentum that is uistiibuteu ovei a finite
volume. A point paiticle cannot exhibit angulai momentum oi cannot exploie all possible
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com
57
paths between two events in spacetime. 0n the othei hanu, a quantizeu wave in spacetime can
exhibit both angulai momentum anu give a physical inteipietation to the path integial of QEB.
Theie is actually a gieat ueal of appeal to funuamental paiticles being maue of quantizeu waves
in spacetime, pioviueu that the mouel is plausible.
An objection to a iotai mouel maue entiiely of waves is that oui expeiience with light seems to
imply that waves uo not inteiact with each othei. Light uoes have a veiy weak giavitational
inteiaction, but oveiall light waves exhibit almost no inteiaction. The waves in spacetime that
aie pioposeu to be the builuing blocks of all mattei anu foices must be able to inteiact with
each othei.
Any wave that exhibits nonlineaiity will inteiact to some uegiee with a similai wave. Foi
example, sounu waves have a slight nonlineaiity. Theie is a tempeiatuie uiffeience between
the compiession anu iaiefaction paits of a sounu wave. This slight tempeiatuie uiffeience
piouuces a slight peiiouic uiffeience in the speeu of sounu. This slight nonlineaiity in a single
sounu wave means that two supeiimposeu sounu waves uo inteiact. Bowevei, at commonly
encounteieu sounu intensities, the inteiaction between two sounu waves is veiy small.
uiavitational waves also have a slight inteiaction because geneial ielativity shows that
giavitational waves aie nonlineai. 0ne of the appeals of uipole waves in spacetime is that they
exhibit the iequiieu ability to inteiact with each othei. In fact, uipole waves inteiact so
stiongly that they woulu cause a violation of the conseivation of momentum without the
quantum mechanical Planck lengthtime limitation pieviously uiscusseu. The inteiactions
between uipole waves in spacetime will be shown to be iesponsible foi all the foices incluuing
giavity.
Spacetime is the stiffest possible meuium. The incieuibly laige impeuance of spacetime
(Z
s
= c
S
u = 4 x 1u
SS
kgs) peimits a wave with small uisplacement to have the veiy high
eneigy uensity foi a given fiequency. When we have fiequencies in excess of 1u
2u
Bz, then
waves in spacetime aie capable of achieving the eneigy uensity of funuamental paiticles. When
we peimit the fiequency to ieach Planck fiequency, we can achieve the eneigy uensity
iequiieu at the stait of the Big Bang (Planck eneigy uensity). Also, a univeise maue only of
spacetime anu peituibations of spacetime has an appealing simplicity.
Particle Design Criteria: Eveiything that has pieviously been saiu in this book has set the
stage foi the task of attempting to uesign anu analyze a plausible mouel of a funuamental iotai.
In uesigning a iotai fiom uipole waves in spacetime, theie is one factoi that will be tempoiaiily
ignoieu. This is the expeiimental eviuence that seems to inuicate that funuamental paiticles
aie points with no physical size. This will be analyzeu latei.
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58
It shoulu be expecteu that the fiist mouel of funuamental paiticles will be oveily simplifieu.
Foi example, this fiist geneiation iotai mouel will make no uistinction between leptons anu
quaiks. Subsequent geneiations of the iotai mouel shoulu make such a uistinction anu exhibit
othei iefinements. The hope is that the fiist geneiation iotai mouel will pass enough
plausibility tests that otheis will be encouiageu to impiove on this mouel.
Theie aie 6 consiueiations that will be biought togethei in an attempt to uesign a funuamental
paiticle. These aie:
1) The univeise is only spacetime. Eneigetic spacetime is spacetime that contains waves
in spacetime. The waves can be uipole waves (with the Planck lengthtime limitation),
quauiupole waves (foi example, giavitational waves) oi highei oiuei waves. 0f these,
only uipole waves in spacetime have the piopei chaiacteiistics to be the builuing blocks
of iotais.
2) The iotai mouel shoulu exhibit ineitia. As shown in chaptei 1, this iequiies eneigy
tiaveling at the speeu of light, but confineu to a limiteu volume in a way that the
momentum vectois geneially cancel.
S) The iotai mouel shoulu exhibit angulai momentum. This will be inteipieteu as
implying a ciiculation (iotation) of the uipole waves in spacetime. Fuitheimoie, theie
shoulu be a logical ieason why funuamental iotais with uiffeient eneigy all possess the
same angulai momentum.
4) The iotai mouel shoulu exhibit ue Bioglie waves when moving ielative to an obseivei.
This implies biuiiectional wave motion, at least in the exteinal volume. The fiequency
of the confineu uipole waves in spacetime can be calculateu by analogy to the ue Bioglie
waves geneiateu by confineu light uesciibeu in chaptei 1.
S) The iotai mouel shoulu exhibit action at a uistance without iesoiting to mysteiious
exchange paiticles. Both giavity anu an electiic fielu shoulu logically follow fiom the
iotai uesign. To accomplish this, pait of the iotais uipole wave in spacetime must
extenu into what we iegaiu as empty space suiiounuing the iotai.
6) The iotai mouel shoulu logically explain how it is possible foi paiticles to exploie all
possible paths between two events in spacetime (path integial of QEB).
Inertia from Confined Energy: In the fiist chaptei, it was shown that confining light to a
specific volume causes the light to exhibit the ineitia. The amount of ineitia is compaiable to a
mass of equal eneigy as the confineu light. Waves in spacetime aie always moving at the speeu
of light, but they inteiact with each othei so they cannot fieely piopagate like photons. If stable
iesonances aie foimeu that confine waves in spacetime to a specific volume, then these
iesonances shoulu exhibit ineitia because they satisfy the iequiiement of eneigy tiaveling at
the speeu of light but confineu to a specific volume. These iesonances also must be iotating in
oiuei foi them to exhibit angulai momentum. These insights leau to an assumption about the
uesign of iotais:
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com
59
Fouith Staiting Assumption: A fundamental particle is a dipole wave in spacetime that
forms a rotating dipole, one wavelength in circumference. Inertia is a natural property of
this particle design.
A iotating uipole in spacetime can be mentally thought of as a uipole wave in spacetime that
has been foimeu into a closeu loop, one wavelength in ciicumfeience. What was the wave
maximum anu minimum have now become the two lobes of the iotating uipole. The wave is
still tiaveling at the speeu of light; it is just tiaveling at the speeu of light aiounu a closeu loop.
Such a wave is confineu eneigy tiaveling at the speeu of light. While theie is angulai
momentum, the net tianslational momentum of this quantizeu wave is zeio (p = u because of
opposing vectois). Theiefoie, just like confineu light oi confineu giavitational waves, a uipole
wave iotating at the speeu of light satisfies the conuition iequiieu foi it to exhibit iest mass
anu ineitia.
This iotating uipole must be pictuieu as an isolateu iotating uipole wave existing in a sea of
vacuum eneigypiessuie that consists of othei noniotating uipole waves in spacetime. This
vacuum eneigypiessuie is capable of exeiting a fai gieatei piessuie than is iequiieu to
confine the eneigy uensity of a iotai. Foi now the impoitant point is that a iotai (iotating
spacetime uipole) can achieve stability by inteiacting with the sea of vacuum eneigy that
suiiounus the iotai. The quantizeu iotating uistuibance can effoitlessly move thiough the
supeifluiu vacuum eneigy.
Illustrations of a Rotar: Figuies S1 anu S2 aie two uiffeient ways of uepicting the iotating
uipole poition of the iotai mouel. The spacetime uipole uepicteu in Figuie S1 shows two
uiffuse lobes iepiesenting stiaineu volumes spacetime that aie iotating in the sea of vacuum
eneigy. These lobes aie uesignateu uipole lobe A anu uipole lobe B. Each lobe exhibits both
a slight spatial anu a tempoial uistoition of spacetime. Foi example, lobe A can be consiueieu
the lobe that exhibits a iate of time slightly slowei than the local noim while lobe B can be
consiueieu the lobe that exhibits a iate of time slightly fastei than the local noim. Also lobe A
might be consiueieu to have a nonEucliuian volume that is slightly laigei than woulu be
expecteu fiom Eucliuian geometiy while lobe B woulu then have a volume slightly smallei
volume than expecteu fiom Eucliuian geometiy. These lobes aie always moving at the speeu of
light, so it is only possible to infei theii effect on time oi space by wave amplituues. Also, the
iotai mouel extenus beyonu the volume shown, but that poition is not illustiateu heie.
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510
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511
Quantum Radius and Quantum Volume: This cioss sectional view in Figuie S1 shows a
ciicle with iauius uesignateu R
q
. This iauius will be calleu the iotais quantum iauius. The
ciicle anu iauius R
q
shoulu not be consiueieu as physical entities. Insteau, they shoulu be
consiueieu as convenient mathematical iefeiences foi a iotai. This is similai to the way that
the centei of mass is a convenient mathematical concept foi mechanical analysis.
Since the uipole lobes aie quantum mechanical entities, they cannot be accuiately uesciibeu by
pictuies. While figuie S1 uepicts a iotation in a single plane, the intenueu iepiesentation is a
semichaotic iotation that has an expectation uiiection of iotation, but also othei planes of
iotation occui with a piobabilistic uistiibution. This uistiibution is the same as quantum
mechanical spin chaiacteiistics of a paiticle. Because of the semichaotic iotation
chaiacteiistics, the ciicle uepicteu in Figuie S1 shoulu be consiueieu the cioss section of an
imaginaiy spheie. The volume of this imaginaiy spheie will be uesignateu the quantum
volume v
q
. While this volume shoulu be (
4
S
) R
q
S
, often we aie uiopping numeiical factois
neai 1 in this plausibility stuuy, so the quantum volume will be consiueieu v
q
= R
q
S
.
An auuitional insight into figuie S1 can be obtaineu by making a compaiison to the TEN
u1
*
Lagueiieuauss moue of a lasei beam which is also known as the uoughnut moue. While a
lasei beam is piopagating at the speeu of light anu the iotai being moueleu is geneially
stationaiy, theie aie thiee points of similaiity. 1) The spatial anu tempoial fluctuation of
spacetime being uepicteu has a similai intensity uoughnut uistiibution in cioss section. Theie
is zeio intensity at the centei. 2) The centei contains all phases so that theie is a phase
singulaiity at the centei wheie theie is zeio intensity. S) The TEN
u1
* moue exhibits quantizeu
oibital angulai momentum.
Rotating Rate of Time Gradient: The piesence of these lobes also implies that theie is a
giauient in the iate of time anu a giauient in piopei volume between these lobes (anu even
outsiue these lobes). If lobe A has a iate of time that is slowei than the local noim anu lobe B
has a iate of time that is fastei than the local noim, then this implies that the iotai mouel also
contains a volume of space with a giauient in the iate of time that is iotating with the lobes.
Any giauient in the iate of time piouuces acceleiation. In chaptei 2 we showeu that the
acceleiation of giavity was uiiectly ielateu to the giauient in the iate of time:
g = c
2
d[
Jr
=
c
2
d[
d
dt
d
Foi example, a 1 ms
2
acceleiation is piouuceu by a iate of time giauient of: 1.11 x 1u
17
seconusseconu pei metei. The iate of time giauient in the iotai mouel theiefoie piouuces a
volume of spacetime that exhibits acceleiation similai to giavity but theie aie also impoitant
uiffeiences explaineu below.
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com
512
Figuie S2 is intenueu to illustiate the iotating iate of time giauient piesent in the iotai mouel.
In figuie S2 the lobes A anu B have been ieplaceu with a uasheu outline showing theii
appioximate location. Insteau of illustiating the lobes, figuie S2 shows the iate of time
giauient that exists between the lobes. (0nly the iate of time giauient insiue the quantum
volume is shown). The aiiows show the uiiection (vectoi) of the iate of time giauient anu the
length of the aiiows is a ciuue iepiesentation of the amount of iate of time giauient. The
uiiection of the iate of time giauient iotates with the lobes, so Figuie S2 shoulu be consiueieu
as uepicting a moment in time.
It is also possible to make a lasei moue analogy to figuie S2. This is similai to a TEN
uu
Beimiteuauss moue with ciiculaily polaiizeu light. The iotating electiic fielu of the ciiculaily
polaiizeu light is analogous to the iotating giauient in the iate of time uepicteu in figuie S2.
Also the intensity of the TEN
uu
moue is maximum at the centei anu this is analogous to the
maximum intensity of the iate of time giauient at the centei being uepicteu in figuie S2. 0ne
place that this analogy bieaks uown is that auuing togethei a TEN
uu
moue anu a TEN
u1
* moue
woulu piouuce inteifeience effects in lasei beams while the phenomenon being uepicteu in
figuies S1 anu S2 not only piouuce no inteifeience but they aie natuially compatible. 0ne
follows fiom the othei.
Rotating Grav Field: A new name is iequiieu to uesciibe this iotating acceleiation fielu
causeu by the iotating iate of time giauient. The name grav field will be useu to uesciibe this
acceleiating fielu. It will be shown latei that this is a fiist oiuei effect capable of exeiting a
foice compaiable to the maximum foice of a iotai. Bowevei this foice vectoi is iapiuly
iotating theiefoie we aie not awaie of its effect. The giavity piouuceu by a iotai is a vastly
weakei foice. Bowevei, the giavity vectoi is not iotating anu theiefoie it is auuitive. This giav
fielu filling the centei of the quantum volume will be shown to have an eneigy uensity
compaiable to the eneigy uensity of the iotating uipole wave which is concentiateu closei to
the ciicumfeience of the quantum volume. Theiefoie, the two uiffeient types of eneigetic
spacetime appioximately fill the entiie quantum volume with an appioximately unifoim total
eneigy uensity.
Lobe A as uesciibeu above piouuces an effect in spacetime that is similai to the effect on
spacetime piouuceu by oiuinaiy mass (minute slowing in the iate of time anu minute inciease
in volume). Lobe B, on the othei hanu, piouuces an effect that is the opposite of oiuinaiy mass.
Lobe B piouuces a minute inciease in the iate of time ielative to the local noim anu a minute
ueciease in volume. In lobe B, the minute inciease in the iate of time nevei ieaches the iate of
time that woulu occui in a hypothetical empty univeise. This will be uiscusseu latei, but it will
be pioposeu that the entiie univeise has a backgiounu giavitational gamma that iesults in
the entiie univeise having a iate of time that is slowei than a hypothetical empty univeise. It is
theiefoie possible foi lobe B to have a iate of time that is fastei than the suiiounuing
spacetime without having a iate of time fastei than a hypothetical empty univeise.
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513
Compton Frequency: We will ietuin to figuies latei, but fiist we want to calculate the
iotational fiequency of the iotating uipole. If we piesume that a iotai is a confineu wave
tiaveling at the speeu of light, it is necessaiy to assign a fiequency to this wave. Is it possible
to obtain an implieu fiequency fiom a paiticles ue Bioglie wave chaiacteiistics. In chaptei #1
we showeu that confineu light exhibits many piopeities of a paiticle. These incluue the
appeaiance of the optical equivalent of ue Bioglie waves when the confineu light is moving
ielative to an obseivei. If we weie only able to uetect the optical ue Bioglie waves piesent in a
moving lasei, it woulu be possible to calculate the fiequency of the light in the moving lasei.
Similaily, we can attempt to calculate a iotais fiequency fiom its ue Bioglie waves. We know a
paiticles ue Bioglie wavelength (
u
= hmv) anu the ue Bioglie waves phase velocity
(w
u
= c
2
v). Fiom these we obtain the following angulai fiequency .
u
d
=
w
d
x
d
= [
c
2
[
m
h
=
mc
2
h
= fiequency
= 2nu
d
=
2nmc
2
h
=
mc
2
=
c
=
c
c
= Compton angulai fiequency =
mc
2
=
c
R
q
=
E
This calculation says that a iotais angulai fiequency is equal to a iotais Compton angulai
fiequency
c
. We will piesume that this is a iotais funuamental fiequency of iotation. While
the ue Bioglie wavelength anu phase velocity uepenu on ielative velocity, the velocity teims
cancel in the above equation yieluing a funuamental fiequency (Compton fiequency) that is
inuepenuent of ielative motion. The ieasoning in this calculation can be conceptually
unueistoou by analogy to the example in chaptei 1 of the biuiiectional waves in the moving
lasei.
A iotais Compton wavelength will be uesignateu
c
. The connection between a iotais
Compton wavelength anu ue Bioglie wavelength is veiy simple.
c
=
u
(vc) appioximation valiu foi v << c
c
=
u
y appioximation valiu foi y >> 1
The simplicity of this equation shows the intimate ielationship between a iotais ue Bioglie
wavelength anu Compton wavelength. Foi anothei example, imagine a geneiic paiticle that
might be a composite paiticle such as an atom oi molecule. This paiticle is at iest in oui
fiame of iefeience. Suppose that this paiticle emits a photon of wavelength
. This photon
has momentum p = h
u
= hp set p = h
u
=
Theiefoie, we obtain the veiy inteiesting iesult that the ue Bioglie wavelength of the paiticle
equals the wavelength of the emitteu photon. In Appenuix A of chaptei 1 it was pioven that a
confineu photon with a specific eneigy exhibits the same ineitia as a funuamental paiticle with
the same eneigy. Anothei way of saying this is that a paiticle with ue Bioglie wavelength
u
exhibits the same ineitia as a confineu photon with the same wavelength. Fuitheimoie, in
chaptei 1 we saw the similaiity between ue Bioglie waves with wavelength
u
anu the
piopagating inteifeience patteins with mouulation wavelength
m
. Impaiting momentum
p = h
to eithei a funuamental paiticle with Compton wavelength
c
oi a confineu photon
with the same wavelength will piouuce the iesult:
u
=
m
=
c
=
c
p
wheie
p
= Planck angulai fiequency.
B
T
p
c
= L
p
R
q
B
L
p
R
q
can be thought of as B
= 4 x 1u
2S
. (This will be uiscusseu in moie uetail in the
next chaptei.) 0thei iotais have uiffeient stiain amplituues because they have uiffeient
Compton angulai fiequencies (anu a coiiesponuing uiffeient quantum iauius). The maximum
stiain amplituue occuis at the iegion of maximum slope. Theiefoie figuies SS anu S4 aie
shifteu in phase by 2 iauians. The maximum slope in figuie SS is Planck time pei time
inteival of 1
c
. This is the time iequiieu foi the lobe to iotate one iauian.
Figuies SS anu S4 uesciibe amplituues ielating to the tempoial chaiacteiistics of a iotai.
Similai figuies coulu be uiawn foi the spatial piopeities of a iotai. In this case, Figuie SS
woulu have the Y axis changeu to units of Planck length anu Figuie S4 woulu have the Y axis
changeu to a stiain amplituue of B
= L
p
R
q
.
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520
Particle Size Problem: Peihaps the biggest objection to the hypothesis pioposeu heie is that
expeiiments seem to inuicate that funuamental paiticles aie points with no physical size. Now
we will examine whethei the iotai mouel is compatible with the expeiiments that seem to
inuicate a point paiticle.
In one sense, a iotai is only an angulai momentum uistuibance in spacetime. Foi an election,
the stiain piouuceu on spacetime is only about 4 x 1u
2S
. Spatially, this is compaiable to
stietching }upiteis oibit by the iauius of a hyuiogen atom. Tempoially this is compaiable to
ietaiuing the iate of time by one seconu ovei Su,uuu times the age of the univeise. It is only
the incieuibly laige impeuance of spacetime (c
S
u) anu the high oscillation fiequency that
gives this small stiain of spacetime a uetectable physical piesence. Even then, the oscillations
aie not uetectable as waves because the maximum uisplacement of spacetime is only Planck
length anu Planck time. The oveiall piesence is uetectable but the inuiviuual wave oscillations
aie not uetectable.
When we uo uetect the piesence of an election, it exhibits piopeities that aie not explainable
fiom classical physics. Foi example, finuing an election (inteiacting with a wave with
quantizeu angulai momentum) is a piobabilistic event. An election can seem to jump fiom one
location to anothei without tiaveising the space between these two points. This is because the
iotating uipole in spacetime that is an isolateu election is uistiibuteu ovei a ielatively laige
volume (~ the unceitainty volume) anu yet it seems to inteiact at a point. The list of countei
intuitive piopeities of an election is long, but the nonclassical piopeity of inteiest heie is the
fact that an election seems to have no physical size in a collision expeiiment.
Recall that a iotai is a uipole wave in spacetime that has foimeu a closeu loop, one wavelength
in ciicumfeience. This wave is tiaveling at the speeu of light aiounu this loop, but at the same
time it has a uefinable fiame of iefeience. Bow big is the wavelength (ciicumfeience). }ust
like a photon, the wavelength (ciicumfeience) scales inveisely with eneigy. An isolateu
election must satisfy a stability conuition that iesults in it having a iotational fiequency of
about 1.24 x 1u
2u
Bz. This is a ciicumfeiential wavelength of about 2.4 x 1u
12
m oi a quantum
iauius of R
q
= S.86 x 1u
1S
m. This is not a haiu shell, it is a quantizeu unit of angulai
momentum that exists in the sea of vacuum fluctuations of spacetime.
When we talk about the size of a iotai, we aie ieally talking about the pieviously uefineu
quantum volume of a iotai with iauius R
q
. Theie is also the exteinal volume of a iotai. This
volume contains lowei amplituue stanuing waves anu static stiains that can extenu to the size
of the obseivable univeise. These stanuing waves in the exteinal volume uo not exhibit the
piopeity of unity anu uo not paiticipate in a collision the same way as the quantum volume.
Noie will be saiu about the exteinal volume latei. Foi now we aie conceineu only with the
quantum volume.
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521
In a collision between two elections tiaveling at ielativistic velocity the kinetic eneigy of each
election is momentaiily conveiteu into inteinal eneigy of the election. Foi the iotai mouel of
an election at the instant of closest appioach, this inciease in eneigy means that the fiequency
incieases, the wavelength uecieases, the ciicumfeience uecieases, anu the quantum iauius
uecieases. These changes keep the angulai momentum constant because the ueciease in
iauius offsets the inciease in masseneigy. The quantum iauius R
q
scales with the iotais
inteinal eneigy E
i
as: R
q
= cE
i
.
Bow uoes this iauius compaie with the paiticle size iesolution limit in a collision expeiiment.
This iesolution limit is set by the unceitainty piinciple x p = 2. We have been ignoiing
uimensionless constants like V, so we will use x p = anu then incluue a single allinclusive
constant k. In a collision between two elections, we have an unceitainty about the momentum
tiansfeiieu at the moment of closest appioach. Is the collision heau on oi a glancing collision.
All we ieally know is the maximum momentum available, so the unceitainty becomes p = mv.
Foi a collision between elections with ultia ielativistic velocity (v = c), the special ielativity
gamma is = E
k
mc
2
wheie E
k
is the ielativistic kinetic eneigy. Also, the momentum is:
p = mc. With this infoimation we can solve foi x.
x =
Ap
=
ymc
= k [
mc
[
mc
2
L
k
uimensionless constant k incluueu
x = k
c
L
k
Theiefoie, in a collision between ultiaielativistic iotais, the kinetic eneigy is momentaiily
auueu to the iotais inteinal eneigy (E = mc
2
eneigy) foi a total eneigy of E + E
k
= E
k.
This
means that the quantum iauius momentaiily shiinks to R
q
= cE
k
which matches the
unceitainty iesolution limit of the expeiiment x = cE
k
. It is no coinciuence oi lucky iesult
that that the iesolution of the expeiiment matches the momentaiy size of a iotai. If
funuamental paiticles ieally aie iotais with a piobabilistic inteiaction iauius, then this size
must match the unceitainty in the inteiaction.
Imagine two elections colliuing in space. These aie two volumes of spacetime that exhibit an
incieuibly small oscillating uistoition of spacetime. These volumes (elections) can paitially
oveilap without inteiacting. This ability to oveilap fuithei ieuuces the appaient size of an
election. If they uo inteiact, quantizeu angulai momentum uemanus that the entiie wave
iesponu as a unit (unity). The iauius must ueciease to maintain constant angulai momentum.
This aujustment in size must happen fastei than the speeu of light. The pioposeu piopeity of
unity gives paiticlelike chaiacteiistics to quantizeu waves in spacetime. 0nity is closely
ielateu to entanglement anu will be uiscusseu in moie uetail latei.
The combination of the oveilap anu the ieuuction in R
q
iesults in an expectation sepaiation
uistance that is less than the x unceitainty iesolution of the expeiiment that attempts to
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522
measuie the size of the iotai (paiticle). This is analogous to the unceitainty piinciple saying
that an expeiiment cannot simultaneously measuie the position anu momentum of a paiticle to
bettei than V. Similaily, an expeiiment cannot measuie the size of a funuamental paiticle
because the measuiement piocess intiouuces eneigy that uecieases the size of the paiticle to
below the measuiement iesolution (R
q
= cE
i
< x). Theiefoie, this mouel explains why
funuamental paiticles always appeai to be point paiticles in expeiiments that attempt to
measuie theii size.
The cuiient uppei limit foi the size of an election is set by an expeiiment using elections
acceleiateu to a kinetic eneigy of about Su uev. When the iotai mouel of an election
unueigoes a collision, the Suuev kinetic eneigy is tempoiaiily conveiteu to the elections
inteinal eneigy. This momentaiily incieases the elections inteinal eneigy (uipole wave
eneigy) by a factoi of 1uu,uuu anu ieuuces the quantum iauius by a factoi of 1uu,uuu. An
isolateu election has a quantum iauius of about 4 x 1u
1S
m. Bowevei when Su uev of kinetic
eneigy is conveiteu to an elections inteinal eneigy at the moment of closest appioach, this
ieuuces R
q
by a factoi of 1uu,uuu to about 4 x 1u
18
m. Combineu with the ability to paitially
oveilap quantum volumes, the election always has an instantaneous size smallei than the x
iesolution limit of the expeiiment. A Su uev election unueigoing a collision tempoiaiily
becomes much smallei than a pioton (~1u
1S
m) anu can be useu as a piobe of the inteinal
stiuctuie of a pioton.
The iotai mouel of an election also has an auvantage ovei the point paiticle mouel of an
election when it comes to explaining the behavioi of an election in an atom. An election bounu
in an atom appeais to be biggei than the isolateu iotai size. Foi example, an election bounu in
a hyuiogen atom has a uiffeient bounuaiy conuition than an isolateu election. This cieates a
uiffeient stability conuition that iesults in the uipole wave eneigy of the election uistiibuteu
aiounu the nucleolus of an atom in a way that enlaiges the appaient size anu explains the
clouulike quality of an election bounu in an atom.
Equations Demand Size: 0ne of the stiengths of the spacetime mouel of funuamental
paiticles is that it gives a plausible explanation of how the funuamental paiticle (iotai) can
have a physical size equal to the ieuuceu Compton wavelength (equal to R
q
) anu yet also
always appeai to be a point paiticle in collision expeiiments. 0ne of the mysteiies of
quantum mechanics has been that the equations of quantum mechanics yielu an unieasonable
answei of infinity when they incoipoiate the assumption that funuamental paiticles aie point
paiticles. These equations aie scieaming that this is a wiong staiting assumption. Yet the
equations aie ignoieu because the physical inteipietation of expeiiments is that the
funuamental paiticles must be point paiticles.
Bowevei, this is a failuie of the physical inteipietation of the expeiiments, not a failuie of the
equations. The piocess of ienoimalization useu to eliminate the infinity is actually aujusting
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523
the staiting assumption to give a physical volume to funuamental paiticles. Physicists believe
that expeiiments aie the ultimate iefeiee of a theoiy. 0sually expeiiments aie easy to
inteipiet coiiectly. Bowevei, the physical inteipietation of collision expeiiments always
makes the eiioneous assumption that the colliuing paiticles uo not change any of theii
chaiacteiistics compaieu to the same paiticles not unueigoing a collision. In paiticulai, the
assumption is that the physical size of a funuamental paiticle iemains constant, even if the
collision is ultiaielativistic. Bowevei, wheie is the kinetic eneigy stoieu at the instant when
both paiticles aie stoppeu. It is pioposeu that the collision expeiiments aie giving the coiiect
answei foi this instant but this collision moment cannot be extiapolateu to ueuuce the size of
isolateu paiticles. This is like a selffulfilling piophecy. If you assume point paiticles, then you
can inteipiet the expeiimental iesults to suppoit this mouel.
Stability Mechanism: Bow exactly uoes the spacetime uipole achieve stability. What
pievents the waves fiom simply piopagating in a stiaight line iathei than foiming a iotating
uipole. This question will be auuiesseu latei, but an intiouuctoiy explanation will be given
heie. This chaptei staiteu by iecounting Eiwin Schiouingeis attempteu to give a wave baseu
explanation to funuamental paiticles. Schiouingei eventually abanuoneu this explanation
because he was unable to explain what pieventeu his wave packet fiom uissipating.
The pioposeu iotai mouel has a single fiequency uipole wave in spacetime that foims a
iotating closeu loop. This uipole wave is still piopagating at the speeu of light. This mouel
achieves a laige eneigy uensity that will be calculateu latei. Bowevei, it also implies a laige
piessuie iequiieu to confine this eneigy. In fact, any concentiation of eneigy uensity
funuamentally implies piessuie. Theiefoie, this pioposeu iotai mouel iequiies some means to
counteiact the piessuie associateu with the eneigy uensity. This is accomplisheu by an
inteiaction with the vacuum eneigy uipole waves in spacetime that exist eveiywheie in
spacetime. This vacuum eneigy possesses a vastly laigei eneigy uensity than any iotai.
Theiefoie the vacuum eneigy exists at a vastly laigei piessuie than is iequiieu to stabilize the
iotai. Theie aie only a few quaiks anu leptons in the stanuaiu mouel. These iepiesent only a
few Compton fiequencies that have achieveu at least paitial stability inteiacting with the
suiiounuing vacuum eneigy uipole waves in spacetime. This explanation will be expanueu
latei.
Inertia: A key chaiacteiistic of the pioposeu iotai mouel is that it gives ineitia to all
funuamental iotais. In chaptei 1, we saw how eneigy tiaveling at the speeu of light exhibits
ineitia anu iest mass if it is confineu to a specific volume (if the momentum vectois cancel in a
iest fiame of iefeience). This incluues: confineu light, hypothetical confineu giavitational
waves anu confineu uipole waves in spacetime. These uipole waves in spacetime aie pioposeu
to be the most funuamental foim of eneigy in the univeise. The uipole waves in spacetime that
foim a iotai tiavel at the speeu of light. They aie confineu thiough an inteiaction with vacuum
eneigy. In chaptei 1, the examples of confineu eneigy tiaveling at the speeu of light incluueu
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524
lasei iesonatois anu light in a ieflecting box. Both of these examples hau the supeiposition of
waves tiaveling opposite uiiections. This maue it easy to see how it is possible to geneiate
both ue Bioglie waves anu ineitia.
The exteinal volume of the pioposeu iotai mouel will be fully uesciibeu latei, but the exteinal
volume of a iotai has waves tiaveling opposite uiiections (away fiom anu towaius the
quantum volume). Theiefoie, the iotai mouel also exhibits ue Bioglie waves. Besiues the
exteinal volume of a iotai wheie theie is obvious biuiiectional piopagation, the iotais
spacetime uipole, iotating at the speeu of light, also exhibits ineitia. The tianslational
momentum vectois in a stationaiy iotai auu up to zeio (p = u). This satisfies the conuition of
eneigy piopagating at the speeu of light but confineu to a specific volume. The momentum
vectois auu up to zeio, theiefoie this mouel achieves iest mass anu ineitia as shown in chaptei
1. Nost impoitant, the ineitia of the iotai mouel exactly matches the ineitia of an equal
amount of eneigy piopagating at the speeu of light but confineu to a limiteu volume. The Biggs
mechanism foi giving ineitia to point paiticles uoes not auuiess the iequiiement of matching
this ineitia.
Fiber Optic Loop: In chaptei 1, we founu that light ciiculating aiounu a ciiculai fibei optic
loop satisfies the conuition of p = u because all momentum vectois cancel. Theiefoie this
ciiculating light exhibits ineitia even though the light is not supeiimposeu like the ieflecting
box example. Foi example, suppose that we acceleiate a fibei optic loop in a uiiection paiallel
to the plane of the loop. Light in uiffeient paits of the loop ieceives uiffeient Bopplei shifts.
Foi example, light tiaveling with a vectoi component in the uiiection of the acceleiation will
inciease in fiequency anu light tiaveling with a vectoi component in the opposite uiiection will
ueciease slightly in fiequency. The iesultant uistiibution of fiequencies aiounu the loop
piouuces the same ineitial foices on the fibei optic loop as the ieflecting box ieceiveu fiom
acceleiating confineu light. Even if the loop is only one wavelength in ciicumfeience, theie
woulu still be the same ineitial foices. If the loop was acceleiateu peipenuiculai to the
iotational plane, the light woulu exhibit ineitia by exeiting a piessuie uiffeience on opposite
siues of the fibei optic.
The iotating quantum uipole is similai to the example of light in a fibei optic loop, except that
theie is no physical wall confining the eneigy ciiculating at the speeu of light. The inteiaction
with the vacuum eneigy uipole waves in spacetime accomplishes the confinement.
Prediction: No Higgs Boson: The explanation of ineitia is an impoitant pait of the pioposeu
iotai mouel. In fact, the staiting assumption (the univeise is only spacetime) ultimately
implies that theie is no Biggs fielu that gives ineitia to all mattei. In one sense, theie is a
similaiity between the Biggs fielu anu the quantum mechanical spacetime mouel pioposeu
heie. Both have veiy laige eneigy uensity that lacks quantizeu angulai momentum. The Biggs
fielu has eneigy uensity of about 1u
46
}m
S
while the quantum mechanical spacetime fielu has
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525
eneigy uensity of about 1u
11S
}m
S
. While theie is a big uiffeience between these two numbeis,
in anothei sense they aie similai because they both vastly exceeu the ciitical eneigy uensity
of the univeise fiom geneial ielativity anu cosmology.
Bowevei, theie aie also impoitant uiffeiences. In the iotai mouel theie aie no funuamental
paiticles with spin of zeio. Composite paiticles such as pions can have a total spin of zeio but
single funuamental paiticles cannot. The iotai mouel of funuamental paiticles also gives
intiinsic ineitia thiough a mechanism that ultimately uepenus on the speeu of light being
constant. This matches the ineitia of the equivalent eneigy in confineu photons. The Biggs
mechanism gives ineitia to funuamental paiticles that lack ineitia thiough an exteinal
inteiaction. Theie is no mechanism to match the ineitia of an equivalent amount of confineu
photons.
Cuiiently (Apiil 2u12), the existence of the Biggs boson has not been pioven, but most
theoietical physicists believe that it exists. Theie aie some inuications fiom LBC expeiiments
that theie might be a new funuamental paiticle with eneigy of 12S uev. Bowevei, even if such
a paiticle exists, it must be pioven to have spin of zeio anu give ineitia to all othei funuamental
paiticles. The pieuiction is that the iotai mouel is the coiiect anu theie is no funuamental
paiticle with the iequiieu piopeities of a Biggs boson.
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The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com
61
Chaptei 6
Analysis of the Paiticle Nouel
The pioposeu iotai mouel now neeus to be testeu foi plausibility. It will be subjecteu to two
initial tests. Fiist the iotai mouel neeus to uemonstiate that the eneigy implieu by the uipole
wave mouel is plausibly equal to the known E = mc
2
eneigy of a funuamental paiticle. The
iotai mouel neeus to be capable of geneiating the iequiieu paiticle eneigy without exceeuing
the Planck lengthtime limitation foi uipole waves in spacetime. Then it will be necessaiy to
show that the iotai mouel plausibly has angulai momentum compaiable to V . We aie not
going to be conceineu by numeiical factois neai 1.
Rotar Energy Test: Now we aie going to subject the iotai mouel anu the concept of uipole
waves in spacetime to a ciitical test. We will use one of the S waveamplituue equations anu
attempt to calculate the eneigy of any iotai. We aie not attempting to calculate the eneigy of
specific paiticles. Insteau, we aie checking to see if the concept of uipole waves in spacetime
that aie confineu to a specific volume can piouuce the equivalent masseneigy foi a iotai. Foi
this plausibility test to be successful, inseiting a iotais amplituue, fiequency anu volume into
the waveamplituue equation must piouuce the coiiect eneigy foi a iotai (ignoiing
uimensionless constants neai 1). The equation to be useu is:
E = k B
2
2
Z vc waveamplituue equation expiessing eneigy E in a volume v
We know that the angulai fiequency equals the Compton fiequency: =
c
= cR
q
= mc
2
.
We will also set the amplituue as: B
= L
p
R
q
= T
p
c
. Wheie B
= L
p
R
q
=
c
= cR
q
anu Z = Z
s
= c
S
u
E = k _
L
R
q
]
2
_
c
R
q
]
2
[
c
3
G
[
R
q
3
c
= k
L
2
c
4
GR
q
= k [
G
c
3
[
c
4
G
[
mc
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com
62
E = k mc
2
This impoitant plausibility test is successful. The iotai mouel establishes the famous
ielationship between eneigy anu mass (ineitia). We have shown that an amplituue of
B
= L
p
R
q
, a fiequency of
c
anu a volume of kR
q
S
, togethei piouuce the coiiect eneigy of
E = mc
2
(times a possible constant). The mass in this equation shoulu be thought of as the
ineitia exhibiteu by confineu eneigy ciiculating at the speeu of light. The calculation that was
just maue iepiesents a biiuge between the familiai concept of paiticles exhibiting mass anu the
unfamiliai concept of confineu waves in spacetime that exhibit eneigy anu ineitia.
We aie piesuming that k = 1. We actually have a little bit of flexibility in this iegaiu.
Pieviously we gave an example wheie the uisplacement amplituue was uefineu as the noimal
_ amplituue of a sine wave. It woulu also be possible to uefine the amplituue as the RNS
amplituue oi the peak to peak amplituue. These thiee ways of uefining amplituue all apply to
the same wave. Fuitheimoie, theie may be anothei way of uefining amplituue. I am going to
piesume that some uefinition of amplituue will peimit k = 1.
It shoulu be emphasizeu that the quantum iauius R
q
is a convenient mathematical
iepiesentation of a iotai mouel, but the iotai uoes not abiuptly stop at a uistance of R
q
. The
iotai mouel is moie complex than this anu pait of the quantum wave that foims the iotai
extenus beyonu the quantum iauius. Foi example, it will be shown latei that the iotais electiic
fielu anu giavity aie the iesult of the iotais wave stiuctuie that extenus fai beyonu the
quantum iauius. Bowevei, the eneigy in the electiic anu giavitational fielus beyonu R
q
contains less than 1% of the iotais total eneigy. The use of R
q
can be thought of as a
convenient mathematical tool to easily iepiesent the entiie iotai in simple calculations.
Angular Momentum Test: The next test of the mouel is to see if the mouel has appioximately
the coiiect angulai momentum. We will builu on the eneigy calculation anu test to see if the
angulai momentum L of this iotai mouel has the same angulai momentum foi all funuamental
paiticles iegaiuless of masseneigy anu fuitheimoie whethei this angulai momentum is equal
to when numeiical factois neai 1 aie ignoieu.
L = pi set: p = momentum = Ec = mc anu i = R
q
= mc;
L = mc(mc) =
Nass cancels anu all masseneigy has the same angulai momentum. It is actually possible to
iationalize an answei closei to V by the following ieasoning. Anothei way of calculating
angulai momentum is to use L = " wheie is the moment of ineitia. If we only hau eneigy
tiaveling at the speeu of light aiounu a ciicle (a hoop) of iauius R
q
, (foi example, light in a
waveguiue) then we shoulu use the moment of ineitia of a hoop (" = mi
2
). Bowevei, the uipole
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com
63
wave is uiffuse anu as shown in figuie S2, theie is also a giav fielu filling the centei of the
quantum volume.
In chaptei 8 it will be shown that the eneigy uensity containeu in the stiongest pait of the
iotating giav fielu is exactly the same as the eneigy uensity containeu in the stiongest pait of
the iotating uipole wave. In fact, the giav fielu is a funuamental pait of the uipole wave anu
eneigy is just being tiansfeiieu between these two states. This means that the eneigy uensity
is ielatively evenly uistiibuteu acioss the quantum volume anu the moment of ineitia of a iotai
is most closely appioximately by the moment of ineitia foi a uisk: (" = V mi
2
).
L = " set: " = V mi
2
= V mR
q
2
= cR
q
R
q
= mc
L = (V mR
q
2
) _
c
R
q
] = (V mc) [
mc
note that mass cancels
L = V
This is a much moie complicateu pioblem that can only be solveu accuiately with a moie
auvanceu mouel anu a iigoious analysis. Bowevei, this is a successful plausibility test. The
pioposeu mouel inheiently incoipoiates angulai momentum into the stiuctuie of a iotai.
Fuitheimoie, the pioposeu mouel explains why paiticles of uiffeient masseneigy all have the
same angulai momentum. A iotai with a ielatively laige masseneigy has a ielatively small
quantum iauius. The combination always piouuces the same angulai momentum.
The stanuaiu mouel assumes that all funuamental paiticles aie viitually point paiticles. Foi
example, stiing theoiy has a one uimensional vibiating stiing that is ioughly Planck length
long. This can be consiueieu a point paiticle. Bowevei, the concept of a point paiticle is
incompatible with a conceptual unueistanuing of how funuamental paiticles can exhibit any
angulai momentum. Theiefoie, stuuents aie tolu that funuamental paiticles possess intiinsic
angulai momentum. If theie is any objection, it is answeieu with a statement that the stuuent
must move beyonu classical physics wheie concepts weie conceptually unueistanuable anu
embiace quantum mechanics with its many countei intuitive concepts. The ieal pioblem
appeais to be that the teachei was giving the stuuent the wiong mouel of a funuamental
paiticle. The spacetime baseu mouel makes quantum mechanics conceptually unueistanuable.
Nolecules also possess quantizeu angulai momentum, but in the case of molecules it is easy to
piove that this quantizeu angulai momentum iesults fiom the physical iotation of the
molecule. Theie aie othei examples of quantizeu angulai momentum involving the iotation of
physical objects such as the quantizeu voitices that foim in supeifluiu liquiu helium. The point
is that the angulai momentum is physical. Theie is no neeu to invoke the abstiact concept of an
object possessing intiinsic angulai momentum in these cases. Something exteinal is
enfoicing this quantization of angulai momentum. The spacetime baseu mouel pioposeu heie
attiibutes this enfoicement to all mattei (funuamental paiticles, molecules, etc.) being
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com
64
immeiseu in a sea of supeifluiu vacuum eneigy. This spacetime baseu mouel also gives a
conceptually unueistanuable expiation of how a funuamental paiticle such as an election can
possess angulai momentum. The election is a iotating uistuibance in spacetime with a
physical size that gives conceptually unueistanuable angulai momentum. The concept that a
point paiticle can possess angulai momentum is an aumission that the mouel being useu is
inauequate.
Dipole Moment: Not only uoes the pioposeu iotai mouel give the same angulai momentum
to all iotais, the iotai mouel also specifies that all iotais have the same uipole moment u
m
. The
uipole moment of a iotai is the uipole amplituue times the quantum iauius. We will calculate
the value of the uipole moment shaieu by all iotais.
u
m
= B
R
q
= _
um
2
c
[
mc
= _
G
c
3
u
m
= uipole moment B
see explanation below
u
m
= L
p
L
p
= uynamic Planck length
A uipole maue of two electiically chaigeu paiticles has a uipole moment with units of Coulomb
meteis. Bowevei, a spacetime uipole has a uipole moment with units of just meteis because B
is a uimensionless numbei. Rotais with a laige mass have a laige value of B
= L
p
R
q
, but theie aie seveial othei ways of
expiessing this stiain amplituue.
B
= L
p
R
q
= T
p
c
= 0m
2
c = mm
p
= E
i
E
p
=
c
p
=
R
s
R
q
=
P
c
P
p
E
i
= inteinal eneigy of a iotai (mc
2
eneigy)
R
s
= classical Schwaizschilu iauius R
s
= umc
2
P
c
= ciiculating powei P
c
= E
i
c
=
c
2
(explaineu latei)
The symbols m
p
,
p
, E
p
, anu P
p
aie Planck mass, Planck eneigy anu Planck powei. They aie
uefineu fuithei in the table below.
To help convey the significance of this stiing of equalities, I will use an election foi a numeiical
example. The mass of an election is: m
e
= 9.1u94 x 1u
S1
kg
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com
65
Electrons Characteristics
R
q
= mc = c
c
= S.8616 x 1u
1S
m quantum iauius
c
= mc
2
= cR
q
=7.76S4 x 1u
2u
s
1
Compton angulai fiequency
E
i
= mc
2
=
c
= 8.1871 x 1u
14
} inteinal eneigy
P
c
= E
i
c
=
c
2
= 6.SS6 x 1u
7
w ciiculating powei (explaineu below)
B
= 0m
2
c = 4.18S x 1u
2S
quantum amplituue
L
p
R
q
= 1.616 x 1u
SS
S.8616 x 1u
1S
= 4.18S x 1u
2S
quantum iauius
c
T
p
=
c
p
= 7.76 x1u
2u
1.8SS x 1u
4S
= 4.18S x 1u
2S
Compton fiequency
mm
p
= 9.1u9 x 1u
S1
2.176 x 1u
8
= 4.18S x 1u
2S
mass
E
i
E
p
= 8.187 x 1u
14
1.9S6 x 1u
9
= 4.18S x 1u
2S
eneigy
R
s
R
q
= (6.76 x 1u
S8
S.86 x 1u
1S
)
12
= 4.18S x 1u
2S
Schwaizschilu iauius
P
c
P
p
= (6.S6 x 1u
7
S.6S x 1u
S2
)
12
= 4.18S x 1u
2S
ciiculating powei
(0
q
0
p
)
14
= (1.42 x 1u
24
4.64 x 1u
11S
)
14
= 4.18S x 1u
2S
eneigy uensity
(A
q
A
p
)
12
= (9.74 x 1u
6
S.S8 x 1u
S1
)
12
= 4.18S x 1u
2S
giav acceleiation
(g
q
A
p
)
1S
= (4.u8 x 1u
16
S.S8 x 1u
S1
)
1S
= 4.18S x 1u
2S
giavitational acceleiation at R
q
It is amazing that the uimensionless numbei B
= m =
c
= E
i
= 1R
q
= P
c
12
= A
q
12
= U
q
14
uimensionless iotai constant in Planck units
Each funuamental iotai has a single uimensionless numbei that expiesses all of a iotais
unique piopeities. Angulai momentum anu chaige aie shaieu piopeities. Foi example, an
election, muon anu tauon all have the same angulai momentum anu chaige. The unique values
of quantum stiain amplituue B
= 4.18 x 1u
2S
elections amplituue, Planck fiequency, mass, eneigy anu inveise size
B
= 8.66 x 1u
21
muons amplituue, Planck fiequency, mass, eneigy anu inveise size
B
= 1.46 x 1u
19
tauons amplituue, Planck fiequency, mass, eneigy anu inveise size
Maximum Amplitude Rotar: 0ut of cuiiosity, lets calculate the mass of the iotai that has the
maximum possible amplituue which is a quantum amplituue of B
= 1.
B
= um
2
c
substitute B
= 1 not
only iepiesents a iotai with Planck mass, but because of the above equalities, B
= 1 also
iepiesents a iotai with Planck angulai fiequency
p
, anu a iotai with a quantum iauius equal
to Planck length l
p
. uoing even fuithei, a iotai with B
p
= Planck angulai fiequency
p
= 1t
p
= c
5
u
1.8SS x 1u
4S
s
1
F
p
= Planck foice F
p
= E
p
l
p
= c
4
u 1.21u x 1u
44
N
P
p
= Planck powei P
p
= E
p
t
p
= c
S
u S.628 x 1u
S2
w
0
p
= Planck eneigy uensity 0
p
= E
p
l
p
S
= c
7
u
2
4.6S6 x 1u
11S
}m
S
"
p
= Planck piessuie "
p
= F
p
l
p
2
= c
7
u
2
4.6S6 x 1u
11S
Nm
2
(= 0
p
)
p
= Planck uensity
p
= m
p
l
p
S
= c
S
u
2
S.1SS x 1u
96
kgm
S
A
p
= Planck acceleiation A
p
= ct
p
= c
7
u
S.S7S x 1u
S1
ms
2
v
p
= Planck voltage v
p
= E
p
Q
p
= c
4
4
o
u 1.u4S x 1u
27
v
Z
p
= Planck impeuance Z
p
= Q
p
2
= 14
o
c 29.98
Planck units aie the natuial units to use foi a mouel of the univeise baseu on the piopeities of
spacetime. Foi example, Planck length is the minimum unit of length in spacetime. Planck time
is the minimum unit of time anu Planck foice is the maximum foice that spacetime can exeit.
When a unit of time, length, foice, etc. is expiesseu in uimensionless Planck units, it iepiesents
the iatio of the paiticulai quantity to the maximum oi minimum that spacetime can suppoit. It
is often saiu that Planck units aie the natuial units of the univeise. This is paiticulaily tiue if
the univeise is only spacetime anu we aie attempting to constiuct all mattei, foices anu
cosmology out of spacetime. We woulu expect that expiessing vaiious concepts ielating to
paiticles anu foices in Planck units woulu leau to simplifications anu give impoitant insights.
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com
67
Circulating Power: A iotais inteinal eneigy is confineu eneigy maue of uipole waves in
spacetime that aie moving at the speeu of light. Theiefoie, theie is a specific amount of
ciiculating powei in any iotai. The ciiculating powei (P
c
) in an isolateu iotai is the iotais
inteinal eneigy E
i
times the iotais Compton angulai fiequency
c
. This is the momentaiy
powei that woulu leave the iotais quantum volume if the ciiculating wave (iotating uipole)
uissipateu by all points in the wave tiaveling in stiaight lines. The wave woulu expanu beyonu
the quantum iauius in a time equal to 1.
P
c
= E
i
c
=
c
2
= m
2
c
4
= E
i
2
P
c
= ciiculating powei
An isolateu elections ciiculating powei is about 6S.S6 million watts. (8.2 x 1u
14
}
)
2
This
high ciiculating powei can be unueistoou when it is iealizeu that the elections inteinal eneigy
(8.2 x 1u
14
}
) is multiplieu by the elections Compton angulai fiequency (7.8 x 1u
2u
s
1
). The
concept of ciiculating powei will be impoitant when we consiuei foices. Foi futuie iefeience,
we will calculate the value of ciiculating powei in Planck units by uiviuing conventional powei
by Planck powei (P
p
= c
S
u).
P
c
= P
c
P
p
= (m
2
c
4
)(uc
S
) = um
2
c P
c
= ciiculating powei in Planck units
Characteristics of an Electron: It is veiy useful to have a single table of the iotai
chaiacteiistics anu stanuaiu chaiacteiistics of an election to test concepts. Theiefoie, the
following table is pioviueu heie anu in chaptei 1S which is a compilation of equations anu
uefinitions.
Constants of an Electron
B
= 4.18S4 x 1u
2S
= elections stiain amplituue
R
q
= S.8616 x 1u
1S
m = elections quantum iauius
c
= 7.76S4 x 1u
2u
s
1
= elections Compton angulai fiequency
c
= 1.2SS6 x 1u
2u
Bz = elections Compton fiequency
P
c
= 6.SS6 x 1u
7
w = elections ciiculating powei
F
m
= u.212u1 N = elections maximum foice at uistance of R
q
R
s
= 6.76SS x 1u
S8
m = elections classical Schwaizschilu iauius
0 = E
i
R
q
S
= 1.422 x 1u
24
}m
S
= elections eneigy uensity (cubic)
0 = (S4)E
i
R
q
S
= S.S97 x 1u
2S
}m
S
= elections eneigy uensity (spheiical)
v = R
q
S
= S.7S84 x 1u
S8
= elections quantum volume (cubic)
A
g
= 9.741S x 1u
6
ms
2
= elections giav acceleiation at centei of quantum volume
m
e
= 9.1u94 x 1u
S1
kg = elections mass
E
i
= 8.1871 x 1u
14
} = elections eneigy
e = 1.6u22 x 1u
19
Coulomb = elections chaige
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com
68
Foices
We aie next going to examine the stiong foice, the electiomagnetic foice anu the giavitational
foice between two of the same iotais. The only foice exeiteu by uipole waves in spacetime is
the ielativistic foice (F
i
= P
i
c). Theiefoie, we woulu expect that the foice between paiticles
shoulu be a simple function of the iotais ciiculating powei. Initially, we will examine the
foices exeiteu unuei the simplest conuition foi the iotai mouel of funuamental paiticles. The
foices will be calculateu between two of the same iotais sepaiateu by the iotais natuial unit of
length sepaiateu by R
q
. In latei chapteis we will examine othei uistances, but the spacetime
baseu iotai mouel piesenteu thus fai only is able to uefine the chaiacteiistics at a uistance
equal to the iotais quantum iauius R
q
. It is ieasonable that if the spacetime baseu mouel is
coiiect, then the simplest sepaiation uistance woulu be R
q
, the iotais natuial unit of length.
Recall that the quantum iauius is also equal to the funuamental paiticles ieuuceu Compton
wavelength (R
q
=
c
). Calculations at aibitiaiy uistance involve an auuitional consiueiation of
how waves in the exteinal volume of a iotai fall off with uistance. Initially limiting the
sepaiation uistance just to R
q
(the quantum iauius) involves the fewest assumptions. We know
the stiain amplituue of a iotai at this uistance is: B = B
= T
p
c
= L
p
R
q
. Theiefoie, this
funuamental test conuition will be useu exclusively foi the iemainuei of this chaptei.
Theoretical Maximum Force: We will begin this examination of foices by asking a simple
question. Is theie a theoietical maximum foice that a funuamental iotai with a known eneigy
can geneiate at a paiticulai uistance. This question consiueis only the eneigy of a iotai anu
the uistance. 0thei chaiacteiistics of the iotai will ueteimine whethei the iotai can actually
inteiact anu achieve anything close to the theoietical maximum foice. At this eaily stage of
uevelopment of foices we aie uealing with the ielativistic foice in its simplest foim. Since the
ielativistic foice is only iepulsive, it follows that a simplifieu mouel of the theoietical maximum
foice will uesciibe a iepulsive foice. Latei the mouel will be expanueu anu eventually yielu the
stiong foice which is an attiacting foice with asymptotic fieeuom chaiacteiistics. Foi now we
aie meiely logically following the naiiow path associateu with the staiting assumption.
The stanuaiu mouel uesciibes the stiong foice (the stiong inteiaction) as the exchange of
gluons between quaiks. Theie aie subtleties in this exchange that aie explaineu by invoking
coloi chaige anu quantum chiomouynamics (QCB). We aie staiting fiom fiist piinciples anu
so fai know nothing about gluons, etc. We only know the simplifieu iotai mouel piesenteu so
fai. We have a uipole wave in spacetime that possesses quantizeu angulai momentum anu a
specific amount of eneigy. The uipole wave is piopagating at the speeu of light in a closeu loop
one wavelength in ciicumfeience. This concept uefines a specific iotational fiequency anu a
specific amount of ciiculating powei.
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com
69
Maximum Force from Circulating Power: We will fiist use the concept of ciiculating powei
P
c
of a funuamental iotai. Pieviously; it was founu that the iotai mouel implies that eveiy iotai
can be consiueieu to have a ciiculating powei equal to:
P
c
= E
i
c
=
c
2
= c
2
R
q
2
P
c
= ciiculating powei of a iotai insiue R
q
Pieviously we concluueu that the staiting assumption (the univeise is only spacetime) implieu
that theie is only one tiuly funuamental foice the ielativistic foice F
i
= P
i
c. The stiongest
foice that a funuamental iotai can exeit at uistance R
q
will occui if all of a iotais ciiculating
powei is ueflecteu (set P
i
= P
c
). This piesumes two of the same iotais, each with inteinal
eneigy of E
i
. 0nly quaiks aie actually capable of exeiting something close to this maximum
foice, but it is still possible to calculate the theoietical maximum foice that any iotai can
geneiate if all the iotais ciiculating powei is ueflecteu. This is equivalent to saying that some
iotais cannot ueflect all the ciiculating powei at a sepaiation uistance of R
q
, but it is possible to
calculate the maximum foice that woulu be geneiateu if all the ciiculating powei was ueflecteu.
We take the ielativistic foice equation F
i
= P
i
c anu set F
i
= F
m
anu P
i
= P
c
= c
2
R
q
2
.
F
m
= P
c
c = cR
q
2
= m
2
c
S
= E
i
2
c =
B
2
F
p
F
m
= iotais maximum foice at uistance R
q
Latei we will compaie this value of the maximum possible foice at R
q
to the electiostatic foice
at this uistance to see if it is ieasonable. Bowevei, fiist I want to explain a qualification on the
physical inteipietation of this maximum foice F
m
= E
i
2
c. This equation iepiesents the
maximum foice that can be exeiteu if two of the same iotais aie helu stationaiy at a uistance
equal to theii quantum iauius R
q
. If two iotais aie colliuing at ielativistic velocity, then a
gieatei foice can be geneiateu because kinetic eneigy is conveiteu to inciease the iotais
inteinal eneigy E
i
at the instant of collision. This momentaiily incieases the inteinal eneigy E
i
of the colliuing iotais which also momentaiily incieases F
m
,
c
anu P
c
. This inciease in eneigy
also uecieases the iotais quantum iauius R
q
.
Foi example, an election with ielativistic velocity equal to Su uev can tempoiaiily conveit this
kinetic eneigy into inteinal eneigy in a collision iaising the elections inteinal eneigy fiom
~ u.S Nev to Su uev, a factoi of about 1uu,uuu. This woulu momentaiily ueciease the
elections quantum iauius by a factoi of 1u
S
fiom S.86 x 1u
1S
m to S.86 x 1u
18
m. This woulu
also inciease both the ciiculating powei anu the maximum foice by a factoi of 1u
1u
. Theiefoie,
an election unueigoing a collision can exhibit a foice gieatei than the theoietical maximum
foice calculateu assuming an isolateu election (no collision). Tiying to iemove a quaik fiom a
hauion also changes the inteinal eneigy of the quaik anu can affect the binuing foice. This will
be uiscusseu latei.
Maximum Force from the WaveAmplitude Equation: We will also calculate the maximum
foice using the waveamplituue equation: F = B
2
2
ZAc. We have pieviously useu a similai
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com
610
equation to calculate the eneigy in a iotai. Foi that calculation we maue the following
substitutions: B = B
= L
p
R
q
; =
c
= cR
q
; anu v = kR
q
S
. This time we have an aiea teim
A. Since the piesumption is that we have two of the same iotais sepaiateu by R
q
, this means
that the inteiaction aiea woulu be a constant times R
q
2
. (A = kR
q
2
). Theie aie many othei
numeiical factois close to 1 that have been pieviously ignoieu, so we will also ignoie this
constant.
F = B
2
2
ZAc set: B = B
= L
p
R
q
; =
c
= cR
q
; Z = Z
s
= c
S
u; A = R
q
2
F
m
= _
L
p
R
q
]
2
_
c
R
q
]
2
[
c
3
u
[
R
q
2
c
set: L
p
2
= uc
S
;
F
m
=
c
R
q
2
=
L
i
2
c
=
o
c
2
c
=
m
2
c
3
= E
[
2
F
p
Coulomb Force: To evaluate the maximum foice it is necessaiy to compaie it to the Coulomb
foice (electiomagnetic foice) that woulu exist between two iotais with elementaiy chaige e.
We only know the maximum foice at uistance R
q
anu this is the natuial unit of length foi the
spacetime baseu mouel of a iotai. The electiomagnetic foice at this uistance must be closely
ielateu to the maximum foice, but weakei. The electiomagnetic foice must be equal to the
maximum foice times a coupling constant that is less than 1. We uo not have enough
infoimation to calculate this coupling constant, but if we weie to make a guess the logical
choice is the fine stiuctuie constant . This is a uimensionless numbei less than 1 that is
known to be the coupling constant between photons anu elections. We can check this guess
with a simple calculation of the electiomagnetic foice F
e
exeiteu between two of the same
funuamental paiticles with chaige e anu sepaiateu by uistance R
q
. This calculation uses the
substitution of = e
2
4
o
c.
F
e
=
c
2
4ns
c
R
q
2
=
uc
R
q
2
= F
m
Theiefoie, the guess was coiiect F
e
= F
m
. The electiomagnetic foice between two elections oi
two muons, when sepaiateu by theii iespective quantum iauius uistance R
q
, is less than the
maximum foice by a factoi of (=
1
1S7
). No one has been able to ueiive the value of the fine
stiuctuie constant fiom fiist piinciples, so we will meiely use this calculation to check that the
pieviously ueiiveu maximum foice is ieasonable. The stiong foice is known to be ioughly 1uu
times stiongei than the electiomagnetic foice at sepaiation uistance compatible with this
mouel. Since the stiong foice is slightly less than the maximum foice at optimum sepaiation,
the calculation of the maximum foice being 1 laigei than the electiomagnetic foice at this
sepaiation iange suppoits the iotai mouel. Chaigeu leptons such as elections uo not feel the
stiong foice, but they still expeiience the maximum foice because this is the foice being
exeiteu by vacuum eneigy to contain (ueflect) the ciiculating powei of the iotai mouel.
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com
611
uiavity
Now foi the big question: Can we uevelop the foice of giavity fiom fiist piinciples using the
iotai mouel. Thus fai we have uiscusseu the funuamental uipole wave that can exist in
spacetime. If we aie going to be able to explain all the foices of natuie with only uipole waves
in spacetime, we have to examine the possibility that unuei some ciicumstances a uipole wave
in spacetime may not be peifectly sinusoiual. 0nce again the staiting assumption that the
univeise is only spacetime seives as a wonueiful iestiiction. It keeps us focuseu on examining
only the most basic piopeities of spacetime.
If the universe is only spacetime, we do not have many possible explanations for gravity. In
fact, the only plausible possibility is that spacetime is a nonlinear medium for dipole waves
in spacetime.
Optical Kerr Effect: I see a similaiity between giavity anu a nonlineai optical effect calleu the
optical Keii effect. When light passes thiough any tianspaient mateiial, a nonlineai effect
occuis. The oscillating electiic fielu of the light changes the inuex of iefiaction of any
tianspaient mateiial. This nonlineai effect ieuuces the speeu of light in the tianspaient
mateiial in auuition to the noimal ieuuction uue to the mateiials inuex of iefiaction at zeio
intensity. An expiession of the optical Keii effect is given by the following simplifieu equation
that ignoies highei oiuei teims.
n
k
= n
o
+ k
1
2
simplifieu optical Keii effect equation
n
k
= the inuex of iefiaction which incluues the optical Keii effect contiibution
n
o
= the noimal inuex of iefiaction at zeio intensity
k
1
= a nonlineai constant that uepenus on the tianspaient mateiial
2
). The seconu oiuei teim uepenus on the squaie of the alteinating
electiic fielu piouuceu by the light.
Even sunlight passing thiough a winuow piouuces a slight nonlineai effect in the glass. When a
high peak powei pulse of lasei light is focuseu in a tianspaient mateiial, the light can ieach
oscillating electiic fielu stiength wheie the optical Keii effect incieases the inuex of iefiaction
to the extent that the lasei beam is fuithei concentiateu anu confineu to a small filament. This
confinement can be so gieat that the beam is not alloweu to uiveige. This effect is easily seen in
glass anu othei solius, but it has even been uemonstiateu in aii.
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612
While the analogy between the optical Keii effect anu giavity is fai fiom peifect, the point is
that homogeneous mateiials like glass oi aii exhibit a nonlineaiity that scales piopoitional to
the squaie of the wave amplituue. This squaiing piouuces an effect that is always positive. In
the optical Keii effect, the inuex of iefiaction always incieases.
uiavity A Nonlineai Effect: We neeu to ieason to the foice of giavity between two of the
same iotais at uistance R
q
. If the univeise is only spacetime anu if theie is only one tiuly
funuamental foice (the ielativistic foice) then uipole waves in spacetime must also cause
giavity. We aie theiefoie looking foi a mechanism wheieby a iotais ciiculating powei can be
conveiteu into a foice that has only one polaiity anu is vastly weakei than the othei foices.
Theie is ieally only one ieasonable choice. uiavity must be the iesult of spacetime being a
nonlineai meuium foi uipole waves in spacetime.
Fifth Staiting Assumption: Spacetime is a nonlinear medium for dipole waves in spacetime.
This nonlinearity ultimately produces gravity.
The giavitational foice must be the iesult of this nonlineaiity while the othei foices aie a uiiect
(lineai) function of ciiculating powei. The stiain piouuceu by uipole waves in spacetime must
have a lineai teim anu a nonlineai teim.
Stiain = B
sint + (B
sint)
2
= B
sint V B
2
cos2t + V B
2
(bolu foi emphasis)
The lineai teim is (B
sint) anu the nonlineai teim is (B
sint)
2
. Theie aie also highei oiuei
nonlineai teims but these can be ignoieu because B
2
cos2t) anu a non oscillating teim that is always positive (V B
2
).
It is pioposeu that the stiain in spacetime piouuceu by the non oscillating teim (B
2
at uistance
R
q
) is iesponsible foi the geneial ielativistic cuivatuie of spacetime which iesults in giavity.
An analysis in chaptei 8 will shown how the nonlineai teim (B
sint)
2
leaus to both
giavitational attiaction as well as the giavitational effect on time anu uistance. In this chaptei
we aie going to stait with a simplifieu analysis that concentiates only on the magnituue of the
foice exeiteu by the giavity of a iotai. With this limitation we again aie ueveloping an ovei
simplifieu iepulsive foice with the coiiect magnituue of giavity. This will latei be impioveu
into an attiacting foice that also exhibits the spatial anu tempoial piopeities of giavity. A biief
explanation of how giavity is an attiacting foice involves the non oscillating teim uecieasing
with uistance away fiom a iotai. This causes vacuum eneigy to exeit a slight piessuie giauient
acioss the wiuth of a neaiby iotai. This piessuie giauient exeits an unbalanceu foice on
opposite siues of a iotai that iesults in what we know as giavitational attiaction but is ieally
unbalanceu iepulsion fiom the piessuie exeiteu by the sea of vacuum eneigy.
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613
It is easy to uemonstiate that the nonlineaiity of spacetime gives the coiiect magnituue of the
giavitational foice at uistance R
q
using a calculation that is somewhat oveisimplifieu.
Pieviously we weie using B = B
2
into the foice
equation: F = kB
2
2
ZAc.
F = kB
2
2
ZAc foi giavity set: B = B
2
= L
p
2
R
q
2
F
g
= B
c
2
Z
s
Ac = _
L
p
4
R
q
4
] _
c
2
R
q
2
] [
c
3
u
[
R
q
2
c
= [
2
u
2
c
6
[
m
2
c
2
2
_
1
R
q
2
] [
c
4
u
F
g
=
um
2
R
q
2
magnituue of the giavitational foice between 2 paiticles of mass m at uistance R
q
Even though this is oveisimplifieu, I finu this calculation veiy exciting! We obtain the
Newtonian giavitational foice equation staiting with iotating uipole waves in spacetime. It
was not necessaiy to make an analogy to acceleiation. This paiticulai calculation was foi two
of the same iotais at a sepaiation uistance of R
q
, but eventually we will be able to bioauen this
to the moie geneial case of any masseneigy at any uistance. Fuitheimoie, the mouel will be
impioveu anu iesult in this being an attiacting foice. To my knowleuge, this is the fiist time
that the giavitational attiaction has evei been calculateu fiom fiist piinciples.
This implies that giavity is ieally a foice anu not the iesult of the geometiy of spacetime. Static
cuiveu spacetime is the iesult of uynamic (oscillating) cuiveu spacetime exhibiting a nonlineai
effect. In chaptei 4 we uesciibeu how the quantum mechanical mouel of spacetime possesses
elasticity, impeuance, eneigy uensity, etc. Intiouucing mattei (uipole waves with quantizeu
angulai momentum) into this homogeneous meuium piouuces uistoition which has both a
lineai anu a nonlineai component. uiavity is the nonlineai component. Fiom the above
calculation it is not haiu to see that eventually we will obtain the Newtonian equation:
F = umNi
2
. Even though this is a successful plausibility calculation, in chaptei 8 it will be
shown to be an oveisimplification that gets the magnituue coiiect but the vectoi wiong.
Auuitional steps will be intiouuceu to obtain the complete pictuie.
Review: We have just calculateu a simplifieu veision of Newtons giavitational equation fiom a
set of staiting assumptions. The steps that biought us to this point will be biiefly ievieweu.
The key assumptions aie:
1) The univeise is only spacetime.
2) Bipole waves in spacetime aie peimitteu by quantum mechanics pioviueu that the
uisplacement of spacetime uoes not exceeu the Planck lengthtime limitation.
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614
S) Eneigy in any foim is funuamentally maue of uipole waves in spacetime piopagating at
the speeu of light (uynamic spacetime).
4) Theie is only one funuamental foice: the ielativistic foice. This foice occuis when
waves in spacetime, piopagating at the speeu of light, aie ueflecteu.
S) Funuamental paiticles aie uipole waves in spacetime that foim a iotating uipole, one
wavelength in ciicumfeience that possesses ciiculating powei.
6) Spacetime is a nonlineai meuium foi uipole waves in spacetime. This nonlineaiity
ultimately piouuces giavity.
Waves in spacetime aie like sounu waves piopagating in the meuium of spacetime. Spacetime
has an impeuance (Z
s
= c
S
u) anu the foice geneiateu by ueflecting waves in spacetime is:
F = B
2
2
Z
s
Ac wheie B is amplituue anu A is aiea. Assumption #6 says that spacetime is a
nonlineai meuium. This nonlineai effect can be consiueieu the souice of a new nonlineai wave
that has a stiain amplituue that is the squaie of the amplituue of the funuamental wave
amplituue: B
2
= B
g
= L
p
2
R
q
2
. Inseiting this amplituue into the foice equation above yielus
F
g
= um
2
R
q
2
which is a simplifieu veision of Newtons giavitational equation that assumes
two of the same mass paiticles at uistance R
q
(uimensionless constants neai 1 ignoieu).
The giavitational foice anu the maximum foice weie both obtaineu fiom fiist piinciples that
staiteu with the assumption that the univeise is only spacetime. The electiomagnetic foice
was not obtaineu fiom fiist piinciples because the souice of the fine stiuctuie constant is
unknown. Bowevei, at uistance R
q
the electiomagnetic foice was shown to be equal to the
maximum foice times the coupling constant . The maximum foice, the electiomagnetic foice
anu the giavitational foice aie cleaily closely ielateu. 0ltimately they aie just vaiiations of the
single funuamental foice the ielativistic foice.
Connection Between the Forces and Circulating Power: If the foices of natuie aie causeu by
the inteiaction of waves in spacetime, then theie shoulu be a simple ielationship between the
foice anu the ciiculating powei (P
c
). I pieviously pioposeu that theie is only one tiuly
funuamental foice in natuie the ielativistic foice (F
i
= P
i
c). This is the iepulsive foice
exeiteu when ielativistic powei (powei piopagating at the speeu of light) is ueflecteu
(incluues absoibeu anu ieflecteu). Foi this to appeai to be an attiacting foice this inteiaction
must incluue piessuie (iepulsive foice) exeiteu by vacuum eneigy. This is uiscusseu in
chaptei 8. Bowevei, in all cases a foice geneiateu by a iotai must be ielateu to both the
ciiculating powei anu the quantum iauius of the iotai. Fuitheimoie, since giavity is the iesult
of nonlineaiity, we woulu expect that the giavitational foice woulu be a function of P
c
2
while
the othei foices woulu be a lineai function of P
c
.
We aie theiefoie going to peifoim a ciitical test of the iotai mouel anu the concept of a single
funuamental foice. Theie is no single iotai that exhibits all thiee of the following piopeities:
elementaiy chaige, the stiong foice anu giavity. Quaiks anu the chaigeu leptons only exhibit 2
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com
615
of the S piopeities. Bowevei, it is possible to calculate the magnituue of these thiee foices as if
they weie possesseu by a single paii of the same iotais sepaiateu by a uistance equal to theii
quantum iauius. Foi example, an election feels the electiomagnetic foice (chaige e) anu
giavity. It is also possible to calculate the maximum foice that an election woulu feel if it coulu
inteiact in a way that ueflecteu all of the ciiculating powei to piouuce the maximum possible
foice at uistance R
q
. The maximum foice is closely ielateu to the stiong foice.
This ciitical test will examine whethei theie is an easy to unueistanu ielationship between the
magnituues of the thiee foices (F
m
, F
e
, F
g
) anu the ciiculating powei P
c
of the iotai causing the
foice. This compaiison will be uone using the natuial Planck units of foice anu powei (bolu
anu unueilineu inuicates Planck units F
m
, F
e
, F
g
, anu P
c
). Initially, all compaiisons will be
maue at the iotais natuial unit of length, its quantum iauius R
q
= c
c
= mc.
Substitutions that will be useu:
i = R
q
=
mc
; F
m
= [
m
2
c
3
; F
p
=
c
4
u
; P
c
= [
m
2
c
4
; P
p
=
c
S
u
;
c
2
4ns
c
= c;
F
g
=
F
g
P
p
= _
um
2
R
q
2
] [
u
c
4
= um
2
[
m
2
c
2
2
[
u
c
4
= [
u m
2
c
2
F
m
=
P
m
P
p
= [
m
2
c
3
[
u
c
4
=
um
2
c
F
e
=
P
c
P
p
= _
c
2
4ns
c
R
q
2
] [
u
c
4
= (c)[
mc
2
[
u
c
4
= [
uu
c
3
[
m
2
c
2
2
= [
um
2
c
P
c
=
P
c
P
p
= [
m
2
c
4
[
u
c
S
=
um
2
c
Since all of these aie ielateu to um
2
c, we obtain simple ielationships between foices anu
ciiculating powei when we aie uealing with two of the same iotais with chaige e anu
sepaiateu by a uistance R
q
. Recall that the concept of a single ielativistic foice says that theie
shoulu be an easy to unueistanu ielationship between foice anu ciiculating powei.
F
m
= P
c
F
m
= maximum foice in Planck units (closely ielateu to the stiong foice)
F
e
= P
c
F
e
= electiomagnetic foice in Planck units (elementaiy chaige e)
F
g
= P
c
2
F
g
= giavitational foice in Planck units
This is a spectaculai success that stiongly suppoits the spacetime baseu mouel of foices. This
simplification of ielationships occuis at the spacetime baseu mouels funuamental unit of
length (the ieuuceu Compton wavelength). The maximum foice ueflects all of the ciiculating
powei (F
m
= P
c
). The electiomagnetic foice only ueflects about
1
1S7
of the ciiculating powei
anu is theiefoie about 1S7 times weakei (F
e
= P
c
). Bowevei, both of these foices aie similai
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com
616
because they both scale lineaily with ciiculating powei (both scale with P
c
1
). uiavity is
uiffeient because it is the iesult of a nonlineai effect anu scales piopoitional to P
c
2
. When
ciiculating powei is expiesseu in Planck units it is always a uimensionless numbei close to
zeio. Theiefoie squaiing this numbei piouuces a numbei even closei to zeio. The weakness
of giavity compaieu to the othei foices is uue to the uiffeience between P
c
anu P
c
2
. The
analysis of giavity will continue in chaptei 8, but giavity is the iesult of spacetime being a
nonlineai meuium that scales with amplituue squaieu which in tuin iesults in a P
c
2
scaling of
the giavitational foice. These aie pieviously unknown concepts ueiiveu fiom the spacetime
baseu mouel of paiticles anu foices. In fact, this is the fiist time that giavity has been able to be
connecteu to any othei foice.
We can also ielate the iotais Compton angulai fiequency
c
, eneigy uensity U
q
anu stiain
amplituue B
c
=
c
p
= [
mc
2
_
u
c
S
= _
um
2
c
U
q
= 0
q
0
p
= [
m
4
c
S
3
[
u
2
c
= [
um
2
c
2
B
= L
p
R
q
= _
u
c
3
[
mc
= _
um
2
c
Combining all of these we obtain:
F
g
= F
m
2
= (F
e
)
2
= P
c
2
=
c
4
= U
q
= B
4
This is one of the most impoitant finuings in this book. It is a seiies of equalities that can be
iewiitten as 21 inuiviuual equations. The simplicity of this seiies of equalities equation is jaw
uiopping. It shows how the giavitational foice is closely ielateu to not only the maximum foice
anu the electiomagnetic foice but also to a iotais Compton angulai fiequency, ciiculating
powei, eneigy uensity anu stiain amplituue. It will be shown latei that the stiong foice is
actually the supeiposition of two vaiiations of the maximum foice. This supeiposition
piouuces asymptotic fieeuom at R
q
but a slight uisplacement fiom this sepaiation piouuces a
foice close to the maximum foice. Fuitheimoie, the stiong foice must be ioughly 1uu times
stiongei than the electiomagnetic foice at the sepaiation uistance ioughly compaiable to the
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com
617
iauius of a pioton (~ 8 x 1u
16
m) because the stiong foice can oveicome the electiostatic
iepulsion of piotons bounu into nuclei of atoms with atomic numbeis in the iange of 1uu.
}ust to help inteinalize these ielationships, we will use two elections sepaiateu by
R
q
= S.86 x 1u
1S
meteis as illustiation. Reaueis aie inviteu to substitute the following values
of F
m
, F
e
, F
g
, P
c
, E
i
anu B
c
=
c
p
= (mc
2
)(c
S
u)
12
= 4.19 x 1u
2S
U
q
= 0
q
0
p
= (m
4
c
S
S
)(u
2
c
7
) = S.u7 x 1u
9u
B
= (um
2
c)
12
= 4.19 x 1u
2S
Support for the Spacetime Based Model: The ielationships enumeiateu in the multiple
equations F
g
= F
m
2
= (F
e
)
2
= P
c
2
=
c
4
= U
q
= B
4
make a stiong statement about the
accuiacy of the spacetime baseu mouel of funuamental paiticles. The foices in this equation
assumeu a sepaiation uistance of R
q
=
c
= c
c
. It will also be shown latei that the simple
foice ielationship between funuamental paiticles extenus foi laigei sepaiation uistance when
that uistance is expiesseu in multiples of R
q
. This is the natuial unit of length foi a spacetime
baseu mouel of funuamental paiticles, but this uistance has no significance if foices aie
assumeu to iesult fiom the exchange of viitual photons, gluons anu giavitons. The fact that
the forces have a simple relationship at the separation distance that is the natural unit of
length of the spacetime based model offers strong support for the spacetime based model of
fundamental particles.
Force Equations Between Two Planck Charge Particles: The equation that compaies
giavitational foice to electiostatic foice between two funuamental paiticles with elementaiy
chaige e anu sepaiation R
q
=
c
is; F
g
= (F
e
)
2
. Bowevei, suppose that we imagine a
hypothetical funuamental paiticle with Planck chaige (q
p
= eo = 11.7e). Two of these
hypothetical paiticles, sepaiateu by R
q
, woulu have the following foice equations.
F
g
=
4
F
e
=
2
F
g
= F
e
2
The equation F
g
= F
e
2
foi two hypothetical Planck chaige paiticles is a cleai example that theie
is a funuamental connection between the giavitational foice anu the electiostatic foice. The
use of Planck chaige iathei than elementaiy chaige e eliminates the coupling constant , the
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com
618
fine stiuctuie constant fiom the electiostatic equations. The fine stiuctuie constant is the
coupling constant that ueteimines the stiength of the inteiaction between a photon anu a
funuamental paiticle with chaige e (such as an election). When we assume Planck chaige q
p
iathei than elementaiy chaige e, we aie actually assuming the moie funuamental case of a
coupling constant equal to 1. Theiefoie the equation F
g
= F
e
2
is compaiing the funuamental
electiostatic foice to the funuamental giavitational foice foi the pieviously stateu conuitions
when the coupling constant is eliminateu. Anothei way of saying this is that assuming Planck
chaige makes the electiostatic foice equal the maximum foice.
The classical iauius of an election (i
e
) is obtaineu by assuming that all of an elections eneigy
iesiues in its electiic fielu. This assumption iesults in the i
e
= 2.82 x 1u
1S
m. If we assume a
hypothetical paiticle with Planck chaige q
p
, what woulu be its classical iauius (i
cl
).
r
cI
= [
1
4ns
c
[
q
c
2
m c
2
= [
c
2
4ns
c
c
[
c
um c
2
=
m c
= R
q
This substitution of Planck chaige makes the classical iauius i
cl
equal to the Planck chaige
iotais quantum iauius R
q
. I contenu that this suppoits the iotai mouel of funuamental
paiticles.
Predictions: When }ames Naxwell ueiiveu the equation: c = _
1
s
c
c
, uiu this equation qualify to
be calleu a pieuiction. 0thei paits of Naxwells equations pieuict pieviously unknown
physical effects, but this equation just shows a pieviously unknown ielationship between c,
o
anu
o
. Still, I am going to say that this equation also maue a pieuiction because the new mouel
being analyzeu by Naxwell gave an unexpecteu connection anu a veiy useful new insight. The
fact that the pieuiction was easy to piove coiiect shoulu not uiminish its status as a pieuiction.
Similaily, the equation F
g
= F
m
2
= (F
e
)
2
= P
c
2
= U
q
= E
i
4
= B
4
also shows pieviously
unknown ielationships that aie easy to piove coiiect. Befoie this theie was no equation
expiessing a funuamental ielationship between the giavitational foice anu eithei the
electiomagnetic foice oi the stiong foice. This pieuiction came fiom the analysis of a new
mouel, anu suppoits the accuiacy of the mouel.
Gravitational Wave Calculation: We will now move on to anothei plausibility test that can
be peifoimeu on the pioposeu iotai mouel. Recall that uipole waves in spacetime have enough
similaiities to giavitational waves that we can use giavitational wave equations foi analysis.
Bowevei, we have to ignoie uimensionless constants anu inteipiet the iesults appiopiiately
foi uipole waves in spacetime.
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619
Theie is an equation useu to estimate giavitational wave amplituue (B
gw
) at the low intensity
limit wheie nonlineaiities can be ignoieu. This equation can be applieu to the pioposeu iotai
mouel.
B
gw
= k u
2
"c
4
i " = moment of ineitia, = asymmetiy of a iotating object
This simplifieu equation, woulu noimally be useu to estimate the giavitational wave amplituue
of a iotating iou oi a binaiy stai system. It contains an angulai fiequency teim , the moment
of ineitia (") of the iotating object, the iauius i of the iotating object, anu a mass asymmetiy
teim . Foi example, a spheiically symmetiic object woulu have no asymmetiy ( = u) anu two
equal point masses sepaiateu by 2i woulu have an asymmetiy of = 1. We aie going to
assume that = u anu the uimensionless asymmetiy teim will be incluueu in the all inclusive
constant k. We will next conveit the moment of ineitia teim to angulai momentum.
B
gw
= k u
2
" c
4
i set: " = L, L = angulai momentum, incluueu in k
B
gw
= k u Lc
4
i
The ieason foi conveiting to angulai momentum is because we want to apply this equation to
iotais. We know the angulai momentum of paiticles as L = V . Bowevei, the V in this
angulai momentum is subject to inteipietation as pieviously uiscusseu. The constant,
whatevei its value, will be incluueu in the geneial constant k. The iotai mouel implies that
= u because the uipole coie of a iotai is two lobes iotating at the speeu of light. We will also
lump the eccentiicity teim , into the geneial constant k. We will now calculate the
hypothetical giavitational wave amplituue foi a funuamental iotai.
B
gw
= k u Lc
4
i substitute: =
c
= cR
q
; L = k anu i = R
q
B
gw
= k u _
c
R
q
] _
c
4
R
q
]
B
gw
= k (uc
S
) R
q
2
B
gw
= k L
p
2
R
q
2
= kB
2
we will ignoie the constant k
This is an amazing connection. We take a giavitational wave equation useu in cosmology anu
inseit a iotais angulai momentum V anu Compton fiequency
c.
We then ueteimine the
giavitational wave amplituue (excluuing constant) that woulu exist at a uistance of R
q
. We
obtain the amplituue B
gw
= L
p
2
R
q
2
= B
2
. We pieviously ueteimineu that the nonlineaiity of
spacetime cieates a nonoscillating stiain amplituue equal to B
2
= L
p
2
R
q
2
in the quantum
volume of a iotai. The same amplituue expiession is obtaineu using an entiiely uiffeient
appioach. Pieviously we employeu ieasoning baseu on the quantum mechanical piopeities of
spacetime anu also on spacetime being nonlineai. Now we obtain the same answei by
inseiting iotais piopeities (angulai momentum anu Compton fiequency) into a giavitational
wave equation fiom geneial ielativity.
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620
The above calculation is a success, but it also seems to imply a pioblem. Aie all funuamental
iotais continuously iauiating away theii eneigy as giavitational waves. It is tiue that if any
aibitiaiy value of Compton fiequency oi quantum iauius (R
q
= c
c
) is assumeu, then theie
woulu piobably be iauiateu powei both foi the funuamental wave anu foi the nonlineai wave
with amplituue L
p
2
R
q
2
. Bowevei, it is pioposeu that the funuamental iotais that uo exist
coiiesponu to special fiequencyamplituue combinations wheie a wave inteiaction occuis that
cancels this iauiateu powei. Even shoit liveu funuamental iotais, such as the tauon (lifetime
= S x 1u
1S
s), aie long liveu compaieu to the lifetime they woulu have if theii ciiculating powei
was iauiateu. Since P
c
= E
i
c
, the time iequiieu to iauiate the iotais inteinal eneigy E
i
woulu
be the inveise of the iotais Compton fiequency. Foi a tauon this woulu be: 1
c
= S x 1u
2S
seconu. The tauons lifetime is about 1u
12
times longei than its 1
c
time anu is consiueieu to
be a semistable paiticle.
Theie aie an infinite numbei of possible fiequencies, amplituues anu configuiations that coulu
hypothetically exist, but uo not exist long enough to be consiueieu funuamental iotais. The
few fiequencies that exist long enough to be consiueieu funuamental iotais have some soit of
wave inteiaction that constiuctively inteifeies to ieinfoice the iotating uipole iotai mouel anu
uestiuctively inteifeies in a way that eliminates iauiateu eneigy. The bottom line is that the
few funuamental iotais that exist belong to the small gioup of fiequencyamplituue
configuiation combinations that uo not iauiate eithei the funuamental uipole wave in
spacetime oi the nonlineai wave associateu with giavity. Even though theie is not continuous
loss of eneigy, some of the iotais eneigy uoes extenu beyonu the quantum volume. It will be
shown that giavity is a foim of eneigy that is associateu with uipole waves in spacetime. Noie
will be saiu about this in chaptei 8.
Gravitational Wave Radiation: 0ut of cuiiosity, we will calculate how long it woulu take foi
an election to iauiate away its inteinal eneigy if giavitational waves weie being continuously
iauiateu. We will assume a giavitational wave amplituue of B
gw
= L
p
2
R
q
2
anu a iauiation aiea
equal to the elections quantum iauius squaieu. We will use one of the S waveamplituue
equations that ielate the powei in a wave.
P = B
2
2
Z A set B = B
gw
= L
p
2
R
q
2
; =
c
= cR
q
; Z = c
S
u; A = R
q
2
P = _
L
p
2
R
q
2
]
2
_
c
R
q
]
2
[
C
3
u
R
q
2
= _
L
p
R
q
]
4
(
c
S
u
) set c
5
0 = P
p
(Planck Powei)
P = _
L
p
R
q
]
4
P
p
= B
4
P
p
To obtain a physical feel foi the magnituue of this powei, we will examine the giavitational
wave powei that woulu be iauiateu using the piopeities of an election. We know that an
election must have a mechanism that cancels this iauiateu powei.
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com
621
P = (4.18 x 1u
2S
)
4
x S.6S x 1u
S2
w = 1.1 x 1u
S7
w
t = E
i
P = 8.18 x 1u
14
}1.1 x 1u
S7
w set E
i
= 8.18 x 1u
14
} = elections eneigy
t = 7 x 1u
2S
s = 2 x 1u
16
yeais
Theiefoie, it woulu take moie than one million times the age of the univeise (2 x 1u
16
yeais)
foi an election to iauiate away its eneigy in giavitational waves. While this is a long time, it
woulu be uetectable because elections in the eaily univeise woulu have moie eneigy
(measuieu locally) than touays elections. If up anu uown quaiks iauiateu away powei as
giavitational waves, they woulu have iauiate away all theii eneigy in a time shoitei than the
age of the univeise because of theii much laigei Compton fiequency
c
. The powei iauiateu as
giavitational waves scales with
c
4
.
If iotais iauiateu eneigy with amplituue equivalent to the funuamental wave amplituue
(B
f
= L
p
i) with no cancelation mechanism fiom vacuum eneigy, then the pictuie changes
completely. If an election iauiateu away its eneigy in a wave at its Compton fiequency anu its
funuamental amplituue, an election woulu iauiate about 6S million watts anu it woulu suivive
foi a time of only 1
c
(~ 1u
2u
seconu). This is mentioneu because it is pioposeu that the few
funuamental iotais that exist have a cancelation mechanism (uiscusseu latei) that pievents
this type of eneigy loss. Stanuing waves iemain in the iotais exteinal volume aftei this
cancelation. Stanuing waves have equal powei flowing in opposite uiiections anu theiefoie uo
not tiansfei eneigy. 0nly tiaveling waves aie continuously tiansfeiiing eneigy.
Solitons: Theie appeais to be a similaiity between a stable iotai anu an optical soliton. An
optical soliton is foimeu when a veiy shoit pulse of lasei light is focuseu into a tianspaient
mateiial that exhibits a set of complementaiy optical chaiacteiistics. 0ne of these
chaiacteiistics is the optical Keii effect. As pieviously mentioneu, this is a nonlineai effect in
all tianspaient mateiials wheie the speeu of light is uepenuent on intensity. This nonlineai
effect is also wavelength uepenuent. In some optical mateiials the uispeision of the optical
Keii effect can be offset against the optical uispeision of the tianspaient mateiial. These two
piopeities can inteiact in a way that confines iathei than uispeises the eneigy in the pulse of
lasei light. A pulse of lasei light foims a piopagating wave that fulfills a stability conuition
wheieby these offsetting effects shape the pulse of light into an optical soliton that is a stable
wave uistiibution that exhibits many paiticlelike piopeities. Foi example, two optical solitons
piopagating neai each othei can attiact oi iepel each othei uepenuing on the ielative phase of
the light. A wonueiful viueo is available at the following website showing paiticlelike
inteiactions of optical solitons
1
.
The chaiacteiistics of spacetime appeai to foim a similai loss cancellation foi the S chaigeu
leptons. These aie funuamental paiticles with iest mass that can exist in isolation. The stability
1
http://www.sfu.ca/~renns/lbullets.html
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622
of any iotais uepenus on the existence of vacuum eneigy, but theie must be a few fiequencies
anu conuitions wheie the stabilization is optimum. This is equivalent to a pulse of light
satisfying the soliton conuition in a tianspaient mateiial.
It was pieviously stateu that each funuamental iotai has a unique uimensionless numbei that
uesciibes its wave amplituue B
= 4.18 x 1u
2S
; foi the muon: B
= 8.66 x 1u
21
; anu foi the tauon: B
= 1.46 x 1u
19
.
Each of
these numbeis somehow matches a stability conuition foi spacetime. Theie aie an infinite
numbei of othei numbeis that uo not uesciibe funuamental iotais. The uiffeience between the
few numbeis that uesciibe funuamental iotais anu the infinite numbei of othei numbeis that
uo not uesciibe iotais is that these few numbeis uesciibe conuitions in spacetime wheie theie
is cancelation of waves in the exteinal volume of iotais. The high loss fiequencies that uo not
cancel, nevei suiviveu the eaily stages of the Big Bang when all combinations of fiequencies
anu amplituues weie being testeu. The few stable fiequencies that satisfieu the soliton
conuition conuenseu out of the eneigetic spacetime that existeu at the eaily stages of the Big
Bang anu foimeu the funuamental iotais.
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71
Chaptei 7
viitual Paiticles, vacuum Eneigy anu 0nity
Introduction: In the last chaptei we weie on a ioll calculating a simplifieu veision of the
stiong foice, the electiomagnetic foice anu the giavitational foice between two of the same
iotais at a fixeu sepaiation uistance equal to the iotais quantum iauius R
q
. In chaptei 8 we
will impiove the mouel so that these foices exhibit attiaction. We will also extenu the
calculation of the giavitational foice to longei uistances anu incluue multiple iotais. Bowevei,
befoie uoing this it is necessaiy to lay some auuitional giounuwoik. This incluues a
uesciiption of viitual paiticle paiis, vacuum eneigy, asymptotic fieeuom anu a pioposeu
piopeity calleu unity that peimits quantizeu waves to exhibit paiticlelike piopeities.
In cosmology the teims vacuum eneigy anu uaik eneigy aie often consiueieu synonymous.
This book makes a uistinction between these two teims. Baik eneigy is a hypothetical concept
that is iequiieu to fill the gap between the obseiveu eneigy uensity of the univeise anu the
theoietical ciitical eneigy uensity. The appaient acceleiation of the expansion of the
univeise seems to iequiie a souice of uiffuse eneigy uensity (~ 6 x 1u
1u
}m
S
) uistiibuteu
thioughout the univeise that counteiacts giavity. This is completely uiffeient than the veiy
laige eneigy uensity (~ 1u
11S
}m
S
) implieu by the teims vacuum eneigy oi vacuum
fluctuations. Baik eneigy anu the cosmological constant shoulu not be equateu to vacuum
eneigy anu vacuum fluctuations.
Probabilistic Nature of Rotars: In chaptei S figuies S1 anu S2 show the uistoition of
spacetime believeu to be piesent in the quantum volume of a iotai. Figuie S1 shows a uipole
wave in spacetime that has foimeu into a closeu loop, one wavelength in ciicumfeience. This
wave is tiaveling at the speeu of light aiounu the closeu loop. We pieviously calculateu the
angulai momentum of this mouel. This motion is not in a single plane as uepicteu; insteau it is a
chaotic uistoition of spacetime. Placing a iotai in a magnetic fielu can align the spin uiiection
giving an expectation spin uiiection. Bowevei, even then almost all iotation uiiections aie
possible with uiffeient piobabilities. The exception is the opposite spin uiiection to the
expectation uiiection which has a piobability of zeio.
The chaotic natuie of a iotai is uue to the fact that the lobes aie a slight uistoition of eneigetic
spacetime at the limit of causality. This small stiain is below the quantum mechanical limit of
uetection. Foi an election the spatial anu tempoial uistoition piouuceu by the iotating uipole
wave is less than 1 pait in 1u
22
. To a fiist appioximation, the iotai mouel of an election is an
empty vacuum. The uipole lobes of an election aie so close to being homogeneous spacetime
that the iate of time in the two lobes only uiffeis by one seconu in Su,uuu times the age of the
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72
univeise. The spatial piopeities of the lobes aie so homogeneous that the uistoition is
equivalent to uistoiting a spheie the size of }upiteis oibit by the iauius of a hyuiogen atom.
The ieason that the iotai mouel can achieve the E = mc
2
eneigy of the funuamental paiticles is
the incieuibly laige impeuance of spacetime anu the laige Compton fiequency (~1u
2u
to
1u
2S
Bz) of the funuamental iotais. These lobes aie piopagating in a closeu loop at the speeu
of light anu inteiacting with vacuum eneigy so they aie appioximately confineu to a volume.
Bowevei, finuing the paiticle means inteiacting with this incieuibly weak uistoition of
spacetime in a way that a quantizeu unit of angulai momentum is tiansfeiieu. This is a
piobabilistic event that can happen ovei a substantial volume that scales with R
q
.
Fuitheimoie, the chaotic natuie of the iotai stiuctuie peimits the iotating uipole wave to
uisappeai fiom one quantum volume anu iefoim in an aujacent location that was pieviously
pait of the iotais exteinal volume. The iotating uipole can also be visualizeu as a iotating iate
of time giauient as uepicteu in figuie S2.
Virtual Particle Pairs: The teim viitual paiticle is commonly applieu in two uiffeient ways.
Fiist, theie aie the viitual paiticles that accoiuing to the commonly accepteu physics theoiy
aie the caiiieis of foices. Foi example, viitual photons supposeuly caiiy the electiomagnetic
foice. The othei type of viitual paiticles is the viitual paiticle paiis that aie continuously being
cieateu anu annihilateu in a vacuum. These viitual paiticle paiis aie an integial pait of
quantum electiouynamics QEB anu quantum chiomouynamics QCB. The incieuible accuiacy
achieveu by QEB calculations is only possible by incluuing all of the significant effects anu
contiibutions of viitual paiticle foimation anu annihilation on the pioblem being calculateu.
The spacetime baseu mouel pioposeu heie explains foices as an inteiaction of uipole waves in
spacetime incluuing the uipole waves of vacuum eneigy. Theiefoie theie is no neeu foi the
type of viitual paiticles that aie supposeuly the caiiieis of foices anu they uo not exist in this
mouel. Bowevei, the viitual paiticle paiis that aie continuously being cieateu anu annihilateu
aie pait of the spacetime baseu mouel. In ueveloping a conceptually unueistanuable
uesciiption of the stiuctuie of these viitual paiticle paiis we aie guiueu by the staiting
assumptions pieviously enumeiateu. In fact, the staiting assumptions aie so iestiictive that
only one uesciiption seems plausible.
A viitual paiticle paii is a countei iotating matteiantimattei paii. Countei iotating means
that the quantizeu angulai momentum is eliminateu (zeio spin). Foi an instant the pioposeu
viitual paiticle mouel is stiaineu spacetime that looks geneially similai to the two uipole lobes
uepicteu in figuies S1 anu S2. Bowevei, the lobes aie not iotating. Such lobe paiis woulu
foim ianuomly out of the uipole waves that aie iesponsible foi vacuum eneigy. If we make an
analogy to waves on watei, then a viitual paiticle paii is a wave maximum anu minimum
sepaiateu by a uistance compaiable to twice the quantum iauius (uiametei = 2 R
q
) of the iotai
being simulateu. Appaiently spacetime has a iesonance at conuitions that coiiesponu to the
foimation of viitual paiticle paiis that coiiesponu to ieal matteiantimattei paiis such as
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73
electionposition paiis of muonantimuon paiis. Theiefoie these fiequencies aie piefeiieu
ovei ianuom fiequencies. These wave stiuctuies foim anu uisappeai fiom the uipole waves
that foim vacuum eneigy. Fuitheimoie, all fiames of iefeience have the same uensity of
viitual paiticle paiis.
When such a shape foims, it momentaiily can look like a paiticleantipaiticle paii such as an
electionposition paii oi a muonantimuon paii. Bowevei, this ueception is quickly ievealeu.
Foi example, with a ieal electionposition paii, the two iotais shoulu countei iotate 1 iauian
each (2 iauians total) in a time of 1
c
= mc
2
= 1.S x 1u
21
s. This means that a ieal
electionposition paii woulu countei iotate by a total of one iauian in a time inteival of
t = V mc
2
= 12
c
. The two ianuomly foimeu lobes woulu uissipate into wavelets in a
similai time peiiou. This is the same lifetime given to viitual paiticle paiis by the unceitainty
piinciple.
E t = V
t =
2AL
=
2mc
2
set
1
o
c
=
mc
2
t =
1
2o
c
Theiefoie, the unceitainty piinciple is uesciibing the time iequiieu foi this mouel of a viitual
paiticle paii to ieveal itself anu uissipate into othei ianuom uipole waves. It is pioposeu that
all aspects of the unceitainty piinciple coiiesponu to conceptually unueistanuable effects
iesulting fiom a uipole wave in the spacetime baseu explanation of the univeise.
vacuum Eneigy Revisiteu
Chaptei 4 laiu the giounuwoik foi a uesciiption of vacuum eneigy, but now that the iotai
mouel anu the ielativistic foice have been intiouuceu theie aie a few auuitional insights into
vacuum eneigy that will be mentioneu.
Rotar Model Requires Vacuum Pressure: Recall in chaptei 4 the point was maue that
eneigy uensity (0) has the same units as piessuie (" ) when both aie expiesseu in
uimensional analysis teims of length, mass anu time. I aigue that eneigy uensity always
implies piessuie. This position is not helu by the stanuaiu mouel oi stiing theoiy which
assumes paiticles can possess infinite eneigy uensity (no volume) without being
conceineu about the implieu infinite piessuie. Bowevei, it is easiei to see that eneigy
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74
piopagating at the speeu of light in a limiteu volume (confineu photons oi the iotai mouel)
always implies piessuie. The eneigy uensity of a iotais quantum volume (0
q
) exeits a
piessuie that will be uesignateu as "
q
. Ignoiing numeiical factois neai 1, the eneigy uensity
anu piessuie of this volume is:
0
q
= "
q
=
L
i
R
q
3
=
L
i
4
c
3
3
=
o
c
4
c
3
=
m
4
c
S
3
= B
4
0
p
= B
4
"
q
It is also possible to ueteimine both eneigy uensity anu piessuie using one of the S
waveamplituue equations: 0 = " = kB
2
2
Zc. 0sing the substitution: B
2
= B
2
= (T
p
c
)
2
=
(uc
S
)
c
2
anu pievious substitutions we obtain the same answei as the above equation fiom
the waveamplituue equation:
u
q
= "
q
=
H
2
o
c
2
z
s
c
= [
uo
c
2
c
S
c
2
[
c
3
u
[
1
c
=
o
c
4
c
3
=
L
i
R
q
3
Foi example, an election has: E
i
= 8.19 x 1u
14
} anu R
q
= S.86 x 1u
1S
m. Theiefoie, if
0
q
= E
i
R
q
S
then the iotai mouel of an election has eneigy uensity of about 1u
24
}m
S
. This
mouel woulu then have inteinal piessuie of ioughly 1u
24
Nm
2
. vacuum eneigy is iequiieu to
stabilize anu confine this eneigy uensitypiessuie. Theiefoie, vacuum eneigy must exceeu this
eneigy uensitypiessuie. If it takes 1u
24
Nm
2
to stabilize an election with eneigy of 8 x 1u
14
},
how much piessuie uoes it take to stabilize the highest eneigy paiticle. The most eneigetic
paiticle that has been expeiimentally obseiveu is the top quaik with eneigy of: E
i
= Sx1u
8
}.
0sing E
i
4
c
S
S
the eneigy uensity of vacuum eneigy must exceeu about 1u
4S
}m
S
anu the
piessuie must exceeu 1u
4S
Nm
2
. This iepiesents a lowei limit foi the eneigy uensity of
vacuum eneigy. These piessuies aie easily accommouateu by the spacetime baseu mouel of
vacuum eneigy.
The high eneigy uensity of vacuum eneigy iequiieu by the spacetime baseu mouel pioposeu
heie shoulu not be suipiising since a laige vacuum eneigy uensity is also iequiieu foi the
foimation of viitual paiticle paiis anu many othei opeiations of QEB anu QCB. In fact, even the
hypothetical Biggs fielu (not pait of the spacetime baseu mouel) also iequiies a veiy high
vacuum eneigy uensity. This eneigy uensity uepenus on the eneigy of the Biggs boson but the
implieu eneigy uensity is ioughly 1u
46
}m
S
. This is mentioneu to illustiate that the concept of
a Biggs fielu also challenges the cosmological ciitical eneigy uensity numbei.
Astionomical measuiements inuicate that the univeise has aveiage eneigy uensity of only
about 1u
9
}m
S
(the ciitical uensity). Bowevei, this is pioposeu to be only the eneigy uensity
of the uipole waves that possesses angulai momentum such as iotais anu photons. The vastly
laigei poition of the univeises eneigy (uipole waves) uoes not possess angulai momentum
anu only inteiacts with oui obseivable univeise thiough quantum mechanics. This eneigy
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75
uensity is as homogeneous anu isotiopic as quantum mechanics allows. It uoes not piouuce
the same giavitational effects as eneigy that possesses angulai momentum.
The iotai mouel of a funuamental paiticle has a finite volume. The eneigy uensity of a
funuamental paiticle implies a piessuie that must be containeu to achieve stability. vacuum
eneigy can exeit this piessuie without itself neeuing to be containeu by a still laigei piessuie
vessel. We uo not know whethei the univeise is infinitely laige oi just vastly laigei than oui
obseivable poition of the univeise. In eithei case, the vacuum eneigypiessuie in oui
obseivable poition of the univeise has nowheie to go. It is in equilibiium with the iest of the
obseivable univeise. 0ne inauequacy of both the stanuaiu mouel anu stiing theoiy is that
theie funuamental paiticles have eneigy but no volume. If eneigy uensity is absolutely
equivalent to piessuie, what mechanism contains the infinite piessuie of a paiticle with no
volume.
Rotars in Superfluid Vacuum Energy: If I wave my hanu thiough spacetime, I am not awaie
of any inteiaction with the vast eneigy uensity of spacetime. Theie is no iesistance; theiefoie
it is haiu to visualize spacetime as having momentum oi being a veiy stiff elastic meuium.
Bowevei, it is necessaiy to iemembei that the funuamental paiticles that make up my hanu aie
meiely quantizeu euuies that can easily piopagate thiough the sea of vacuum fluctuations
without encounteiing any iesistance oi leaving a wake. Theie is no new compiession of
spacetime. It is only when we intiouuce a new wave in spacetime such as a giavitational wave
that we aie attempting to intiouuce a net compiession anu uisplacement of the uipole waves
that fill spacetime. Spacetime has a bulk mouulus but this bulk mouulus only ieveals itself to a
wave in spacetime that is physically intiouucing a compiession anu expansion of spacetime. A
unit of quantizeu angulai momentum can fieely piopagate thiough the sea of uipole waves that
foims spacetime without iesistance.
Bowevei, if a iotai possessing quantizeu angulai momentum encounteis anothei iotai with
quantizeu angulai momentum, then this is entiiely uiffeient. Even though these two iotais aie
also just uistoitions of spacetime, the quantizeu angulai momentum peimits them to exceeu
the homogeneous eneigy uensity of vacuum eneigy. This staits a chain of inteiactions with
vacuum eneigypiessuie that ultimately iesult in the foices of natuie. Foi example, iotais can
coalesce into massive bouies ianging fiom hauions to galaxies. These aie islanus of
concentiateu eneigy in a sea of supeifluiu vacuum eneigy that was pieviously homogeneous.
Each iotai incieases the eneigy uensity at a specific location causing a uistuibance we know as
cuiveu spacetime. All othei neaiby iotais now expeiience an eneigy uensity giauient which
iesults in a giavitational inteiaction between iotais (paiticles). The othei foices aie the iesult
of similai inteiactions as will be explaineu latei. Chapteis 1S anu 14 will uiscuss fuithei why
the eneigy uensity of spacetime uoes not foim a black hole.
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76
Spacetime: The New Ether? If the univeise is only spacetime, it shoulu not be suipiising that
spacetime is ultimately iesponsible foi all of physics. The uesciiption of spacetime offeieu heie
is a combination of the eneigetic vacuum fluctuations uesciibeu by quantum mechanics anu the
geneial ielativistic uesciiption wheie spacetime can be cuiveu anu time is the fouith
uimension. 0ltimately eneigetic spacetime even peifoims the functions pieviously attiibuteu
to the ethei. Bowevei, spacetime is much moie subtle than the antiquateu uesciiption of the
ethei. Theie is no uetectable motion ielative to spacetime because spacetime is a sea of
eneigetic waves which aie always foiming new wavelets anu all of this is piopagating
chaotically at the speeu of light. Also, the
S
uepenuence of the spectial eneigy uensity means
that the haimonic oscillatois of spacetime aie a peifect Loientz invaiiant meuium. Bopplei
shifts aie offset so the no ielative motion is uetectable.
Funuamental paiticles uo not uiag spacetime the way that the ethei was piesumeu to be
uiaggeu by mass. Insteau, funuamental paiticles aie quantizeu voitices in supeifluiu
spacetime. These voitices fieely piopagate thiough eneigetic spacetime without impaiting
ineitia oi leaving a wake. In chaptei 11 it will be pioposeu that photons aie a uistuibance in
eneigetic spacetime caiiying quantizeu angulai momentum. While this has similaiities to
waves piopagating in the ethei, theie also aie impoitant uiffeiences. The piopei speeu of light
is constant eveiywheie because all funuamental paiticles anu foices aie maue of eneigetic
spacetime. These all scale in a way that keeps the piopei speeu of light constant (eveiy
location anu eveiy uiiection). This means that theie is no uetectable motion ielative to
spacetime.
Stability of a Paiticle Naue of Waves
Schrodingers Wave Packet: Pieviously it was mentioneu that about 1926 Schiouingei
attempteu to explain paiticles as consisting only of a wave packet. Schiouingeis wave packet
hau many fiequencies that, when auueu togethei (Fouiiei tiansfoim), piouuceu a
concentiateu wave. This was Schiouingeis wave baseu mouel of a paiticle. Be was attackeu
foi this iuea by othei scientists. The pioblem was that these many uiffeient fiequencies coulu
only tempoiaiily auu togethei to foim a concentiateu wave at a single location that acts like a
paiticle. Anothei way of saying this is that Schiouingeis confluence of waves can momentaiily
cieate the eneigy uensity of a paiticle, but this implies a piessuie. Schiouingei was unable to
explain what pieventeu the wave packet fiom uissipating anu he eventually abanuoneu this
iuea.
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77
Radiated Power by Unstable Rotars: The amplituue of the iotai wave within the quantum
volume (at uistance R
q
) has been given as B
= L
p
R
q
. A simple extiapolation of this amplituue
to uistances beyonu R
q
woulu iesult in a funuamental wave amplituue of B
f
= L
p
i wheie
uistance i is gieatei than R
q
. Rotating uipoles of any type attempt to iauiate away theii eneigy.
It is pioposeu that the few Compton fiequencies that actually foim iotais, a type of iesonance
is foimeu that offsets the uipole iauiation. Foi any funuamental iotai that actually exists theie
must be a wave cancelation that uestioys the wave with amplituue B
f
= L
p
i anu leaves only
iesiuual stanuing waves as eviuence of the battle that is taking place. Without some foim of
cancelation in the exteinal volume, we woulu expect a iotai to iauiate eneigy into the exteinal
volume with amplituue that uecieases with 1i at a fiequency equal to the iotais Compton
angulai fiequency
c
. To calculate the hypothetical iauiateu powei that woulu occui fiom
amplituue B
f
at fiequency
c
we will use one of the S waveamplituue equations: P = B
2
2
ZA.
This equation contains A which is the iauiating aiea. It is not necessaiy to assume a uistance
of R
q
foi this calculation. We can imagine a spheiical shell with aibitiaiy iauius i. Theiefoie,
we only neeu to calculate the powei that passes thiough this shell. At uistance i the suiface
aiea A of this imaginaiy spheiical shell with iauius i is: A = ki
2
.
P = B
2
2
Z A set B = B
f
= L
p
i, Z = c
S
u anu A = ki
2
(ignoie k)
P = [
L
p
c
2
[
c
3
u
r
2
= [
u
c
3
c
2
[
c
3
u
=
c
2
= P
c
P = P
c
iauiateu powei = iotais ciiculating powei P
c
=
c
2
= E
i
c
Theiefoie, a 1i amplituue uistiibution means that the iauiateu powei is equal to the iotais
full ciiculating powei P
c
= E
i
c
. At this iauiateu powei, all the iotais inteinal eneigy E
i
is
iauiateu away in a time peiiou of only 1
c
. If an election iauiateu powei at this iate, it woulu
be iauiating about 6S million watts anu have a lifetime of less than 1u
2u
seconus. Any
stiuctuie that is iauiating away its inteinal eneigy in a time peiiou of only 1 has absolutely
no stability. In fact, it lasts as long as the unceitainty piinciple pieuicts foi eneigy unceitainty
E. If a iotai suivives foi a time peiiou longei than 1, this means that theie must be some
mechanism foi ieuucing the wave amplituue in the exteinal volume fiom B
f
= L
p
i.
Wave Cancelation: Beie is the pictuie that I have foi the stability of a iotai. It is not a
complete pictuie, but it is sufficiently complete that I finu it plausible when combineu with the
bouy of othei infoimation containeu in this book. Imagine a iotating uipole wave in spacetime
that is one wavelength in ciicumfeience. It is a single fiequency, so iauiation fiom this wave
attempts to fill the univeise. Powei woulu have to be continuously supplieu to this iotating
uipole. In this case, the outgoing wave is acting exactly as woulu be expecteu foi a single
fiequency wave expanuing fiom a souice. This woulu piouuce peifect monochiomatic
iauiation, limiteu only by the Fouiiei tiansfoim of the finite emission time. Since a stable iotai
is not continuously emitting eneigy, theie must be a new souice of offsetting waves.
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78
This cancelation of waves in the exteinal volume uoes not mean that all tiaces of wave eneigy
have been eliminateu. A veiy impoitant pait of the iotai mouel is that the uestiuctive
inteifeience is incomplete. Stanuing waves (oscillations wheie noues anu antinoues aie
stationaiy) aie left behinu. These stanuing waves inteiact with vacuum eneigy in a way that
also piouuces nonoscillating stiains in spacetime. Two examples of these iesiuual
nonoscillating stiains aie electiic fielus (chaptei 9) anu cuiveu spacetime. In paiticulai,
cuiveu spacetime iesults in a static iate of time giauient anu a nonEucliuian spatial uistoition
(uiscusseu in chaptei 8).
Tiaveling waves imply that powei is being tiansfeiieu in the uiiection of the wave
piopagation. Stanuing waves oi a static iate of time giauient implies that no powei is being
tiansfeiieu. Theiefoie, the pioposeu uestiuctive inteifeience has eliminateu the powei uiain
fiom the iotai, but the iemaining stanuing waves anu giauients aie the eviuence that a
uestiuctive inteifeience battle is going on. Stanuing waves have eneigy, so this pictuie implies
that a small poition of the iotais eneigy is uistiibuteu outsiue the quantum volume. This
eneigy is iesponsible foi the iotais electiic anu giavitational fielus.
The vacuum eneigy waves piopagating towaius the coie (wavelets) aie ietuining the iauiateu
powei to the iotating uipole coie. These ietuining waves must have the coiiect phase to
constiuctively inteifeie with the iotating uipole. 0ut of the infinite possible combinations of
fiequency, amplituue anu angulai momentum, only the election, muon anu tauon have
fiequencyamplituue combinations to suivive as isolateu iotais (implies iest mass). The
quaiks only finu stability in paiis oi tiiplets. As pieviously stateu, each chaigeu lepton has a
single uimensionless numbei that expiesses all its unique chaiacteiistics in uimensionless
Planck units.
Examining Alternative Particle Models: It is pioposeu that eneigy uensity in any foim
geneiates piessuie. Any competing paiticle mouel must be able to explain wheie the foice
comes fiom to holu togethei a paiticle of a given eneigy uensity. Foi example, a pioton with
iauius 8.8 x 1u
16
m anu 1.S x 1u
1u
} eneigy implies a minimum piessuie of 1u
S4
Nm
2
if the
eneigy is unifoimly uistiibuteu in this volume. If some of the eneigy is in the foim of thiee
point paiticle quaiks, then infinite piessuie is attempting to uissipate the paiticles eneigy. In
eithei case an explanation must be pioposeu as to why the implieu piessuie geneiateu by the
eneigy uensity of a pioton (oi othei paiticle) uoes not iesult in iapiu uispeisal of eneigy.
Paiticles in stiing theoiy aie vibiating one uimensional stiings that in some cases have a length
compaiable to Planck length. The lack of tiansveise uimensions iesults in zeio volume anu
infinite piessuie. Auvocates of stiing theoiy usually uo not even peimit a uiscussion about the
stiuctuie of a stiing. The answei often given is that stiings aie postulateu to be the most basic
builuing blocks of the univeise. Theiefoie it is not faii to inquiie into the stiuctuie of a stiing
because this implies something moie funuamental. Bowevei, that iesponse is only acceptable
to people who believe in stiing theoiy. If the veiy existence of stiings is being calleu into
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com
79
question compaieu to an alteinative explanation, then it is faii to test both explanations as to
whethei they have a ieasonable explanation foi the containment of the eneigy uensity of
funuamental paiticles.
Attraction and Repulsion: The conventional explanation foi action at a uistance is that the
foices of natuie aie the iesult of the exchange of viitual paiticles. This explanation is
conceptually unueistanuable when it is applieu to two paiticles which iepel each othei such as
two elections. It is possible to imagine viitual photons piopagating between two elections.
Each viitual photon caiiies a small amount of momentum theiefoie multiple viitual photons
togethei piouuce what appeais to be a continuous iepulsive foice. Bowevei, even foi
iepulsion theie is the question: Bow uo viitual photons finu a uistant point paiticle. Is theie a
homing mechanism oi aie theie almost an infinite numbei of viitual photons exploiing eveiy
possible location.
When the concept of viitual photon exchange is fiist intiouuceu to stuuents, the next question
is usually Bow uoes the exchange of viitual photons cieate attiaction. The answei usually
incluues mention of the unceitainty piinciple, Feynman uiagiams, anu mathematical
abstiactions. These answeis still aie unsatisfying, but the stuuent ieluctantly auopts the iuea
that it is necessaiy to move beyonu classical physics with its conceptually unueistanuable
answeis anu accept the countei intuitive explanations of quantum mechanics. This book
attempts to biing conceptually unueistanuable iueas to quantum mechanics. The subject of
action at a uistance, especially attiaction, is a piime example of an aiea that neeus an impioveu
explanation.
Theie is veiy little wiggle ioom foi action at a uistance if we stait with the assumption that
the univeise is only spacetime. This iestiiction leaus to the concept that theie is only one foice:
the ielativistic foice F
i
= P
i
c. This is the foice impaiteu by powei tiaveling at the speeu of
light. This leaus to a suipiising iealization that the ielativistic foice is only iepulsive.
The same way that photon piessuie is only iepulsive, waves in spacetime tiaveling at the speeu
of light can only piouuce a iepulsive foice. What appeais to be an attiacting foice is actually a
iepulsive foice exeiteu by the vacuum eneigypiessuie. Each iotai iequiies vacuum eneigy to
exeit a laige piessuie to stabilize the iotai. Pieviously we calculateu the piessuie iequiieu to
stabilize a iotai is: " = m
4
c
S
S
anu applying this piessuie ovei an aiea of kR
q
2
piouuces a
foice equal to the iotais maximum foice (F
m
= m
2
c
S
) ignoiing uimensionless constants neai
1. If we mentally uiviue a iotai into two hemispheies, vacuum eneigy is exeiting the iotais
maximum foice F
m
to keep those two hemispheies togethei. This is the same foice iequiieu to
ueflect a iotais ciiculating powei P
c
c = "R
q
2
= F
m
. Even leptons which uo not feel the stiong
foice still expeiience a foice equal to the maximum foice F
m
exeiteu by the piessuie associateu
with vacuum eneigy. In chaptei 8 it will be shown latei that this foice exeiteu by vacuum
eneigy can be unbalanceu anu can appeai to be attiaction.
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com
710
This maximum foice was fiist calculateu assuming that the iotais full ciiculating powei is
ueflecteu. The agent that is accomplishing this ueflection must be an exteinal iepulsive foice.
Now we see that the vacuum eneigy is exeiting this iequiieu foice on the iotai. In equilibiium,
the compiession foice exeiteu by vacuum eneigy neeus to balance the outwaiu foice exeiteu
when a iotais ciiculating powei is confineu (ueflecteu). Theiefoie, it is ieasonable that the
foice exeiteu by vacuum eneigy neeus to equal the iotais maximum foice.
Asymptotic Freedom: The stiong foice is an attiacting foice which has the piopeity of
allowing quaiks bounu in hauions to fieely migiate within the natuial uimensions of the
hauion as if theie is no foice acting on them. Bowevei, if theie is an attempt to iemove a quaik
fiom the hauion (inciease the natuial sepaiation), then a foice of attiaction appeais anu
iesists incieasing this sepaiation uistance. Fuitheimoie, this attiacting foice incieases with
uistance. An attempt to iemove a quaik fiom a hauion against this incieasing foice of
attiaction piouuces a new meson iathei than a fiee quaik. 0nce the new meson is foimeu the
attiacting foice uiops to neai zeio anu the meson can be iemoveu. Theiefoie the stiong foice
has a foice chaiacteiistic that seems countei intuitive.
The stiong foice also is iesponsible foi binuing piotons anu neutions togethei in the nucleus of
an atom. The attiaction between nucleons causeu by the stiong foice is substantially laigei
than the electiomagnetic foice geneiateu by the piotons attempting to iepel each othei. It is
estimateu that the stiong foice is at least 1uu times gieatei (peihaps 1 times gieatei) than
the electiomagnetic foice at a uistance compaiable to the iauius of a pioton (~1u
1S
m).
Pieviously in chaptei 6 we calculateu that the pioposeu wave mouel inuicateu that two quaiks
shoulu iepel each othei with a foice equal to the iotais maximum foice at a sepaiation
uistance equal to R
q
. Bowevei, this iepulsion is only one of two foices acting on quaiks when
they aie bounu togethei in a hauion. The quaik is also inteiacting with vacuum eneigy in a way
that vacuum eneigy is exeiting a laige piessuie on the quaik. An isolateu election has
symmetiical vacuum eneigy piessuie exeiteu on the spheiical quantum volume. Bowevei, a
quaik bounu in a hauion uoes not have symmetiical piessuie. A featuie that makes piotons
anu neutions stable is that theie is an inteiaction between aujacent quaiks which cancels the
piessuie noimally exeiteu by vacuum eneigy on the pait of the quaik that is neaiest its
neighboi quaik. The iemaining piessuie applieu ovei the iemaining poition of the quaik
exeits a foice equal to the quaiks maximum foice F
m
(pieviously calculateu F
m
= "
q
R
q
2
).
This unbalanceu piessuie pushes the quaiks togethei so it appeais to be a foice of attiaction
(pseuuoattiaction). 0ltimately equilibiium is ieacheu wheie the iepulsive foice between the
two quaiks is equal to the maximum foice F
m
anu this also equals the vacuum eneigy foice that
pushes the quaiks togethei. Any attempt to eithei inciease oi ueciease the sepaiation woulu
iesult in a laige foice attempting to ietuin the quaiks to the sepaiation wheie the opposing
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foices balance. This equilibiium is pioposeu to cieate the conuition known as asymptotic
fieeuom.
A collision that attempts to iemove a quaik fiom a hauion incieases the sepaiation between
quaiks beyonu the equilibiium position. The iepulsive foice exeiteu by the othei iotai iapiuly
uecieases as the sepaiation is incieaseu. Woik is being uone anu it appeais as if the pseuuo
attiaction exeiteu by vacuum eneigypiessuie iemains constant as the quaiks aie sepaiateu.
The ueciease in the iepulsive foice exeiteu by the othei iotai combineu with a ielatively
constant pseuuoattiaction foice iesults in a net foice that appeais to inciease with uistance.
The stiong foice is pioposeu to be the net foice that iesults fiom the two opposing foices. This
net foice (the stiong foice) appioaches the maximum foice as the sepaiation incieases.
This subject will be uiscusseu fuithei in chaptei 12. All that is impoitant foi a compaiison of
foices is that the magnituue of the stiong foice appioaches the maximum foice as quaiks aie
sepaiateu. Foi example, the up anu uown quaiks that foim an isolateu pioton woulu have a
maximum foice of ioughly 8u,uuu N. This maximum foice is obtaineu fiom F
m
= m
2
c
S
wheie
the mass is appioximately
1
S
the piotons mass. The spacetime baseu mouel explains foices
without exchange paiticles. Theiefoie actions cuiiently asciibeu to gluons aie ieplaceu by
wave inteiactions between iotais anu vacuum eneigy. The woik uone sepaiating quaiks
incieases the eneigy of the quaiks (iotais) anu eventually the extia eneigy foims a new
meson.
Casimir Effect Similarity: This explanation foi attiaction (unbalanceu piessuie fiom vacuum
eneigy) has some similaiities to the explanation foi the Casimii effect. Pieviously it was
mentioneu that the ianuom waves in vacuum eneigy aie cieating all combinations anu these
incluue spacetime waves that appeai to be zeio point electiomagnetic iauiation. When two
metal plates aie biought close togethei, these conuuctive plates excluue electiomagnetic waves
with wavelengths laigei than the gap between the metal plates. These excluueu
wavelengthsfiequencies aie still piesent on the opposite siue of the metal plates. This slightly
loweis the piessuie exeiteu by the uipole waves in spacetime (vacuum eneigy) between the
two plates compaieu to the piessuie exeiteu on the outsiue of the metal plates wheie no waves
aie excluueu. Piactical consiueiations such as suiface smoothness, electiical conuuctivity anu
metallic cut off fiequency all seive to uegiaue the effect fiom the theoietical peifoimance. The
Casimii effect has been expeiimentally veiifieu to within about S% accuiacy. Assuming an
iueal electiically conuuctive suiface, the theoietical piessuie " geneiateu by the Casimii effect
with gap size of i is:
" = (k) ci
4
Casimii Piessuie " foi paiallel metal plates sepaiateu by i
This shoulu be compaieu to the piessuie " exeiteu by vacuum eneigy on a iotai with quantum
iauius R
q
:
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" = (k) cR
q
4
" = piessuie exeiteu by vacuum eneigy on iotai with iauius R
q
It can be seen that these aie the same foim if gap size i is equateu to quantum iauius R
q
anu
the constant is ignoieu.
The point of this is that even electrostatic attraction or the strong force has a similarity to
the Casimir effect. The reasoning is that all of these attractions are the result of reducing
the pressure exerted by vacuum energy on one side of an object more than the pressure
exerted on the opposite side of the object.
This pioposal makes attiaction conceptually unueistanuable. Theie is only one funuamental
foice anu this foice is only iepulsive. We live in a sea of vacuum eneigy. It is like a fish that
lives at gieat uepth in the ocean. The fish is subject to gieat piessuie, but the fish happily goes
about its life without iealizing that theie is any piessuie. 0nly if something happens to cieate
an imbalance of piessuie uoes the gieat piessuie become eviuent. Even then, anything that
loweis the piessuie on one siue of an object appeais to be cieating an attiaction. The foice is
ueliveieu by what appeais to be a featuieless enviionment (watei foi the fishes anu vacuum
foi us). uiavitational attiaction will be uiscusseu in the next chaptei.
0nity Bypothesis
The wavepaiticle uuality is peihaps the most basic mysteiy of quantum mechanics. Both
photons anu paiticles exhibit piopeities that sometimes iequiie a wave explanation anu
sometimes iequiie a paiticle explanation. It is possible to imagine a point paiticle that has a
peicentage of its eneigy as a wave suiiounuing the point paiticle. Bowevei, the expeiiments
seem to inuicate that sometimes theie aie 1uu% paiticle piopeities anu othei times theie aie
1uu% wave piopeities. These aie such uiffeient concepts that they seem mutually exclusive.
Touays physics puts the piimaiy emphasis on the paiticle inteipietation. The waves aie
consiueieu to be a piopeity of paiticles iathei than paiticlelike inteiactions being the
piopeity of quantizeu waves. Not only aie the leptons anu quaiks vieweu as paiticles, but
photons, giavitons anu gluons aie also consiueieu paiticles. The foices of natuie aie
consiueieu to be caiiieu by exchange paiticles. The wave piopeities of all paiticles aie
iecognizeu, but the paiticle piopeities aie consiueieu paiamount.
Ny backgiounu is laseis anu optics. In this fielu, the wave piopeities of light aie consiueieu
paiamount. The paiticle piopeities of photons aie impoitant, but these paiticle piopeities aie
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713
seconuaiy to the wave piopeities when uesigning optics oi laseis. It is easiest to think of a
photon as a quantizeu wave iathei than a paiticle that possesses wave piopeities. In this
pictuie, a photon is a quantizeu wave that is uistiibuteu ovei a volume when the photon is in
flight. Absoiption of a photon by an atom is easiest to pictuie as the quantizeu wave collapsing
into the absoibing atom. Fiom this backgiounu, theie is a pieuisposition to quantizeu waves
iathei than paiticles. Baving aumitteu my pieuisposition towaius waves, I will stait my attack
on the concept that photons have paiticle piopeities by asseiting the following:
There are no experiments that prove that photons have particle properties. All the
experiments like the photoelectric effect and atomic photon absorption merely prove that a
photon possesses quantized energy. Even Compton scattering will be shown in chapter 11
to have a wave explanation.
It is a common misconception to equate quantization with a paiticle. Bowevei, if spacetime is
visualizeu as the eneigetic spacetime of quantum mechanics, anu if these vacuum fluctuations
have supeifluiu piopeities, then angulai momentum must appeai as quantizeu units. This
quantizeu angulai momentum has as a bypiouuct that eneigy possessing angulai momentum
also comes in quantizeu units. It has been pioposeu eailiei that cuiiently only about 1 pait in
1u
12u
of all the eneigy in the univeise possesses quantizeu angulai momentum. Eneigy that
possesses quantizeu angulai momentum is the only eneigy with which we anu oui instiuments
can inteiact. A photon can caiiy any eneigy up to Planck eneigy, but it always caiiies of
quantizeu angulai momentum (oibital angulai momentum can auu multiples of , but this is a
special case). If we can only inteiact with quantizeu angulai momentum, then eveiything we
inteiact with will be foiceu to possess quantizeu eneigy. Waves with quantizeu angulai
momentum will appeai to have paiticlelike piopeities.
We aie amazeu by the appaient mysteiy of the quantum mechanical piopeities of paiticles anu
photons. Bowevei, we must iemembei that we aie only inteiacting with the minute pait of the
eneigy in the univeise that possesses angulai momentum. This minute pait of the total eneigy
of the univeise must follow the iules of quantizeu eneigy tiansfei. These iules aie enfoiceu by
the vast sea of vacuum eneigy in the supeifluiu state that suiiounus us anu fills the univeise.
Foi example, a molecule isolateu in a vacuum can only iotate at a funuamental iotational iate
oi at integei multiples of this funuamental iotational iate. These quantizeu changes in eneigy
aie associateu with quantizeu changes in angulai momentum. This mysteiy of quantum
mechanics becomes conceptually unueistanuable when it is iealizeu that the molecule ieally is
not isolateu. It lives in a sea of supeifluiu vacuum eneigy that must isolate pockets of angulai
momentum.
Enfoicing this quantization of angulai momentum iequiies that a unit of eneigy with quantizeu
angulai momentum must be able to collapse fastei than the speeu of light. Is theie any
expeiimental pioof that fastei than light action can occui. Next, we will attempt to explain how
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quantizeu waves in spacetime can exhibit paiticlelike piopeities. This explanation staits with
entanglement.
Entanglement Unity Connection: Entanglement occuis when two oi moie photons oi
paiticles inteiact in a way that theii quantum states can only be uesciibeu with iefeience to
each othei. Sepaiating these entangleu photons oi paiticles uoes not bieak the quantum
connection. Theiefoie, measuiing a quantum piopeity of one object affects the quantizeu state
of the seconu entangleu object. This effect happens instantly, even at a laige sepaiation
uistance. The existence of entanglement has been pioven in many uiffeient expeiiments.
If entanglement pioviues an instantaneous iesponse between two entangleu paiticles oi
photons, is it not ieasonable that theie shoulu also be a similai effect within a single uipole
wave with quantizeu angulai momentum. Chapteis 11 anu 14 will offei auuitional insights
into entanglement anu the supei luminal communication. Foi now we will meiely accept
entanglement as an expeiimentally pioven effect anu examine the implications of its pioposeu
close ielative, unity. A puiely spacetime wave mouel of funuamental paiticles must explain
how a wave that is uistiibuteu ovei a volume can exhibit paiticlelike piopeities some of the
time. If a wave is envisioneu as being uivisible into smallei paits like a sounu wave, then it is
impossible foi such a wave to exhibit paiticlelike piopeities. Bowevei, a iotai is a uipole
wave in spacetime that is caiiying a quantizeu amount of angulai momentum in a sea of
vacuum eneigy that lacks angulai momentum. This type of wave can change its eneigy in a
collision, but it always must caiiy the assigneu quantizeu angulai momentum of V oi
(iotai oi photon).
It is tiue that I am not giving a conceptually unueistanuable explanation of why a supeifluiu
cannot possess angulai momentum anu why any angulai momentum that is piesent in the
supeifluiu is bioken into quantizeu units. This is an expeiimentally obseiveu piopeity of
supeifluiu liquiu helium anu I believe that theie is a theoietical explanation foi the effect in
liquiu helium. Bowevei, I must aumit that I uo not have a conceptually unueistanuable
explanation foi this when it is ieuuceu to waves in spacetime. (This is a goou pioject foi
someone else.) Bowevei, if we assume quantizeu angulai momentum exists, then it is easy to
see that a wave caiiying quantizeu angulai momentum must iesponu as a unit to a
peituibation. In a collision with anothei quantizeu wave, the wave with quantizeu angulai
momentum must inteiact as a unit to piecisely pieseive the angulai momentum.
The preservation of quantized angular momentum requires that the quantized wave
possess faster than speed of light internal communication. This is the proposed property
called unity. The property of unity gives particlelike properties to a wave carrying
quantized angular momentum.
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The piopeities of spacetime ueteimine the size (V ) of the quantizeu angulai momentum. If
we accept this as a given, then the piopeity of unity must be a component of any mouel of
paiticles baseu only on waves. Some events such as the emission of a photon fiom an atom
occuis ovei a long enough peiiou of time that theie is enough time foi the quantizeu wave to
iesponu without the neeu to invoke supei luminal communication (uiscusseu latei). Bowevei,
othei events such as the collision of two iotais at ielativistic speeu iequiies that the iotai
iesponu in a time peiiou fastei than iequiieu foi speeu of light communication acioss the
physical size of the iotais quantum volume. The exteinal volume of a iotai iesponus
uiffeiently anu will be uiscusseu latei.
Natuie is capable of supei luminal communication as uemonstiateu by the many expeiiments
that piove the existence of entanglement. The same way that it is not possible to senu a
message fastei than the speeu of light using entanglement, it also is not possible to senu a
message fastei than the speeu of light when a quantizeu wave iesponus to a peituibation as a
single unit. This is meiely an inteinal housekeeping function. The entiie quantizeu wave (with
quantizeu angulai momentum) must iesponu as if it is one entangleu unit.
Assume that a iotai is the uipole wave mouel pieviously uesciibeu. It is not possible to
inteiact with just 1% of a quantizeu uipole. It is not possible to tiansfei less than of angulai
momentum. Eithei 1uu% of the quantum volume iesponus to the inteiaction oi none of the
quantum volume iesponus. If theie is a tiansfei of angulai momentum, it always occuis in
quantizeu units of . The communication within a single quantizeu quantum volume woulu be
instantaneous, just like the iesponse involving two entangleu paiticles. In fact, the iesponse
within a single quantizeu wave shoulu be bettei than when two photons oi two paiticles aie
entangleu.
Sixth Staiting Assumption: A wave in spacetime with quantized angular momentum
responds to a perturbation as a single unit. This superluminal internal communication
gives the quantized wave, particlelike properties.
0nity is pioposeu to be the piopeity iesponsible foi the mysteiious wavepaiticle uuality
piesent eveiywheie in natuie. Eveiy physical entity in the univeise is maue of uipole waves in
spacetime. 0nity peimits these waves to iesponu with paiticlelike piopeities, but the
iesponse exhibits a piobabilistic chaiacteiistics. Recall the incieuibly small uistoition of
spacetime that foims a funuamental iotai. Finuing a paiticle somewheie within a quantizeu
uipole wave is ieally unity causing the quantizeu wave to inteiact with a piobe (anothei wave)
in a way that appeais to exhibit paiticlelike piopeities at a single location. The paiticlelike
piopeities of a quantizeu wave can exhibit uiscontinuous jumps because inteiacting with the
quantizeu wave can happen at any pait of the volume containing the quantizeu wave. The
inteiaction anu the appaient location of the inteiaction is a piobabilistic event.
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Collapse of the Wave Function: A collapse of the wave function in quantum mechanics is
pioposeu to be ielateu to the piopeity of unity. Bowevei, this connection is complicateu by the
fact that often the mathematical expiession of a wave function incluues bounuaiy conuitions
not encounteieu by isolateu iotais. Foi example, a paiticle in a box oi an election bounu in
an atom both have iestiictive bounuaiy conuitions that change the uistiibution of spacetime
waves compaieu to a isolateu iotai. These aie moie complicateu conuitions that will be
uiscusseu latei.
In quantum mechanics, the physical inteipietation of the collapse of the wave function is
liteially that the piobabilistic wave piopeities of a point paiticle uisappeai (collapse) when the
paiticle is founu. The physical inteipietation of unity is that a iotais wave piopeities iemain
aftei it is founu. The uistiibuteu wave of a iotai just iesponus to a piobe (anothei wave) as a
quantizeu unit.
Since the iotai is uistiibuteu ovei a volume, theie is inteinal communication within the iotai
that occuis fastei than the speeu of light. Theiefoie, the iotai iesponus to a peituibation as if
it was concentiateu at a single location. 0nity allows funuamental iotais to iesponu to a
ielativistic collision by momentaiily shiinking the iauius of the iotating uipole as a single
cohesive entity. This ieuuction in quantum iauius happens fastei than the speeu of light, so it
is impossible to uetect a funuamental paiticles size using infeiences fiom collisions. In a
collision, the angulai momentum iemains constant, but the fiequency anu eneigy inciease as
the iauius uecieases. The quantizeu wave appeais to be a point concentiation of masseneigy
that uiscontinuously changes location. Theie is just no liteial collapse of waves into a point
paiticle.
The chaiacteiistic of unity is the final peace of the puzzle iequiieu foi funuamental iotais to
appeai to be point paiticles. In expeiiments that attempt to measuie the size of the
funuamental iotais, the iesolution of the expeiiment uepenus on the eneigy of the collision.
Imagine two iotais colliuing at ielativistic velocity. In the inteiaction, the kinetic eneigy is
tempoiaiily conveiteu to inteinal eneigy of the two iotais. In oiuei to pieseive the angulai
momentum of the iotai, it is necessaiy foi the iotai to ieuuce its quantum iauius fiom the size
chaiacteiistic of an isolateu iotai to the size appiopiiate foi a iotai that has absoibeu extia
eneigy. This tempoiaiy size ieuuction gives the eneigetic iotai a quantum iauius compaiable
to the iesolution limit of the collision expeiiment. Not only uoes the iotai ieuuce the size of R
q
in a collision, but this ieuuction happens fastei than the speeu of light. The entiie eneigy in the
quantum volume ieacts as a unit, so the ineitia appeais to oiiginate fiom a point. The location
of that point is piobabilistic, so it can appeai that a iotai moves in uiscontinuous jumps. Latei
we will auuiess the question of the small amount of a iotais eneigy that is exteinal to the
quantum volume anu iesponus uiffeiently.
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Partial Explanation of Unity: The following paitial explanation of unity is offeieu foi iotais
that exhibit iest mass. 0nity within photons will be uiscusseu latei. It is hopeu that otheis can
impiove on this paitial explanation.
All iotais with iest mass aie pioposeu to be quantizeu waves ciiculating at the speeu of light in
a confineu volume. Even though the ciiculation happens in a limiteu volume, the fact iemains
that these waves uo not expeiience time oi uistance. Theie is a funuamental uiffeience
between the way we peiceive the univeise (S spatial uimensions plus time) anu the way
quantizeu waves tiaveling at the speeu of light peiceive the univeise. They live in a zeio
uimensional univeise. Bipole waves in spacetime consiuei the univeise to be a single point.
It shoulu not be suipiising that we finu many alien chaiacteiistics when we tiansfei fiom the 4
uimensional macioscopic peispective into the zeio uimensional quantum peispective. Within
a quantizeu wave ciiculating at the speeu of light theie is no time anu no uistance. This gives
iise to both the pioposeu piopeity of unity anu to entanglement. Since the iotai peiceives that
theie aie no spatial uimensions, an inteiaction with the iotai cannot take place with only a
small poition of the iotai. It is all oi nothing.
In this book I have attempteu to make quantum mechanical opeiations conceptually
unueistanuable. The above explanation of unity anu entanglement is ieally only a paitial
explanation. In chaptei 11 a mouel of two entangleu photons will make entanglement moie
unueistanuable. In the cosmology chapteis 1S anu 14 a new pictuie of the univeise will be
offeieu which will fuithei impiove the explanation of unity anu entanglement.
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Chaptei 8
Analysis of uiavitational Attiaction
In chaptei 6, the ieauei was askeu to tempoiaiily consiuei all foices to be iepulsive. This was
a simplification which alloweu the calculations in chaptei 6 to pioceeu without auuiessing the
moie complicateu subject of attiaction. In chaptei 7, vacuum eneigypiessuie was intiouuceu
as an essential consiueiation in the geneiation of all foices, but especially foices that piouuce
attiaction. In this chaptei we aie going to attempt to give a conceptually unueistanuable
explanation foi the foice of attiaction exeiteu by giavity when a bouy is helu stationaiy
ielative to anothei bouy.
Physical Interpretation of General Relativity: Einsteins geneial ielativity has passeu
numeious expeiimental anu mathematical tests. This mathematical success has convinceu
most physicists to accept the physical inteipietation usually associateu with these equations.
Bowevei, the most obvious pioblem with the physical inteipietation is examineu in the
following quotes. The fiist is fiom B. Baisch of the Califoinia Institute of Physics anu
Astiophysics.
The mathematical foimulation of geneial ielativity iepiesents spacetime as cuiveu
uue to the piesence of mattei. ueometiouynamics meiely tells you what
geouesic a fieely moving object will follow. But if you constiain an object to follow
some uiffeient path (oi not to move at all), geometiouynamics uoes not tell you
how oi why a foice aiises. Logically you winu up having to assume that a foice
aiises because when you ueviate fiom a geouesic you aie acceleiating, but that is
exactly what you aie tiying to explain in the fiist place: Why uoes a foice aiise
when you acceleiate. This meiely takes you in a logical full ciicle.
Talking about cuiveu spacetime, the book Pushing uiavity (N. R. Euwaius) states:
Logically, a small paiticle at iest on a cuiveu manifolu woulu have no ieason to enu
its iest unless a foice acteu on it. Bowevei successful this geometiic inteipietation
may be as a mathematical mouel, it lacks physics anu a causal mechanism.
ueneial ielativity uoes not explain why masseneigy cuives spacetime oi why theie is a foice
when an object is pieventeu fiom falling fieely in a giavitational fielu. If iestiaining an object
fiom following a geouesic is the equivalent of acceleiation, then appaiently the giavitational
foice is intimately tieu to the pseuuo foice geneiateu when a mass is acceleiateu. In the
stanuaiu mouel, paiticles possess no intiinsic ineitia. They gain ineitia fiom an inteiaction
with the Biggs fielu. Is the Biggs fielu also necessaiy to geneiate a giavitational foice when a
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paiticle without intiinsic ineitia is pieventeu fiom following the geouesic. Is the Biggs fielu
always acceleiating towaius a mass in an enuless flow that attempts to sweep along a
stationaiy paiticle. The stanuaiu mouel uoes not incluue giavity. Is giavity a foice.
The point of these questions is to show that theie aie logical pioblems with the physical mouel
noimally associateu with geneial ielativity. The equations of geneial ielativity accuiately
uesciibe giavity on a macioscopic scale. Bowevei, these equations aie silent as to the physical
inteipietation, especially at a scale (spatial oi tempoial) wheie quantum mechanics takes ovei.
Gravitational Nonlinearity Examined: Pieviously we ieasoneu that spacetime must be a
nonlineai meuium foi waves in spacetime anu giavity is the iesult of this nonlineaiity. At
uistance R
q
fiom a iotai we calculateu the giavitational foice using one of the S wave
amplituue equations F = B
2
2
ZAc. In this calculation we substituteu B = B
2
= (L
p
R
q
)
2
=
(T
p
c
)
2
. Also the angulai fiequency is equal to the iotais Compton fiequency =
c
. At
uistance R
q
of two of the same iotais we obtaineu F = um
2
R
q
2
. This is the coiiect magnituue
of the giavitational foice between two iotais of mass m, but theie aie two pioblems. Fiist: the
equation F = B
2
2
ZAc is foi a tiaveling wave stiiking a suiface. This tiaveling wave implies
the iauiation of powei that is not happening. Seconu: a wave in spacetime tiaveling at the
speeu of light geneiates a iepulsive foice if it inteiacts in a way that the wave is ueflecteu oi
absoibeu. uiavity is obviously an attiactive foice. We have the magnituue of the foice coiiect,
but the mouel must be iefineu so that theie is no loss of powei anu so that the foice is an
attiaction.
Theie aie seveial steps involveu, anu it is piobably uesiiable to begin with a biief ieview.
Recall that theie aie two types of amplituue teims foi waves in spacetime: uisplacement
amplituue anu stiain amplituue. The maximum uisplacement of spacetime alloweu by
quantum mechanics is a spatial uisplacement of Planck length oi a tempoial uisplacement of
Planck time. Since these aie oscillation amplituues, we sometimes use the teim uynamic
Planck length L
p
oi uynamic Planck time T
p
. As pieviously explaineu, these uistoitions of
spacetime piouuce a stiain in spacetime. The stiain is a uimensionless numbei equivalent to
ll oi tt. In this case ll = L
p
R
q
anu tt = T
p
c
.
In chaptei S we imagineu a hypothetical peifect clock placeu at a point on the quantum ciicle
of a iotai as illustiateu in figuie S1. This is the imaginaiy ciicle with iauius equal to the
quantum iauius R
q
. This clock (heieaftei calleu the uipole clock with time
u
) was compaieu
to the time on anothei clock that we calleu the cooiuinate clock (with time t
c
). This
cooiuinate clock is measuiing the iate of time if theie was no spacetime uipole piesent. It is
also possible to think of the cooiuinate clock as locateu fai enough fiom the iotating uipole that
it uoes not feel any significant time fluctuations. Figuie SS shows the uiffeience in the
inuicateu time t =
u
t
c
. The uipole clock speeus up anu slows uown ielative to the
cooiuinate clock anu the maximum uiffeience is uynamic Planck time T
p
. Theiefoie T
p
is the
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83
tempoial uisplacement amplituue. Theie is also spatial uisplacement amplituue that is equal to
uynamic Planck length L
p
. The stiain of spacetime piouuceu by these uisplacements of
spacetime is uepicteu in figuie S4. Within the quantum volume, the stiain of spacetime is
uesignateu by the stiain amplituue B
= T
p
c
= L
p
R
q
. This is equivalent to the maximum slope
of the sine wave which occuis at the zeio ciossing points in figuie SS.
Nonlinear Effects: The above ieview now has biought us to the point wheie we can ask an
inteiesting question: Boes the uipole clock always ietuin to peifect synchionization with the
cooiuinate clock at the completion of each cycle. In othei woius, uoes the uipole clock show a
net loss of time compaieu to the cooiuinate clock. If spacetime has no nonlineaiity then the
clocks woulu iemain substantially synchionizeu. Bowevei, if theie is nonlineaiity, the uipole
clock woulu slowly lose time.
As pieviously explaineu, the stiain of spacetime (instantaneous slope in figuie SS) has a lineai
component anu a nonlineai component. The pioposeu spacetime stiain equation foi a point on
the euge of the iotating uipole is:
Stiain = B
sint + (B
sint)
2
(highei oiuei teims ignoieu)
The lineai component is B
sint anu the nonlineai component is (B
sint)
2
. Theie woulu
also be highei oiuei teims wheie B
2
sin
2
t = V B
2
V B
2
cos2t
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com
84
Figuie 81 plots the lineai component (B
sint) anu the nonlineai component (B
sint)
2
sepaiately. It can be seen that the nonlineai component is a smallei amplituue because B
< 1
anu squaiing this piouuces a smallei numbei. Also the nonlineai component is at twice the
fiequency of the lineai component. Nost impoitantly, the nonlineai component is always
positive. Naking an electiical analogy, this can be thought of as if the nonlineai wave has an AC
component anu a BC component. It is obvious that when the lineai anu nonlineai waves aie
auueu togethei, the sum will piouuce an unsymmetiical wave that is biaseu in the positive
uiiection.
It was necessaiy to use some aitistic license in oiuei to illustiate these concepts in figuie 81.
Foi funuamental iotais the value of B
2
= 1u
4u
anu theiefoie B
is appioximately 1u
2u
times laigei than B
2
. It woulu be
impossible to see the plot of B
2
sin
2
t without aitificially incieasing this ielative amplituue.
Theiefoie, the assumeu value in this figuie is B
anu B
2
is only a factoi of S iathei than a factoi of ioughly 1u
2u
. Theiefoie, foi funuamental
iotais it is necessaiy to mentally ueciease the amplituue of the nonlineai wave by ioughly a
factoi of ioughly 1u
2u
.
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85
FIGURE 82
Strain
Coordinate
Time
H sin sin
2
H +H
2
H
0
H
H +H
2
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com
86
When we auu the two waves togethei we obtain the plot in figuie 82. Because of the aitistic
license, it is visually obvious that this is an unsymmetiical wave. Theie is a laigei aiea unuei
the positive poition of the wave than the aiea unuei the negative poition of the wave. The
peak amplituue foi the positive poition is B
+ B
2
while the negative poition has peak
negative amplituue of: B
+ B
2
. If this was a plot of electiical cuiient, we woulu say that this
unsymmetiical wave hau a BC bias on an AC cuiient. To use the analogy fuithei, it is as if the
nonlineaiity causes spacetime to have the equivalent of a small BC bias in its stiess.
The uipole clock uoes not ietuin to synchionization with the cooiuinate clock each cycle.
Figuie 8S attempts to illustiate this with a gieatly exaggeiateu plot of the uiffeience between
the cooiuinate clock anu the uipole clock. The X axis of this figuie is time as inuicateu on the
cooiuinate clock while the Y axis is the uiffeience between the cooiuinate clock anu the uipole
clock (t ). If the two clocks ian at exactly the same iate of time, the plot woulu be a stiaight
line along the X axis. Noimally this plot foi a few cycles shoulu look like a sine wave similai to
figuie SS. Bowevei, the puipose of figuie 8S is to illustiate that ovei time the cooiuinate
clock pulls aheau of the uipole clock (oi the uipole clock loses time). Theiefoie, foi puiposes of
illustiation, this effect of the accumulateu time uiffeience has been exaggeiateu by a factoi of
ioughly 1u
22
.
The unsymmetiical stiain plot in figuie 82 piouuces a net loss of time on the uipole clock
ielative to the cooiuinate clock. In the fiist quaitei cycle of figuie 8S, the cooiuinate clock falls
behinu the uipole clock by an amount appioximately equal to Planck time. This occuis when
the fast lobe of the iotating uipole passes the uipole clock fiist. Bowevei, with each cycle, the
cooiuinate clock gains a small amount of time on the uipole clock. The amount of time gaineu
pei cycle is illustiateu by the gap labeleu Single cycle time loss. This is equal to T
p
2
c
which
is about 2.2 x 1u
66
s foi an election.
The point of figuie 8S is to illustiate the contiibution of the nonlineai effect. The nonlineai
wave with stiain of B
2
sin
2
t at uistance R
q
piouuces the contiibution that causes the net loss
of time foi the uipole clock (gain of time foi the cooiuinate clock). This contiibution is shown
as the wavy line labeleu non lineai component. The aveiage slope of this line is equal to the
giavitational magnituue foi the quantum volume which has been uesignateu as B
2
=
q
. Foi
an election this slope is about 1.7S x 1u
4S
which means that it takes about Su seconus foi the
cooiuinate clock to have a net time gain of Planck time ovei the uipole clock. This takes about
4 x 1u
21
cycles iathei than 4 cycles as illustiateu in figuie 8S. If we subtiacteu the non lineai
wave component fiom figuie 8S, we woulu be left with a sine wave with amplituue of T
p
.
The slope on this nonlineai wave component is B
2
at uistance R
q
which is obtaineu fiom the
stiain equation:
B
sint + (B
sint)
2
= B
sint V B
2
cos2t + H
2
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87
The impoitant pait has been maue bolu foi emphasis.
Connection to the Gravitational Magnitude : The BC equivalent teim (nonoscillating
teim) is V B
2
. We have been ignoiing uimensionless constants thioughout this book, so we
will ignoie the V anu concentiate on B
2
. This is the squaie of a iotais stiain amplituue at
uistance R
q
.
B
2
=
L
p
2
R
q
2
= T
p
2
c
2
=
um
2
c
=
q
wheie
q
= at a iotais R
q
B
2
=
q
Theiefoie, the equivalent of a BC bias teim fiom the nonlineai wave component (B
2
) is equal
to the giavitational magnituue of the iotai at uistance R
q
. This equality makes use of the
appioximation pieviously uiscusseu: 1  _1
2um
c
2
R
=
um
c
2
Foi a single election at uistance R
q
, this appioximation is accuiate to bettei than one pait in
1u
44
. Foi many of the moie massive iotais the appioximation is accuiate to ioughly one pait in
1u
4u
. Theiefoie this appioximation is tieateu as being exact when we aie uealing with the
giavity of single iotais. Anothei equality foi is:
= 1
d:
Jt
=
dt J
dt
appioximation valiu when ut >> (ut u)
ut = (ut u)
The appioximation of = (ut u)ut is also viitually exact foi a single iotai anu it will be
tieateu as exact. Since ut is the iate of time on the cooiuinate clock anu u is the iate of time on
the uipole clock, we have B
2
= (ut u)ut anu the time uilation has been tieu to the nonlineai
teim B
2
at uistance R
q
fiom a iotai.
NonLinear Effects in the External Volume: At uistance gieatei than R
q
fiom a single iotai,
the nonoscillating stiain amplituue will ueciease in a way that matches up to B
2
when i = R
q
.
Since we know that B
2
=
q
at the uistance of the quantum iauius, the connection to the
giavitational magnituue has been establisheu. 0ui knowleuge of as a function of mass anu
uistance ( = umc
2
i) can be useu to ueteimine how the non oscillating stiain amplituue
uecieases with uistance.
=
um
c
2
= [
um
2
c
[
mc
set: [
um
2
c
= B
2
; [
mc
= R
q
B
= L
p
R
q
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88
= B
2
[
R
q
= B
2
J non oscillating teim (the stiain amplituue) in the exteinal volume
The teim iR
q
will be useu numeious times in the iemainuei of this book both in the
explanation of giavity anu latei in the explanation of the electiomagnetic foice. When we move
into the exteinal volume of a iotai, it will be shown that eveiything becomes veiy simple if we
expiess uistance fiom a iotai as a uimensionless numbei J equal to the numbei of quantum
iauius units R
q
(ieuuceu Compton wavelengths
c
). Theiefoie the uefinition of J is:
J =
R
q
=
x
c
=
rmc
Theiefoie, the non oscillating amplituue (stiain amplituue) associateu with giavity scales as
B
2
(R
q
i) = B
2
J. While we assumeu a connection between the giavitational magnituue
anu the nonlineai stiain amplituue B
2
to obtain this ielationship, the fact that the equation is
so physically ieasonable can be useu to suppoit a causal connection between giavitational
magnituue anu non oscillating stiain amplituue. We know that waves of all types with
wavelength that emit into 4 steiiauians ueciease amplituue piopoitional to i. Since
c
= 2R
q
, (wheie
c
equals Compton wavelength) it is ieasonable that the non oscillating
stiain amplituue woulu scale piopoitional to R
q
i = 1J. The giavitational magnituue of a
iotai also scales piopoitional to B
2
because this is the nonlineai component of the quantum
volume stiain amplituue B
2
anu fiequency 2
c
. What happens to this oscillating component beyonu R
q
in
the exteinal volume. We know that the few fiequencies that foim stable anu semi stable iotais
exist at iesonances with the vacuum fluctuations of spacetime which eliminate eneigy loss. If
the amplituue of the oscillating component was B
2
J, then theie woulu be continuous
iauiation of eneigy. Eneigetic composite paiticles such as piotons oi neutions woulu iauiate
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com
89
away all theii eneigy in a few million yeais. In the chaptei 1u an analogy will be maue to the
eneigy uensity of a iotais electiic fielu. The amplituue teim foi the oscillating component of
giavity will then be pioposeu to scale as B
2
J
2
. This woulu be an extiemely small amplituue
anu fuitheimoie it is a stanuing wave that uoes not iauiate eneigy.
Summary: Since we neeu to biing togethei seveial uiffeient components to achieve
giavitational attiaction, we will uo anothei ieview. This time we will emphasize the iole of
vacuum eneigy, ciiculating powei, the canceling wave anu nonoscillating stiain in spacetime.
A iotai is a iotating spacetime uipole immeiseu in a sea of vacuum eneigy which is equivalent
to a vacuum piessuie. This vacuum eneigypiessuie is maue up of veiy high eneigy uensity
(> 1u
46
}m
S
) uipole waves in spacetime that lack angulai momentum. The iotai also has a
high eneigy uensity that is attempting to iauiate away eneigy at the iate of the iotais
ciiculating powei. The iotai suivives because it exists at one of the few fiequencies that
achieve a iesonance with the vacuum eneigypiessuie.
This iesonance cieates a new wave that has a component that piopagates iauially away fiom
the iotating uipole anu a component that piopagates iauially towaius the iotating uipole.
(Tangential wave components aie also cieateu, but these auu incoheiently anu effectively
uisappeai.) The iesonant wave that is piopagating away fiom the uipole cancels out the
funuamental iauiation fiom the uipole. Besiues having the coiiect fiequency anu phase to
piouuce uestiuctive inteifeience, the canceling wave also must match the iotais ciiculating
powei. This means that the coiiect piessuie is geneiateu fiom the vacuum eneigypiessuie
that is iequiieu to contain the eneigy uensity of the iotai. 0nly a few fiequencies that foim
stable iotais completely satisfy these conuitions.
Foi example, an election has a ciiculating powei of about 64 million watts. In oiuei to cancel
this much powei fiom being iauiateu fiom the quantum volume, the cancelation wave
geneiateu in the vacuum eneigy must have an outwaiu piopagating component of 64 million
watts anu an inwaiu piopagating component of the same powei. The iecoil fiom the outwaiu
piopagating component pioviues the piessuie iequiieu to stabilize the iotating uipole that is
the iotai (the election). This piessuie can be thought of as being caiiieu by the inwaiu
piopagating component that ieplenishes the iotating uipole.
If it was possible to see this piocess, we woulu not see the cancelation wave. We woulu only
see that the iotating uipole uiu not seem to be emitting any iauiation anu that theie weie some
smallei amplituue stanuing waves in the exteinal volume. These stanuing waves aie
iesponsible foi the iotais electiic fielu (uiscusseu latei). We woulu also see that theie was a
slight iesiuual stiain in spacetime with stiain B
2
J = . The giavitational magnituue of a
single iotai at uistance i fiom the iotai is:
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com
810
= B
2
J = B
L
p
i = umc
2
i = 1
d:
Jt
= 1
dR
dL
These aie appioximations that aie viitually exact foi single iotais.
Therefore we have succeeded in producing a nonoscillating strain of spacetime that
produces the time dilation (dt versus d) and the non Euclidian effect on space (dL versus
dR). Together this is the curvature of spacetime that we associate with gravity.
Newtonian Gravitational Force Equation: Theie aie still two moie steps befoie we aiiive at
the explanation that gives the coiiect attiacting foice at aibitiaiy uistance between two iotais.
We will stait by assuming two of the same iotais (mass m) sepaiateu by uistance i. It was
pieviously explaineu that ueflecting all of a iotais ciiculating powei geneiates the iotais
maximum foice F
m
. A iotai always uepenus on vacuum eneigy to contain its ciiculating powei.
When the iotai is isolateu, the foice iequiieu to ueflect the ciiculating powei is balanceu.
Bowevei, a giavitational fielu piouuces a giauient in the giavitational magnituue uui.
When a first rotar is in the gravitational field of a second rotar, there is a gradient d/dr
that exists across the quantum radius of the first rotar. This means that there is a slight
difference in the force exerted by vacuum energy/pressure on opposite sides of the first
rotar. This difference in force produces a net force that we know as the force of gravity.
This will be iestateu in a uiffeient way because of its impoitance. Imagine mass m
1
being a
iotai (iotating uipole) attempting to uispeise but being containeu by piessuie geneiateu
within the vacuum eneigypiessuie pieviously uiscusseu. This piessuie exactly equals the
uispeisive foice of the uipole wave iotating at the speeu of light. Bowevei, if theie is a giauient
in the giavitational magnituue uui then theie is a giauient acioss the iotai which we will call
. This affects the noimalizeu speeu of light anu the noimalizeu unit of foice on opposite siues
of the iotai. Recall fiom chaptei S we hau:
C
o
= C
g
noimalizeu speeu of light tiansfoimation
F
o
= F
g
noimalizeu foice tiansfoimation
= 1 + appioximation consiueieu exact foi iotais
Theiefoie, because of the stiain in spacetime, the two siues of the iotai (sepaiateu by R
q
) aie
living unuei what might be consiueieu to be uiffeient stanuaius foi the noimalizeu speeu of
light anu noimalizeu foice. 0n an absolute scale, it takes a uiffeient amount of piessuie to
stabilize the opposite siues of the iotai because of the giauient acioss the iotai. The net
uiffeience in this foice is the foice of giavity exeiteu on the iotai.
We will fiist calculate the change in giavitational magnituue acioss the quantum iauius R
q
of a iotai when it is in the giavitational fielu of anothei similai iotai (anothei iotai of the same
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com
811
mass). In othei woius, we will calculate the uiffeience in at uistance i anu uistance i + R
q
fiom a iotai of mass m.
= [
0m
c
2
 _
um
c
2
(+R
q
)
] =
umR
q
c
2
2
appioximation valiu if R
q
<< i
The foice exeiteu by vacuum eneigypiessuie on opposite hemispheies of the iotai is equal to
the maximum foice F
m
= m
2
c
S
. The uiffeience in the foice (absolute value) exeiteu on
opposite siues of the iotai is the maximum foice times . Theiefoie, the foice geneiateu by
two iotais of mass m sepaiateu by uistance i is:
F = F
m
= [
umR
q
c
2
2
(
m
2
c
3
) = [
um
c
2
2
(
mc
)(
m
2
c
3
) =
um
2
2
If we have two uiffeient mass iotais (mass m
1
anu mass m
2
), then we can consiuei mass m
1
in
the giavitational fielu of mass m
2
. In this case, R
q
anu F
m
aie foi mass m
1
anu is change in
the giavitational magnituue fiom mass m
2
acioss the quantum iauius R
q
fiom mass m
1
.
F
g
= F
m
= [
um
2
R
q1
c
2
2
[
m
1
2
c
3
= [
um
2
c
2
2
[
m
1
c
[
m
1
2
c
3
F
g
=
Gm
1
m
2
r
2
Newtonian giavitational foice equation ueiiveu fiom a uipole wave mouel
Gravitational Attraction: We have ueiiveu the Newtonian giavitational equation fiom
staiting assumptions, but we still have not shown that this is a foice of attiaction. Bowevei,
fiom the pievious consiueiations, this last step is easy. Theie is a slightly uiffeient piessuie
iequiieu to stabilize the iotai uepenuing on the local value of oi (in weak giavity = 1 +
). This can be consiueieu as a uiffeience in net foice exeiteu by vacuum eneigy on the
hemispheie of the iotai that is fuithest fiom the othei iotai compaieu to the hemispheie that
is neaiest the othei iotai. The fuithest hemispheie has a smallei aveiage value of than the
neaiest hemispheie. The noimalizeu speeu of light is gieatei anu the noimalizeu foice exeiteu
on the faithest hemispheie must be gieatei to stabilize the iotai. This piouuces a net foice in
the uiiection of incieasing . The magnituue of this foice is F = um
1
m
2
i
2
anu the vectoi of this
foice is in the uiiection of incieasing (towaius the othei mass).
We consiuei this to be a foice of attiaction because the two iotais want to migiate towaius
each othei (incieasing ). Bowevei, the foice is ieally coming fiom the vacuum eneigy
exeiting a iepulsive piessuie. Theie is gieatei noimalizeu piessuie being exeiteu on the siue
with the lowei . The two iotais aie ieally being pusheu togethei by a foice of iepulsion that is
unbalanceu.
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com
812
Coiollaiy Assumption: The force of gravity is the result of unsymmetrical pressure exerted
on a rotar by vacuum energy. This is unbalanced repulsive force that appears to be an
attractive force.
Example: Electron in Earths Gravity: We will uo a plausibility calculation to see if we
obtain ioughly the coiiect giavitational foice foi an election in the eaiths giavitational fielu
baseu on the above explanation. We will be using values foi the elections eneigy uensity anu
the elections maximum foice that weie pieviously calculateu by ignoiing uimensionless
constants. Theiefoie, we will continue with this plausibility calculation that ignoies
uimensionless constants. An election has inteinal eneigy of 8.19 x 1u
14
} anu a quantum iauius
of S.86 x 1u
1S
m. Ignoiing uimensionless constants, this gives an eneigy uensity of about
1.4 x 1u
24
}m
S
. This iotai mouel of an election is exeiting a piessuie of ioughly 1.4 x 1u
24
Nm
2
. This piessuie piouuces the iotais maximum foice which foi an election is F
m
= u.212 N
(obtaineu fiom P
c
c = "
q
R
q
2
= 1.4 x 1u
24
Nm
2
x R
q
2
).
At the suiface of the eaith the giavitational magnituue is: = 6.9S x 1u
1u
. To obtain the
giauient in this magnituue we uiviue by the eaiths equatoiial iauius 6.S7 x 1u
6
m to obtain a
giauient of uui = 1.u91 x 1u
16
m. The change in giavitational magnituue acioss the
quantum iauius (S.862 x 1u
1S
m) of an election is:
= (1.u91 x 1u
16
m) (S.862 x 1u
1S
m) = 4.21S x 1u
29
acioss an elections R
q
Theiefoie the uiffeience in foice acioss the quantum iauius of an election in the eaiths
giavitational giauient is times the elections maximum foice F
m
= .212 N = the foice being
exeiteu on opposite hemispheies of the iotai if theie was no giavitational giauient. The
eaiths giavitational giauient piouuces a net uiffeience in the maximum foice exeiteu on
opposite siues of the election as pieviously explaineu. The uiffeience in foice F is:
F = F
m
= 4.21S x 1u
29
x .212 N = 8.89 x 1u
Su
N
This is the coiiect foice exeiteu on an election by the eaiths giavity with: g = 9.78 ms
2
F = mg = 9.1 x 1u
S1
kg x 9.78 ms
2
= 8.89 x 1u
Su
N
Appaiently the ignoieu uimensionless constants cancel. This is anothei successful plausibility
test.
At the beginning of this chaptei two quotes weie piesenteu that pointeu out that geneial
ielativity uoes not iuentify the souice of the foice that occuis when a paiticle is iestiaineu fiom
following the geouesic. N. R. Euwaius states: Bowevei successful this geometiic
inteipietation may be as a mathematical mouel, it lacks physics anu a causal mechanism. The
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813
iueas pioposeu in this book give a conceptually unueistanuable explanation foi both the
magnituue anu the vectoi uiiection of the giavitational foice. The giavitational foice was
obtaineu fiom the staiting assumptions without using analogy of acceleiation.
Connection between Gravitational Force and Electromagnetic Force: In chaptei 6 we
founu that theie is a logical connection between the giavitational foice anu the electiomagnetic
foice. The foice ielationship becomes veiy simple between two of the same funuamental
paiticle with elementaiy chaige e anu sepaiateu by theii quantum iauius (i = R
q
). When the
foices aie expiesseu in Planck units the equation obtaineu in chaptei 6 was: F
g
= (F
e
)
2
. Now
we will geneialize this to an aibitiaiy sepaiation uistance. Theie aie seveial ways of uoing
this, but the one that pieseives the impoitance of the size of the iotai (pieseives the
ielationship to R
q
) is to specify the sepaiation uistance as a multiple of the quantum iauius R
q
.
Recall that the quantum iauius is equal to the ieuuceu Compton wavelength R
q
=
c
2 = c
c
= mc. Theiefoie, we want to specify the sepaiation uistance in teims of the uimensionless
iatio: J = iR
q
= i(mc). Theiefoie when two of the same chaigeu leptons, such as two
elections, aie sepaiateu by J units of R
q
, the ielationship between the giavitational foice anu
the electiomagnetic foice (in Planck units) is:
F
g
= (F
e
J)
2
wheie J = iR
q
= i(mc) (uimensionless iatio)
This can be uemonstiateu by showing that both siues of this equation equal:
u
2
m
2
2
c
4
F
g
=
P
g
P
p
= [
um
2
2
[
u
c
4
=
u
2
m
2
2
c
4
(F
e
J)
2
= _
P
c
P
p
R
q
u
]
2
= [
c
2
4ns
c
2
[
u
c
4
2
[
mc
2
[
4ns
c
c
c
2
2
=
u
2
m
2
2
c
4
A pieviously stateu funuamental assumption of this book is that theie is only one tiuly
funuamental foice F
i
= P
i
c. If this is coiiect, then we woulu expect that the foice ielationship
between iotais woulu also be a simple function of the iotais ciiculating powei. When we state
both foice anu ciiculating powei in uimensionless Planck units at uistance R
q
we obtaineu:
F
e
= P
c
anu F
g
= P
c
2
. Now we can geneialize these ielationships to any sepaiation uistance
using J as follows:
F
g
= P
c
2
J
2
giavitational foice between two similai iotais sepaiateu by J units of R
q
F
e
= P
c
J
2
electiostatic foice between two similai iotais sepaiateu by J units of R
q
So fai we have uealt with two of the same iotais. This can be bioaueneu to two uiffeient
iotais. Rotai #1 has ciiculating powei of P
c1
anu iotai #2 has ciiculating powei of P
c2
(both in
Planck units of powei). Rotais 1 anu 2 also have quantum iauius R
q1
anu quantum iauius R
q2
.
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814
The sepaiation uistance i is uesignateu by J
1
= iR
q1
anu J
2
= iR
q2
. The giavitational anu
electiomagnetic foices between these two uiffeient iotais in Planck units of foice aie:
F
g
= P
c1
P
c2
J
1
J
2
F
e
= (P
c1
P
c2
)
12
J
1
J
2
With multiple funuamental paiticles but weak giavity, natuie meiely auus up the foices
geneiateu between each paii of funuamental paiticles. The equation F
g
= P
c1
P
c2
J
1
J
2
becomes the Newtonian giavitational equation F
g
= um
1
m
2
i
2
when the substitutions foi J
1
anu J
2
aie maue anu Planck units aie conveiteu to conventional units. Similaily, the Coulomb
foice iesulting fiom the inteiaction of multiple chaigeu paiticles is meiely the vectoi sum of
the foices geneiateu between each paii of chaigeu funuamental paiticles.
The electiomagnetic foice equation F
e
= (P
c1
P
c2
)
12
J
1
J
2
is paiticulaily inteiesting. Foi
example, suppose that theie is an election anu a muon at sepaiation uistance i. They both have
chaige e but theii masses uiffei by about a factoi of about 2u6. The cuiient unueistanuing of
the laws of physics ignoies mass when calculating the electiostatic foice between two chaigeu
objects. Bowevei, the above equation foi electiostatic foice says that the spacetime wave
mouel of the univeise uoes not ignoie the masseneigy uiffeience. The masseneigy affects
both the ciiculating powei (P
c1
P
c2
) anu the iepiesentation of the sepaiation uistance (J
1
J
2
).
It just woiks out that the masseneigy cancels in this simplifieu calculation of electiomagnetic
foice, but the waves in spacetime that cieate the electiomagnetic anu othei foices aie uiffeient
foi an election anu a muon.
F
e
= (P
c1
P
c2
)
12
J
1
J
2
set F
e
= F
e
F
p
P
c1
= P
c1
P
p
P
c2
= P
c2
P
p
F
e
= _
P
c1
P
c2
J
1
J
2
] _
P
p
P
p
] set P
c1
= c
2
R
q1
2
; P
c2
= c
2
R
q2
2
; J
1
= iR
q
; J
2
= iR
q2
F
e
= _
c
2
R
q1
R
q2
] [
R
q1
R
q2
2
[
c
4
u
[
u
c
S
=
uc
2
=
c
2
4ns
c
2
The above calculation was uone using R
q
iathei than mass, but it coulu have been uone using
mass by making the substitution R
q
= mc. The mass teim woulu then cancel just like the
cancelation of R
q
. While this analysis ielates foice anu ciiculation powei, it uoes not auuiess
the following question: Exactly what is happening to spacetime when an electiic fielu is
piesent. A moie complete explanation of the electiomagnetic foice, chaige anu electiic fielus
will be given in chapteis 9 anu 1u. It will be shown that theie is both an oscillating component
anu a non oscillating component.
Gravitational Rate of Time Gradient: In the weak fielu limit, it is quite easy to extiapolate
fiom the giavitational magnituue piouuceu by a single iotai at a paiticulai point in space to
the total giavitational magnituue piouuceu by many iotais. Natuie meiely sums the
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815
magnituues of all the iotais at a point in space without iegaiu to the uiiection of inuiviuual
iotais. The giavitational acceleiation g was pieviously ueteimineu to be:
g = c
2
uui = c
2
u(uut)ui.
A giavitational acceleiation of 1 ms
2
iequiies a iate of time giauient of 1.11 x 1u
17
seconus
pei seconu pei metei. The eaiths giavitational acceleiation of 9.8 ms
2
implies a veitical iate
of time giauient of 1.u9 x 1u
16
metei
1
. This means that two clocks, with a veitical sepaiation
of one metei at the eaiths suiface, will uiffei in time by 1.u9 x 1u
16
seconusseconu. Similaily,
theie is also a spatial giauient. A giavitational acceleiation also implies that theie is a
uiffeience between ciicumfeiential iauius R anu iauial length L. In the eaiths giavity this
spatial uiffeience is 1.u9 x 1u
16
meteismetei ( = 1 uRuL).
0ut of cuiiosity, we can calculate how much ielative velocity woulu be iequiieu to piouuce a
time uilation equivalent to a one metei elevation change in the eaiths giavity. If elevation 2 is
1 metei highei than elevation 1, then: ut
1
ut
2
= 1 1.u9 x 1u
16
. 0sing special ielativity:
v = c
_
1  [
dt
1
dt
2
2
set ut
1
ut
2
= 1 1.u9 x 1u
16
v = 4.4 ms
This 4.4 ms velocity is exactly the same velocity as a falling object achieves aftei falling
thiough a uistance of 1 metei in the eaiths giavity. Caiiying this one step fuithei, an obseivei
in giavity peiceives that a clock in a spaceship in zeio giavity has the same iate of time as a
clock in giavity, if the spaceship is moving at a ielative velocity of v
e
, the giavitys escape
velocity. Foi example, an obseivei on eaith woulu peiceive that a spaceship in zeio giavity
moving tangentially at about 4u,uuu kmhi has the same iate of time as a clock on the eaith.
0n the othei hanu, an obseivei in the spaceship peiceives that a clock on the eaith is sloweu
twice as much as if theie was only giavity oi only ielative motion.
Equivalence of Acceleration and Gravity Examined: Albeit Einstein assumeu that giavity
coulu be consiueieu equivalent to acceleiation. This assumption obviously leaus to the coiiect
mathematical equations. Bowevei, on a quantum mechanical level, is this assumption coiiect.
Touay it is commonly believeu that an acceleiating fiame of iefeience is the same as giavity if
the volume is small enough that tiual effects can be ignoieu anu all exteinal clues aie
eliminateu. A coiollaiy to this is that an ineitial fiame of iefeience eliminates giavity. The
implication is that giavity is not as ieal as an election oi a photon which cannot be maue to
uisappeai meiely by choosing a paiticulai fiame of iefeience. ueneial ielativity uoes not
consiuei giavity to be a foice.
The concepts piesenteu in this book funuamentally uisagiee with this physical inteipietation
of geneial ielativity. Theie is no uisagieement with the equations of geneial ielativity. To
explain why an ineitial fiame of iefeience uoes not eliminate giavity, we will use the pievious
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816
example of an election in a vacuum chambei in the eaiths giavitational fielu. It was shown
that foice exeiteu on an election in the Eaith's giavitational fielu is the iesult of the giauient in
the Eaith's giavitational fielu uui = 1.1 x 1u
16
pei metei. This giauient piouuces a slight
uiffeience in the foice exeiteu by vacuum eneigypiessuie on opposite siues of the elections
quantum volume. This foice uiffeience was shown to be equal to about 8.89 x 1u
Su
N. This
foice uiffeience uoes not uisappeai if the election is in an ineitial fiame of iefeience (fiee fall).
Also, the elections ineitial pseuuo foice uoes not uisappeai when the acceleiation is causeu by
a fiee fall in giavity. Both foices iemain. The foice iequiieu to acceleiate the election at 9.8
ms
2
is still 8.9 x 1u
Su
N (iecall acceleiating light in a box). Also, the giauient uui acioss the
election is still piouucing a 8.9 x 1u
Su
N foice. When the electron is being accelerated by
gravity, the gravity is still exerting its force. In fiee fall the two foices offset each othei anu
the election appeais to expeiience no foice. Bowevei, this is an eiioneous peiception. Both
foices iemain. An ineitial fiame of iefeience (following a geouesic) uoes not eliminate the
foice of giavity.
The ineitial fiame of iefeience of an object in fiee fall in a giavitational fielu is actually an
acceleiating fiame of iefeience ielative to the cosmic miciowave backgiounu (CNB). This
acceleiating fiame of iefeience ielative to the CNB is no moie funuamental than a iotating
fiame of iefeience. To simulate giavity by physically acceleiating a mass such as a iotai, it
takes the continuous expenuituie of powei anu the exchange of momentum. The ineitial
pseuuo foice at a specific acceleiation can equal the magnituue of a giavitational foice, but the
oiigins of the foices aie uiffeient. The foice of giavity is causeu by a uiffeiential in the piessuie
exeiteu by vacuum eneigy while the foice exhibiteu by acceleiation is causeu by a uiffeience in
the Bopplei shift exhibiteu by waves in spacetime ciiculating at the speeu of light in a confineu
volume.
Anothei point is that the acceleiation of giavity is only one aspect of a giavitational fielu.
Theie is also the effect on the iate of time (ut = u) anu the effect on piopei length
(uL = uR). Being in an ineitial fiame of iefeience uoes not eliminate these auuitional effects.
Recall the thought expeiiment fiom chaptei 2 involving a clock in a cavity at the centei of the
eaith. This clock is in an ineitial fiame of iefeience but the ineitial fiame of iefeience uiu not
affect the iate of time which uepenus on the giavitational potential at the centei of the eaith.
If giavity anu acceleiation aie not equivalent uown at the level of waves in spacetime, why uiu
Einstein obtain the coiiect equations by assuming that they weie equivalent. The answei is
that in fiee fall the effects of giavity on a iotai exactly offset the measuiable effects of
acceleiating a iotai. Not only aie theie offsetting foice vectois, but the offsetting effects extenu
to the iate of time giauient anu the volume giauient. Theiefoie assuming that giavity is
inuistinguishable fiom acceleiation is a goou assumption foi mathematical analysis of giavity if
neithei the souice of ineitia foice noi the giavitational foice is unueistoou. Bowevei, on the
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817
quantum mechanical scale involving vacuum fluctuations anu inteinal effects in a iotai, theie is
a uiffeience between giavity anu acceleiation.
uiavity just appeais to be in a sepaiate categoiy than the othei foices because it is a seconu
oiuei effect associateu with the nonlineaiity of spacetime. uiavity is a tiue foice anu not
causeu by a geometiic abstiaction. The fielu of quantum giavity can be bioauly uefineu as any
attempt to combine geneial ielativity anu quantum mechanics. The uipole wave in spacetime
explanation foi giavity pioposeu heie falls within this bioau uefinition of quantum giavity.
The implication is that geneial ielativity is an appioximation of a moie complete theoiy of
giavity that extenus uown to the quantum mechanical scale.
Grav Field in the Quantum Volume: The above uiscussion of giavitational acceleiation fiom
a iate of time giauient piepaies us to ietuin to the subject of the giav fielu insiue the
quantum volume of a iotai. Recall that the iotating uipole that foims the quantum volume of
an isolateu iotai was shown in figuie S1. This iotating uipole wave has two lobes that have
uiffeient iates of time anu uiffeient effects on piopei volume. The uiffeience in the iate of time
between the two lobes piouuces a iotating iate of time giauient that was uepicteu in figuie S2.
A iotai is veiy sensitive to a iate of time giauient. A iate of time giauient of 1.11 x 1u
17
seconusseconumetei causes a iotai to acceleiate at 1 ms
2
anu the acceleiation scales
lineaily with iate of time giauient. Theiefoie, the iotating iate of time giauient in the centei of
a iotai mouel can be consiueieu to be a iotating acceleiation fielu.
We noimally encountei iate of time giauients in a giavitational fielu anu these aie the iesult of
a nonlineaiity that piouuces a static stiess in spacetime. Theie is no angulai fiequency
associateu with a static giavitational fielu (static iate of time giauient), theiefoie theie is no
eneigy uensity associateu with a static iate of time giauient. Bowevei, if a iotating
giavitational fielu is somehow geneiateu, then such a iotating fielu woulu have an eneigy
uensity. The iotating iate of time giauient (iotating giav fielu) that is piesent neai the centei
of the quantum volume of a iotai uoes have eneigy uensity that will be calculateu next.
In a time peiiou of 1
c
, the fast time lobe of the uipole gains Planck time (uisplacement
amplituue T
p
) anu the slow time lobe loses Planck time T
p
. These lobes aie sepaiateu by 2R
q
.
Theiefoie, in a time of 1
c
theie is a total time uiffeience of 2T
p
acioss a uistance of 2R
q
. The
iate of time giauient pei metei is:
dt d:
JtJr
=
21
p
[
2R
q
n
c
=
L
p
o
c
2
c
2
=
L
p
R
q
2
The acceleiation piouuceu by this iate of time giauient (giav acceleiation A
g
) is the iate of
time giauient times c
2
. The following aie seveial equalities foi giav acceleiation A
g
:
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com
818
A
g
= [
dt d:
dtd
c
2
= L
p
c
2
= B
2
A
p
=
_
m
4
c
S
u
3
A
g
= giav acceleiation anu A
p
= ct
p
= c
7
0 = Planck acceleiation
Comparison of Grav Acceleration and Gravitational Acceleration: Bow uoes the iotating
giav acceleiation at the centei of a iotais quantum volume (A
g
) compaie with the non
iotating, giavitational acceleiation (g
q
) at the euge of the same iotais quantum volume. .
g
q
= B
c
c iotais noniotating giavitational acceleiation at uistance R
q
A
g
= B
c
c iotais iotating (
c
) giav acceleiation at the centei of a iotai
g
q
A
g
= B
iatio of g
q
(static giavitational acceleiation at R
q
) to iotating giav acceleiation A
g
Foi an election B
= 4.18 x 1u
2S
, so the iotating giav fielu is about 2 x 1u
22
times stiongei than
the non iotating giavitational fielu at uistance R
q
. This iesults in an election having a iotating
giav acceleiation of: A
g
= 9.7S x 1u
6
ms
2
. The giavitational acceleiation (not iotating) of an
election at uistance R
q
is: g
q
= 4.u7 x 1u
16
ms
2
. Theiefoie the giav acceleiation in the
quantum volume of an election is about a million times gieatei than the giavitational
acceleiation at the suiface of the eaith. The eaiths giavity is not iotating anu is a nonlineai
effect. The elections giav fielu is iotating anu is a fiist oiuei effect iesulting fiom the iate of
time giauient establisheu in the elections iotating uipole wave.
Recall the incieuibly small uiffeience in the iate of time that exists between the lobes of an
election. It woulu take Su,uuu times the age of the univeise foi the hypothetical lobe clock
iunning at the iate of time insiue the slow lobe to lose one seconu compaieu to the cooiuinate
clock. The uiffeience between the iate of time on the slow lobe clock anu the cooiuinate clock
is compaiable to the uiffeience in the iate of time exhibiteu by an elevation change of about
4 x 1u
7
m in the eaiths giavity. The ieason that the iotating giav fielu has a million times
laigei acceleiation than the eaith is because this uiffeience in the iate of time occuis ovei
appioximately a million times shoitei uistance (~ 4 x 1u
1S
m). The iotating iate of time
giauient insiue a iotai is a fiist oiuei effect ielateu to B
2
.
Conservation of Momentum in the Grav Field: It woulu appeai that the concept of a giav
fielu must violate the conseivation of momentum. An example will illustiate this point.
Suppose that a small neutial paiticle (such as a neutial meson) wanueis into the centei of an
elections quantum volume. Even if the mass of the meson is 1uuu times laigei than the
election, the iotating giav fielu of the election shoulu piouuce the same acceleiation of the
neutial paiticle. This woulu be a violation of the conseivation of momentum unless the
uisplacement piouuceu by the iotating giav fielu is equal to oi less than Planck length (the
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com
819
unceitainty piinciple uetectable limit). We will calculate the maximum uisplacement () that
takes place in a time peiiou of: t = 1
c
. We choose this time peiiou because the iotating
vectoi of the giav fielu is changing by one iauian in a time peiiou of 1
c
. Bypothetically the
neutial paiticle woulu nutate in a ciicle with a iauius ielateu to (ignoiing uimensionless
constants).
= V a t
2
= k
H
o
c
c
o
c
2
=
_
L
p
R
q
]_
c
R
q
]c
_
c
R
q
]
2
= L
p
= L
p
= maximum iauial uisplacement piouuceu by a iotais iotating giav fielu
Theiefoie any masseneigy iotai always piouuces the same uisplacement equal to Planck
length (ignoiing uimensionless constants) in the time iequiieu foi the giav fielu to iotate one
iauian. This uisplacement is peimitteu by quantum mechanics anu is not a violation of the
conseivation of momentum. This is anothei successful plausibility test.
Energy Density in the Rotating Grav Field: An acceleiating fielu that is iotating possesses
eneigy uensity. It woulu hypothetically be possible to extiact eneigy fiom such a fielu if the
fielu piouuceu a nutation that was laigei than the quantum mechanical limit of Planck length.
No eneigy can be extiacteu fiom a iotais iotating giav fielu because the nutation is at the
quantum mechanical limit of uetection. Bowevei, this fielu still possesses eneigy uensity.
Pieviously we uesignateu the stiain amplituue of a iotai as B
= L
p
R
q
= T
p
c
=
c
p
. These
weie oiiginally uefineu in teims of the stiain amplituue of a uipole wave that is one wavelength
in ciicumfeience. This uefinition tenueu to imply that the eneigy uensity of a iotai was
uistiibuteu aiounu the ciicumfeience. Bowevei, it is pioposeu that the iotating giauient that
is piesent at the centei of the iotai mouel can also be chaiacteiizeu as having a uimensionless
amplituue of B
= L
p
R
q
= T
p
c
. This amplituue B
c
, although this is haiuei to see.
Pieviously we substituteu B
,
c
anu Z
s
into 0 = B
2
2
Zc anu obtaineu a iotais eneigy uensity
in the quantum volume 0
q
= k mc
2
R
q
S
. If we ignoie the uimensionless constant k, this is the
iotais inteinal eneigy in the volume of a cube that is R
q
on a siue. Beie aie some othei
equalities foi 0
q
.
0
q
=
m
4
c
S
3
=
L
i
R
q
3
= B
4
0
p
set
m
4
c
S
u
3
= A
g
2
0
q
=
A
g
2
u
If we bioauen the uefinition of B
anu 0
q
= A
g
2
u
0
q
=
A
g
2
u
=
L
p
2
o
c
4
u
set A
g
= L
p
c
2
The eneigy uensity equation seems to imply that an oscillating wave is iequiieu foi theie to be
any eneigy uensity (if
c
= u then 0
q
= u). This is ieasonable because it is not possible to
extiact eneigy fiom a static giavitational fielu but it woulu be possible to extiact eneigy fiom a
iotating giavitational fielu if the uisplacement exceeueu Planck length. In figuie 8S the sloping
line with small unuulations is maue up of a BClike component that uoes not oscillate anu an
AClike component that uoes oscillate. We inteiact with the BClike component which
piouuces the tempoial anu spatial chaiacteiistics that we noimally associate with giavity.
Bowevei, this component has zeio fiequency anu theiefoie uoes not have eneigy uensity. The
AC like component neeus to be stuuieu fuithei. It may be the component that conveits the
obseivable eneigy in the eaily univeise into vacuum eneigy. This will be uiscusseu latei. The
BClike components piouuceu by uiffeient iotais auu constiuctively to make the cuiveu
spacetime we consiuei the giavity of a massive object.
Energy Density in Dipole Waves: The above insights into the giav fielu also have
implications foi any Planck amplituue uipole wave in spacetime, not just the iotating uipoles
that foim iotais. I am going to talk about uipole waves in spacetime but stait off by making an
analogy to sounu waves in a gas. Sounu waves can be uepicteu with a sinusoiual giaph of
piessuie. The compiession iegions have piessuie above the local noim anu the iaiefaction
iegions have piessuie below the local noim. These can be iepiesenteu as a sine wave
maximum anu minimum. Bowevei, if a giaph was to be uiawn showing the kinetic eneigy of
the molecules in the gas, the maximum kinetic eneigy occuis in the iegions between the
piessuie maximum anu minimum. A kinetic eneigy giaph uepicting motion (velocity) left anu
iight woulu have a 9u uegiee phase shift to the piessuie giaph. The eneigy in the sounu wave
is being conveiteu fiom kinetic eneigy (paiticle motion) to eneigy in the foim of high oi low
piessuie gas. When these two foims of eneigy aie auueu togethei, then a sounu wave with a
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plane wavefiont has a unifoim total eneigy uensity (sin
2
+ cos
2
= 1). The eneigy is just
being exchangeu between two foims.
This concept of eneigy being exchangeu between two uiffeient foims also applies to uipole
waves in spacetime. In one foim, eneigy exists because the vacuum eneigy of spacetime is
uistoiteu so that theie aie iegions wheie the iate of time is fastei oi slowei than the local
noim. Peihaps this is analogous to the compiession anu iaiefaction iepiesentation of a sounu
wave. The iegions between the maximum anu minimum iates of time have the gieatest
giauient in the iate of time. These aie the giav fielu iegions anu they aie analogous to iegions
in the sounu wave wheie the gas molecules have the gieatest kinetic eneigy. Auuing togethei
the two foims of eneigy uensity piesent in eithei sounu waves oi uipole waves in spacetime
piouuces a total eneigy uensity without the chaiacteiistic wave unuulations.
The waves in spacetime have sometimes been uiscusseu emphasizing eithei the tempoial
chaiacteiistics (iate of time giauients, etc.) oi emphasizing the spatial chaiacteiistics (foi
example L
p
i). Actually both chaiacteiistics aie always piesent; it is sometimes easiei to
explain using just one chaiacteiistic. Theiefoie, the giav fielu coulu have been explaineu
emphasizing the piopei volume giauient iathei than the iate of time giauient.
Gravitational Potential Energy Storage: The nonoscillating stiain in spacetime piouuceu by
a iotai has amplituue of: B
u
= B
2
J = = 1 1. Foi weak giavity we can use the
appioximation = 1 + . When we look at the giavitational effect that a iotai has on
spacetime, we concluue that the slowing of the iate of time also piouuces a slowing of the
noimalizeu speeu of light (C
o
= C
g
fiom chaptei S). To ieach this conclusion we must assume
that piopei length is constant, even when theie is a change in . This is an unspoken
assumption foi physics that uoes not involve geneial ielativity.
The effect on the iate of time anu on the noimalizeu speeu of light ultimately effects eneigy,
foice, mass, etc as pieviously uiscusseu. The ieason foi biinging this up now is that I want to
auuiess giavitational potential eneigy. uiavitational potential eneigy is consiueieu a negative
eneigy that has its maximum value in zeio giavity anu uecieases when a mass is loweieu into
giavity. What physically changes when a iotai is elevateu oi loweieu in giavity.
In chaptei S it was founu that substituting the noimalizeu speeu of light C
g
anu the noimalizeu
mass N
g
into the equation E = mc
2
gives eneigy that scales inveisely with giavitational gamma
(iest fiame of iefeience). We illustiateu this concept by calculating the uiffeience in the
inteinal eneigy of a 1 kg mass foi an elevation of sea level anu one metei above sea level. The
calculateu uiffeience in the noimalizeu inteinal eneigy was 9.8 }oules exactly the same as the
giavitational potential eneigy.
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This change in eneigy is uue to the change in the noimalizeu speeu of light affecting the
Compton fiequency of the iotai as seen fiom zeio giavity. Foi example, a fiee election in zeio
giavity has a Compton angulai fiequency of 7.76 x 1u
2u
s
1
. Eaiths giavity has = 7 x 1u
1u
. A
fiee election in eaiths giavity has a noimalizeu Compton angulai fiequency that is slowei than
a zeio giavity election by about S.4 x 1u
11
iauians pei noimalizeu seconu (7 x 1u
1u
x 7.76 x
1u
2u
s
1
). This lowei Compton fiequency uecieases the noimalizeu inteinal eneigy of an
election anu uecieases the giavity (nonoscillating stiain) geneiateu by an election. The non
oscillating stiain is iesponsible foi the iotais giavity, so a iotai at iest in giavity contiibutes
less giavity to the total giavity than the same iotai at iest (same tempeiatuie) in zeio giavity.
(Remembei that in the noimalizeu system uiscusseu in chaptei S, giavity affects mass (ineitia)
anu eneigy uiffeiently. In this case, giavity scales with eneigy, not mass. The ieuuction in
giavity geneiateu by an election in giavity is quite ieasonable because eneigy was lost when
an election goes fiom being at iest in zeio giavity to being at iest in giavity (same
tempeiatuie). Foi example, an election on the eaiths suiface expeiiences a giavitational
magnituue of = 7 x 1u
1u
. That election geneiates 7 x 1u
1u
less giavity than the same election
in zeio giavity.
These concepts also leau to a physical explanation foi potential eneigy. In chaptei S the
concept of potential eneigy was ielateu to a ieuuction in the noimalizeu speeu of light ieuucing
the E = mc
2
inteinal eneigy. Now we go one step fuithei anu tiace the loss of eneigy in a
giavitational fielu to a ieuuction in the iotational fiequency of a iotai in a giavitational fielu.
This not only affects the inteinal eneigy of the iotai, but it also affects the amount of giavity
geneiateu by the iotai.
Since a change in affects mass anu eneigy uiffeiently anu since giavity scales with eneigy
(not mass), to be technically coiiect the giavitational equations shoulu be wiitten in teims of
eneigy, not mass. The tiansfoimations anu insights pioviueu heie have foiceu us to iecognize
that the teim mass is a quantification of ineitia. Nass is not synonymous with mattei anu
mass scales uiffeiently than eneigy when vieweu by an obseivei using the zeio giavity
cooiuinate iate of time.
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91
Chaptei 9
Electiomagnetic Fielus & Spacetime 0nits
Introduction: In the last chaptei we analyzeu giavitational attiaction anu establisheu the
necessity of vacuum eneigypiessuie in geneiating the giavitational foice. This chaptei is an
intiouuction to the electiomagnetic (EN) iauiation anu electiical chaige. We will stait with a
pieliminaiy examination of the spacetime chaiacteiistics iesponsible foi electiic fielu of
chaigeu paiticles. Aftei some insights aie uevelopeu with chaigeu paiticles we will then
switch anu examine the piopeities of spacetime that aie affecteu when electiomagnetic
iauiation is piesent. An expeiiment will be pioposeu. We will then switch back anu use some
of the insights gaineu fiom electiomagnetic iauiation to uevelop fuithei the mouel of a chaigeu
paiticles electiic fileu. Finally, we will uevelop a system of funuamental units baseu only on
the piopeities of spacetime. These units uesignate chaige utilizing only the piopeities of
spacetime.
We tenu to think of the electiic anu magnetic fielus associateu with EN iauiation as being veiy
similai to the electiic anu magnetic fielus associateu with chaigeu paiticles. Bowevei, theie
aie obvious uiffeiences. The fielus associateu with EN iauiation aie always oscillating anu they
piopagate at the speeu of light. The fielus associateu with chaigeu paiticles aie not oscillating
anu they aie not fieely piopagating. With these uiffeiences, it shoulu be expecteu that theie
shoulu also be consiueiable uiffeiences in the explanations of the electiic fielu associateu with
photons compaieu to the electiic fielu associateu with elections. Beveloping a mouel of
electiic anu magnetic fielus has been the most uifficult task of this entiie book. While
consiueiable piogiess has been maue, the mouel is not complete. Fuitheimoie, the mouel of
the electiic fielu associateu with chaigeu paiticles is less complete than the mouel EN
iauiation. This chaptei begins by examining the magnituue anu type of uistoition of spacetime
iequiieu to piouuce elementaiy chaige e.
Spacetime Interpretation of Charge: If the univeise is only spacetime, theie shoulu be an
inteipietation of electiical chaige, peimeability, electiic fielu, etc. that inteipiets these
electiical chaiacteiistics using only chaiacteiistics of waves anuoi a nonoscillating stiain in
spacetime. It will be iecognizeu that theie aie two types of electiic fielu: 1) The static electiic
fielu associateu with a chaigeu paiticle anu 2) the oscillating electiic fielu of electiomagnetic
iauiation. This uistinction is maue because it will be shown that the electiic fielu associateu
with a chaigeu paiticle is moie complex. The goal of this section is to quantify the uistoition of
spacetime iequiieu to piouuce electiical chaige. The following calculations will assume that
we aie uealing only with funuamental iotais of elementaiy chaige (q = e). Effectively this
means that we aie focusing on the thiee chaigeu leptons (election, muon anu tauon).
Composite paiticles such as piotons aie moie complex anu will be uiscusseu in a latei chaptei.
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92
We will not be conceineu with negative signs, but we will attempt to pay attention to the
constants that aie associateu with electiostatic units. We will stait with the foice between two
elementaiy chaiges e sepaiateu by uistance i.
F
e
= [
1
4ns
c
[
c
2
2
= o [
L
p
2
2
F
p
This equality comes uiiectly fiom the substitution of = e
2
4
o
c; L
p
2
= uc
S
anu F
p
= c
4
u.
Canceling out the 1i
2
teims fiom this equation we obtain:
[
1
4ns
c
e
2
= L
p
2
F
p
Charge Conversion Constant : This equation will be ieaiiangeu to gioup like teims
togethei. This means that the foice ielateu teims (Planck foice F
p
anu the Coulomb foice
constant 14
o
) will be placeu on one siue of the equal sign anu the chaige ielateu teims (e
anu ) will be placeu on the othei siue of the equal sign. The only ieal question in this giouping
is wheie to place L
p
2
. If we place L
p
2
on the chaige siue then the units of both siues will be
(meteiCoulomb)
2
while if we gioup the L
p
2
on the foice siue then the units of both siues will
be meiely Coulomb
2
. The objective of this exeicise is to uesignate a constant that conveits
chaige (Coulomb) into a piopeity of spacetime with units of length anuoi time. If the
univeise is only spacetime, then even chaige must have an explanation that incoipoiates only
the piopeities of spacetime. A giouping with units that can be ieuuceu to meteis pei Coulomb
is exactly the type of answei that we want. Theiefoie, we aie going to piopose a new constant
of natuie that conveits chaige into a stiain in spacetime with units of meteiCoulomb. This
pioposeu factoi will be calleu the chaige conveision constant anu uesignateu by the uieek
symbol eta ().
c
2
uL
p
2
= 4
o
F
p
1
q
2
uL
p
c
=
_
1
4ns
c
P
p
= 8.617 x 1u
18
mC = chaige conveision constant (meteisCoulomb)
The pioposeu constant has units of meteis pei coulomb, so it will seive as the conveision
factoi between units that contain chaige anu units baseu only on the piopeities of spacetime.
Equating chaige to length is not conceptually unueistanuable if we assume length to be static
iulei length. It was pieviously explaineu that the symbol L
p
was a wave amplituue with
uimensions of length. Similaily, the meteis in (meteisCoulomb) is also uiffeient fiom
iulei length. Latei a physical inteipietation will be given to the physical effect that has
uimensions of length (meteis) but is not the same as iulei length.
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93
The following thiee equations utilize to achieve a conveision to units without chaige. These
equations aie wiitten in an unconventional way. To achieve the objective of having chaige
eliminateu fiom both the left anu iight siue of the equation, the conveision constant is
incluueu on the left siue of the equation.
e = o L
p
elementaiy chaige e conveision
q
p
= L
p
Planck chaige q
p
conveits to a Planck length uistoition in spacetime
1
4ns
c
[
1
q
2
= F
p
Coulomb foice constant conveits to Planck foice
Physical Interpretation: Befoie pioceeuing to use the chaige conveision constant to
tiansfoim othei units which incoipoiate chaige, we will fiist examine the physical
inteipietation of this constant anu see if it seems ieasonable. What uoes it mean to say that
elementaiy chaige e is somehow ielateu to oL
p
. This is anothei case wheie we aie not
uealing with the conventional iuea of iulei length. Insteau it is a uistoition of spacetime with
uimensions of length. Pait of the physical inteipietation will be given heie anu pait will be
given latei in this chaptei. An insight into the physical inteipietation of e = oL
p
can be
obtaineu by expiessing the electiical potential (voltage ielative to electiical neutiality)
piouuceu by a single chaige e (such as an election) when the electiical potential at iauial
uistance i is expiesseu in uimensionless Planck units. The equation foi electiical potential (v)
foi chaige e at uistance i, expiesseu in SI units is: v = e4
o
i. We will uesignate the symbol
foi electiical potential in uimensionless Planck units as V in keeping with the convention
pieviously establishes foi Planck units. To conveit conventional electiical potential v to V it is
necessaiy to uiviue by Planck voltage v
p
accoiuing to the equation
V =
v
v
p
wheie: v
p
=
L
p
q
p
=_
c
4
4ns
c
u
= 1.u4S x 1u
27
volts
Next we will finu the electiical potential in Planck units (V ) piouuceu by a single elementaiy
chaige e at iauial uistance i by conveiting v = e4
o
i to Planck electiical potential units.
V = [
c
4s
o
r
_
4ns
c
u
c
4
=[
1
_
c
2
4ns
c
c
_
u
c
3
V =
uL
p
Conveiting the electiical potential to Planck units ieveals the effect on spacetime piouuceu by
chaige e at uistance i. Planck electiical potential v
p
iepiesents the theoietical laigest electiical
potential that spacetime can sustain. It can be shown that achieving Planck electiical potential
iepiesents the eneigy uensity anu uimensions that woulu foim a black hole. Planck electiical
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com
94
potential v
p
is equivalent to V = 1. This iepiesents the maximum possible stiain of spacetime
(1uu% stiain of spacetime). Expiessing electiical potential in uimensionless Planck units is
expiessing the fiactional stiain of spacetime on the univeisal scale wheie the maximum
possible stiain is V = 1.
Anothei concept can be best explaineu with a numeiical example. At a uistance of 1u
12
m fiom
an election we woulu have V = 1.S8 x 1u
24
anu 1 metei fiom an election the value woulu be
V = 1.S8 x 1u
S6
. Extenuing eithei of these slopes back to the centei of the election (1u
12
m oi
1 m iespectively) gives a Z axis inteisection equal to oL
p
meteis (1.S8 x 1u
S6
m). Foi
compaiison, Z axis inteisection foi a hypothetical Planck chaige q
p
woulu be Planck length l
p
.
The stiain of spacetime piouuceu by a chaige can be thought of as LL which at iauial
uistance i can be expiesseu as Li. Foi a single elementaiy chaige e at any uistance the L
teim is always equal to oL
p
meteis. This iesults in the following stiain equation:
Li = V = oL
p
i stiain in spacetime at uistance i fiom chaige e
An explanation will be given latei in this chaptei of the type of uistoition (with uimensions of
length) which is associateu with electiical potential. Bowevei, heie it is possible to uesciibe
the magnituue of this uistoition between two points at uiffeient uistances fiom chaige e. We
will uesignate these points as i
1
anu i
2
wheie i
2
> i
1
. An election (chaige e) piouuces a stiain
in spacetime that iesults in a type of length change (L) obtaineu fiom integiation of the stiain
cuive anu equal to:
L = oL
p
ln(i
2
i
1
) uistoition piouuceu by the elections chaige between i
2
anu i
1
Foi example, if i
2
= 1 metei anu i
1
= 1u
12
metei, then L = 2.S6 x L
p
= S.8 x 1u
SS
m. While
this seems like a veiy small net uistance, it must be iemembeieu that the stiain is affecting the
enoimously laige eneigy uensity of vacuum eneigy. Latei it will be shown that this type of
stiain of spacetime can piouuce the magnituue of the foice we expect of an electiic fielu acting
on an election (iotai). If theie aie multiple chaiges, the stiain piouuceu by each elementaiy
chaige is a vectoi which auus to the vectoi stiains piouuceu by all the othei chaiges. Foi
example, if theie aie a laige numbei of elections (n
e
elections) on a chaigeu spheie, then the
value of L becomes:
L = n
c
oL
p
ln(i
2
i
1
) uistoition piouuceu by n
e
elections
The ability to inciease L by incieasing the chaige (incieasing n
e
) suggests the possibility of an
expeiiment which will be uiscusseu latei.
Use of the Charge Coupling Constant : We will now ietuin to the uiscussion of the chaige
coupling constant . It is easiest to explain the use of with an example. The units of the
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95
Coulomb foice constant (14
o
) aie m
S
kgC
2
s
2
oi in uimensional analysis teiminology this is:
L
S
NQ
2
T
2
. If we want to eliminate chaige squaieu fiom the uenominatoi, we must multiply the
Coulomb foice constant by 1
2
which is multiplying by units of Coulonmb
2
metei
2
.
This conveision of the Coulomb foice constant to Planck foice uoes not seem intuitively
ieasonable because Planck foice (~1u
44
N) is such a big numbei. Bowevei, this conveision is
coiiect as illustiateu by an example. Imagine what woulu happen if we weie uealing with two
chaigeu point paiticles (each with chaige e) anu it was possible to ieuuce the sepaiation
uistance i between these point paiticles uown to Planck length (i = l
p
). In this case the
electiostatic iepulsion inueeu woulu be equal to the fine stiuctuie constant times Planck foice
(F
p
). The equivalence to Planck foice extenus to any othei value of sepaiation uistance i
because incieasing the sepaiation uistance fiom Planck length to sepaiation uistance i
uecieases the foice fiom F
p
to F
p
(L
p
2
i
2
) .
The conveision of vacuum peimittivity
o
anu vacuum peimeability
o
= 1
o
c
2
to units
without chaige aie as follows:
2
=
1
4nP
p
vacuum peimittivity conveision
o
[
1
q
2
= [
4n
c
2
F
p
vacuum peimeability conveision
Theie is one auuitional consiueiation that shoulu be mentioneu. The chaige conveision
constant anu the iotais spatial uistoition of spacetime both contain teims with units of length
that uiffei fiom iulei length. The same symbol (L
p
) has been useu to iepiesent both the Planck
length uistoition of spacetime piouuceu by chaige anu the Planck length uistoition of
spacetime piouuceu within a iotai. Even though they both have uimensions of length, these
two length teims aie not exactly equivalent. Theiefoie, a moie iigoious analysis will piobably
iequiie a sepaiation of these physical concepts by the use of uiffeient symbols. Bowevei, aftei
tiying both appioaches I have concluueu that this initial analysis can toleiate the use of a single
symbol (L
p
) iepiesenting a Planck length uistoition of spacetime that is uiffeient fiom iulei
length.
Impeuance Calculation
Befoie pioceeuing with the following calculation, I want to tell a stoiy. Theie aie two
calculations in this book that gave me the biggest thiill. 0ne of them was when I was able to
ueiive Newtons giavitational equation fiom my staiting assumptions. The seconu is the
following calculation that conveits the impeuance of fiee space Z
o
into units without chaige.
This uoes not seem like a paiticulaily impoitant ielationship, which is peihaps the ieason that
it was so suipiising.
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96
Impedance of Free Space and Planck Impedance: The impeuance of fiee space Z
o
is a
physical constant that ielates the magnituues of the electiic fielu E anu the magnetic fielu
stiength H in electiomagnetic iauiation when this electiomagnetic iauiation is piopagating
thiough a vacuum.
Z
o
EH
Fiom this uefinition anu the plane wave solution to Naxwells equations, we obtain:
Z
o
=
1
s
c
c
=
_
o
s
o
= S76.7 impeuance of fiee space
Planck impeuance Z
p
is:
Z
p
=
z
c
4n
=
1
4ns
c
c
= 29.98 Planck impeuance
Planck units ielate most closely to the spacetime wave calculations maue pieviously, so we will
fiist conveit Planck impeuance to units without chaige. The units of the impeuance of fiee
space Z
o
anu Planck impeuance Z
p
aie: L
2
NQ
2
T. Theiefoie to eliminate 1Q
2
we must multiply
Z
p
= (14
o
c) by 1
2
= 4
o
F
p
.
z
p
q
2
= [
1
4ns
c
c
[
4s
o
c
4
G
=
c
3
u
= Z
s
Z
p
[
1
q
2
= Z
s
anu Z
o
[
1
q
2
= 4Z
s
Planck impeuance Z
p
coiiesponus to the impeuance of spacetime Z
s
anu
the impeuance of fiee space Z
o
coiiesponus to 4Z
s
Fantastic!
Planck Impedance Converts to the Impedance of Spacetime: When we conveit Planck
impeuance using the chaige conveision constant, Planck impeuance becomes the impeuance of
spacetime (Z
p
2
= Z
s
). Also, the impeuance of fiee space is: Z
o
2
= 4Z
s
with this conveision.
This is fantastic outcome because it implies that electiomagnetic iauiation is some foim of
wave in spacetime. Spacetime has the highest possible impeuance of Z
s
= c
S
u = 4 x 1u
SS
kgs.
Now we uiscovei that not only uoes electiomagnetic iauiation piopagate at the same speeu as
giavitational waves, but electiomagnetic iauiation also expeiiences the same impeuance as
giavitational waves (the impeuance of spacetime). The conclusion is:
Electromagnetic radiation must be a wave in the sea of vacuum fluctuations of spacetime.
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97
The equation Z
s
= c
S
u is only applicable when waves use spacetime as the piopagation
meuium. This is unueistanuable anu fully expecteu foi giavitational waves, but now we finu
that electiomagnetic iauiation must also use spacetime as the meuium. The impeuance of fiee
space Z
o
(funuamental to eveiything electiomagnetic) is: Z
o
2
= 4c
S
u when expiesseu using
a conveision constant that eliminates chaige. This says that photons aie not packets of eneigy
that tiavel THROUGH spacetime, photons aie waves IN the meuium of spacetime. They
appeai to also have paiticle piopeities because photons possess quantizeu angulai
momentum. The pioposeu piopeity of unity makes the eneigy in the uistiibuteu waves
collapse (tiansfei theii quantizeu angulai momentum) at fastei than the speeu of light. This
appaiently localizeu inteiaction gives paiticlelike piopeities to waves in spacetime that
possess quantizeu angulai momentum.
The waves that foim a photon aie not uipole waves in spacetime since we can uetect light
waves as uisciete waves. It is impossible to uetect uipole waves in spacetime with the Planck
lengthtime limitation because they aie below the quantum mechanical uetectable limit.
Bowevei, light waves still must be a wave uistuibance of spacetime. The equation
Z
o
2
= 4c
S
u also implies that photons aie fiist cousins to giavitational waves. Photons anu
giavitational waves uistuib spacetimes sea of uipole waves in uiffeient ways, but they both aie
tiansveise uistuibances in spacetime that uo not mouulate the iate of time. Recall fiom
chaptei 4 that spacetime is an elastic meuium with impeuance anu the ability to stoie eneigy
anu ietuin eneigy to a wave piopagating in this meuium. The implication is that giavitational
waves aie also quantizeu anu caiiy quantizeu angulai momentum, just like photons.
Boes the insight that light is a wave in spacetime help explain any known phenomena. 0ne
effect immeuiately comes to minu. The cosmic expansion of the univeise piouuces a ieushift
on all piopagating light. All electiomagnetic iauiation incluuing the Cosmic Niciowave
Backgiounu anu the spectium of light fiom uistant galaxies expeiiences a
fiequencywavelength shift (cosmic ieushift). Cuiiently the fiequency shift is about 2.S x 1u
18
pei seconu. This is about the inveise of the age of the univeise in seconus. To help inteinalize
this effect, the most eneigetic gamma iay photons evei obseiveu stiiking the eaiths
atmospheie have eneigy of about 2 Tev oi a fiequency of about S x 1u
26
Bz. These photons aie
uecieasing in fiequency by about 1 uBz pei seconu because of the cosmic ieushift. If photons
weie tiuly paiticlelike bunules of eneigy, we woulu not expect the eneigy of these photons to
be affecteu by the expansion of the volume of the univeise. Bowevei, if a photon is a quantizeu
wave that piopagates IN spacetime, then it is obvious that an expansion of the piopei volume
of space shoulu inciease the wavelength, ueciease the fiequency anu ueciease the eneigy of
the photon. A moie complete analysis of this will be given in chaptei 14. The expansion of the
univeise will be explaineu as a tiansfoimation of piopeities of spacetime. Also in chapteis 1S
anu 14 we will uesciibe how the eneigy lost uue to the cosmic ieushift is conveiteu to vacuum
eneigy.
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com
98
Accuracy Check: Theie is anothei moie subtle implication. The equation Z
p
2
= Z
s
implies
to me that the many steps that staiteu with giavitational wave equations anu enueu with this
ielationship aie piobably coiiect. The impeuance of spacetime c
S
u was ueuuceu fiom
giavitational wave equations. The impeuance of fiee space Z
o
was ueiiveu fiom Naxwells
equations of electiomagnetism. Staiting fiom the assumption that the univeise is only
spacetime, we calculate that these appaiently uissimilai impeuances aie the same when we
conveit chaige to units without chaige. Recall that the impeuance of spacetime Z
s
= c
S
u was
fiist ueuuceu fiom a compaiison of a giavitational wave equation with the equation foi sounu
waves. Since that time, theie weie many steps that leu to this point. I cannot say that this
equality pioves that these inteimeuiate steps weie coiiect, but it ceitainly gives suppoit to this
contention.
Electiomagnetic Rauiation
Electric Field Conversion: Next we will attempt to gain auuitional insights into electiic fielus.
An electiic fielu piouuceu by a chaigeu paiticle is moie complex than an electiic fielu piouuceu
by electiomagnetic iauiation. Theiefoie we will switch to electiomagnetic iauiation to examine
electiic anu magnetic fielus then come back to chaigeu paiticles latei.
In chaptei 4 it was stateu that the waveamplituue equation foi intensity (J = kB
2
2
Z) is a
univeisal classical equation that is applicable to waves of any kinu pioviueu that the amplituue
anu impeuance is stateu in units that aie compatible with this equation. 0nfoitunately,
electiomagnetic iauiation commonly uses electiic fielu E foi wave amplituue anu the
impeuance of fiee space foi impeuance (Z
o
= S77 ohms). This way of stating amplituue anu
impeuance is not compatible with the above waveamplituue equation. Theiefoie, this cieates
the impiession that this waveamplituue equation is less than univeisal. Bowevei, it is possible
to conveit electiic fielu of EN iauiation into an amplituue teim that is compatible with the S
waveamplituue equations. Foi example, amplituue of EN iauiation can be expiesseu using
stiain amplituue B, angulai fiequency anu the impeuance of spacetime Z
s
. It is infoimative
to analyze the connection between electiic fielu (oi magnetic fielu) anu the stiain in spacetime.
This can be easily uone using the two uiffeient ways of expiessing intensity: J = kB
2
2
Z
s
anu
J = V E
2
Z
o
. We will equate these anu solve foi E anu H. Since these assume EN iauiation anu
not necessaiily the electiic fielu of a chaigeu paiticle, we will uesignate the electiic fielu of EN
iauiation as E
.
E
2
Z
o
= B
2
2
Z
s
intensity equations ignoiing numeiical factois neai 1
E
= BZ
s
Z
o
=
Hoc
us
c
E
= B_
z
s
z
c
= B
F
p
e
o
H
= E
Z
o
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com
99
This is inteiesting, but it still uses Z
o
anu
o
which implies chaige. Next we will conveit the
electiic fielu anu magnetic fielu of EN iauiation to units without chaige.
E
= BZ
s
E
= B H
2
Z
s
c anu solve foi L in B = L.
0 =
o
4
c
3
=
H
2
o
2
z
s
c
= [
AL
2
o
2
c
2
2
[
c
3
u
[
1
c
=
AL
2
o
4
u
solve foi L
L = _
u
c
3
= L
p
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com
911
The equation L = L
p
is foi a single photon in volume
S
. Theiefoie this calculation piesumes a
total path length of (ignoiing numeiical factois neai 1). A total path length of (the
uiametei of the maximum confinement waveguiue) is within the alloweu iange, especially
since the electiic fielu is maximizeu ovei the cential . Since photons aie bosons anu many
photons can occupy the same volume, we will next calculate the uisplacement of spacetime
iequiieu if many coheient photons (same fiequency anu phase) aie intiouuceu into the
volume
S
. In this calculation we will use n
y
as the numbei of photons occupying the volume.
Theiefoie 0 = n
y
S
= n
y
4
c
S
.
0 =
AL
2
o
4
u
=
n
y
o
4
c
3
Solve foi L
L =
n
y
L
p
The equation L =
n
y
L
p
is the oscillating uisplacement of spacetime foi n
y
photons in the
maximum confinement pieviously uiscusseu. This value of L is ovei uistance , theiefoie the
stiain in spacetime piouuceu by n
y
coheient photons in maximum confinement is:
AL
L
=
n
y
L
p
x
stiain piouuceu by n
n
y
L
p
is veiy ievealing. It is not possible to uetect both the wave
piopeities anu paiticle piopeities of a single photon because that woulu be attempting to
uetect a uisplacement of Planck length. Refeiences in chaptei 4 showeu that it is funuamentally
impossible (uevice inuepenuent) to uetect a uisplacement of spacetime equal to oi less than
Planck length. It is theoietically possible to uetect the wave piopeities of many photons
(n
y
>> 1 photons) because many coheient photons piouuces L >> L
p
. Now we can
conceptually unueistanu this effect.
Comparison of Electric Fields: Pieviously it was calculateu the value of L foi n
e
elections
on a chaigeu spheie. We now have an equation foi the value of L piouuceu by n
y
photons in
the maximum confinement. Compaiing these equations we have:
L = n
c
oL
p
ln(i
2
i
1
) uisplacement of spacetime piouuceu by n
e
elections between i
2
anu i
1
L =
n
y
L
p
uisplacement of spacetime piouuceu by n
photons in volume
S
ovei uistance
0pon initial examination it appeais as if theie must be a uiffeience between the L piouuceu
by photons anu elections foi equal electiic fielus. The L effect fiom photons scales with the
squaie ioot of the numbei of photons
n
y
while the L piouuceu by elections is lineai with n
e
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com
912
but contains the factoi of o. The calculation is not shown heie, but if we assume a vacuum
capacitoi with a volume equal to the
S
volume of the maximum confinement cavity, it woiks
out that equal electiic fielus piouuce equal values of L (ignoiing numeiical factois neai 1).
Similarity to Gravitational Waves: We pieviously leaineu that Planck impeuance Z
p
is the
same as the impeuance of spacetime Z
s
when we use the chaige conveision constant . This
conveision constant anu a waveamplituue equation also give that n
y
photons in the maximum
confinement conuition gives the oscillating stiain in spacetime equal to
n
y
L
p
x
. This implies
that electiomagnetic waves aie veiy similai to giavitational waves. While giavitational waves
appeai to be completely uissimilai to electiomagnetic waves, they must be fiist cousins. Both
aie tiansveise waves that piopagate at the speeu of light thiough the meuium of the vacuum
eneigy that is spacetime. They both expeiience the same impeuance theiefoie electiomagnetic
waves must also be waves in spacetime. The quantum mechanical uesciiption of spacetime is
vacuum fluctuations with Planck lengthtime uisplacements at all fiequencies up to Planck
fiequency. This uesciiption of spacetime has a high eneigy uensity. Spacetime has elasticity
anu veiy laige impeuance. Waves in spacetime piopagate at the speeu of light but the
uisplacement of spacetime is veiy small because spacetime also has an incieuibly laige bulk
mouulus. A single photon in maximum confinement (volume
S
) only affects spacetime by a
Planck length uisplacement ovei a uistance of .
0ne of the biggest uiffeiences is that positive anu negative electiically chaigeu paiticles aie
available to geneiate electiomagnetic iauiation. uiavitational waves can only be geneiateu by
paiticles that have a single polaiity (only positive mass) theiefoie only quauiupole
giavitational waves aie possible. Bowevei, if we aie attempting to unueistanu the physics of
electiomagnetic iauiation piopagating in spacetime the uiffeiences in geneiation aie not too
impoitant.
A giavitational wave is a tiansveise wave that causes a spheiical volume to become a
tiansveise oscillating ellipsoiu. If we fieeze this ellipsoiu foi a moment theie is an axis that
incieases the uistance between points anu an oithogonal axis that uecieases the uistance
between points. Bowevei, theie is no pointing vectoi that uistinguishes between opposite
uiiections along eithei of these two axes. The effect on spacetime by giavitational waves is
symmetiical (ieveisible). This effect can be thought of as a uiffeience between the cooiuinate
speeu of light anu the piopei speeu of light along the two axes. We inteipiet this uiffeience as
a change in the uistance between points because we assume that the piopei speeu of light is
constant. Also, all physical objects (metei sticks, pioton iauius, etc.) scale theii size with
piopei length which in tuin scales with the piopei speeu of light. This is unueistanuable fiom
the pioposeu spacetime baseu mouel of the univeise because all mattei anu foices aie
ultimately uipole waves in spacetime which scale with the piopei speeu of light.
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913
Electromagnetic Pointing Vectors: Electiomagnetic iauiation has tiansveise oscillating
electiic anu magnetic fielus. If we imagine fieezing the wave, the electiic fielu has a specific
vectoi uiiection which by convention we say points away fiom positive anu towaius negative
anu the magnetic fielu by convention points fiom Noith to South. Theiefoie one uiffeience
between an electiomagnetic wave anu a giavitational wave is that the electiomagnetic wave
piouuces an unsymmetiical tiansveise wave (electiic anu magnetic pointing vectois) while the
giavitational wave is a symmetiical tiansveise wave. We can also uesignate the unsymmetiical
effect on spacetime piouuceu by EN iauiation as polaiizeu spacetime. Both EN iauiation
anu giavitational waves uo not mouulate eithei the iate of time oi piopei volume. The
impeuance of fiee space (associateu with electiomagnetic iauiation) is the same as the
impeuance of spacetime (associateu with giavitational waves) when chaige is conveiteu to a
length uistoition of spacetime. Theiefoie electiomagnetic waves aie also waves in the vacuum
fluctuations of spacetime.
If we aie going to explain electiomagnetic fielus using only the piopeities of spacetime, it is
necessaiy to incoipoiate into the explanation a nonieveisible (polaiizeu) effect that uoes not
piouuce an oscillation of eithei piopei volume oi the iate of time. Coming up with a mouel
that fits all the iequiiements foi electiomagnetic iauiation has been one of the most uifficult
tasks of this enueavoi. In paiticulai, it was uifficult to 1) initially iecognize that the solution
must involve polaiizeu spacetime, 2) to finu a mouel that woulu geneiate the coiiect foice S)
not mouulate piopei volume anu 4) iesult in the unsymmetiical (polaiizeu) chaiacteiistics
iequiieu foi an electiic fielu. Foi example, theie must be a physical uiffeience between the
positive electiic fielu uiiection anu the negative electiic fielu uiiection (the opposite uiiection).
This iequiies asymmetiy in the wave mouel of electiic anu magnetic fielus. This asymmetiy
necessitates the consiueiation of an unconventional solution.
It is proposed that an electric field is a distortion of one spatial dimension of spacetime that
results in a slight asymmetric speed of light in opposite propagation directions. This
produces a one way distance between points measured by light propagation time in the
positive electric field direction that is different than the light propagation time between the
points measured in the negative electric field direction. There is no net proper volume
change or no net rate of time change because the round trip time between the points is
unchanged.
While this pioposal was uevelopeu by examining the electiic fielu of a confineu photon, it
applies equally to the electiic fielu piouuceu by a chaigeu paiticle. Bowevei, the electiic fielu
piouuceu by a chaigeu paiticle is moie complex than the electiic fielu piouuceu by a confineu
photon. In chaptei 11 it will be pioposeu that that the chaigeu paiticle not only has a non
oscillating stiain that we know as the paiticles electiic fielu, but theie is also an stanuing wave
that is oscillating at the iotais Compton fiequency. It is the inteiaction of this oscillating
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com
914
stanuing wave with vacuum eneigy that piouuces the non oscillating stiain (the paiticles
electiic fielu).
Similaiity to uiavitational Waves: Electiomagnetic iauiation is a fiist cousin of a giavitational
wave. They both aie tiansveise waves that piopagate at the speeu of light in the meuium of
spacetime. They both expeiience the same impeuance of spacetime (Z
s
= c
S
u). Anothei way
of saying this is that they both piopagate as a quantizeu angulai momentum uistuibance in the
supeifluiu uipole waves that is spacetime. Theiefoie, what is the key uiffeience. A
giavitational wave piouuces an oscillating uistoition of the two spatial uimensions tiansveise
to the piopagating uiiection. A spheiical volume becomes an oscillating ellipsoiu with one
tiansveise uimension elongating while the oithogonal tiansveise uimension contiacts. Theie
is no change in the net volume.
The electiic fielu uiiection of electiomagnetic iauiation is pioposeu to uistoit only one
tiansveise uimension. This is easiei to visualize if we imagine a static electiic fileu foi
example, the electiic fielu between two paiallel plates of a vacuum capacitoi. Polaiizeu
spacetime is spacetime that has a uiffeient piopeity in opposite piopagation uiiections.
Fuitheimoie, we know that the polaiization effect cannot piouuce a net change in piopei
volume. A giavitational wave meets this iequiiement because the inciease in one uimension is
offset by a ueciease in the oithogonal tiansveise uimension. An electiic fielu is similai, except
simplei. The uimensional inciease anu ueciease happens in the same uimension. 0ne
piopagation uiiection expeiiences the inciease while the opposite piopagation uimension
expeiiences the ueciease. The iounu tiip piopagation time (iounu tiip uistance) is unchangeu.
A magnetic fielu is a special ielativity effect of looking at this spatial uistoition fiom a moving
fiame of iefeience. If we aie moving peipenuiculai to the electiic fielu of a paiallel plate
capacitoi, we expeiience a Loientz tiansfoimation of this spatial uistoition. I must aumit that I
have not conceptually giaspeu exactly what this Loientz tiansfoimation looks like fiom a
moving fiame of iefeience, but theie is no uoubt that a magnetic fielu is meiely a Loientz
tiansfoimation of an electiic fielu. Nathematically it is easy, but conceptually it is moie
uifficult to visualize.
Note to Reader: The following section on the Signac effect was wiitten at an eailiei time. I
cuiiently have some uoubts about this connection. It is still one of seveial possible
explanations; theiefoie it has not been eliminateu. 0n the othei hanu, I can imagine othei
possible explanations also.
Angular Momentum and the Signac Effect: The concept that theie can be an asymmetiy in
spacetime that causes two uiffeient piopagation times (uistances) between points (uepenuing
on piopagation uiiection) initially seems unappealing. Bowevei, an example will show that
this is possible if angulai momentum is involveu. Befoie giving the specializeu example, we
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com
915
will fiist ieview the stanuaiu Signac effect wheie a iing inteifeiometei is iotateu. Lasei light
piopagates aiounu opposite uiiections of the iing inteifeiometei anu the iotation of the iing
inteifeiometei piouuces a shift in an inteifeience fiinge. The usual way of explaining this is to
auopt a non iotating fiame of iefeience anu look at the motion of the optics (especially the
inteifeiometeis beam splittei) in the time iequiieu foi one iounu tiip.
Now we will uo a thought expeiiment using a uiffeient example. Suppose that theie was a
stationaiy waveguiue that foims a closeu loop. Insiue this waveguiue we place a souice of
electiomagnetic (EN) iauiation that can also act as a uetectoi (heieaftei known as the
souiceuetectoi). A pulse of EN iauiation is emitteu in a way that equal amounts piopagate
both clockwise anu counteiclockwise aiounu the loop anu ietuins to the location of the
souiceuetectoi. If the souiceuetectoi is stationaiy, then the uetectoi measuies a
simultaneous aiiival of the clockwise anu counteiclockwise pulses. Bowevei, assume that the
souiceuetectoi is moving geneially along the local waveguiue axis. Then the uetectoi will
measuie a uiffeience in the aiiival times of the clockwise anu counteiclockwise piopagation
uiiections. This example uiffeis fiom the stanuaiu Signac effect iing inteifeiometei because
theie is no iotating iing inteifeiometei. In fact, the motion of the souiceuetectoi can be
entiiely lineai in the time iequiieu foi the EN pulse to tiaveise the waveguiue. The waveguiue
coulu have a stiaight section oi the motion coulu simply be lineai foi the shoit time iequiieu
foi a iounu tiip. In eithei case theie is no mechanical component that is unueigoing a iotation.
It is pioposeu that this thought expeiiment ieveals an impoitant chaiacteiistic iequiieu to
unueistanu the Signac effect anu peihaps is also impoitant in the explanation of electiic anu
magnetic fielus. The waveguiue foices the EN iauiation to piopagate aiounu a loop (an
appioximate ciicle). This is not the noimal chaiacteiistic of fieely piopagating EN iauiation.
The appioximately ciiculai waveguiue foices the EN iauiation to take a path which imposes
angulai momentum on the EN iauiation. A foice is exeiteu on the wall of the waveguiue by the
clockwise anu counteiclockwise piopagating EN pulses. If the souiceieceivei is moving
ielative to the waveguiue, then the waveguiue peiceives a uiffeient fiequency, uiffeient foice
anu uiffeient angulai momentum foi the clockwise pulse compaieu to the counteiclockwise
pulse.
The moving souiceuetectoi uoes not see any uiffeience in fiequency because theie aie
offsetting Bopplei shifts at emission anu uetection. Bowevei, even a lineaily moving
souiceuetectoi uoes peiceive uiffeient aiiival times foi the two uiiections. Fiom the fiame of
iefeience of the souiceuetectoi, this can be inteipieteu as a uiffeience in the path length foi
the two piopagation uiiections. A uiffeience in path length foi opposite piopagation uiiections
implies a peiceiveu uiffeience in the piopei speeu of light foi opposite uiiections. The fact that
the waveguiue is not in the same fiame of iefeience as the souiceuetectoi means that the
ieceiveu fiequency fiom each uiiection is uiffeient than the emitteu fiequency. 0ne uiiection
is ieushifteu anu the othei uiiection is blue shifteu. This peiceiveu ieublue shift means that
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com
916
theie is also uiffeient angulai momentum foi the EN iauiation in opposite piopagation
uiiections. The point of this example is to illustiate that theie aie situations wheie it is
possible to peiceive two uiffeient path lengths (two uiffeient speeus of light) foi EN iauiation.
These situations aie also accompanieu by a uiffeience in the peiceiveu angulai momentum.
Both photons anu iotais possess angulai momentum. The angulai momentum of a iotai is
confineu by the sea of vacuum fluctuations that exhibit supeifluiu piopeities. Theiefoie the
vacuum fluctuations ueflect anu confine the eneigy that possesses angulai momentum. This
has similaiities to the waveguiue ueflecting anu confining the EN iauiation. The mouel has not
been woikeu out to the point that a cleai uesciiption can be given, but it is possible to quantify
the magnituue of the effect anu to suggest an expeiiment that might piove the effect anu
fuithei claiify the mouel.
Proposed Experiment Using Photons: Eailiei in this chaptei a maximum confinement
iesonant waveguiue was uesciibeu. Biiefly this cavity was a ieflecting cylinuiical cavity
slightly moie than V wavelength in uiametei with flat ieflective suifaces sepaiateu by V
wavelength oiienteu peipenuiculai to the cylinuiical axis. This cavity will confine ciiculaily
polaiizeu photons in the minimum iesonant volume. When a stanuing EN wave is set up in this
cavity, the maximum iotating electiic fielu stiength woulu be in the cential plane that is half
way between the flat ieflectois. A stanuing EN wave has the electiic anu magnetic fielus 9u
out of phase. This is uiffeient than a tiaveling EN wave which has these two fielus in phase.
Theiefoie, the iotating stanuing wave that foims in this cavity woulu have the magnetic fielu
minimizeu in the cential plane wheie the electiic fielu is maximum.
It is hypothetically possible to uetect a peiiouic path length change in a plane peipenuiculai to
the cylinuiical axis pioviueu that theie aie a laige numbei of photons iesonating in the cavity.
We pieviously calculateu that a single photon in this maximum confinement cavity woulu
piouuce uisplacement amplituue equal to uynamic Planck length acioss the uistance of
(ignoiing a numeiical factoi neai 1). It is impossible to uetect this shoit a path length change
but many coheient photons (n
n
y
L
p
which is
theoietically uetectable if n
y
>> 1. If this is coiiect, then it shoulu be possible to chaiacteiize
the uisplacement of spacetime piouuceu by the electiic fielu anu the magnetic fielu using two
beams of light piopagating in opposite uiiections peipenuiculai to the miciowave iauiation.
We will uiscuss the effect of a magnetic fielu on spacetime latei, so foi now we will only uiscuss
the effect of the iotating electiic fielu. The iotating electiic fielu shoulu piouuce an
unsymmetiical uisplacement (opposite sign foi opposite uiiections) of n
y
L
p
anu this effect
woulu be maximum in the centei of the cavity.
To uetect this effect, countei piopagating lasei beams wounu piopagate thiough the cential
plane of the iesonant miciowave cavity. The path length that these beams expeiience shoulu
be mouulateu by the electiic fielu of the iotating iauio wave. At any instant in time one
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com
917
uiiection woulu be expeiiencing an elongation in the optical path length of the piobe lasei
beam while the opposite uiiection woulu expeiience a ueciease in the optical path length. This
effect woulu then ieveise eveiy half cycle of the iauio wave. If the beams aie combineu in a
beam splittei aftei a single pass thiough the chambei, then the two combineu output beams
shoulu exhibit a slight amplituue mouulation at eithei the fiequency of the iauio wave oi twice
the fiequency of the iauio wave uepenuing on the phase ielationship of the two lasei beams.
The two output beams exiting the measuiement inteifeiometei woulu be amplituue mouulateu
18u out of phase. To inciease the stiength of the mouulation, it woulu be uesiiable to have the
lasei beams make multiple passes thiough the chambei. This is possible pioviueu that the
optical path is chosen such that the effect is auuitive.
An example will be given of a hypothetical expeiiment. Suppose we assume a maximum
confinement iesonant cavity is constiucteu foi a iauio wave with a ieuuceu wavelength of
= 1m (angulai fiequency of = S x 1u
8
s
1
). This cavity woulu have a V wavelength
uimension of meteis anu iesonate at about 48 NBz. If we ignoie numeiical factois neai 1, we
can say that the cential volume containing the stiongest electiic fielu has volume of
S
= 1 m
S
.
If a single photon at the iesonant fiequency is placeu into the cavity, then the pioposeu
uiffeience in the optical path length between two lasei beams piopagating in opposite
uiiections acioss the wiuth of the cavity one time woulu be equal to about Planck length. At
this fiequency a single photon has eneigy of S x 1u
26
}oules.
Nany coheient photons (n
n
y
L
p
. Foi example, suppose that the
iesonant cavity hau a Q of 1u,uuu. Then peihaps it is possible to obtain a confineu iauio wave
with a total shoit teim eneigy of Su,uuu }oules in this cavity. At a fiequency of 48 NBz this
woulu be 1u
Su
photons anu the single pass oscillating path length change woulu be about 1u
1S
times gieatei than Planck length (~ 1u
2u
m). Nultiple passes (H passes) coulu achieve a path
length uiffeience of about 1u
1S
x L
p
x H meteis. Foi example, the LIu0 expeiiment cuiiently
attempting to uetect giavitational waves uses a FabiyPeiot inteifeiometei that achieves a
sensitivity equivalent to H = 7,uuu.
If the cavity hau a uiametei exactly equal to V wavelength of the iauio wave, then this
ciiculaily polaiizeu iauio wave woulu iotate 18u in the time iequiieu foi the lasei beam to
piopagate once acioss the cavity. Since the uiametei neeus to be slightly laigei than V
wavelength, this means that one of seveial possible piovisions must be maue to keep multiple
passes of the lasei beam in phase with the iotating iauio wave to achieve an auuitive effect.
The hypothetical expeiiment uesciibeu heie inuicates that it is theoietically possible to uetect
an effect because the uisplacement of spacetime is much biggei than the theoietical uetectable
limit of Planck length. Bowevei, theie is a question of whethei cuiient technology is capable of
uetecting the small uisplacement uesciibeu heie. Foi example, the single pass uisplacement of
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com
918
ioughly 1u
2u
metei is less than the single pass uetectable limit of the LIu0 expeiiment. The
expeiiment suggesteu heie is intenueu to stimulate iueas peihaps leauing to a bettei
expeiiment.
Experiment Using Particle Accelerators: The pievious expeiiment suggesteu to uetect the
polaiization of spacetime piouuceu by the electiic fielu of EN iauiation involveu a hypothetical
expeiiment that woulu iequiie the constiuction of a specializeu RF iesonant cavity. It shoulu
also be possible to uevise an expeiiment which useu an electiic fielu geneiateu by chaigeu
paiticles iathei than photons. In the simplest case, imagine a paiallel plate vacuum capacitoi
which consists of two paiallel plates sepaiateu by uistance L
1
wheie the plates have
uimensions laigei than L
1
. If the electiical potential uiffeience between these two plates in
Planck units is v, then it can be shown that ignoiing numeiical factois neai 1, the stiain LL
1
anu the value of L between the two plates is:
LL
1
= V LL
1
= the stiain in spacetime between two chaigeu plates sepaiateu by L
1
L = V L
1
L = uiffeience in one way optical path length between two chaigeu plates
A lineai paiticle acceleiatoi is essentially a seiies of capacitois with an axial boie anu phaseu
electiical potential. A lineai acceleiatoi capable of acceleiating elections to neai the speeu of
light coulu be aujusteu to geneiate an electiic fielu that piopagateu exactly at the speeu of light.
This coulu pioviue a constant electiic fielu on a shoit poition of a lasei beam piopagating in
the boie of the paiticle acceleiatoi. Inteifeiing this beam with anothei beam that uoes not
expeiience the electiic fielu coulu theoietically piouuce a uetectable signal that woulu be an
amplituue mouulation of the two output beams of the mixing inteifeiometei. The value of L is
not just a function of the total electiical potential accumulateu along the length of the
acceleiatoi, it is also a function of the effective capacitoi spacing of each segment of the
acceleiatoi. The total change in path length piouuceu by the entiie length of the acceleiatoi
(uesignateu L
tot
) shoulu be consiueieu as the sum of the change in path lengths piouuceu by
the many capacitoi sections, each with spacing L
1
. Theiefoie the value of the path length
change is L = V L
1
but in this case V is the total acceleiatoi electiical potential but L
1
is the
effective length of each of the capacitoi segments iathei than being the total length of the
acceleiatoi.
Magnetic Field Experiment: Theie must also be an effect on spacetime causeu by a magnetic
fielu anu this effect might be easiei to uetect than the effect causeu by an electiic fielu.
Bowevei, cuiiently I am not confiuent in pieuicting what the effect woulu be anu the
magnituue of the effect. The most likely effect woulu be that the L causeu by a magnetic fielu
woulu be a uiffeience in the optical path length between two oithogonal ciiculaily polaiizeu
beams of light piopagating paiallel to the magnetic fielu vectoi. This woulu piouuce a iotation
of the plane of polaiization of lineaily polaiizeu light since lineaily polaiizeu light can be
thought of as consisting of equal paits of the two countei iotating ciiculai polaiizations.
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919
Fuitheimoie, this effect woulu be auuitive when a beam of lineaily polaiizeu light is ieflecteu
to piopagate in the opposite uiiection. An auuitive effect occuis because ieflection ieveises
the iotation of ciiculaily polaiizeu light. I am confiuent in the pieuiction about an electiic
fielus effect on spacetime because in the next chaptei it will be show that this stiain in
spacetime piouuces the coiiect magnituue of foice on a iotai with chaige e. Bowevei, theie
cuiiently is no such confoimation of the effect of a magnetic fielu.
Prediction: Implied Energy Density Limit: When I fiist uevelopeu the equations foi the
amplituue piouuceu by electiomagnetic iauiation, I quickly iealizeu that theie was implieu
in these equations a maximum eneigy uensity that any given fiequency of electiomagnetic
iauiation can achieve. This theoietical maximum eneigy uensity woulu occui when the mouel
uemanus 1uu% mouulation of the piopeities of spacetime. The implieu pieuiction was that it
shoulu be impossible to exceeu this 1uu% mouulation conuition which woulu occui when
L = 1 at a fiequency of = c. Foitunately, this pieuiction coulu be easily pioven coiiect
without an expeiiment. Beie is the ieasoning.
Recall that we aie loosely uefining a volume of
S
by ignoiing numeiical constants neai 1. We
will stait with the pieviously ueteimineu equation: L = nL
p
. We will uesignate n
c
as the
ciitical numbei of photons at fiequency iequiieu to theoietically achieve 1uu% mouulation
at wavelength . This conuition occuis at L = 1 oi L = . This ciitical numbei of photons
in volume
S
has a ciitical amount of eneigy of E
c
. Theiefoie we will analyze the ciitical eneigy
E
c
in volume
S
to see if theie is any obvious ieason pieventing electiomagnetic iauiation fiom
exceeuing the implieu limit that woulu achieve 1uu% mouulation (achieve L = .)
n
c
=
L
c
o
=
L
c
x
c
set L
2
= n
c
L
p
2
L
2
= n
c
L
p
2
= [
L
c
x
c
[
u
c
3
set L =
=
uL
c
c
4
=
0m
c
2
= R
s
wheie R
s
= the classical Schwaizschilu iauius foi eneigy of
L
c
c
2
Theiefoie, this is a successful test of the pieuiction that the spacetime mouel of
electiomagnetic iauiation has a maximum eneigy uensity that occuis at 1uu% mouulation of
spacetime foi a paiticulai wavelength. The conuition iequiieu to have L = is impossible to
exceeu because this eneigy uensity also piouuces a black hole with Schwaizschilu iauius
R
s
= . This is a fantastic insight that offeis stiong suppoit foi the spacetime baseu mouel of the
univeise. Nevei befoie has a theoiy given an insight into the mechanics involveu in the
piouuction of a black hole. Cuiveu spacetime uoes not CA0SE a black hole. Both cuiveu
spacetime anu a black hole aie explaineu by the spacetime baseu mouel of the univeise.
Comparison of Models: As a paiting gestuie, I just want to stanu back anu compaie the
pioposeu spacetime baseu mouel of a static electiomagnetic fielu to the cuiiently accepteu
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com
920
stanuaiu mouel. In the stanuaiu mouel all foice is conveyeu by messengei paiticles. The
electiomagnetic foice is conveyeu by viitual photons which aie not to be confuseu with viitual
photon paiis (see chaptei 7).
viitual photons supposeuly have the piopeity that they cannot be uetecteu. This piopeity
seems to imply that they aie not falsifiable. Bowevei, a static electiic fielu anu a static magnetic
fielu both have eneigy uensity. This is a ieal effect that implies some physical chaiacteiistics
that can be testeu. A thought expeiiment will be uesciibeu that illustiates a uifficulty foi the
viitual photon concept. Suppose that the magnetic fielu of a stai equals the eaiths magnetic
fielu stiength (~S x 1u
S
Tesla) at a uistance of S x 1u
9
m fiom the stai. Theiefoie, at this
uistance any foice exeiteu by the magnetic fielu takes about 1u seconus to be communicateu
back to the stai. Now at this uistance, suppose that theie is a squaie loop of wiie that is one
metei on each siue. Fuitheimoie, suppose that two of the 4 siues aie paiallel to the magnetic
fielu anu two of the 4 siues aie peipenuiculai to the magnetic fielu. If a cuiient flows in this
wiie, a Loientz foice will be exeiteu on the two peipenuiculai sections of wiie (one metei
each) anu a net toique will be exeiteu on the loop because the foices aie in opposite uiiections.
Theoietically, any cuiient can be maue to flow in the loop of wiie up to Planck cuiient which is
about S.S x 1u
2S
amps. Foi example, a cuiient of 2 million amps woulu exeit a 1,uuu Newton
foice on each of the two wiie sections that aie peipenuiculai to the magnetic fielu. If the
cuiient flow is staiteu quickly, then all the toique exeiteu on the wiie loop is being exeiteu by
a limiteu volume of the magnetic fielu. Recall that it takes 1u seconus to tiansfei this toique to
the stai. The eneigy uensity of a S x 1u
S
Tesla magnetic fielu is only 1u
S
}m
S
. Theiefoie, if the
cuiient staiteu ovei S x 1u
8
seconus, the maximum volume that coulu be accesseu at speeu of
light communication woulu be in the vicinity of 1,uuu m
S
anu theiefoie the eneigy in the
magnetic fielu accessible in S x 1u
8
seconus is about 1 }oule. It takes about S x 1u
11
watts of
viitual photons to exeit a foice of 1,uuu N. If this foice was being exeiteu by ieal photons, it
woulu iequiie the momentum of about 1u,uuu } of photons exeiteu ovei S x 1u
8
seconus. Bow
uo the hypothetical viitual photons in 1,uuu m
S
achieve this foice. Caiiying this thought
expeiiment to an extieme; Planck cuiient woulu geneiate a foice of about 1u
22
N on each of the
two wiie sections without communicating toique to the stai.
Peihaps auuitional chaiacteiistics can be auueu to the viitual photon mouel to give an
explanation. Bowevei, the point is that the spacetime baseu mouel of the univeise easily
explains the geneiation of even the 1u
22
Newton foice. The magnetic fielu is causing the
vacuum eneigypiessuie to be polaiizeu. The magnetic fielu is a tiansfoimation of the
pieviously explaineu electiic fielu. The maximum foice that this mechanism can exeit is equal
to Planck foice which is about 1u
44
N. This foice is possible because we aie living in a sea of
vacuum eneigy with eneigy uensity of about 1u
11S
}m
S
which exeits a piessuie of about 1u
11S
Nm
2
.
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com
921
Spacetime 0nits
In the next chaptei we will tiy to combine the insights gaineu fiom chaigeu paiticles anu fiom
electiomagnetic iauiation to give a conceptually unueistanuable mouel of the exteinal volume
of chaigeu iotais. The last step in this chaptei is to builu on the insights that weie gaineu in
the exeicise that eliminateu chaige as a unit. Eliminating chaige anu ieplacing this with a
stiain in spacetime is a step towaius ueveloping units baseu on the piopeities of spacetime.
Bowevei, this step uoes not take the ieal plunge. It is necessaiy to eliminate mass as the
funuamental unit anu uevelop units baseu only on the piopeities of spacetime. Even though
length anu time aie ielateu to spacetime, the metei anu seconu aie human constiucts. Planck
units have always been consiueieu the most funuamental of units since they aie not human
constiucts. It has been saiu that if aliens attempteu to communicate with us, they woulu use
Planck units because these units aie ueiiveu fiom the constants of natuie. What coulu be moie
funuamental than a system of units baseu on , u anu c.
If the univeise is only spacetime, it shoulu be possible to expiess constants anu units such as
kilogiam, Newton anu Coulomb using only the funuamental piopeities of spacetime. This
spacetime conveision is not paiticulaily convenient to use, anu it is closely ielateu to Planck
units. Bowevei, it is veiy infoimative to see how common units can be constiucteu out of the
piopeities of spacetime. In paiticulai, it is impoitant to giasp the iuea that mass is not a
funuamental unit when we look at the univeise fiom the stanupoint of spacetime being
funuamental. Nass is a measuiement of ineitia anu ineitia is a chaiacteiistic of eneigy
tiaveling at the speeu of light in a confineu volume. Beflecting eneigy tiaveling at the speeu of
light causes momentum tiansfei. This is the souice of all foices incluuing the pseuuofoice of
ineitia. The goal is to expiess eveiything, incluuing mass, in teims of the piopeities of
spacetime.
We will stait the seaich foi spacetime units by looking at one of the S waveamplituue
equations pieviously uesciibeu.
0 = B
2
2
Zc equation giving the eneigy uensity in a wave
When we apply this waveamplituue equation to spacetime, it shoulu be easy to expiess this
equation if we use the funuamental piopeities of spacetime. The fiist obvious canuiuate foi a
funuamental piopeity of spacetime is Z the impeuance of spacetime (Z
s
= c
S
u). Anothei
canuiuate is c, the speeu of light, but this is not as ceitain as Z
s
.
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922
0thei canuiuates foi being funuamental units of spacetime must be containeu in the amplituue
teim B. We know that a geneial expiession of the maximum peimitteu uipole wave in
spacetime is: B
max
= L
p
= T
p
. This is the maximum stiain amplituue which in tuin is
uictateu by the maximum uisplacement amplituue of spacetime: uynamic Planck length L
p
anu
uynamic Planck time T
p
. It is pioposeu that uynamic Planck length L
p
anu uynamic Planck time
T
p
aie both funuamental piopeities of spacetime. They aie auueu to oui list making a total of
foui canuiuates. Theiefoie, the foui canuiuates aie Z
s
, L
p
, T
p
anu c. We ieally only neeu thiee
teims to expiess eveiything in the univeise, theiefoie theie aie thiee possible combinations of
thiee teims that coulu seive as the basic units of spacetime. These aie: 1) T
p
, L
p
, Z
s
; 2) c, L
p
, Z
s
;
anu S) c, T
p
, Z
s
All of these combinations have auvantages anu uisauvantages. I will use the combination of:
c, T
p
, Z
s
, as the units of spacetime. Aftei woiking with the uiffeient combinations I finu this
combination the most intuitive. Foi example, the speeu of light anu the impeuance of
spacetime seem to belong togethei. The unit of Planck time becomes the quantizeu heaitbeat
of the univeise. While woiking to uevelop the mouel of electiic fielu anu chaige, this
combination is somehow easiei to visualize. Recall that the impeuance of spacetime is Planck
mass uiviueu by Planck time. (Z
s
= N
p
T
p
). Theiefoie all conventional units can be expiesseu
using these S piopeities of spacetime. Bowevei, the use of c, T
p
, anu Z
s
gives answeis that
coiiesponu to Planck units which aie not convenient foi eveiyuay use.
To illustiate how these spacetime units woik, the unit of foice has uimensional analysis units of
NLT
2
anu conventional units of kg ms
2
. The spacetime units of foice aie cZ
s
. Bowevei, these
units specify Planck foice (~1.2 x 1u
44
N) which is the laigest foice spacetime can exeit. Foi
anothei example, to specify the giavitational constant u using conventional units it is necessaiy
to incluue a constant (6.67S x 1u
11
) anu the units of m
S
kg s
2
. With spacetime units the
giavitational constant is equal to 1 anu the units of the giavitational constant aie c
S
Z
s
. The
spacetime units tieat chaige as a stiain of spacetime with units of length. The following table
gives vaiious conveisions into spacetime units.
Tempeiatuie is not incluueu in this list because the uefinition of Planck tempeiatuie incluues
the Boltzmann constant. Tempeiatuie, in its most funuamental foim, is meiely a convenient
way of expiessing the aveiage kinetic eneigy of a gioup of atoms oi molecules. In this case,
tempeiatuie anu eneigy woulu have the same uefinition in a spacetime conveision.
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com
923
Tiansfoimation into Spacetime 0nits
Name Spacetime Conveision
elementaiy chaige e = o cT
p
impeuance of fiee space Z
o
(1
2
)
= 4 Z
s
speeu of light c = c
Plancks constant = c
2
T
p
2
Z
s
giavitational constant u = c
S
Z
s
Coulomb foice constant (14
o
)(1
2
) = cZ
s
peimeability of fiee space (
o
4)(1
2
) = Z
s
c
Tiansfoimation of Planck 0nits into Spacetime 0nits
Planck 0nits Stanuaiu Conveision Spacetime Conveision
Planck length l
p
= 0 c
3
l
p
= cT
p
Planck mass m
p
= c0 m
p
= Z
s
T
p
Planck fiequency
p
= c
5
0
p
= 1T
p
Planck impeuance Z
p
= 14
o
c Z
p
(1
2
) = Z
s
Planck chaige q
p
= 4
o
c
q
p
= cT
p
Planck eneigy E
p
= c
5
u E
p
= c
2
T
p
Z
s
Planck foice F
p
= c
4
u F
p
= cZ
s
Planck powei P
p
= c
S
u P
p
= c
2
Z
s
Planck eneigy uensity 0
p
= c
7
u
2
0
p
= Z
s
cT
p
2
We have long ago founu the optimum ways of expiessing conveision constants that simplify
calculations. Insteau, this exeicise is intenueu to illustiate how the piopeities of spacetime can
be manipulateu to piouuce familiai constants anu units of physics. It may be uifficult foi the
ieauei to imagine physics without mass oi eneigy being a funuamental unit. Bowevei, the
maximum foice that spacetime can suppoit is cT
p
anu the maximum quantizeu mass is T
p
Z
s
.
Nass anu eneigy aie a quantification of piopeities of spacetime. This change in peispective
has a gieat ueal of appeal once it is inteinalizeu.
While it is possible to expiess all the units of physics using only the piopeities of spacetime
(c, T
p
anu Z
s
), it will be shown in chaptei 14 that it is necessaiy to auu an auuitional
uimensionless uesignation (
u
) that specifies the changing piopeities of spacetime as the
univeise ages. It will be pioposeu that the expansion of the piopei volume of the univeise is
actually the iesult of spacetime unueigoing a tiansfoimation that can be chaiacteiizeu as a
change of
u
. This tiansfoimation staiteu with the Big Bang anu continues touay. The symbol
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com
924
u
uesignates the uegiee of tiansfoimation that has taken place since the Big Bang. Bowevei,
the value of
u
also ieflects the change in spacetime biought about by local giavitational fielus.
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com 101
Chaptei 1u
Rotais Exteinal volume
External Volume of an Electron (Conventional Model): Befoie piesenting the spacetime
baseu mouel of the exteinal volume of a funuamental paiticle, we will fiist look at the
competition. The conventional mouel of an election is a point paiticle (oi vibiating stiing with
no volume) suiiounueu by an electiic anu magnetic fielu. The eneigy uensity of a macioscopic
electiic fielu fiom elementaiy chaige e is: 0 = (18)(ci
4
). The eneigy exteinal to a given
iauial uistance i is: E
ext
= (18
o
)(e
2
i) = V(ci). This eneigy uensity shows that an
elections electiic fielu is a ieal physical entity. An inteiaction with an elections electiic fielu
uoes not exhibit any uelay that woulu occui if messengei paiticles hau to be sent out by an
election. In chaptei 9 an example was given involving the magnetic fielu of a stai. This
example cleaily illustiates the inauequacy of the exchange of viitual photon messengei
paiticles to explain the electiomagnetic foice. In this chaptei we will uevelop fuithei the
spacetime baseu explanation of electiic anu magnetic fielus.
If the elections iauius is less than the classical iauius of an election (~ 1u
1S
m) then theie is
an auuitional pioblem with the point paiticle mouel because a smallei iauius makes the eneigy
in the electiic fielu exceeu the total eneigy of the election. Foi example, if a paiticle oi the
vibiating stiing was consiueieu to be containeu in a volume with a iauius of Planck length, then
the eneigy in the suiiounuing electiic fielu woulu be about 1u
7
}. This pioblem is usually
ignoieu by saying that the election has an intiinsic electiic fielu associateu with elementaiy
chaige e. If we aie attempting to give conceptually unueistanuable explanations of quantum
mechanics using the piopeities of spacetime, then we uo not have the luxuiy of being able to
ignoie such pioblems. It is even necessaiy to uesciibe chaige anu electiic fielu in teims of the
piopeities of spacetime.
External Volume of a Rotar: A iotai has pieviously been uesciibeu as a unit of quantizeu
angulai momentum in a sea of vacuum fluctuations. These vacuum fluctuations have
supeifluiu piopeities as pieviously uesciibeu. The vacuum fluctuations cannot possess
angulai momentum anu theiefoie any angulai momentum must be isolateu into quantizeu
units just like supeifluiu liquiu helium isolates angulai momentum into quantizeu voitices.
The quantum volume of a iotai possesses the angulai momentum anu this volume is not in
the supeifluiu state. While the vacuum fluctuations suiiounuing a iotai avoiu possessing
angulai momentum, the suiiounuing volume is still affecteu by the piesence of a iotai
(quantizeu angulai momentum) in its miust. The iotai piouuces uistuibances in the volume
exteinal to the iotai which slightly affect the sea of vacuum fluctuations that suiiounu a iotai.
This chaptei will examine the stanuing waves anu static stiain piouuceu in the volume
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com 102
suiiounuing a iotai. These effects aie iesponsible foi not only the iotais giavitational anu
electiomagnetic fielus but also numeious othei effects incluuing ue Bioglie waves anu
Compton scatteiing.
The piobability of inteiacting with a iotai (finuing a paiticle) uoes not enu at the euge of the
quantum volume. The euge of the quantum volume is mathematically significant because it
allows us to chaiacteiize piopeities anu uimensions, but the pioposeu quantum mechanical
natuie of a iotai is not bounu by oui convention. Theie is pait of a iotai that extenus fai
beyonu the quantum iauius R
q
. These will be shown to be both oscillating stanuing waves anu
static stiains uistiibuteu acioss the sea of vacuum fluctuations that aie pait of spacetime. The
volume beyonu the quantum iauius will be calleu the exteinal volume. This exteinal volume
is still consiueieu to be pait of the iotai but it has uiffeient chaiacteiistics than the quantum
volume.
The uipole wave in spacetime iesponsible foi a iotai has pieviously been uesciibeu as iotating
at its Compton angulai fiequency anu possessing amplituue of: B
= L
p
R
q
= T
p
c
. It was also
pioposeu that the iotai is attempting to iauiate away its eneigy into the exteinal volume (the
sea of vacuum fluctuations). The amplituue of this attempteu iauiation has been uesignateu
the funuamental amplituue B
f
. This funuamental amplituue uecieases with uistance i such
that the hypothetical amplituue woulu be: B
f
= L
p
i = cT
p
i. If theie weie no offsetting effects,
this amplituue woulu iauiate away a iotais full eneigy in a time of 1
c
which is typically in
the iange of 1u
21
to 1u
2S
s. This is the same as having no stability. The few iotai fiequencies
that aie stable oi semistable must piouuce an inteiaction with vacuum eneigy that geneiates
a new wave that cancels eneigy loss but leaves oscillating stanuing waves. Foi example, an
election has long teim stability theiefoie the piobability of eneigy loss is zeio. Bowevei, this
uoes not mean that all of the eneigy of an election is confineu to its quantum volume. Theie is
a battle going on in the exteinal volume between the attempteu emission anu the cancelation
waves. The iesiuual effects that exist in the elections exteinal volume aie iesponsible foi the
elections giavity anu the elections electiicmagnetic fielus.
Gravitational and Electromagnetic Strain Amplitudes: In chapteis 6 anu 8 it was shown
that giavity is the iesult of spacetime being a nonlineai meuium foi uipole waves in spacetime.
While theie is cancelation of the funuamental wave emission, the nonlineai effects iemain fiom
the battle. This iesults in a nonoscillating stiain in spacetime with stiain amplituue
(giavitational magnituue) of B
u
= = B
2
J wheie J is the uimensionless iatio: J = iR
q
.
This numbei uesignates uistance fiom a iotai as a multiple of the iotais quantum iauius R
q
which is the iotais natuial unit of length. It was shown in chaptei 8 that this combination
ultimately iesults in the Newtonian giavitational equation F
g
= um
1
m
2
i
2
. Theie was also a
pioposeu oscillating component of giavity that will be uiscusseu fuithei heie. It will be shown
that this oscillating giavitational component in the exteinal volume iesults in eneigy exteinal
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com 103
to R
q
that is in the iange of 1u
4u
times smallei than a iotais inteinal eneigy theiefoie it is
unuetectable.
As befoie, the simplest example useu foi illustiation in this chaptei is a single isolateu
funuamental paiticle with elementaiy chaige e. 0nly elections, muons anu tauons meet this
ciiteiion. To fuithei simplify the semantics it is easiest to use elections in examples.
Theiefoie, this chaptei will attempt to uesciibe the exteinal volume of an election. 0nce this is
uone theie will be some uiscussion of the exteinal volume of piotons, neutions, etc.
As pieviously stateu, unueistanuing the connection between electiic fielus (magnetic fielus)
anu uipole waves in spacetime has been the most uifficult task in ueveloping the spacetime
baseu mouel of the univeise. Fuitheimoie, the most uifficult component of this explanation
has been moueling the electiic fielu of a iotai. In chaptei 9 we concluueu that an election anu
othei chaigeu leptons with chaige e piouuce a non oscillating stiain in spacetime. At uistance i
this stiain coiiesponus to the uimensionless Planck electiical potential V = o L
p
i. Bowevei,
so fai it is not cleai how this non oscillating stiain is piouuceu. The bieakthiough occuiieu
with the iealization that giavity has an oscillating component (figuie 81) anu a static
component. 0n close examination it was founu that the electiic fielu piouuceu by a chaigeu
paiticle such as an election must also have an oscillating component anu a static component.
Theiefoie a giavitational fielu has two stiain components (one oscillating anu one static) while
the electiicmagnetic fielu also has two stiain components (one oscillating anu one static). The
static component of a giavitational fielu has alieauy been uiscusseu in chapteis 6 anu 8. This
chaptei will concentiate the iemaining thiee components
The mouel assumes that the electiic fileu piouuceu by an isolateu election possesses the
classical eneigy uensity exteinal to the quantum volume wheie i > R
q
. Theie is no continuous
loss of the elections eneigy, so these exteinal oscillations must be stanuing waves that iemain
aftei the pioposeu cancelation that must take place to eliminate emission of eneigy at
fiequency
c
anu amplituue B
f
= L
p
i. In oiuei foi the stanuing waves to achieve the eneigy
uensity of the electiic fielu, it is necessaiy foi some pait of the elections eneigy to iesiue
outsiue uistance R
q
. We will calculate the oscillating stanuing wave amplituue uistiibution
iequiieu to achieve this eneigy uensity.
0 = (V)
o
E
2
eneigy uensity in an electiic fielu E of a single election
E = (14
o
) ei
2
electiic fielu piouuceu by a paiticle with chaige e
0 =
uc
8n
4
substitution incluuing c = [
c
2
4ns
c
We also have 0 = B
2
2
Z
s
c fiom the S waveamplituue equations. Theiefoie we can set these
two eneigy uensity equations equal to each othei anu ignoie uimensionless constants.
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com 104
B
2
2
Z
s
c = ci
4
substitute Z
s
= c
S
u anu = cR
q
, then solve foi B
B
2
= (uc
S
) R
q
2
i
4
set uc
S
= L
p
2
; B = B
e
anu J = iR
q
B
e
=
uL
p
R
q
2
= _
uL
p
R
q
] [
R
q
2
= o
H
J
2
B
e
= oscillating (stanuing wave) amplituue component of the electiic fielu at fiequency
c
Note that the uiffeient Compton fiequencies of an election anu a muon aie absoibeu into the
B
= L
p
R
q
=
c
p
anu J = iR
q
= i
c
c) While this oscillating amplituue B
e
gives the coiiect eneigy uensity, these stanuing
waves uo not uiiectly convey foice between chaigeu iotais. If the oscillating component was
iesponsible foi electiostatic foice, this woulu imply that oscillating eneigy in the exteinal
volume was piopagating anu eneigy woulu be continuously iauiateu. The stanuing waves in a
iotais exteinal volume uo not uiiectly geneiate foices. Bowevei, they aie inuiiectly
iesponsible foi the foices between iotais. Beie is the pictuie that has emeigeu aftei lengthy
examination.
A iotai is attempting to iauiate away its eneigy to the suiiounuing sea of vacuum eneigy. The
few funuamental paiticles that aie stable exist at one of the few special fiequencies that
geneiate canceling waves in vacuum eneigy eliminate the loss of eneigy. Even though the loss
of eneigy is eliminateu, theie aie foui iesiuual effects that show that a battle has taken place.
These 4 iesiuual effects aie ieally combineu, but foi analysis it is convenient to sepaiate them
into component paits.
1) Theie aie stanuing waves (associateu with the electiic fileu) iemaining in the vacuum
eneigy that suiiounus the iotai. These stanuing waves aie at the iotais Compton
fiequency
c
anu have the oscillating amplituue B
e
= o B
J
2
.
2) Theie is nonoscillating stiain in spacetime iesponsible foi giavity anu pieviously
uiscusseu in chapteis 6 anu 8. This stiain has been uesignateu as the giavitational
magnituue , but to make a uesignation B
u
in keeping with othei amplituue teims we
will also uesignate the nonoscillating teim as B
u
= = B
2
J
2
.
S) Theie is an oscillating nonlineai effect associateu with giavity anu illustiateu in figuie
8S as the small amplituue waves on the line uesignateu nonlineai component. This
oscillating component of giavity has pieviously been shown to have amplituue of B
2
at
uistance R
q
. It will be pioposeu that this giavitational oscillating teim exteinal to R
q
has
amplituue B
g
= B
2
J
2
.
4) It is pioposeu that theie is a nonoscillating teim associateu with the electiic fielu with
amplituue B
E
= o B
S
) woulu piouuce a uisplacement of L
p
acioss a uistance of . The uimensionless stiain
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com 105
amplituue of this woulu be B
= L
p
. It was pioposeu that to piouuce the uiiectionality
iequiieu by an electiic fielu, this amplituue woulu have to imply polaiizeu spacetime that
piouuces an unsymmetiical time iequiieu foi light to piopagate towaius anu away fiom the
election (opposite electiic fielu uiiections).
Now imagine a single election piesent in a iauio wave with a fiequency of 1 NBz. The election
feels the effect of the oscillating electiic fielu piouuceu by the iauio wave anu unueigoes a
1 NBz oscillating uisplacement. The election has a Compton fiequency in excess of 1u
2u
Bz so
the uiffeience in fiequency is moie than a factoi of 1u
14
. The point is that the iauio wave woulu
change its electiic fielu so slowly on the elections time scale that it can be consiueieu almost
like a static electiic fielu. The foice exeiteu on the election by the iauio waves electiic fielu
woulu appeai to be almost constant on the time scale of the election. The electiic fielu
piouuceu by a chaigeu paiticle must also have a non oscillating component if we extiapolate
the iauio wave inteiaction to a fiequency appioaching zeio. If two elections (oi an election
anu a muon) aie iepelling each othei, we shoulu not expect the inteiaction to be taking place
between two iapiuly oscillating waves at the iespective Compton fiequencies ~ 1u
2u
to 1u
22
Bz.
The electiic fielu associateu with an election oi muon must also have a nonoscillating
component that is equivalent to an infinitely low fiequency electiomagnetic wave. It will be
shown that the non oscillating stiain of B
E
= o B
J
2
B
e
= electiomagnetic stanuing wave amplituue oscillating at
c
B
E
= o
H
J
= V B
E
= electiomagnetic nonoscillating stiain amplituue
B
g
=
H
2
J
2
B
g
= giavitational stanuing wave amplituue oscillating at 2
c
B
u
=
H
2
J
= B
u
= giavitational nonoscillating stiain amplituue
The intiouuction of B
e
, B
E
, B
g
anu B
u
is meiely a case of giving new symbol uesignations to the
concepts pieviously uiscusseu. We just ueiiveu B
e
= oB
J
2
as the amplituue iequiieu to
piouuce the eneigy uensity of an electiic fielu associateu with eneigy uensity 0 = (V)
o
E
2
(numeiical constant V is ignoieu). In chaptei 8 we uevelopeu B
u
= = B
2
J as the non
oscillating amplituue iequiieu to piouuce the giavitational fielu of a iotai. B
e
is the symbol
given to the non oscillating stiain uevelopeu in chaptei 9. Finally B
g
is the symbol given to the
oscillating component of giavity pieviously uiscusseu anu uepicteu in figuies 81 anu 8S.
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com 106
NonOscillating Strain Amplitude H
E
: The pioposeu electiomagnetic nonoscillating stiain
amplituue B
E
is iesponsible foi what we consiuei to be the electiic fielu of chaigeu leptons such
as an election oi muon. The stiain B
E
= o B
J which is the theoietical oscillating stiain amplituue that is being canceleu in the
iotais that aie stable enough to be consiueieu funuamental paiticles. Bowevei, theie aie
seveial key uiffeiences. Fiist is the obvious uiffeience of o which ieuuces the amplituue by a
factoi of about 11.7 at any given value of J. Seconu, B
E
is a nonoscillating stiain while B
f
is a
hypothetical oscillating amplituue at fiequency
c
that is attempting to iauiate away the iotais
eneigy.
The thiiu uiffeience is associateu with the fact that the type of uisplacement of spacetime
associateu with electiic fielus is uiffeient fiom the type of uisplacement of spacetime piouuceu
by uipole waves in spacetime with theii Planck lengthtime limitation. This was uiscusseu in
the last chaptei. It was pioposeu that electiic anu magnetic fielus imply that theie is a physical
uiffeience in the positive electiic fielu uiiection anu the negative electiic fielu uiiection. This
unsymmetiical chaiacteiistic was associateu with a slight uiffeience in the piopei speeu of
light that iesults in a slight uiffeience in the one way uistance between points which is the
same as saying a slight uiffeience in the one way tiavel time foi light piopagation between two
points.
Electrostatic Force Calculation: We will next check to see if the nonoscillating stiain
amplituue B
E
gives the coiiect electiostatic foice between two chaigeu leptons (two elections).
When we calculateu the giavitational foice on a iotai piouuceu by anothei iotai cieating the
nonoscillating stiain B
u
= B
2
J, we calculateu the implieu uiffeience in the iate of time
acioss the iauius of a iotai anu conveiteu this to the uiffeience in giavitational magnituue
acioss the iotai. This was necessaiy because foi foice geneiation it is only the giauient in oi
that is impoitant, not the absolute value.
The pioposeu chaiacteiistic of an electiic fielu is uiffeient in the sense that the uiffeience is
between opposite uiiections, not the giauient acioss a iotai. In fact, the uiffeience acioss the
wiuth of a iotai is insignificant compaieu to the uiffeience between opposite uiiections at the
aveiage location of the iotai feeling the foice. Imagine the iotai mouel piesenteu in chaptei S
iotating in otheiwise homogeneous spacetime. Now imagine this iotai iotating in polaiizeu
spacetime wheie theie is a uiffeience in the time iequiieu foi speeu of light piopagation in
opposite uiiections acioss the iotai. The stiain in spacetime piouucing this effect is static, but
the inteiaction with the iotai is uynamic. The inteiaction occuis at a fiequency equal to
c
anu
the inteiaction mouulates the iotai at amplituue of B
E
=oB
2
J
2
= _
L
p
2
R
q
2
] [
R
q
2
2
= [
u
c
3
2
; =
c
R
q
; Z
s
=
c
3
u
; A = R
q
2
F = [
u
c
3
2
_
c
2
R
q
2
] [
c
3
G
[
R
q
2
c
= [
c
2
= [
c
2
4ns
c
c
[
c
2
=
c
2
4ns
c
2
Success!
This explanation is fai fiom complete. Foi example, theie is no explanation foi the uiffeience
between a foice of attiaction anu iepulsion. Also, theie is no explanation foi the uiffeience
between an election anu a position. Bowevei, the explanations offeieu heie uo make a fiist
step towaius ueveloping a physically unueistanuable explanation of electiic anu magnetic
fielus. The stanuaiu appioach is to meiely accept the existence of mysteiious fielus with no
attempt to finu an unueilying causality.
Electric Field Cancelation: The nonoscillating component of the electiic fielu piouuceu by
an election uoes not have any inheient eneigy uensity. 0nly the oscillating component
possesses eneigy uensity (oscillating at
c
). These two components of the electiic fielu aie
connecteu so it is not possible to have an electiic fielu without any eneigy uensity. Bowevei, it
is possible to cancel out the nonoscillating stiain of an electiic fielu anu leave only neutial
stanuing waves by biinging oppositely chaigeu paiticles togethei. Foi example, at a sufficient
uistance fiom eithei a hyuiogen atom oi a neution theie is almost no electiic fielu. This occuis
because theie is almost complete cancelation of the nonoscillating stiains that foims the
uetectable poition of the electiic fielu. The oscillating component (stanuing wave component)
is pioposeu to iemain even if theie is cancelation of the uetectable electiic fielu. This
iemaining oscillating component is pioposeu to be iesponsible foi ue Bioglie waves anu othei
quantum mechanical effects that we associate with the wave piopeities of paiticles.
The ieason foi saying that the oscillating component iemains even when opposite chaiges
cancel the uetectable electiic fielu is because all composite paiticles exhibit ue Bioglie waves.
Foi example neutions anu even Bucky balls (C
6u
) exhibit wave piopeities beyonu theii
physical size. These wave piopeities aie exhibiteu when they aie passeu thiough a uouble slit
expeiiment. The waves imply a fiequency auuition of the component paits. Foi example, a
neution has ue Bioglie wave chaiacteiistics of a paiticle with iest eneigy of 9S9.6 Nev iathei
than the fiequencies of the S component quaiks that foim the neution. Theiefoie the bonuing
piocess must incluue some unknown mechanism foi fiequency auuition of component paits.
We will not speculate on this any fuithei since this chaptei is piimaiily about the exteinal
volume of the S chaigeu leptons anu about the elections exteinal volume in paiticulai.
Energy in the External Volume: The elections eneigy uensity exteinal to the quantum
volume (exteinal to R
q
) is: 0 = c8i
4
. The total eneigy in the exteinal volume (E
ext
) of a
chaigeu leptons electiic fielu is:
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com 108
E
ext
= V e
2
4
o
i set: e
2
4
o
= c anu i = R
q
= cE
i
E
ext
= V cE
i
c = V E
i
Theiefoie, the eneigy in the exteinal volume causeu by the oscillating component of the
electiic fielu is equal to 2 of the chaigeu leptons total eneigy oi ioughly u.4% of the total
eneigy of the chaigeu lepton. Bauions uo not have a fixeu peicentage of theii eneigy exteinal
to theii iauius but even a neution has some of its eneigy exteinal to its iauius. The thiee
quaiks that foim a neution have auuitionsubtiaction of the static stiain components of the
quaiks electiic fielus. A shoit uistance fiom the neution theie is effectively chaige cancelation.
Bowevei, this is the non oscillating component of the electiic fielu that iesults in vectoi
auuition oi subtiaction. The oscillating pait is pioposeu to iemain anu piouuce stanuing
waves in the neutions exteinal volume. These stanuing waves become the neutions ue
Bioglie waves when the neution is obseiveu in a moving fiame of iefeience. Foi example, a
neution piouuces a uiffiaction pattein when it is passeu thiough a uouble slit expeiiment. The
implieu fiequency is equal to the sum of the fiequencies of the thiee quaiks. No effoit has been
expenueu to uevelop a mouel of fiequency auuition in hauions anu othei composite paiticles.
A muon anu an election both have the same chaige anu same fiaction of theii total eneigy in
theii exteinal volumes. Bowevei, a muon has about 2uu total times moie eneigy anu 2uu
times smallei iauius. Almost all of the muons extia exteinal eneigy is containeu in the small
uiffeience between the quantum volume of a muon anu the quantum volume of an election. At
a uistance laigei than the elections quantum iauius, they both geneiate the same electiostatic
foice because they both geneiate the same non oscillating stiain in space. This can be shown
by the following:
B
E
= o
H
J
=
o _
L
R
q
] [
R
q
r
=
o
L
p
J
2
anu a nonoscillating stiain of
spacetime with amplituue B
E
= o B
2
= Et
E
E
= [
uc
Et set E
E
= E
t =
oc
= 1S7
c
Theiefoie, it woulu take an integiation time 1S7 times longei than the time ic to uetect this
eneigy uisciepancy. Bowevei, this is 1S7 times longei than it takes foi the uisciepancy to be
coiiecteu to a uegiee that is unuetectable. Theiefoie, a mouel of an election with the pioposeu
uistiibution of eneigy in the exteinal volume is inuistinguishable fiom a point paiticle.
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com 1011
Chaotic Waves: The tiansition fiom the quantum volume to the exteinal volume of a iotai is
actually ill uefineu because the quantum volume has a chaotic, piobabilistic quality. The
iotating uipole in spacetime is at the limit of causality. The quantum volume is attempting to
iauiate its full eneigy in a time of 1
c
. A funuamental amplituue of B
f
= R
q
i is actually
attempting to caiiying away the full eneigy. It is only the ietuin wave geneiateu in vacuum
eneigy that is somehow canceling this emission. Bowevei, the chaotic piocess at the limit of
causality can ieconstiuct the iotai (ieconstiuct the quantizeu angulai momentum) at a
uiffeient location uesciibeu by the unceitainty piinciple. Also a uouble slit expeiiment can
inteifeie with the noimal ieconstiuction anu iesult in the iotai (angulai momentum) being
ieconstiucteu on the othei siue of the uouble slit. This will be uiscusseu latei.
The point is that all of the quantum mechanical properties which seem mysterious for a
point particle become conceptually understandable if a particle is a vortex of quantized
angular momentum in a sea of vacuum fluctuations.
We have pieviously uiscusseu that iotais (any type) must satisfy a soliton conuition in
spacetime. This means that the few funuamental paiticles that exist must exhibit a
combination of chaiacteiistics that offset the tiemenuous emission of uipole waves in
spacetime that leave the vicinity of the quantum volume. The few leptons anu hauions that
exist somehow achieve a soliton conuition wheie the emission is offset by the geneiation of
waves in vacuum eneigy that effectively cancel the emission fiom the iotais iotating uipole
coie.
Model of the External Volume: Figuie 1u1 is a simplifieu iepiesentation of the stanuing
uipole waves that suiiounu a iotai. Recall that the iotai is attempting to iauiate away its
eneigy anu emits uipole waves with fiequency
c
anu amplituue B
f
= L
p
i. The few iotais that
aie stable oi semistable must foim a iesonance with the suiiounuing vacuum eneigy that
eliminates the eneigy loss but leaves both stanuing waves anu nonoscillating stiains in
spacetime as pieviously uiscusseu. All the figuies in this chaptei ueal with the stanuing waves
associateu with the oscillating pait of the electiic fielu. These stanuing waves have amplituue
B
e
= L
p
J
2
anu angulai fiequency
c
. Figuie 1u1 is the fiist in this seiies of figuies anu this
figuie has been gieatly simplifieu compaieu to an actual iotai. The iotating uipole has been
ieplaceu by a simple monopole souice of waves. In fact, we will use a monopole emittei foi the
fiist seiies of figuies because the initial illustiations aie easiei to unueistanu without the
auueu complexity of a iotating uipole souice. The figuies will latei be illustiateu using a uipole
souice when this souice becomes impoitant to the illustiation.
Initially we will imagine that figuie 1u1 iepiesents sounu waves being emitteu by a monopole
emittei of sounu waves at the centei ciicle anu being ieflecteu by a spheiical ieflectoi outsiue
of the aiea shown in the figuie. The inteiaction between the emitteu anu ieflecteu waves foims
the stanuing waves uepicteu in figuie 1u1 anu subsequent figuies. An acoustic monopole
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com 1012
emittei can be thought of as a spheie that expanus anu contiacts its iauius at an acoustic
fiequency.
Figuie 1u1 shows a moment in time. The blue iegions can iepiesent iegions of maximum
acoustic piessuie anu the yellow iegions can iepiesent iegions of minimum acoustic piessuie.
A half cycle latei the stanuing waves will ieveise anu iegions that pieviously hau maximum
piessuie will have minimum piessuie. The black iegions between the yellow anu blue iegions
woulu be the wave nulls in this iepiesentation, but theie is anothei way of uepicting this
stanuing sounu wave.
The black iegions have the maximum piessuie giauient. This means that the black iegions
have the maximum kinetic eneigy of the acoustic meuium. Theiefoie, theie is anothei way of
iepiesenting the stanuing acoustic wave wheie we emphasize the kinetic eneigy of molecules.
In this type of iepiesentation the black iegions woulu be uepicteu as iegions of maximum
kinetic eneigy, not the nulls shown above. In fact the eneigy in the stanuing acoustic wave is
just being tiansfeiieu between eneigy in compiessioniaiefaction anu kinetic eneigy.
We will now switch to consiueiing figuie 1u1 as iepiesenting stanuing waves in spacetime.
The vacuum fluctuations that foim spacetime have a vastly laigei eneigy uensity than the
eneigy uensity of a iotai. As pieviously uiscusseu, the piessuie of vacuum eneigy is stabilizing
the iotai anu exeiting the necessaiy piessuie to confine the eneigy uensity of the iotai. Figuie
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com 1013
1u1 iepiesents a moment in time wheie the uistuibance causeu by the piesence of the iotai
iesults in stanuing waves in the suiiounuing vacuum eneigy. These stanuing waves fluctuate
both the iate of time anu piopei volume. Regions of fast time aie shown in blue anu iegions of
slow time aie shown in yellow. A half cycle latei the fast anu slow time iegions will ieveise.
The black iegions between yellow anu blue have the maximum giauient in the iate of time.
These iegions aie equivalent to the giav fielu pieviously explaineu. }ust like the stanuing sounu
wave, theie ieally aie no nulls in the stanuing wave in spacetime. The iegions of fluctuating
iate of time have the same eneigy uensity as the iegions of maximum giav fielu (maximum iate
of time giauient). The total wave eneigy is constant (sin
2
+ cos
2
= 1).
Wavelets: All uipole waves in spacetime aie pioposeu to have piopagation chaiacteiistics that
aie similai to the Buygens Piinciple in optics. The Buygens piinciple assumes that eveiy point
on an auvancing wavefiont of an electiomagnetic wave is the souice of a new uistuibance. The
electiomagnetic wave may be iegaiueu as the sum of these seconuaiy waves (calleu
wavelets). Reflection, uiffiaction anu iefiaction aie explaineu by assuming that all paits of an
electiomagnetic wave aie the souice of these new wavelets. The suiface that is tangent to any
locust of constant phase of wavelets can be useu to ueteimine the futuie position of the wave.
As oiiginally foimulateu by Chiistiaan Buygens, the Buygens Piinciple iequiieu that the
wavelets aie hemispheiical anu only iauiate into the foiwaiu hemispheiical uiiection of the
piopagation vectoi. A mouification of this was maue by uustav Kiichhoff wheie the wavelets
emit into an amplituue uistiibution of cos
2
(2). This uistiibution has maximum amplituue in
the foiwaiu uiiection anu zeio amplituue in the ieveise uiiection. The iesult is the classical
BuygensFiesnelKiichhoff piinciple that accuiately uesciibes uiffiaction, ieflection anu
iefiaction. This will be uiscusseu in moie uetail in chaptei 11.
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It is pioposeu that the few fiequencies that foim iotais inteiact with vacuum eneigy in a way
that allows them to emit wavelets that piopagate into a complete spheiical pattein as shown in
Figuie 1u2. With this hypothesis the cos
2
(2) amplituue uistiibution of the wavelets of light
is not shaieu by the wavelets of vacuum eneigy that stabilizes iotais. The conuitions that
stabilize iotais iequiie that both a foiwaiu piopagating wave anu an equal backwaius
piopagating wave be foimeu in the exteinal volume. This is accomplisheu if each wavelet
piopagates into a spheiical uistuibance pattein as shown in figuie 1u2. These spheiical
wavelets auu togethei to piouuce the next geneiation of uipole waves in spacetime. This
iesults in wavefionts piopagating in both the foiwaiu anu backwaiu iauial uiiections. These
new wavefionts aie labeleu inwaiu piopagating anu outwaiu piopagating. In the tangential
uiiection theie is incoheient auuition that piouuces cancellation. If the eneigy flow is equal in
both uiiections, the iesult is stanuing waves in the exteinal volume of a iotai. Stanuing waves
aie oscillating waves that have fixeu iegions of noues anu antinoues. They possess eneigy, but
theie is no continuous eneigy uiain.
Path Integial: A key point heie is that the wavelets of uipole waves in spacetime exploie all
possible paths between two points. Fuitheimoie, the amplituue at any point is the coheient
sum (amplituue anu phase) of these waves. The intensity at any point is the squaie of the
amplituue sum. This concept gives a physical inteipietation to the path integial opeiation of
quantum electiouynamics. It is a stietch to explain how point paiticles exploie all possible
paths between events, but waves in spacetime that foim new wavelets intiinsically accomplish
this task. Again, this pioposeu spacetime baseu explanation makes quantum mechanical
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com 1015
opeiations conceptually unueistanuable while the point paiticle mouel has numeious
mysteiies.
This explanation that involves backwaius piopagating waves sounus goou, but theie is a
pioblem. If this was the only mechanism stabilizing a iotai, the iesiuual stanuing waves woulu
be much laigei than the calculateu amplituue of B
e
=
o L
p
J
2
iequiieu foi the stanuing wave
pait of the electiic fielu. Theie appeais to be an auuitional unknown mechanism geneiateu in
vacuum eneigy that foims a wave that pioviues auuitional cancelation. These stanuing waves
iemain even when the nonoscillating component of the electiic fielu has been canceleu. If
otheis choose to mouel these stanuing waves, it shoulu be noteu that accuiate moueling of the
Buygens Piinciple in optics iequiies that the moueling must be uone in thiee spatial
uimensions
1
. If the Buygenss Piinciple is moueleu in only 2 spatial uimensions, theie is
incomplete cancelation of waves that uo not contiibute to a wavefiont.
de Broglie Waves: In chaptei 1 it was shown that a lasei contains light tiaveling in opposite
uiiections. When the waves in this lasei aie obseiveu fiom a stationaiy fiame of iefeience, the
biuiiectional light foims stanuing waves. In othei woius, the stanuing waves aie stationaiy
ielative to the lasei miiiois. When the lasei is tianslateu ielative to an obseivei, the stanuing
light waves aie still stationaiy ielative to the moving miiiois, but the moving fiame of
iefeience means that the obseivei sees the light being Bopplei shifteu up in fiequency in the
uiiection of tiavel anu being Bopplei shifteu uown in fiequency in the opposite uiiection. The
supeiposition of these two Bopplei shifteu beams of light piouuces what appeais to be a
moving envelope of waves.
1
http://www.mathpages.com/home/kmath242/kmath242.htm
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com 1016
Figuie 11 shows the moving envelope of waves anu moving lasei miiiois. An analogy is
pioposeu to be piesent when a iotai is obseiveu in a moving fiame of iefeience. It is uesiiable
to examine the ue Bioglie waves of a iotai in gieatei uetail. Figuie 1uS is similai to Figuie
1u 1, but theie aie two uiffeiences. Fiist, Figuie 1uS shows waves piopagating only away
fiom the monopole souice (aiiows pointing away fiom the souice). Seconu, Figuie 1uS shows
the monopole souice moving uownwaiu ielative to the obseivei. The combination of these
two factois piouuces the Bopplei wave pattein shown. Figuie 1u4 also has a uownwaius
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com 1017
moving fiame of iefeience, but the uiffeience is that only waves piopagating towaius the
souice (inwaiu piopagation) aie shown (aiiows pointing towaius the souice).
The wavelets pieviously shown in figuie 1u2 means that waves aie simultaneously
piopagating both towaius the souice anu away fiom the souice. This means that a moving
souice will piouuce a wave pattein that is a supeiposition of figuies 1uS anu 1u4. When we
auu these two patteins togethei we obtain the iesult shown in Figuie 1uS. It is suipiising to
see that we obtain a lineai wave pattein fiom the supeiposition of spheiical waves in a moving
fiame of iefeience. These aie the iotais ue Bioglie waves. They have all the coiiect
chaiacteiistics coiiect ue Bioglie wavelength, coiiect ue Bioglie phase velocity anu the
coiiect ue Bioglie gioup velocity. Noving the iotai mouel piouuces the iotai equivalent of ue
Bioglie waves.
This figuie is not static. Not only is theie tianslation ielative to the obseivei, but the uaik
inteifeience fiinges aie moving at a speeu fastei than the speeu of light. Foi example, if the
iotai mouel is moving at 1% of the speeu of light ielative to an obseivei, then the inteifeience
pattein is moving in the same uiiection as the ielative motion, but at 1uu times the speeu of
light (w
u
= c
2
v). Also notice that theie is a phase shift going acioss the uaik inteifeience
pattein. This is iepiesenteu by a ieveisal of coloi following a wave acioss the uaik ue Bioglie
null.
Figuie 1uS makes no attempt to show that the amplituue uecieases with iauial uistance fiom
the souice. Figuie 1u6 is a Suimensional giaphical iepiesentation of Figuie 1uS with the
auueu featuie of a 1i amplituue uepenuence. The actual amplituue shoulu fall off
piopoitional to 1i
2
, but this shaip ueciease in amplituue makes it uifficult to see the ue
Bioglie mouulation wave.
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The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com 1019
Strain Amplitude Graph: It is easiest to explain the ue Bioglie mouulation wave using Figuie
1u7. This figuie is a giaph of the waves in figuie 1uS (iauial ciosssection). In figuie 1u7,
the high fiequency waves aie uesignateu as uipole waves in spacetime. When a iotai is
stationaiy ielative to the obseivei, then all the uipole waves in spacetime have equal
amplituue. At this stationaiy conuition the fiequency of these waves is the iotais Compton
fiequency (~ 1u
2u
Bz foi an election) anu the wavelength of these waves is the iotais
Compton wavelength
c
. When the iotai is moving ielative to the obseivei, then the iotais ue
Bioglie wave appeais. This is just the mouulation envelope that iesults fiom the uiffeient
Bopplei shift foi waves piopagating away fiom the iotais quantum volume anu towaius the
quantum volume.
Figuie 1u7 shows a giaphical iepiesentation of the iotais ue Bioglie wavelength
u
. This
giaph plots stiain amplituue veisus iauial uistance i. 0nly a shoit iauial segment is shown.
Theie shoulu be a iauial ueciease in amplituue, but the shoit iauial uistance uepicteu uoes not
show this ueciease in amplituue. In the exteinal volume of a iotai the funuamental tiaveling
wave with amplituue L
p
i has been canceleu leaving behinu the stanuing wave iesponsible foi
the iotais electiic chaige with amplituue of B
e
= o B
J
2
. The nonlineai effect iesponsible
foi the oscillating poition of giavity is too small to be shown. Theiefoie, the Y axis of this giaph
is the stiain amplituue B
e
. The maximum value of B
e
is the value given by the equation
B
e
= o B
J
2
= o
L
p
R
q
i
2
.
To give an iuea of scale, the appioximate Compton wavelength
c
is shown. An elections
Compton wavelength is about 2.4S x 1u
12
m. The ue Bioglie wavelength
u
uepenus on ielative
velocity (v) anu is illustiateu as being appioximately 2u times longei than the Compton
wavelength in this example. Theiefoie, the ue Bioglie wavelength woulu be appioximately
S x 1u
11
m in this example. The Compton wavelength
c
anu the ue Bioglie wavelength
u
aie
ielateu as follows:
c
= (vc)
u
(appioximation v << c). Theiefoie, this figuie illustiates the ue
Bioglie wave pattein if an election is tiaveling at about S% the speeu of light (
u
= 2u
c
in this
figuie).
The Y axis of this giaph is stiain amplituue which can be expiesseu eithei as a spatial stiain
(meteismetei) oi as a tempoial stiain (seconusseconu). Both ways of expiessing this give
the same uimensionless numbei foi a specific point in space anu instant in time. Suppose oui
obseivation point at a paiticulai instant is one miciometei (1u
6
meteis) fiom an election that
is moving past us at S% the speeu of light. We can then quantify the stiain amplituue uepicteu
in Figuie 1u7. 0sing B
e
= o B
J
2
=
o L
p
R
q
i
2
anu substituting i = 1u
6
m anu
R
q
= S.86 x 1u
1S
m foi an election, we obtain: B
e
= S.S x 1u
S7
. This is the maximum value of B
e
above anu below the zeio stiain line (the x axis).
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com 1020
It is possible to calculate the uisplacement of spacetime iequiieu to piouuce this amount of
uimensionless stiain. This stiain exists ovei appioximately one iauian of the wave which is a
uistance equal to R
q
. Foi an election R
q
= S.86 x 1u
1S
m theiefoie B
e
x R
q
= 2 x 1u
49
m.
Theiefoie, the spatial uisplacement of spacetime (uisplacement amplituue) which causes the
stiain amplituue illustiateu heie is smallei than Planck length by a factoi of about 1u
14
. If we
woulu have chosen to woik in the tempoial uomain we woulu obtain the same uimensionless
stiain which coulu be thought of as seconusseconu. The tempoial uisplacement amplituue
causing this stiain woulu then be B
e
c
= 6.8 x 1u
S8
s. This is smallei than Planck time anu the
uiffeience is again a factoi of about 1u
14
.
Function: It is not obvious in figuie 1u7 but theie is a 18u uegiee ( iauian) phase shift
between each ue Bioglie lobe. Theiefoie one complete ue Bioglie wavelength incluues two
lobes as shown. This 18u uegiee phase shift between lobes is a funuamental piopeity of
stanuing waves vieweu fiom a moving fiame of iefeience. This phase shift gives iise to the ue
Bioglie wave inteipietation shown in figuie 1u7. Peihaps most impoitant, the wave
designated de Broglie wave envelope is really the moving rotars function. It is
sometimes saiu that the function has no physical inteipietation. Bowevei, figuie 1u7 is the
pioposeu physical inteipietation of the quantum mechanical function. This is anothei
example of how the pioposeu spacetime baseu mouel makes quantum mechanical mysteiies
conceptually unueistanuable.
Relativistic Contraction: Above it was stateu that
c
illustiateu in figuie 1u7 is
appioximately equal to the iotais Compton wavelength. The ieason that this is not exact is
that this figuie uepicts a moving iotai anu theie is ielativistic length contiaction in the
Compton wavelength. If the iotai was stationaiy, theie woulu be no ue Bioglie wave
mouulation envelope anu the uipole waves woulu be exactly equal to the Compton wavelength.
The ieason foi biinging up this point is that it is possible to see the physical cause of ielativistic
length contiaction when theie is ielative motion. A moving iotai has waves that aie Bopplei
shiftei up in fiequency anu Bopplei shifteu uown in fiequency as pieviously explaineu. When
these Bopplei shifteu waves aie combineu, the iesultant wave has a shoitei wavelength than
the oiiginal wavelength without Bopplei shifts. This was pioven mathematically in Appenuix A
at the enu of chaptei 1. This analysis applies equally to stanuing waves in a moving lasei cavity
oi to stanuing waves in the exteinal volume of a iotai. The combination of the two Bopplei
shifts in the two oppositely piopagating waves piouuces a net ueciease in the Compton
wavelength by a factoi of:
_
1 v
2
c
2
. This is pioposeu to be the souice of ielativistic
contiaction. A moving metei stick will appeai to ueciease in length because all the waves that
make up the metei stick ueciease theii wavelength because of this effect.
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com 1021
Rotating Dipole Model: We will now attempt to give a ciuue mouel of the stanuing waves
piesent in the exteinal volume of iotating spacetime uipole. An accuiate mouel of this
iequiies high level computei moueling. It involves moueling a laige numbei of wavelets that
aie auueu togethei anu then become the souice of new wavelets that foim the next geneiation.
This piocess is iepeateu a laige numbei of times. This task is beyonu the scope of this book.
Fuitheimoie, the simplest moueling woulu piobably make no uistinction between the infinite
numbei of fiequencies that uo not foim stable iotais anu the few fiequencies with the unusual
chaiacteiistics that combine to foim stable iotais. Also, how uo we hanule the chaotic spin
uistiibution chaiacteiistics of spin V paiticles. The following moueling is a best guess mouel
of the exteinal volume of an election. This can then seive as a staiting point foi otheis that can
impiove on this mouel.
Befoie attempting to mouel the exteinal volume of iotais, it is uesiiable to fiist uesciibe the
chaotic spin piopeities exhibiteu by isolateu iotais. Because a iotai is at the limit of causality, it
shoulu not be a suipiise that a iotai has piobabilistic chaiacteiistics. The uisplacement of
spacetime is so small that uipole waves in spacetime uo not violate the conseivation of
momentum. Recall the examples given pieviously compaiing the minute volume anu iate of
time changes iequiieu to foim an elections spacetime uipole. (expanuing the iauius of
}upiteis oibit by a hyuiogen atom oi slowing the iate of time by seveial micioseconus ovei the
age of the univeise.)
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Figuie 1u8 shows a plot in spheiical cooiuinates of the piobability of spin being oiienteu in
the uiiection . This spin uiiection piobability is piopoitional to cos
2
(2). Suppose that we
concentiate not on the spin uiiection, but on the axis of spin. Figuie 1u8 specifies the
expectation axis anu an aibitiaiy axis. The point of this is to show that a iotai can have a
spheiical uistiibution aveiageu ovei time even though the iotai has an expectation spin
uiiection. The iotating uipole shown in figuie S1 woulu not have a spheiical uistiibution if the
axis of iotation weie fixeu. Bowevei, figuie 1u8 shows that the piobability of spin uiiection is
such that all axis oiientations aie equally piobable. In othei woius, the expectation axis shown
in figuie 1u8 is the same length as the aibitiaiy axis when opposite spin piobabilities aie
auueu togethei. If we consiuei the length of the spin axis piobability as , then we have:
= cos
2
(2) + cos
2
( + ) 2] = cos
2
(2) + sin
2
(2) = 1
With this being saiu, we will simplify the moueling by looking at the equatoiial plane of the
expectation iotation axis. Foi example, the expectation axis can be set by placing an election in
a magnetic fielu. This is the simplest to mouel anu one step bettei than assuming a monopole
emittei.
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com 1023
Figuie 1u9 shows a iotating uipole uesignateu iotating uipole lobes. The two lobes uepicteu
iepiesent the two uipole lobes uiscusseu anu uepicteu in chaptei S. When the lobes move
aiounu the imaginaiy ciicle at the speeu of light, any uistuibance piopagating away fiom these
lobes at the speeu of light anu foims the outwaiu piopagating Aichimeues spiials shown. This
simplifieu uesciiption uoes ignoie the fact that eveiy pait of the wave foims new wavelets, but
we will pioceeu with this uesciiption anu attempt to incluue wavelets latei.
Foi uiscussion, we will initially assume that the soliu lines iepiesent iegions wheie the iate of
time is fastei than noimal anu the uasheu lines iepiesent iegions wheie the iate of time is
slowei than noimal. Since the iate of time affects all S spatial uiiections equally, these waves
aie neithei longituuinal noi tiansveise. They aie simply time waves. Besiues affecting the iate
of time, these waves also iepiesent a spatial uistoition.
So fai, we have ignoieu the fact that the mouel calls foi eveiy point on the wavefiont to be the
souice of a new wavelet. An extiemely simplifieu mouel takes the outgoing wave pattein
shown in figuie 1u9 anu geneiate the backwaius piopagating waves by assuming that the
outwaiu piopagating waves aie ieflecteu off a concentiic spheiical ieflectoi. These ieflecteu
waves then piopagate back towaius the iotating uipole. This makes anothei paii of
Aichimeues spiials that in a static image aie the miiioi image of figuie 1u9. They have the
same iotational uiiection when vieweu fiom the peispective of figuie 1u9, but they aie
piopagating inwaiu.
When the outgoing waves anu incoming waves aie auueu togethei we obtain an inteifeience
pattein shown in Figuie 1u1u. This is a snapshot. The actual pattein is iotating at the same
iate as the iotating uipole (the Compton fiequency). Foi an election, this image woulu iotate
about 1.24 x 1u
2u
ievolutions pei seconu. This is cuiiently the best iepiesentation of an
isolateu iotai such as an isolateu election. We aie assuming a stationaiy fiame of iefeience foi
Figuie 1u1u (no ue Bioglie waves supeiimposeu). Note that theie is a 18u uegiee phase
change at the uestiuctive inteifeience bai (black bai) that goes acioss the centei of this figuie.
This phase change can be seen because theie is a ieveisal of coloi (yellow to blue oi blue to
yellow) at this iegion of uestiuctive inteifeience.
Even though this figuie was maue using some questionable simplifications, it is a ieasonable
fiist attempt. The amplituue of the waves shoulu uiop off with a 1i
2
ueciease in amplituue
fiom the centei. Foi illustiation puiposes, this figuie uepicts unifoim iauial wave amplituue.
The ieauei shoulu mentally aujust foi the iauial ueciease in amplituue.
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Conservation of Angular Momentum: Figuie 1u1u looks similai to a iotating uisk, but this
is the wiong inteipietation. Theie is no violation of the conseivation of angulai momentum as
this pattein enlaiges. This is best explaineu by ietuining to figuie 1u9. We will assume that all
of the eneigy anu angulai momentum staits off in the iegion uesignateu iotating uipole lobes.
If some eneigy leaves this iegion, its outwaiu piopagation follows the Aichimeues spiial
pattein shown in figuie 1u9. This is the pattein that maintains constant total angulai
momentum.
Pioving this statement woulu iepiesent a substantial uiveision, but one biief point suppoits
this contention. Figuie 1u9 shows an aiiow uiawn peipenuiculai to the Aichimeues spiial in
the fai fielu of the spiial pattein. In the limit of the fai fielu the piojection of this peipenuiculai
line back towaius the centei iesults in the piojecteu line being tangent to the imaginaiy ciicle
with iauius of R
q
. This implies a conseivation of the angulai momentum foi eneigy that leaves
this ciicle. The pattein shown in figuie 1u1u is a supei position of two Aichimeues spiial
patteins, both of which can be shown to inuiviuually exhibit conseivation of angulai
momentum. The iotating pattein in figuie 1u1u has a tangential speeu fastei than the speeu
of light foi any iauial uistance gieatei than i = R
q
. This is peimitteu because this is just an
inteifeience effect that can move fastei than the speeu of light.
In Figuie 1u11 we aie looking at this same pattein of figuie 1u1u fiom a moving fiame of
iefeience. To obtain this pictuie we auueu togethei the Bopplei shiftei outgoing anu incoming
wave patteins. This is similai to auuing togethei Figuies 1uS anu 1u4 to get figuie 1uS. To
obtain figuie 1u11 we auueu togethei Bopplei shifteu outgoing anu incoming Aichimeues
spiials iathei than the concentiic ciicles. Like figuie 1uS, Figuie 1u11 is a snapshot of a
moving inteifeience pattein. The inteifeience pattein woulu be moving fastei than the speeu
of light as pieviously explaineu foi Figuie 1uS. In fact, the ue Bioglie wavelength anu
tianslation speeu is the same whethei we mouel a monopole souice oi a uipole souice
pioviueu that we assume the same Compton fiequency.
Figuie 1u11 is actually a laige spiial pattein, but the spiial chaiacteiistic is only obvious neai
the centei of the figuie. The exact centei of figuie 1u11 that is the initiation of the spiial is not
an accuiate illustiation of the pattein that woulu be piouuceu by a iotai. Figuie 1u9
illustiates that the spiial uoes not extenu to the exact centei. Insteau, theie is a tiansition to
the quantum volume that is iepiesenteu by a ciicle with iauius R
q
. Figuie 1u11 was uiawn
with the two spiials (inwaiu anu outwaiu piopagating) extenuing all the way to the centei.
Theiefoie, a moie iealistic veision of figuie 1u11 woulu have a tiansition to black ovei the
centei ~ 1 wavelength.
Compton Scattering: In 19uS Albeit Einsteins publisheu a papei on the photoelectiic effect.
This papei suggesteu that light exhibits paiticlelike piopeities. At the time light was
consiueieu to be only a wave phenomenon. In the eaily 192us, the paiticlelike piopeities of
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com 1026
light was still being uebateu. Bowevei, uebate effectively enueu with the obseivation by
Aithui Compton of the scatteiing of xiay photons by elections (calleu Compton scatteiing).
The scatteieu xiay photons exhibit a ueciease in fiequency that is a function of scatteiing
angle. The inuiviuual elections also exhibit iecoil when they scattei an xiay photon. The
ueciease in the fiequency of the scatteieu photon coiiesponus to the eneigy tiansfeiieu to the
iecoiling election. A simple Bopplei shift of waves ieflecting off the moving election uoes not
coiiesponu to the coiiect fiequency shift. All of this is peifectly explaineu by the mouel that
assumes that photons aie paiticles with eneigy that is a function of fiequency. When a photon
(point paiticle) colliues with an election (point paiticle) theie is momentum tiansfei anu
eneigy tiansfei between these paiticles. The inteiaction is nicely uesciibeu by Comptons
equations anu he ieceiveu the 1927 Nobel Piize in physics foi this woik.
The physics community has univeisally auopteu the wavepaiticle photon mouel. Photons
cleaily have wave piopeities, but Compton scatteiing, the photoelectiic effect anu othei
expeiiments also seem to iequiie a paiticle explanation. The wavepaiticle uesciiption of both
photons anu paiticles woiks well, but the conceptual unueistanuing of this has puzzleu
geneiations of physics stuuents.
Schrodinger Article on the Compton Effect: Since this book pioposes that funuamental
paiticles aie uipole waves in spacetime, it woulu be helpful to suppoit this contention by
offeiing a plausible explanation foi Compton scatteiing using the pioposeu spacetime baseu
mouel of both elections anu photons. As I was woiking on this explanation, I assumeu that no
one hau been successful in pioposing a puiely wave baseu explanation foi Compton scatteiing.
To my suipiise, I uiscoveieu that in 1927 Eiwin Schiouingei hau publisheu a technical papei
titleu The Compton Effect
2
. This aiticle is available in Schiouingeis book Wave Nechanics
which has hau multiple euitions in English. Schiouingei uiu not conceive of waves in spacetime
oi a iotai mouel, but he uiu piopose a plausible wave explanation foi Compton scatteiing. Bis
pioposeu explanation involveu an elections ue Bioglie waves inteiacting with light waves to
piouuce the coiiect scattei chaiacteiistics foi both the light anu the election. In this aiticle,
Schiouingei useu some antiquateu teiminology such as the phiase an ethei wave to uesciibe
light, but his point is valiu. A biief uesciiption of his concept will be given heie.
Schiouingei lookeu at the collision as if it was a continuous piocess. In this case foui waves aie
piesent anu continuously inteiacting. These foui waves aie 1) the elections ue Bioglie wave
befoie the inteiaction 2) the elections ue Bioglie wave aftei the inteiaction S) the light wave
befoie the inteiaction anu 4) the light wave aftei the inteiaction. Schiouingei founu that the
two supeiimposeu ue Bioglie waves combineu to make a wave that he calleu a wave of
electiical uensity. This combineu wave hau the peifect peiiouicity to ieflect the inciuent light
beam anu cieate a ieflecteu beam with the coiiect fiequency shift anu scattei angle. The two
2
Annalen der Physik (4), vol 82
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com 1027
supeiimposeu light waves (inciuent anu scatteieu) piouuce an inteifeience pattein that
matches the inteifeience pattein piouuceu by the two supeiimposeu ue Bioglie waves.
Schiouingei maue an analogy between Compton scatteiing anu light inteiacting with sounu
waves (Biillouin scatteiing). Sounu waves piouuce a peiiouic change in the inuex of iefiaction
of an acoustic meuium. Light waves piopagating in an acoustic meuium can ieflect off the
sounu wave (peiiouic change in the inuex of iefiaction). The maximum ieflection is obtaineu if
the following equation is satisfieu: = 2 sin
Wheie: = light wavelength, = acoustic wavelength anu = the angle between the light
piopagation uiiection anu a plane paiallel to the acoustic waves.
This equation woulu be exact if the acoustic wave was stationaiy. Since the acoustic wave has a
speeu much less than the speeu of light, the conuition of a stationaiy acoustic wave is
appioximately met. Bowevei, ielativistic coiiections woulu be iequiieu if the sounu wave
piopagateu at a significant fiaction of the speeu of light. The equation coiiesponus to the
Biagg law (fiist oiuei) anu becomes exact when the acoustic waves aie stationaiy. When the
acoustic speeu of sounu is taken into consiueiation, then it appeais as if the light waves aie
ieflecting off a moving multi layei uielectiic miiioi. Theie is a fiequency shift in the ieflecteu
light anu the angle of inciuence uoes not equal the angle of ieflection because the miiioi is
moving.
Schiouingei consiueieu the supeiposition of the two sets of an elections ue Bioglie waves
(befoie anu aftei the inteiaction) to iesult in a wave of electiical uensity that coulu inteiact
with light. Beie aie Schiouingeis tianslateu woius:
Accoiuing to the hypothesis of wave mechanics, which up to now has pioven
tiustwoithy, it is not the function itself, but the squaie of the absolute value that
is given a physical meaning, namely, uensity of electiicity. A single wave
theiefoie piouuces a uensity uistiibution which is constant in both space anu time.
If howevei, we supeiimpose two such waves, we see that a wave of electiical
uensity aiises fiom the combination
Now it is this uensity wave that takes the place of the sounu wave of Biillouins
papei. If we assume that a light wave is ieflecteu fiom it as fiom a moving miiioi,
(subject to the fulfillment of Biagg's law) then we shall show that oui foui waves
(two waves anu the inciuent anu ieflecteu light waves) stanu exactly in the
Compton ielationship.
As all the foui waves aie invaiiant with iespect to Loientz tiansfoimation, we can
biing the uensity wave to iest by means of such a tiansfoimation. Biaggs
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ielationship holus exactly if uenotes the wavelength of the light wave, that of the
uensity wave anu the glancing angle. It can be put in the foim: 2hsin = h
Vector Diagrams: I will elaboiate on Schiouingeis point that it is possible to biing the two
inteiacting ue Bioglie waves into a stationaiy fiame of iefeience by a Loientz tiansfoimation.
Noimally Compton scatteiing involves an inciuent photon stiiking a stationaiy election. The
momentum tiansfei piouuces a iecoiling (moving) election anu ieuuces the eneigy of the
scatteieu photon compaieu to the inciuent photon.
Figuie 1u12 shows a vectoi uiagiam that uepicts this noimal Compton scatteiing conuition.
This uiagiam shows the momentum vectoi of both the inciuent anu the scatteieu photons. It
also shows the elections momentum vectoi aftei the Compton scatteiing. All of these aie
commonly incluueu in Compton scatteiing uiagiams, but figuie 1u12 incluues two auuitional
featuies. Fiist, the elections momentum befoie scatteiing is uesignateu (momentum = u).
Seconuly, theie is a momentum vectoi uesignateu half the elections momentum aftei
scatteiing. This vectoi shoulu be supeiimposeu on the paiallel vectoi but it has been
uisplaceu slightly foi claiity.
The ieason foi the auuitional uesignations of the elections momentum befoie scatteiing anu
half the elections momentum aftei scatteiing is that these uesignations will help explain the
fiame of iefeience useu foi Figuie 1u1S. In figuie 1u1S, we auopt a fiame of iefeience that is
iequiieu to have the election moving with the opposite momentum as the vectoi uesignateu
half the elections momentum aftei scatteiing. If the scatteieu elections velocity is non
ielativistic, then the moving fiame of iefeience is simply half the scatteieu elections speeu anu
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the opposite vectoi uiiection as shown in figuie 1u1S. In this fiame of iefeience, the election
is moving at velocity +v befoie scatteiing anu is moving at velocity v aftei the scatteiing (the
same speeu but opposite uiiection). This is the fiame of iefeience uesciibeu by Schiouingei as
the Loientz tiansfoimation that biings the uensity wave to iest. The supeiposition of the
elections ue Bioglie waves befoie anu aftei the inteiaction iesults in a stationaiy (but
oscillating) ue Bioglie wave pattein.
It is veiy easy to analyze Compton scatteiing fiom this fiame of iefeience. Theie is momentum
tiansfei between the photon anu the election, but theie is no eneigy tiansfeiieu. In this zeio
eneigy tiansfei fiame of iefeience, the election momentum moving towaius the oiigin (befoie
scatteiing the photon) is the same magnituue but opposite uiiection as the election
momentum moving away fiom the oiigin (aftei scatteiing the photon). The ieveisal in
uiiection is the momentum tiansfeiieu to the photon. The supeiposition of the two sets of the
elections ue Bioglie waves piouuces a stationaiy stanuing wave pattein (uensity wave) with
peiiouicity of
u
= mv. This stationaiy wave pattein effectively ieflects a photon without
any change in fiequency. Also, the angle of inciuence equals the angle of ieflection just like
ieflection fiom a stationaiy miiioi.
All Compton scatteiing events involving an initially stationaiy election can be lookeu at as a
special case of the zeio eneigy tiansfei Compton scatteiing wheie the fiame of iefeience has
been aujusteu (Loientz tiansfoimation) so that the election is initially stationaiy. 0nce we
unueistanu a scatteiing event in this simplest fiame of iefeience, we can easily switch back to
the commonly useu fiame of iefeience uepicteu in figuie 1u12. The fiequency shift anu angle
change is simply the iesult of ieflecting off a moving multi layei uielectiic miiioi.
Figuie 1uS shows a iotai mouel in a moving fiame of iefeience. This figuie uepicts an instant
in time. The laige black hoiizontal fiinges aie moving in the uiiection of tianslation at a
velocity of w
u
= c
2
v. This says that the inteifeience fiinges aie always moving fastei than the
speeu of light. When we supeiimpose two iotai mouels moving at the same speeu but in
opposite uiiections, we again obtain an instantaneous pictuie similai to figuie 1uS. Bowevei,
the supeiposition of opposite moving waves iesults in the ue Bioglie waves becoming
stationaiy. This can be visualizeu as the high fiequency waves (yellow anu blue waves) in
figuie 1uS being stanuing waves which aie oscillating at a fiequency of appioximately 1u
2u
Bz.
Function: The envelope of these waves is a wave that is pioposeu to be Schiouingeis
function. Squaiing this gives the piobability of finuing the election in aieas of gieatest
oscillation amplituue. Schiouingei calls these aieas of gieatest oscillation waves of electiical
uensity. Since these waves aie pioposeu to be uipole waves in spacetime oscillating at the
elections Compton fiequency, it is easy to see why the squaie of these waves iepiesents the
piobability of finuing an election.
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Schiouingei aigues that when light inteiacts with stationaiy waves (ue Bioglie waves) they
iepiesent the equivalent of a uensity vaiiation that can ieflect light. 0nce again, his tianslateu
woius aie:
A single wave theiefoie piouuces a uensity uistiibution which is constant in both
space anu time. If howevei, we supeiimpose two such waves, we see that a wave
of electiical uensity aiises fiom the combination
Now it is this uensity wave that takes the place of the sounu wave of Biillouins
papei. If we assume that a light wave is ieflecteu fiom it as fiom a moving miiioi,
(subject to the fulfillment of Biagg's law) then we shall show that oui foui waves
(two waves anu the inciuent anu ieflecteu light waves) stanu exactly in the
Compton ielationship.
Noie will be saiu about the physical explanation of the function in chaptei 12. Foi now we
will attempt to illustiate Schiouingeis iuea of Compton scatteiing with the next two figuies.
Figuie 1u14 sets the stage by illustiating the wave piopeities of light ieflecting off a miiioi
(fiozen in time). The beam of waves enteis fiom the left, ieflects off the miiioi anu leaves to
the iight. The aiea of oveilap between the inciuent anu ieflecteu beams is the aiea wheie a
stanuing wave pattein is cieateu. This stanuing wave pattein has stanuing wave nulls which in
this figuie aie hoiizontal banus paiallel to the miiioi suiface wheie theie is no electiic fielu
oscillation. The antinoue banus aie also illustiateu anu these aie iegions of maximum electiic
fielu oscillation. Foi example, if the light wave is lineaily polaiizeu with the electiic fielu vectoi
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oscillating peipenuiculai to the plane of the illustiation, then the blue iegions might be
consiueieu iegions wheie the electiic fielu momentaiily is pointing towaius the ieauei anu the
yellow iegions might be consiueieu iegions wheie the electiic fielu vectoi is momentaiily
pointing away fiom the ieauei. If time was alloweu to piogiess foiwaiu, these blue anu yellow
iegions in the stanuing wave woulu move fiom left to iight. The noue planes woulu iemain
unchangeu.
Now figuie 1u1S iepiesents the combination of figuies 1u14 anu 1uS. In this case only the
stanuing wave poition of figuie 1u14 is illustiateu, so the ieauei must imagine that the
inciuent beam is coming in fiom the uppei left anu the ieflecteu beam is leaving to the uppei
iight. Also the lowei poition of figuie 1u1S iepiesents the supeiposition of an election befoie
anu aftei the scatteiing. We aie using the zeio eneigy tiansfei fiame of iefeience, so the ue
Bioglie wave pattein woulu appeai stationaiy. The conuitions that piouuce Compton
scatteiing iesult in a peifect match between the spacing of the stanuing wave antinoues of the
light beam anu the stanuing wave antinoues of the election. It is as if the light beam is
ieflecting off a multi layei uielectiic ieflectoi.
If we moveu to a uiffeient fiame of iefeience wheie we woulu peiceive some eneigy tiansfei
between the light anu the election, then the angle of inciuence woulu not equal the angle of
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ieflection anu the wavelength of the ieflecteu beam woulu be uiffeient than the wavelength of
the inciuent beam. In the above uesciiption, some aitistic license has been taken both in the
illustiation anu the choice of woius. We shoulu ieally be talking about the scattei of a single
photon fiom a single election. The wave amplituue shoulu not be unifoim anu numeious othei
coiiections.
This spacetime wave explanation of Compton scatteiing is pioposeu to actually be bettei than
the paiticle baseu explanation because seveial quantum mechanical mysteiies aie also
explaineu by the spacetime wave explanation. Foi example, the spacetime wave explanation
has the wave mouel of an election going fiom its initial velocity to its final velocity without
acceleiating thiough all the inteimeuiate velocities. An explanation of Compton scatteiing
involving the stanuaiu point paiticle mouel of an election woulu seem to imply that the
election unueigoes acceleiation as it tiansitions thiough inteimeuiate velocities. This concept
of inteimeuiate velocities is not consistent with the quantum mechanical uesciiption.
Also, Schiouingei inuicateu that his function hau no physical meaning; it only gaineu physical
meaning when it was squaieu to give the piobability of finuing a paiticle. I have given a
pioposeu physical meaning to the function. It is the wave envelope shown in figuie 1u7 anu
uepicteu in figuie 1uS. The envelope ( function) is unuetectable because it is an inteifeience
effect with noues anu antinoues of uipole waves in spacetime with an inteifeience pattein that
piopagates fastei than the speeu of light. 0nly when theie is an inteiaction between two such
envelopes of waves uoes the piopagation slow uown to a speeu less than the speeu of light (as
uepicteu in figuie 1u1S). Squaiing this then gives the piobability of finuing the paiticle.
Plausibility, Not Proof: To successfully complete this Compton scatteiing analysis, it woulu
be necessaiy to show that this supeiposition of the elections waves in spacetime (two
uiffeient velocities) piouuces a peiiouic change in the piopei speeu of light. Fuitheimoie, it
woulu also be necessaiy to chaiacteiize a photon using waves in spacetime anu show that the
combination of these mouels piouuces the coiiect scattei piobability.
While I have pioposeu explanations that contain the elements iequiieu in this explanation, I
cannot conclusively show that the effects on the speeu of light aie sufficient to accomplish
Compton scatteiing. It is hopeu that otheis might be able to complete this task. Schiouingei
has shown that a wave explanation of Compton scatteiing is plausible. I show that the iotai
mouel in a moving fiame of iefeience is plausibly equivalent to Schiouingeis function
waves. Theiefoie, this will be ueclaieu a successful plausibility test even though it is a long way
fiom being conclusively pioven.
Double Slit Experiment: Anothei plausibility test of the iotai mouel is to see if this mouel
piouuces a uiffiaction pattein chaiacteiistic of senuing an election (oi othei paiticle) thiough
a uouble slit. The uiffiaction pattein piouuceu by senuing a stieam of elections thiough a
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uouble slit has long been offeieu as pioof that an election exhibits wavepaiticle uuality. Even
befoie woiking on the iueas expiesseu in this book, I always founu the implications of the
uouble slit uiffiaction expeiiment to be a pioblem foi the wavepaiticle uuality explanation.
If an election is also a point paiticle, then the point paiticle must have passeu thiough only one
of the two slits. Even if some wave piopeities of the paiticle exploieu the othei slit, it seems as
if the uiffiaction pattein shoulu imply an unequal illumination of the two slits. A laige
inequality of illumination shoulu gieatly ieuuce the visibility of the uiffiaction nulls. Insteau,
the uiffiaction pattein piouuceu by elections implies that the election possesses only wave
piopeities as it passes thiough both slits equally anu simultaneously. I finu it fai easiei to
conceptually unueistanu how the iotai mouel of an election can possess paiticlelike
piopeities than unueistanu the contiauictions of wavepaiticle uuality. Imagine an election as
a unit of quantizeu angulai momentum with a specific iotational fiequency existing in a sea of
vacuum eneigy. With this mouel it is possible to see how this quantizeu angulai momentum
coulu possibly ieassemble itself on the othei siue of a uouble slit. It woulu have passeu
thiough both slits anu woulu exhibit the uouble slit uiffiaction pattein.
The following explanation will continue to use an election as an example, but this also applies
to composite paiticles such as neutions oi molecules. The ieasoning about neutions anu othei
composite paiticles will be uiscusseu latei in the chaptei about hauions.
The uiffiaction pattein piouuceu by light of wavelength passing thiough a single slit of wiuth
u
1
piouuces a wellknown single slit uiffiaction pattein. The single slit intensity piofile can be
calculateu fiom the Fiaunhofei uiffiaction integial. In geneial, the uouble slit uiffiaction
pattein can be thought of as a supeiposition of the single slit uiffiaction pattein on the
uiffiaction pattein foi two coheient naiiow (< ) line souices of light sepaiateu by the uouble
slit sepaiation uistance u
2
.
Beie we aie only going to uo a gieatly simplifieu veision that can illustiate some
inteipietations of the wave patteins that will be obtaineu in a uouble slit simulation. In this
simplification, we stait with the mouel of a moving iotai such as shown in figuie 1uS.
Symmetiical poitions of the exteinal volume of a iotai aie piesumeu to pass thiough both slits
symmetiically anu become two new souices of waves. Foi simplification the emission pattein
fiom each slit is spheiical. An actual slit wiuth woulu intiouuce an auuitional intensity
uistiibution supeiimposeu on this spheiical emission pattein. The key uiffeience between this
mouel anu a stanuaiu uouble slit expeiiment with light is that the waves emanating fiom both
slits in this mouel have the biuiiectional piopagation chaiacteiistics (ue Bioglie waves) of a
moving iotai. This means that we aie inteifeiing 4 sets of waves (2 countei piopagating waves
fiom each slit).
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com 1034
Figuie 1u16 shows the iesult of the coheient inteiaction of these 4 waves. The two slits aie
iuentifieu as souice 1 anu souice 2. The iesultant inteifeience pattein is similai to what
might be expecteu fiom light passing thiough uouble slits, but theie aie some key uiffeiences.
Fiist, the thiee uaik hoiizontal banus aie the iesult of the ue Bioglie waves anu aie similai to
the banus shown in figuie 1uS. These banus woulu be moving at fastei than the speeu of light
(w
m
= c
2
v) anu woulu not be in the pattein piouuceu by light. Seconuly, the blue anu yellow
wave iepiesentations woulu be alteinating coloi (uipole polaiity) at the elections Compton
fiequency. Thiiu, these blue anu yellow wave iepiesentations woulu be piopagating away
fiom the slits at the elections piopagation speeu (u
u
= v) anu not at the speeu of light as woulu
occui with light. Fouith, it is impossible to uetect the fine wave pattein iepiesenteu by the
blue anu yellow waves. These have uisplacement amplituues less than Planck lengthtime anu
aie unuetectable as uisciete waves. They aie at the elections Compton fiequency anu the
squaie of the time aveiageu waves iepiesent the piobability of finuing the election.
When a moving election encounteis a uouble slit, it no longei is an isolateu election. The
mouel must change to ieflect the changeu bounuaiy conuitions. Paits of the quantizeu wave
that is the election pass thiough both slits anu paits of the election encountei the mattei
(othei waves in spacetime) that foims the blocking aieas. Whethei oi not the election (iotai)
iefoims on the othei siue of the uouble slit is a piobability. Even though most of the uipole
wave is blockeu (peihaps 99%), appaiently the iemaining 1% has a piobability of
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com 1035
ieconstiucting the entiie uipole wave on the othei siue of the uouble slit. If it uoes iefoim, it
has new chaiacteiistics imposeu by the inteiaction with the mattei (waves) that suiiounus the
uouble slit openings. Theie aie new bounuaiy conuitions that aie expiesseu as the iauial
inteifeience pattein shown in Figuie 1u16.
Oscillating Component of Gravity: Nost of this chaptei was spent uesciibing the pait of the
exteinal volume associateu with the oscillating anu non oscillating components associateu with
the electiic fielu. Chapteis 6 anu 8 weie spent on giavity which is actually uesciibing the non
oscillating stiain in spacetime causeu by spacetime being a nonlineai meuium foi uipole waves
in spacetime. The iemaining component is the pioposeu oscillating component of giavity.
Touay, this is an extiemely weak effect because the amplituue of this oscillating component is
B
g
= B
2
J
2
= L
p
2
i
2
. 0bviously, L
p
2
i
2
is an extiemely small numbei foi any value of i
encounteieu touay. Bowevei, at the beginning of the Big Bang this oscillating component of
giavity was veiy impoitant anu piouuceu all the vacuum eneigy (vacuum fluctuations) piesent
in the univeise touay. This will be uiscusseu fuithei in chapteis 1S anu 14 which ueal with
cosmology.
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The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com
111
Chaptei 11
Photons
Photons: In chaptei 9 we examineu the simplifieu case of photons confineu to a ieflecting
cavity. When we ieuuceu the uimensions of the cavity to the minimum size that woulu suppoit
electiomagnetic iauiation of a paiticulai wavelength, we calleu this conuition maximum
confinement. Equations foi the electiic anu magnetic fielu weie uevelopeu foi this maximum
confinement conuition. In this chaptei we will uevelop a mouel of a fieely piopagating photon.
This mouel will be incomplete, but hopefully this attempt at ueveloping such a mouel will
encouiage otheis to impiove on this mouel.
It is commonly aigueu that photons cannot just be waves because the photoelectiic effect
uemonstiates that all the eneigy of a photon is tiansfeiieu to a single election in an absoibing
atom. This concentiation of eneigy can eject an election fiom the suiface of the photoelectiic
mateiial. The ieasoning is that if a photon was a wave, then the wave woulu uistiibute the
photons eneigy evenly ovei a suiface anu no single election woulu ieceive the eneigy iequiieu
to eject an election fiom a suiface. This ieasoning assumes that the waves of a photon aie
similai to eithei a sounu wave oi peihaps a wave in the ethei. A sounu wave in aii foi example
piouuces an oscillating uisplacement of many molecules. When a sounu wave in aii stiikes a
soliu suiface, it is ieally many inuiviuual molecules stiiking the suiface inuepenuently. The
eneigy of the sounu wave is uistiibuteu ovei the suiface. Similaily, if light is imagineu as a
wave in an omnipiesent fluiu calleu the ethei, then waves in the ethei woulu be evenly
uistiibuteu ovei a suiface anu an election woulu not be ejecteu fiom the suiface.
Bowevei, since a photon has quantizeu angulai momentum, it is impossible to uistiibute
quantizeu angulai momentum to multiple locations. All the quantizeu angulai momentum
(anu eneigy) is uepositeu at a single location. This uoes not iequiie a paiticle explanation; it
only iequiies quantization of angulai momentum. Fuitheimoie, the photoelectiic effect is low
eneigy Compton scatteiing. In chaptei 1u it was shown that Compton scatteiing has a
plausible wave explanation. Even though the photoelectiic mateiial has a suiface woik
function, the basic Compton scattei wave inteiaction is the same. The wave chaiacteiistics of
the photon anu the election can eject the election fiom the suiface.
How Big Is a Photon? The stanuaiu explanation foi a photons piopeities is to claim that a
photon exhibits wavepaiticle uuality. 0f couise, this is not a conceptually unueistanuable
explanation; it is meiely a name. In a uouble slit expeiiment, a photon seems to have the ability
to pass thiough both slits simultaneously. This implies that a photon has a physical wiuth. A
photon also seems to have a physical length that is a function of the photons spectial wiuth.
Foi example, a iubiuium atom has a spectial line calleu the B
1
tiansition. When a iubiuium
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112
atom goes thiough this tiansition, it emits a photon ovei about 26 ns. This implies that this
photon has a length of about 8 meteis. Fuitheimoie, the spectial line wiuth of this iubiuium
tiansition has a banuwiuth that also implies a wave packet with this physical length using a
Fouiiei tiansfoim. This is not just an 8 metei unceitainty in the location of the photon; it is an
actual wave that is 8 meteis long. The hypei fine tiansition of cesium 1SS that is useu in
atomic clocks emits at a miciowave fiequency of about 9.2 x 1u
9
Bz. This emission fiequency is
stable to bettei than one pait in 1u
1S
. This implies that the emitteu photon is continuously
emitteu ovei about 1uuu seconus anu the length of the photon is about S x 1u
11
m. At the
opposite extieme, the iecoiu foi the shoitest pulse of lasei light (in teims of appioaching the
theoietical limit) is a meie 1.S cycles pei pulse. The cuiient iecoiu foi the shoitest pulse of
lasei light is about 8 x 1u
17
seconus but that pulse containeu seveial cycles anu haimonics of a
shoit wavelength.
The emission of a photon by an atom is often uepicteu as if it is an instantaneous event.
Bowevei, this is known to be incoiiect
1
because theie is a time uepenuence of the wave
function in a quantum tiansition. Expeiimental measuiements have been maue of samples
unueigoing spectioscopic tiansitions. These expeiiments confiim that theie aie no
instantaneous quantum jumps. Insteau, the electiic anu magnetic piopeities unueigo a smooth
anu continuous tiansition occuiiing ovei the lifetime of an exciteu state.
Theie is a veiy goou papei titleu Bow a Photon is Cieateu oi Absoibeu
2
that is also available
online
S
. This online veision has two goou animations showing the oscillations of a hyuiogen
atom uuiing the emission of a photon. This papei shows that theie is an often ignoieu
tiansition peiiou iequiieu foi the emission oi absoiption of eneigy in a tiansition between
eneigy levels. Theie aie numeious expeiimental obseivations that confiim that photons aie
emitteu oi absoibeu ovei a time peiiou coiiesponuing to the inveise banuwiuth. Quoting fiom
the above aiticle:
The fiist expeiimental measuiements of bulk samples unueigoing spectioscopic
tiansitions weie obtaineu fiom nucleai magnetic iesonance obseivations of the
tiansition nutation effect
4
anu spin echoes
S
,
6
using coheient iauiation piouuceu by a
single iauio fiequency oscillatoi. Noie iecently, the analogous tiansition nutation
effect
7
,
8
anu so calleu photon echoes
9
,
1u
,
11
have been obseiveu in moleculai
1
Macomber, J. D. The Dynamics of Spectroscopic Transition; J ohn Wiley and Sons: New York, 1976.
2
Henderson, G J. Chem. Educ. 1979, 56, 631634
3
http://jchemed.chem.wisc.edu/J CEWWW/Articles/DynaPub/DynaPub.html
4
Torrey, H. C. Phys. Rev. 76, 1059 (1949).
5
Hahn, E. L. Phys. Rev. 77, 297 (l950).
6
Hahn, E. L. Phys. Rev. 30, 580 (l950).
7
Tang, C. L.; Statz, H. Appl. Phys. Lett. 10, 145 (1967).
8
Hocker, G. B.; Tang, C. L. Phys. Rev. 184, 356 (1969).
9
Kurnit, N. A.; Abella, I. D.; Hartmann, S. R. Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 567 (1964).
10
Abella, I. D.; Kurnit, N. A.; Hartmann, S. R. Phys. Rev. 141, 391 (1966).
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com
113
spectia using pulseu coheient lasei iauiation. These expeiiments confiim that
theie is no quantum jumps in the nonstationaiy state; iathei theie aie smooth,
continuous peiiouic changes in the magnetic anu electiical piopeities of the system
unueigoing a tiansition.
An election bounu in an atom possesses less eneigy than an isolateu election. Foi example,
1S.6 ev of eneigy is ieleaseu when an isolateu election combines with a pioton to foim a
hyuiogen atom in the giounu state. The binuing eneigy can be consiueieu to be a negative
foim of eneigy which means that binuing ieleases eneigy anu bieaking a bonu iequiies eneigy.
The iotai mouel of funuamental paiticles says that an isolateu election is a iotating uipole in
spacetime with a iotational fiequency of about 1.24 x 1u
2u
Bz. When an election anu pioton
combine to foim a hyuiogen atom in the giounu state, a photon is ieleaseu with a fiequency of
about S.S x 1u
1S
Bz (~1S.6 ev). Accoiuing to the iotai mouel, the eneigy ieleaseu when a
hyuiogen atom foims comes fiom the election losing eneigy anu ieuucing its Compton
fiequency by about S.S x 1u
1S
Bz. The oscillations of the election clouu shown in the above
animation can be thought of as the inteiaction between the election in two uiffeient eneigy
states (two uiffeient fiequencies) inteifeiing with itself. These oscillations cieate waves in
spacetime that iemove this eneigy at the fiequency of the oscillations. These waves aie
pioposeu to be the photon.
In chaptei 9 it was shown that a photon was not an eneigy packet tiaveling TBR00uB
spacetime, but a wave tiaveling IN the meuium of spacetime. Now we will uevelop the mouel
of a photon fuithei baseu on waves piopagating within the vacuum fluctuations of spacetime.
These waves will be shown to be uistiibuteu ovei a substantial volume of spacetime. Cleaily
such a stiuctuie cannot be visualizeu as a point paiticle. It only exhibits paiticlelike
piopeities because it possesses quantizeu angulai momentum combineu with the piopeity of
unity. This combination gives waves in spacetime with quantizeu spin the ability to act as a
unit anu tiansfei theii eneigy anu quantizeu spin to a single iotai. The name photon is not
ieally appiopiiate since the suffix on was coineu specifically to imply paiticle piopeities.
Bowevei, the name photon is flexible enough that it can aujust to a quantizeu wave
explanation. Theiefoie no attempt will be maue to ieplace the woiu photon.
Vacuum Energy Versus the Ether: The ethei was once believeu to be an omnipiesent fluiu
with a single fiame of iefeience that seiveu as the piopagation meuium foi light waves. The
concept of the ethei implieu that it shoulu be possible to uetect eviuence of the eaiths motion
ielative to the ethei. This ielative motion woulu piouuce a shift in inteifeience fiinges in the
Nichelson Noiley expeiiment. This anu numeious moie iecent expeiiments have confiimeu
that theie is no eviuence that any such ielative motion exists. With this expeiimental eviuence,
the concept of the ethei has been abanuoneu. This backgiounu makes the following seem like a
iauical pioposal:
11
Hartmann, S. A. Sci. Amer. 218, 32 (1968).
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com
114
Electromagnetic radiation is a wave disturbance with quantized angular momentum that
propagates in the medium of the vacuum fluctuations of spacetime.
This sounus like I am meiely substituting the teim vacuum fluctuations foi ethei. Bowevei,
theie is a big uiffeience. The piopeities of the vacuum fluctuations aie such that it is
impossible to uetect any motion ielative to these fluctuations. Recall that vacuum eneigy
(vacuum fluctuations) is a sea of uipole waves in spacetime that lack angulai momentum.
These waves aie alieauy piopagating at the speeu of light. Eveiy pait of a wave becomes the
souice of a new wavelet so spacetime becomes a sea of uipole wave uistoitions that aie
ieaiianging themselves at the speeu of light. As pieviously explaineu, these chaotic waves that
lack angulai momentum make the quantum mechanical veision of a vacuum. They aie
iesponsible foi the appeaiance of viitual paiticle paiis, the unceitainty piinciple, the Casimii
effect, the Lamb shift, etc.
It is impossible to uetect motion ielative to these waves in spacetime. Chaptei 7 uiscusseu the
subject of spectial eneigy uensity in vacuum eneigy. That uiscussion is iepeateu heie because
it takes on new meaning when applieu to uetecting motion ielative to vacuum eneigy.
In quantum fielu theoiy, spacetime is visualizeu as consisting of fielus. Eveiy point
in spacetime is tieateu like a quantizeu haimonic oscillatoi. The lowest quantum
mechanical eneigy level of each oscillatoi is E = V . This concept leaus to a
spectial eneigy uensity ()u that is:
()u = k [
o
3
c
3
u
If spacetime is filleu with oveilapping uipole waves in spacetime that aie capable of
foiming the equivalent of viitual paiticle paiis at all fiequencies (not just
fiequencies coiiesponuing to funuamental paiticles), then the spectial eneigy
uensity woulu be this same equation.
This spectium with its
S
uepenuence of spectial eneigy uensity is unique in as
much as motion thiough this spectial uistiibution uoes not piouuce a uetectable
Bopplei shift. It is a Loientz invaiiant ianuom fielu. Any paiticulai spectial
component unueigoes a Bopplei shift, but othei components compensate so that all
components taken togethei uo not exhibit a Bopplei shift. It shoulu also be noteu
that neithei cosmological expansion noi giavity alteis this spectium.
12
12
Puthoff, H.E. Phys. Rev. A Volume 40, p.4857, 1989 Errata in Phys. Rev A volume 44, p. 3385, 1991 See also
New Scientist, volume 124, p.36, Dec. 2, 1089
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com
115
Theiefoie, vacuum eneigy has completely uiffeient piopeities than the ethei which is thought
of as an omnipiesent fluiu which has a specific fiame of iefeience. It is impossible to uetect
motion ielative to the vacuum eneigy. It is maue of uipole wavelets that aie continuously
foiming new wavelets anu piopagating at the speeu of light. vacuum eneigy has no uefinable
fiame of iefeience. The expeiiments attempting to uetect the ethei neithei piove noi uispiove
the pioposal that electiomagnetic iauiation piopagates in vacuum eneigy.
Pieviously it was speculateu that vacuum eneigy is similai to a supei fluiu. The supei fluiu
vacuum fluctuations of spacetime uo not possess angulai momentum on the laige scale. Any
angulai momentum is isolateu into quantizeu units. The funuamental paiticles aie isolateu
into iotais with angulai momentum of V . The bosons such as photons have angulai
momentum of . These quantizeu angulai momentum uistuibances in spacetime, aie not
confineu to a specific location like the iotai mouel. Insteau the quantizeu angulai momentum
of a photon is uistiibuteu into an expanuing wave that will be uesciibeu in this chaptei. When
a photon is absoibeu, the uistuibance with quantizeu angulai momentum woulu collapse anu
tiansfei the angulai momentum to the absoibing bouy (iotais).
A Photon Is Not a Dipole Wave in Spacetime: A photon cannot be a quantizeu uipole wave
in spacetime. A uipole wave cieates an oscillating iate of time giauient. A iate of time giauient
is capable of acceleiating any mattei, even a neutial paiticle such as a neution. To pievent a
violation of the conseivation of momentum, uipole waves in spacetime aie limiteu to a
maximum uisplacement of spacetime of Planck length anu Planck time as pieviously uesciibeu.
A focuseu lasei beam woulu easily violate this iestiiction. Recall that iotais have this quantum
mechanical limit of Planck length anu Planck time. Theiefoie, the maximum eneigy uensity foi
a uipole wave in spacetime is equal to the eneigy uensity of the quantum volume of a iotai
(0
q
). This knowleuge can be conveiteu to a maximum intensity (J) foi a uipole wave in
spacetime with ieuuceu wavelength since J = 0c foi iauiation piopagating at the speeu of
light. Fiom pievious calculations of iotais, we know that the eneigy uensity in the quantum
volume of a iotai is: 0
q
= c
4
. This eneigy uensity then sets an uppei limit to the maximum
intensity that coulu be achieveu at the focus of a lasei beam if photons weie uipole waves in
spacetime. 0sing J = 0c, the maximum intensity of electiomagnetic iauiation that woulu
violate the conseivation of momentum if photons weie uipole waves in spacetime is:
J
max
= c
2
4
.
The maximum intensity allowable foi a lasei beam with a wavelength of about 1u
6
m (ieuuceu
wavelength = 1.6 x 1u
7
m) woulu be about 1u
1u
wm
2
(1u
4
wcm
2
). Intensities in excess of
1u
2u
wcm
2
have been achieveu at the focus of a pulseu lasei at this appioximate wavelength,
so a photon is uefinitely not a piopagating uipole wave in spacetime. A mouel will be
uevelopeu that is a wave in the space uimensions of spacetime without affecting the iate of
time. uiavitational waves can also have uisplacement amplituue that exceeus uynamic Planck
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com
116
length L
p
because they also uo not cause a uisplacement of the iate of time. (They also aie not
uipole waves in spacetime.)
Waves in Vacuum Energy: So fai we have talkeu about waves in the abstiact. What aie the
waves of a photon maue of. They aie not piopagating uipole waves in spacetime but the
pioposeu answei is that they aie a piopagating uistuibance in the uipole waves that foim
vacuum eneigy. In chaptei 9 the pioposal was maue that an electiic fielu is a stiain in
spacetime wheie the piopei speeu of light is slightly uiffeient foi opposite uiiections. This
piouuces the unsymmetiical effects associateu with piopagation in the positive oi negative
electiic fielu uiiection. This iesults in the one way uistance between points being slightly
uiffeient foi opposite polaiity uiiections. Foi example, if theie is an electiic fielu piesent, then
the time iequiieu to go fiom point A to point B is longei than the time iequiieu to go fiom
point B to point A. Bowevei, the iounu tiip time is the same as expecteu fiom the speeu of
light. This means that theie is no change in piopei volume anu no change in the iate of time. A
single photon in maximum confinement hau a uiffeience in path length ovei a uistance of of
L
p
anu n photons in maximum confinement piouuceu a path length uiffeience of: nI
p
. This
explains why it is impossible to measuie the wave piopeities of a single photon but it is
possible to measuie the wave piopeities of many photons (foi example, the electiic fielu of a
iauio wave).
The mouel of a single photon woulu be a wave possessing quantizeu angulai momentum that
piopagates in vacuum eneigy. The uipole waves that foim vacuum eneigy cannot possess
angulai momentum, so a uistuibance caiiying quantizeu angulai momentum woulu be like a
piopagating phase tiansition that causes a specific fiequency anu volume to momentaiily lose
its supeifluiu piopeities. Such a wave woulu momentaiily be giving a uistiibuteu angulai
momentum to vacuum eneigy. Appaiently this uistuibance is a tiansveise wave that possesses
the polaiization chaiacteiistics we noimally associate with a photon. Such a wave in vacuum
eneigy woulu piopagate at the speeu of light foi all fiames of iefeience. Fuitheimoie, the
impeuance of fiee space (Z
o
) associateu with electiomagnetic iauiation is equitable to the
impeuance of spacetime Z
o
2
= 4Z
s
= 4c
S
u.
ElectronPositron Annihilation Thought Experiment: We aie going to uevelop the photon
mouel fuithei using a thought expeiiment. In this thought expeiiment we will look at the two
entangleu photons piouuceu by annihilation of an electionposition paii. This might seem like
an exotic way of piouucing a paii of photons, but it actually is the simplest case to examine
because unlike atomic emission oi Compton scatteiing, no paiticles iemain aftei the
annihilation to caiiy away momentum.
We aie assuming that we stait with an electionposition paii with antipaiallel spin. This foim
of positionium typically has a lifetime of about 1u
1u
seconus anu usually uecays into two
entangleu photons with antipaiallel spins. We will assume this noimal two photon uecay.
The Universe Is Only Spacetime 2012 john@onlyspacetime.com
117
These two gamma iay photons have opposite spins anu opposite momentum vectois.
Bowevei, the spins anu momentum vectois aie only uefineu when the fiist photon is uetecteu.
Each photon has S11,uuu ev of eneigy, so the fiequency anu wavelength of each photon
matches the Compton fiequency anu Compton wavelength of the annihilateu iotais.
The conventional pictuie of this annihilation is the emission of two photons which have both
paiticle anu wave piopeities. The paiticle piopeities imply a packet of eneigy that can be
founu somewheie within the unceitainty volume uefineu by the uecay time anu spin
oiientation of the electionposition paii. This conventional pictuie has the two entangleu
photons with opposite momentum, but the momentum uiiections aie not set until the fiist
photon is absoibeu. At that moment the momentum anu polaiization of the seconu entangleu
photon has been ueteimineu. 0ne countei intuitive pait of this mouel is that the infoimation
about momentum anu polaiization must somehow be communicateu to the suiviving photon
when the fiist of the two entangleu photons is absoibeu.
Even if the two entangleu photons aie sepaiateu by a uistance of one lightyeai, they still
somehow aie in instantaneous communication. If one of the photons happens to inteiact with
a polaiizei of any oiientation oi ellipticity, the othei photon instantly becomes the oithogonal
polaiization. Nany logical questions aiise fiom this pictuie. Bow uo the two photons keep
tiack of each othei. What type of communication signal is sent out when one photon
encounteis a polaiizei. Bow uoes this communication happen fastei than the speeu of light. I
piopose that the ieason that this explanation is impossible to conceptually unueistanu is
because it is the wiong pictuie of a photon.
ElectronPositron Annihilation The Quantized Wave Model: We will now iestate this
inteiaction using the photon anu iotai mouels that incoipoiate uistiibuteu waves in spacetime.
Suppose that we use the iotai mouel of an election anu a position with opposite (antipaiallel)
spins that aie initially fai apait compaieu to uistance R
q
. Both iotais have a Compton angulai
fiequency of about 7.76 x 1u
2u
s
1
oi a fiequency of 1.2S x 1u
2u
Bz. If these two iotais move
towaius each othei, it means that they woulu both peiceive the othei to be Bopplei shifteu anu
the two fiequencies woulu not be exactly the same. Since these two iotais aie going to
eventually emit two entangleu photons of the same fiequency, we will piesume that the
foimation of positionium incluues some type of synchionization of these two fiequencies.
What will happen when we biing togethei an election anu a position. It appeais as if this
inteiaction uestabilizes both iotais. The iotai mouel of an isolateu election pioposes that an
election is stable because theie is a type of iesonance between the elections iotating uipole
wave anu the suiiounuing vacuum eneigy. Recall that the election has a quantum amplituue of
B
= 4.18 x 1u
2S
. This uimensionless numbei is also the elections fiequency, eneigy, mass,
inveise quantum iauius, etc. in Planck units. This fiequency anu amplituue achieves a
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iesonance in vacuum eneigy that cancels the loss of powei anu piouuces constiuctive
inteifeience with the iotating uipole coie.
The lifetime of positionium with antipaiallel spins has been calculateu
1S
fiom QEB as:
= 2m
e
c
2
S
= 2
c
S
= 1.2S x 1u
1u
s. This calculateu lifetime agiees with expeiimentally
measuieu lifetime. The annihilation of positionium with antipaiallel spins usually piouuces
two entangleu gamma iay photons. These two photons have the same fiequency, wavelength
anu eneigy as the election anu position in the iest fiame. Since the electionposition paii hau
antipaiallel spins, the two entangleu photons also have a combineu spin of zeio.
Photon Model of Annihilation: Now the mouel of this annihilation using waves in spacetime
will be piesenteu. The election anu position both have a Compton angulai fiequency of
7.76 x 1u
2u
s
1
. When these two iotais annihilate each othei the stabilization mechanism with
vacuum eneigy is uestioyeu. The cancellation wave foimeu in vacuum eneigy no longei
pievents the uissipation of the elections anu positions eneigy. Waves in spacetime at the
electionposition Compton fiequency piopagate away fiom the site of the annihilation at the
speeu of light. These piopagating waves aie two entangleu photons that iesult fiom the
annihilation. The waves aie piopagating in the meuium of the vacuum fluctuations that aie an
essential chaiacteiistic of spacetime. As pieviously ueteimineu, the impeuance anu bulk
mouulus encounteieu by these waves coiiesponus to the impeuance of spacetime (Z
s
= c
S
u)
anu the bulk mouulus of spacetime K
s
= F
p
2
. The speeu of this wave piopagation is equal to c
which was pieviously calculateu fiom the inteiactive eneigy uensity of spacetime anu the
impeuance of spacetime.
Figuie 111 shows this annihilation event. At the centei of this figuie, a small volume of space
is labeleu as the location of the annihilation of the electionposition paii. This figuie shows the
iesults of this annihilation some time aftei the annihilation takes place. This is a cioss
sectional view of the waves in spacetime that aie the two entangleu photons. Symmetiically
aiounu the annihilation volume theie is now a spheiical shell of waves in spacetime with the
iauius incieasing at the speeu of light.
The waves in this shell have an angulai fiequency of 7.76 x 1u
2u
s
1
which is also the elections
Compton angulai fiequency. Since theie is no fiequency change between the electionposition
anu the photons emitteu, the annihilation event can be consiueieu meiely the uestabilization of
the vacuum eneigy cancelation waves that weie keeping the elections eneigy confineu. The
time iequiieu foi annihilation was 1.2S x 1u
1u
s so this amounts to about 1.S x 1u
1u
cycles
(wavelengths) foiming a shell of waves with a thickness of about S.8 cm. Figuie 111 shows
multiple concentiic ciicles to convey the iuea that the expanuing shell contains many
13
http://arxiv.org/PS_cache/hepph/pdf/0310/0310099v1.pdf
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119
wavelengths. Also the entangleu spheiical shell of waves has zeio net spin since this example
assumeu that the election anu position hau antipaiallel spin.
Entanglement: Suppose that the spheiical shell of two entangleu photons (piopagating in the
vacuum fluctuations of spacetime) expanus into what might be calleu empty space to a iauius
of one lightyeai. Really this space is filleu with a sea of vacuum eneigy anu the waves aie a
uistuibance in this vacuum eneigy. At this point, suppose that a small poition of the wave shell
encounteis an absoibing object that we will geneiically call an absoibing paiticle. Bowevei, it
coulu be an atom oi othei gioup of iotais. To make the absoiption inteiesting, we will
piesume that the absoibing mateiial has a stiong absoiption piefeience foi clockwise ciiculai
polaiization at the fiequency of the two entangleu photons. This absoibing mateiial is
illustiateu in figuie 111 as a point labeleu paiticle piioi to absoibing one of the two
entangleu photons. The absoibing paiticle (oi gioup of iotais) is capable of absoibing
quantizeu angulai momentum of . Bowevei, the spheiical shell of waves is two entangleu
photons that weie geneiateu when the election anu position (both spacetime uipoles) weie
annihilateu. The absoibing mateiial cannot inteiact with only a small peicentage of the
quantizeu wave. The quantizeu angulai momentum tiansfeiieu must be eithei oi nothing.
Now it gets inteiesting. Any inteiaction must be with a complete photon (quantizeu eneigy
anu angulai momentum). In this case, this means that the inteiaction is between the absoibing
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mateiial anu one of the two entangleu photons that togethei maue up the entiie spheiical
wavefiont, one lightyeai in iauius. The inteiaction cannot be with both photons because the
two photons have a total spin of zeio. Theie appeais to be a piohibition against eneigy
tiansfei without an accompanying spin tiansfei.
If theie is absoiption, then the pioposeu piopeity of unity causes one of the two entangleu
photons to collapse. All of the eneigy (S11,uuu ev), all the angulai momentum ( of clockwise
ciiculai polaiization) anu all the momentum (~ 2.7 x 1u
22
kg ms) of the single photon is
uepositeu into the absoibing mateiial. Even if the absoiption happens ovei a finite absoiption
time that is compaiable to a finite emission time (foi example, seveial nanoseconus), the entiie
quantizeu wave eneigy, uistiibuteu ovei one lightyeai iauius, must collapse in this shoit time.
The uetails of how photons aie pioposeu to collapse will be uiscusseu latei when we ueal with
the eventual absoiption of the seconu of the two entangleu photons. The collapse of the fiist of
the two entangleu photons iemoves fiom the spheiical shell all of the wave chaiacteiistics
necessaiy to make a ciiculaily polaiizeu photon with clockwise angulai momentum. This
incluues not only spin anu eneigy, but the collapse also impaits momentum of ~ 2.7 x 1u
22
kg
ms. with an accuiately uefineu momentum vectoi that will be uiscusseu latei.
What iemains in the spheiical shell of waves aie pioposeu to be all the chaiacteiistics iequiieu
to make a photon with the oithogonal polaiization (counteiclockwise spin) anu the opposite
momentum vectoi which is not quite piecisely uefineu. This implies that the seconu photon
can only impait the opposite momentum anu opposite ciiculai polaiization when it is
eventually absoibeu. The photon that was absoibeu must be the inveise of the photon that
iemains since the two entangleu photons oiiginally foimeu a unifoim amplituue shell of waves.
Theiefoie, to obtain a uesciiption of both photons we will examine the iemaining photon.
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1111
Single Photon Model: Figuie 112 shows the pioposeu mouel of the suiviving photon aftei
the othei entangleu photon pieviously uiscusseu was absoibeu anu collapseu into the
absoibing paiticle. In othei woius, figuie 112 shows a slightly latei time than figuie 111. In
figuie 112 the envelope of waves has expanueu past the paiticle that absoibeu the othei
entangleu photon. This paiticle is shown neai the bottom of the figuie. Compaie the placement
of this paiticle to the placement shown in figuie 111.
The majoi visible uiffeience between figuies 111 anu 112 is that the ciicle iepiesenting the
envelope of waves is now shown with uiffeient shauing ianging fiom black (highest amplituue)
at the top of the figuie thiough shaues of giay to white (lowest amplituue) at the bottom of the
figuie. The waves aie still piesent but the waves aie not shown in figuie 112 because the
emphasis in 112 is the amplituue of these waves.
The amplituue uistiibution foi the waves in the iemaining photon is pioposeu to be the same
as the amplituue uistiibution of the wavelets in the BuygensFiesnelKiichhoff piinciple.
Recall that the BuygensFiesnel piinciple accuiately mouels uiffiaction of an optical wave by
assuming that all points on an auvancing wavefiont become the souice of a new wave calleu a
wavelet. Coheiently auuing togethei these seconuaiy waves (incluuing phase) foims a new
wavefiont. This piinciple was peifecteu by uustav Kiichhoff when he auueu an amplituue
uistiibution to the waves that foimeu each new wavelet that pieventeu backwaius piopagation
towaius the souice anu impioveu the accuiacy. Pieviously the wavelets weie meiely
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1112
consiueieu to be limiteu to the foiwaiu hemispheie. This aibitiaiy limitation woikeu well foi
most applications, but Kiichhoffs auuition peifecteu the piinciple foi all cases. The amplituue
uistiibution foimulateu by Kiichhoff is calleu the obliquity factoi K(). It can be expiesseu
eithei in Caitesian oi spheiical cooiuinates. The spheiical cooiuinate iepiesentation is:
K() = cos
2
(2).
A single photon is pioposeu to have the same amplituue uistiibution as the wavelets iequiieu
foi the BuygensFiesnelKiichhoff piinciple. The shauing of the envelope of waves in figuie
112 has this uistiibution. Bowevei, figuie 11S is a giaphical iepiesentation of the amplituue
uistiibution of the suiviving photon. The absoibeu photon woulu have hau the inveise of this
amplituue uistiibution which is the same as inveiting figuie 11S. Auuing these two
uistiibutions togethei piouuces the unifoim uistiibution of the oiiginal entangleu paii of
photons (sin
2
(2) + cos
2
(2) = 1).
Photons Momentum: We now aie going to ietuin to figuie 112 to auuiess the question of
the momentum of a single photon. Recall that the thought expeiiment that geneiateu this
figuie piesumeu that the two entangleu photons expanueu in a vacuum to the iauius of one
light yeai when finally one of the two photons was absoibeu by the paiticle shown in figuie 11
2. These assumptions mean that the momentum vectoi foi the suiviving photon must be veiy
well uefineu. The oiiginal annihilation of the electionposition paii hau an unceitainty
volume that can be calculateu knowing the mass of the electionposition paii (~ 1.82 x 1u
Su
kg) anu the lifetime (~1.2S x 1u
1u
s) to give an emission unceitainty iauius x =t2m = 6 x
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1u
8
m. Also the paiticle that absoibeu the fiist photon coulu have been pait of a uetectoi that
coulu specify the location of the absoiption to a iauius much smallei than the 6 x 1u
8
m
unceitainty of the emission. Theiefoie the unceitainty in the emission uominates anu we can
ignoie the unceitainty in uefining the absoiption location.
Since these two unceitainty volumes aie sepaiateu by one light yeai (~ 1u
16
m), this means
that that the momentum vectoi unceitainty angle of the single photon in this example is about
6 x 1u
24
iauians (6 x 1u
8
m1u
16
m). The suiviving photon must have the opposite
momentum, so at the moment the fiist photon is absoibeu, we know a gieat ueal about the
alloweu volume wheie the seconu photon can possibly be absoibeu in the futuie. The ieason
foi this exeicise is that the mouel of a single photon must be capable of this momentum
accuiacy.
In figuie 112 the envelope of waves shoulu be pictuieu as being one light yeai in iauius. This
figuie also shows an angulai spieau uesignateu momentum unceitainty angle which foi this
example is about 6 x 1u
24
iauians. Bow is it possible foi this wave stiuctuie to possess this
naiiow a momentum unceitainty. }ust looking at the figuie, it seems as if the suiviving single
photon coulu be absoibeu by an absoibing paiticle locateu in almost any uiiection aiounu the
expanuing shell of waves (except peihaps the zeio amplituue uiiection). The iequiiement of a
well uefineu momentum helps us uefine the mouel anu helps to uefine the way that photons
collapse.
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Collapse of a Single Photon: Figuie 114 shows the eventual absoiption of the suiviving
photon. The absoibing bouy is uesignateu anu it must lie within the volume limiteu in wiuth by
the momentum unceitainty angle. Also the absoibing bouy must be locateu within the
thickness of the envelope of waves uuiing the absoiption. The collapse of the single photons
eneigy anu angulai momentum is uepicteu by the aiiows shown in figuie 114. These aiiows
inuicate that the collapse pioceeus along the ciicumfeiential ioute uefineu by the envelope of
waves.
This has a gieat ueal of appeal. The momentum tiansfeiieu to the absoibing bouy can only
have a iauial vectoi ielative to the emission unceitainty volume. It woulu be a violation of the
conseivation of momentum foi theie to be a tangential vectoi component that is laigei than
the unceitainty limit. This means that the only volume of the photons wave stiuctuie capable
of inteiacting with mattei is iestiicteu to the small volume bounueu by the momentum
unceitainty angle. This is the only volume wheie the collapse is sufficiently symmetiical to
pievent the tiansfei of substantial tiansveise momentum. Theie must be offsetting tiansveise
momentum components on eithei siue of the absoibing bouy so that the collapse is balanceu
anu iesults in the coiiect net momentum.
Next, we aie going to examine whethei the photon stiuctuie pioposeu heie is capable of
collapsing to a volume as small as woulu be iequiieu to satisfy the momentum unceitainty
angle which is about 6 x 1u
24
iauians. If the seconu photon was absoibeu shoitly aftei the time
of the fiist photon absoiption, then the shell of waves woulu be about the same size which was
postulateu to be 1 light yeai in iauius (~1u
16
m in iauius). The waves aie uistiibuteu ovei a
uiametei of about 2 light yeais (~ 2 x 1u
16
m) anu the wavelength piouuceu by the annihilation
of an electionposition paii is = 2.4 x 1u
12
m. If we meiely calculate the uiffiaction limit of
this combination of apeituie size anu wavelength we obtain a B unceitainty angle
(uiveigence angle) of 2.4 x 1u
28
iauians. Theiefoie this wave stiuctuie can easily satisfy the
iequiiement of collapsing to a volume equivalent to 6 x 1u
24
iauians unceitainty. In fact, this
photon mouel shoulu always collapse to an aiea about one wavelength in ciicumfeience.
Limits on Absorption: The poition of the single photon that lies outsiue the momentum
unceitainty volume cannot inteiact with mattei. A speculative answei says that these waves
can pass thiough mattei without being absoibeu oi affecteu. In the figuies 111 to 114 we
caiefully avoiueu the question of the waves encounteiing othei mattei by postulating
piopagation in an empty vacuum. Bowevei, the waves exteinal to the momentum unceitainty
angle may meiely pass thiough mattei without any inteiaction. Recall that mattei is maue of
iotais that aie just empty spacetime that is veiy slightly stiaineu. (ioughly 1 pait in 1u
2u
foi an
up quaik). If a uistuibance in vacuum eneigy is incapable of tiansfeiiing angulai momentum
because it is outsiue of the momentum unceitainty volume, then this poition of a photon
shoulu be moie ineit than a neutiino anu shoulu easily pass thiough mattei.
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Unity Connection: The ciicumfeiential collapse shown in figuie 114 is the pioposeu piopeity
of unity at woik. This pioposeu piopeity peimits fastei than the speeu of light communication
anu collapse within a single quantizeu wave in spacetime. In chaptei 14 a speculative
mechanism will be pioposeu foi fastei than the speeu of light communication within a single
quantizeu wave. Bowevei, supeiluminal communication is an expeiimentally establisheu
piopeity of entanglement anu it is quite ieasonable that a single photon woulu also possess
this same capability even if an explanation is not cuiiently available. The supeiluminal collapse
of a photon shown in figuie 114 is symmetiically balanceu anu uoes not involve the tiansfei of
any infoimation oi exteinal momentum. The momentum that is tiansfeiieu is entiiely within
the single photon. While the collapse is fastei than the speeu of light, it is not instantaneous. It
piobably iequiies a time of at least 2 which is a minimum of one cycle of the photon.
It is also cleai that theie is no mysteiy how the photon mouel can caiiy angulai momentum.
The shell of waves must be pictuieu as a S uimension spheiical shell. The waves that make up
a ciiculaily polaiizeu photon woulu have a phase piogiession that ciiculates the spheiical shell
at a fiequency equal to the photons fiequency. The spatial uistiibution of this shell of waves
makes it easy to see how it is possible foi this photon mouel to caiiy angulai momentum anu
tiansfei the angulai momentum when the wave stiuctuie collapses. It is not cleai how the
conventional mouel of a photon tiansfeis angulai momentum.
Photon Emission from a Single Atom: In the thought expeiiment involving the annihilation of
an electionposition paii theie was no iemaining mattei to iemove momentum anu
complicate the analysis. We will next auuiess the emission of a photon by a single atom. If a
pioton anu an election combineu to foim a hyuiogen atom, the eneigy of the photon emitteu
woulu be about 1S.6 ev. The emission of this eneigy woulu cause the hyuiogen atom to iecoil
with a velocity of about 4 ms. Bypothetically, it is possible to ueteimine the uiiection of the
photons momentum by monitoiing the motion of the election anu pioton piioi to foiming the
hyuiogen atom anu by monitoiing the iecoil of the hyuiogen atom aftei the emission of the
photon. Theie is unceitainty in making these measuiements, but the accuiacy in ueteimining
the uiiection of the photons momentum incieases with time. The photon has the opposite
momentum of the iecoiling hyuiogen atom. The fuithei the iecoiling hyuiogen atom tiavels
befoie its position is uetecteu, the moie accuiate that the momentum vectoi of the iecoiling
hyuiogen atom can be ueteimineu.
The photon is caiiying the opposite momentum vectoi as the iecoiling hyuiogen atom to
within the limits of the unceitainty piinciple. I claim that not only uoes oui ability to measuie
the momentum vectoi of the iecoiling hyuiogen atom impiove with time, but theie is
continueu inteiaction between the exteinal volume of the iecoiling hyuiogen atom anu the
photon even aftei the photon has been emitteu. This inteiaction ieuuces the momentum
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1116
unceitainty angle of the expanuing photon ovei time to coinciue with the impioveu ability to
measuie the iecoil momentum vectoi of the hyuiogen atom.
Recall that a hypothetical iotai foimeu shoitly aftei the Big Bang anu unuistuibeu since then,
woulu have an exteinal volume that extenus viitually to the paiticle hoiizon of the univeise.
The waves in the exteinal volume have the Compton fiequency of the iotai, so when theie is a
loss of eneigy, an aujustment in the fiequency of the waves in the exteinal volume must be
maue. The news that a hyuiogen atom was foimeu with less total eneigy than the
component paits piogiesses into the exteinal volume of the election anu quaiks at the speeu of
light. This news exactly coiiesponueu to the expanuing shell of waves that foims the emitteu
photon. As uiscusseu below, the waves in the iotais exteinal volume continue to make a veiy
small but impoitant contiibution to the photon as the photon expanus at the speeu of light into
the exteinal volume. The unceitainty in the momentum of the photon uecieases with time
(uistance) the same as the unceitainty in the iecoil momentum of the atom uecieases with
time.
Compton Scattering Revisited: A hyuiogen atom maue of 4 iotais (1 election anu S quaiks)
is too complicateu to analyze the inteiaction between the expanuing photon anu the exteinal
volume of the iotais that foim the hyuiogen atom. Theiefoie we will switch back to Compton
scatteiing between a single election anu a single photon. This inteiaction was pieviously
examineu using the seiies of figuies fiom 1u12 to 1u1S. Figuie 1u1S is the supei position of
4 waves. The waves at the top of this figuie iepiesent the photons waves befoie anu aftei the
scatteiing. The waves at the bottom of the figuie iepiesent the elections waves befoie anu
aftei the scatteiing. The miuule poition of the figuie shows both paiis of waves inteiacting.
Because of the stanuing waves in the elections exteinal volume this inteiaction continues to
occui long aftei we think that the scatteiing event has happeneu. Pictuie the election (iotai)
as having uiminishing stanuing waves in its exteinal volume that extenu a long way fiom the
location of the scatteiing. The news that the iotai has unueigone acceleiation piopagates
into these suiiounuing stanuing waves at the speeu of light. Theie is a spheiical shell that is
expanuing at the speeu of light wheie the oveilap of the befoie inteiaction anu aftei inteiaction
waves oveilap. Within this expanuing shell oveilapping waves, the fiinge pattein shown at the
top of figuie 1u1S still exists, but at gieatly ieuuceu amplituue. This is supeiimposeu on the
photons waves which aie also spieauing away fiom the scatteiing site at the speeu of light.
The inteiaction between these oveilapping waves continues to make successively finei
aujustments to the photons momentum. This explains how the unceitainty of the photons
momentum can impiove ovei time, just like we ieasoneu by looking at the iecoil of a hyuiogen
atom.
In all of this, the election uoes not unueigo a giauual acceleiation as might be expecteu foi a
classical paiticle that is changing its momentum. Insteau, the wave mouel of the scatteieu iotai
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changes fiom the wave pattein of the iotai befoie the scatteiing to the wave pattein of the
iotai aftei the scatteiing without unueigoing the inteimeuiate velocities. Similaily, a hyuiogen
atom woulu not giauually acceleiate to 4 ms as it emits a 1S.6 ev photon. The befoie wave
pattein faues as the aftei wave pattein comes into existence.
Fiom the unceitainty piinciple we know that a ueciease in the momentum unceitainty (p)
must be accompanieu by an inciease in the position unceitainty x. When we think of a point
paiticle photon, then the physical inteipietation of x is uiffeient than when we think of a
single photon as a shell of waves with a laige iauius. To accommouate this impiovement in oui
knowleuge of the photons momentum (uecieaseu p), it is necessaiy foi the iauius of the
photon to inciease with time (incieaseu x). This iequiiement fits peifectly with the pioposeu
photon mouel because the iauius of the photons shell of waves incieases with time.
Recoil from Coherent Emission: In the above examples, it was iepeateuly emphasizeu that
they uesciibeu the piopeities of a single photon. The chaiacteiistics of photons change
uiamatically when they congiegate into coheient beams. We aie going to ease into a
uiscussion of a beam of light maue of many photons with the following pieliminaiy thought
expeiiment.
Suppose that we have a iotating electiically chaigeu uipole. This imagineu electiically chaigeu
uipole is maue of a positive chaige anu a negative chaige physically sepaiateu by a shoit iou.
Foi example, imagine an election anu a position sepaiateu by a iou 1 mm long anu iotating
about a peipenuiculai axis at the centei of the iou at a fiequency of 1u
1u
Bz. Even though it
woulu be viitually impossible to have this electiical uipole mechanically iotate at this
fiequency, in the thought expeiiment theie is no such limitation. We woulu expect to see the
emission of miciowave electiomagnetic iauiation (1u
1u
Bz) in a classical iotating uipole
emission pattein fiom this iotating uipole. This pattein has emission in all uiiections, but the
intensity of emission is twice as stiong along the iotation axis as the intensity in the equatoiial
plane. Bowevei, neai the equatoiial plane theie aie moie steiiauians foi emission so all
emission uiiections aie impoitant. The symmetiical iauiation pattein aiounu the axis of a
mechanically iotating uipole is ieally the iesult of the emission of many incoheient photons.
This symmetiical emission pattein uoes not piouuce iecoil in any paiticulai uiiection.
Now suppose that we have a tiillion such iotating uipoles uistiibuteu ovei a spheiical volume
with iauius about 1uuu times laigei than the miciowave emission wavelength. The uipoles aie
theiefoie uistiibuteu in a way that inuiviuual uipoles aie sepaiateu fiom theii neaiest
neighboi by much less than one wavelength but the gioup is much laigei than a wavelength. If
the iotating uipoles aie all iotating incoheiently, they emit incoheient iauiation in all
uiiections. Since the emission is symmetiically balanceu, theie is no net iecoil uiiection felt by
inuiviuual iotating uipoles.
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Bowevei, if all uipoles aie iotating coheiently (same fiequency, paiallel iotation axis anu
contiollable phase) the iauiation fiom the gioup of iotating uipoles can be contiolleu. Foi
example, the miciowave iauiation can be maue into a uiffiaction limiteu beam that can be
steeieu in any uiiection. This uiiectional contiol uepenus entiiely on the ability to aujust the
phase of inuiviuual uipoles in the gioup so that the multiple emissions auu constiuctively in the
uesiieu emission uiiection.
Now lets think about the iecoil felt by each mechanically iotating uipole fiom the emission of
iauiation. If only one uipole is mechanically iotating, the emission of multiple photons
(photons) is symmetiical anu no specific iecoil uiiection is felt by the single iotating uipole.
Bowevei, when the multiple iotating uipoles aie piopeily phaseu to constiuctively inteifeie in
a paiticulai uiiection, then each iotating uipole must feel a foice in the opposite uiiection as
the emitteu beam. We woulu say that this foice is the momentum iecoil iequiieu foi
conseivation of momentum. Bowevei, each iotating uipole is just inteiacting with the local EN
fielu geneiateu by the coheient auuition of spheiical waves geneiateu by othei iotating
uipoles. The collimation anu uiiectionality of the emitteu beam is achieveu by the gioup
inteiaction. The point is that the emission uiiection anu the iecoil uiiection aie the iesult of
the coheient auuition of piopeily phaseu iotating uipoles.
HuygensFresnelKirchhoff Principle: At this point the analysis conveits to a classic example
of the BuygensFiesnelKiichhoff piinciple. With this piinciple, each point on a wavefiont
becomes the souice of a new wavelet that emits into the amplituue uistiibution foimulateu by
Kiichhoff: cos
2
(2). This is exactly the same emission pattein as a photon with its momentum
vectoi aligneu with the beam vectoi. Theiefoie each cycle of the coheient photon emission is
iuentical to the wavelet that woulu be foimeu at the location of the emitting iotating uipole.
The BuygensFiesnelKiichhoff piinciple uesciibes amplituue auuition anu how intensity is
piopoitional to the squaie of amplituue. Theiefoie, the inuiviuual photon joins the beam as if
it was meiely a seiies of new wavelets. The only uiffeience is that in the BuygensFiesnel
Kiichhoff piinciple the total eneigy of the beam iemains constant while the emission of a
coheient photon incieases the total amplituue anu eneigy of the beam.
It is a shoit step fiom mechanically iotating uipoles to many atoms in an exciteu state in a lasei
gain meuium. The piopagation of a lasei beam is well uesciibeu by the BuygensFiesnel
Kiichhoff piinciple. Each point on the lasei beam becomes a new wavelet anu the beam
evolves by coheient auuition of successive geneiations of wavelets. When a lasei beam passes
thiough a lasei gain meuium, it inteiacts with atoms in an exciteu state. The inteiaction not
only stimulates the emission of photons with the piopei fiequency anu phase, the inteiaction
also impaits the coiiect iecoil to the atoms so that the photons aie emitteu with the coiiect
momentum vectoi. The auuition of new photons to the lasei beam then coiiesponus to the
wavelet auuition of the BuygensFiesnelKiichhoff piinciple.
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All othei cases of photon emission into volumes wheie the iauiation is moie chaotic than a
lasei beam aie still well uesciibeu by the BuygensFiesnelKiichhoff piinciple. Also it is
ieassuiing that this mouel has the waves exploie all possible paths, just like the moueling of
QEB.
Beam of Light: Bow can this mouel of a photon be ieconcileu with the concept of a well
behaveu beam of light that can be easily ieflecteu off miiiois anu biought to a focus. A beam
of lasei light uoes not seem to have any of the piopeities of a spheiical shell of waves just
uesciibeu. To answei this, it is necessaiy to fiist iemembei that even a single photon has only
a naiiow momentum unceitainty angle set by the iecoil felt by the emitting atom. Seconu, a
beam of light contains many photons. Foi example, a 1 mw BeNe lasei beam contains about S x
1u
1S
photons pei seconu. Nultiple photons, such as a lasei beam, togethei achieve the familiai
beam of light. Even though each inuiviuual photon is piopagating into a spheiical shell of
waves (with a specific momentum unceitainty angle), the othei photons in the beam aie
auuing constiuctively in the beam volume anu uestiuctively eveiywheie else. The final
intensity is amplituue squaieu, so combining this with the momentum unceitainty angle of
each photon, it is easy to piouuce a well behaveu beam when many photons aie piesent. The
uiffiaction piopeities aie well chaiacteiizeu by the BuygensFiesnelKiichhoff piinciple anu
the photons exploie eveiy possible path between two points as iequiieu by the path integial.
The mechanism of ieflection of a photon off a miiioi neeus to be uevelopeu fuithei.
Appaiently many elections (iotais) on the suiface of the miiioi aie able to iesponu
simultaneously to a photon. If theie is absoiption, then the quantizeu angulai momentum of
the photon is tiansfeiieu to a single atom. Bowevei, metallic ieflection appeais to involve
multiple elections iesponuing in a way that these suiface elections become the souice of new
spacetime waves. This is a subject that neeus fuithei woik.
In chaptei 9 an expeiiment was pioposeu that involveu a iauio wave in a maximum
confinement cavity. This cavity has suifaces that aie metallic ieflectois. The elections in these
suifaces aie not just ieflecting the photons, they can be thought of as simultaneously absoibing
photons fiom the cavity anu cieating new photons that aie emitteu into the cavity. Theiefoie
this expeiiment avoius questions about whethei the photons amplituue (uistoition of
spacetime) is uistiibuteu ovei a much laigei volume of space. It might be aigueu that some of
the uistoition extenus V outsiue the cavity, but the continuous absoiption anu emission
avoius the pioblem of the uistiibution extenuing fai fiom the cavity.
Why Is there No Amplitude Dependence In a Photons Energy? 0ne of the mysteiies of
quantum mechanics is containeu in the photons eneigy equation E = . Why uoes this
equation only contain the fiequency teim . Fiom classical physics it seems as if the eneigy in
a wave shoulu also contain an amplituue teim. To answei this question, two impoitant
consiueiations must be taken into account. Fiist is the concept that this is a packet of eneigy
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with quantizeu angulai momentum. Theiefoie when it is emitteu oi absoibeu, theie is the
tiansfei of a specific amount of angulai momentum. Recall that this enfoicement of quantizeu
angulai momentum occuis because the sea of uipole waves that is the vacuum fluctuations of
spacetime has supeifluiu piopeities. Any angulai momentum intiouuceu into the sea is
quaiantineu into quantizeu angulai momentum packets. As the waves spieau out, they still aie
a quantizeu unit anu subject to the pieviously uiscusseu piopeity of unity. It is possible to
analyze the wave anu eneigy piopeities assuming a maximum confinement volume of
S
. It is
also possible to assume that the total eneigy will iemain constant as the quantizeu wave fills a
volume laigei than
S
.
Seconu, the maximum uisplacement of spacetime alloweu foi a uipole wave in spacetime is
subject to the pieviously uiscusseu Planck lengthtime limitation. While a photon is not
technically a uipole wave in spacetime, it is piouuceu anu absoibeu by uipole waves in
spacetime. A single photon inheiits this Planck lengthtime limitation. As pieviously shown,
multiple photons can exceeu this limit. The stiain amplituue of a single photon in maximum
confinement is B = L
p
. The impoitant point heie is that all photons have the same
uisplacement of spacetime (L = L
p
) in maximum confinement volume of
S
. Theiefoie, since
this uisplacement amplituue is the same foi all photons unuei these conuitions, it is possible to
see how the amplituue teim might not be necessaiy to specify the eneigy of a single photon.
To actually show this cancelation of the amplituue teim we will use the following wave
amplituue equation anu substitutions:
E = B
2
2
Zvc set: B = L
p
, = c, Z = Z
s
= c
S
u anu v =
S
E = [
u
c
3
x
2
2
[
c
3
u
[
x
3
c
=
Theiefoie, the combination of quantizeu angulai momentumeneigy anu the stanuaiuizeu
uisplacement L = L
p
iesults in the amplituue teim not appeaiing in the equation E = .
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Chapter12
BoundElectrons,Quarks,andNeutrinos
Bound Rotars: One of the early quantum mechanical lessons for students is the so called
particle in a box. In this exercise, students calculate what would happen if a particle was
placedinasmallcavitysurroundedbyimpenetrablewallsaninfiniteenergywell.Thereare
no such cavities, but if there were the particles quantum mechanical properties would be
exhibited.Theparticlecanonlypossessafewspecificpositiveenergiescorrespondingtoafew
specific kinetic energies. Furthermore, the particle can never be stationary within the cavity
never have zero kinetic energy. In this example, the particle confined to a box an infinite
energywellpossessesmoreenergythananisolatedparticlethatisnotconfined.
Thisisaperfectexampletosupportthequantizedwavemodelofparticles,butthereasonfor
bringing up the particle in a box exercise now is to make a point about bound particles. This
exercisecreatestheerroneousimpressionthatboundparticlesinnaturecanpossessapositive
binding energy. The particle in a box exercise describes what would happen if a particle is
surrounded by walls that are always repelling the particle. In nature, particles are bound by
attraction,notconfinedbyrepellingwalls.Electronsinanatomareboundbyattractiontothe
nucleus.Attractionalsobindsquarksinahadronorgravitationalattractionbindsaplanettoa
star.
We will now switch from the conventional perspective of particles to the rotar model. The
followingstatementcanbemade:
Rotars bound by attraction always possess less energy than the same rotar when it is
isolated. Attraction binding energy can be thought of as negative energy.
We will start with a gravitational example. In chapter #3 we determined that a particle has
more internal energy in zero gravity than when the particle is in gravity. E
o
E
g
.
Gravitationalpotentialenergyisanegativevaluethatisreferencedtozeroatinfinitedistance.
SupposeanobserverusingazerogravityclockmonitorstheComptonfrequencyoftherotaras
the rotar is restrained and slowly lowered towards a large mass. Gravitational energy is
removed by the restraining mechanism as the rotar is slowly lowered into stronger gravity.
TheComptonfrequency
c
oftheloweredrotar,measuredbyazerogravityclock,decreasesas
gravity increases and more energy is removed. This decrease in frequency is not noticeable
locally because of the gravitational dilation of time. Locally, a slow clock is used to monitor a
slow Compton frequency. The point is that gravitational bonding energy is negative energy.
The Compton frequency of a gravitationally bound rotar is lower than the same rotar not
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122
gravitationally bound when both frequencies are measured using a clock running at zero
gravityrateoftime.
For another example, an electron and a proton release a 13.6 eV photon when they become
electromagnetically bound together to form a hydrogen atom with the electron in the lowest
energy level. This released energy represents the negative binding energy of the hydrogen
atom. It is possible to go one step deeper in understanding this negative binding energy. An
isolatedelectronhasaComptonfrequencyofabout1.24x10
20
HzandthesumoftheCompton
frequencies of the three quarks that form a proton is about2.27 x 10
23
Hz. When an electron
and a proton are bound together to form a hydrogen atom, the sum of all the Compton
frequencies is about 3.3 x 10
15
Hz less than the when the electron and proton were isolated.
This difference of 3.3 x 10
15
Hz is the frequency of the 13.6 eV photon released when the
hydrogen atom formed. Therefore it is possible to see the difference in energy when an
electronandprotonareboundtoformahydrogenatom.Tobeperfect,thisexampleneedsto
also account for the small amount of kinetic energy carried away by the hydrogen atom as it
recoilsfromemittingthephoton.
A more extreme example is the bonding of an electron to a uranium nucleus which has been
stripped of all electrons. This bonding is so strong that the bonding energy is equivalent to
aboutthemass/energyofanelectron.Theenergylostwhenthisbondingfirsttakesplaceis
removed by the emission of a gamma ray photon. Isolated particles are more energetic than
bound particles. This concept will later be applied to bound quarks with some surprising
implications.
The standard model considers the electromagnetic force to be transferred between point
particlesbytheexchangeofvirtualphotons.Thisraisesinterestingquestions.Wheredoesthe
lossofenergyoccurwhenanelectronisboundtoaproton?Itisnotsufficienttosaythatthere
is a reduction in the electric field. The virtual photons ARE the electric field. Do the virtual
photons that supposedly bond oppositely charged particles possess negativeenergy? What is
the wavelength of a virtual photon? These questions are introduced to raise some doubts
aboutvirtualphotonsandthegenerallyacceptedexplanations.
Therotarmodelproposedherehasnotroubleansweringthesequestions.Therearenovirtual
photonmessengerparticles.Therearefluctuationsofspacetimethatcanbeconsideredvirtual
photon pairs, but these are not the messenger particles that are supposedly exchanged by
chargedparticles.Allrotarspossessanexternalvolumeofwavespreviouslydiscussed.The
externalvolumesofinteractingrotarsoverlap.Twooppositelychargedrotarsinteractinaway
that decreases the rotational frequency of each rotar reduced
c
. The location of the lost
energyiseasytoidentify.Alsotheoverlappingexternalvolumesaffectthepressureexertedon
oppositesidesofarotarbyvacuumenergy.Thispressuredifferencecausesamigrationofthe
rotational path of each rotar towards the oppositely charged rotar with each rotation. We
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123
consider this migration to be electromagnetic attraction. When an electron and proton are in
freefallfromawideseparation,theirinitialattractionisexhibitedbythekineticenergyofthe
motion towards each other. In this phase, there is no energy lost and no reduction in
frequency.ThedecreaseinComptonfrequencyduetoweakbondingisoffsetbythefrequency
increase associatedwith the rotars kinetic energy. Only when this kinetic energy is removed
bythereleaseofaphotonisthenegativeenergybondmade.
Electrons Bound in Atoms: In the Bohr model of a hydrogen atom, the electrons 1s orbital
the lowest energy level is described as having a radius of a
o
c/E
e
5.3x10
11
m. Also
theorbitalangularmomentumoftheelectrons1sorbitalisaccordingtotheBohrmodel.The
combinationofthisradiussizeandthisangularmomentumcorrespondstotheelectronhaving
velocityofvcabout137timesslowerthanthespeedoflight.ThedeBrogliewavelength
foranelectronatthisvelocityis
d
2a
o
.ThismeansthatthedeBrogliewavelengthequals
the circumference of this Bohr orbit. This is an appealing picture, but according to quantum
mechanics,noneoftheseBohratomconclusionsarecorrect.
Figure121
1
showsthegraphandthe3dimensionalplotrepresentingthefunctionofthe1s
orbital of an electron in a hydrogen atom. Squaring this function gives the probability of
finding the electron. In each case, the peak corresponds to the location of the proton in the
hydrogen atom. The closer we probe to the proton, the higher the probability of locating the
electron.Thisplot,obtainedfromtheSchrodingerequation,looksnothinglikewhatmightbe
1
Mark J . Winter http://winter.group.shef.ac.uk/orbitron/
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124
expected from the Bohr model. There is no orbit with radius a
o
. There is no de Broglie
wavelength correspondence and the 1s orbit has no orbital angular momentum. The only
angularmomentumofthisorbitalistheangularmomentumoftheelectron.
Figure122issimilartofigure121exceptfigure122showsthefunctionandprobabilityof
findinganelectronthatisinthe2porbitalofahydrogenatom.Tounderstandthesefiguresin
termsofthespacetimewavemodelofrotars,itisnecessarytoexaminethefunction.
The particle in a box thought experiment is an idealized thought experiment sincethere are
no cavities surrounded by impenetrable walls an infinite energy well. Assuming such a
cavity, the quantum mechanical properties of a particle rotar trapped inside would be
revealed.
Figure123showstheconventionaldepictionofonepossible functionofaparticletrapped
inasmallboxwithimpenetrablewalls.Differentresonantmodesarepossible,soathreelobe
resonanceischosenforeaseofillustration.Notethatthefunctionrepresentedinfigure123
has both positive and negative values above and below the zero line. Quantum mechanics
does not give a physical meaning to the function. Only the square of the function can be
physicallyinterpretedastheprobabilityoffindingaparticle.Therotarmodelgoesagainstthis
conventionandgivesaphysicalmeaningtothefunction.
The function of a bound rotar is the wave envelope of the waves in spacetime that form the
rotar.
Figure 124 shows the spacetime wave interpretation of the function of a particle in a box.
Wewillreinterprettheparticleinaboxtoarotartrappedbetweentwohypotheticalbarriers
that are 100% reflectors for waves in spacetime. The box is essentially a repulsive type of
confinement. Placing a rotar in a repulsive confinement requires that energy be added to the
rotar in excess of the energy that a rotar would have if it was isolated. This added energy
shows up in the rotar having two frequencies that together average more than the Compton
frequencyofanisolatedrotar.
Placing a rotar in such a cavity changes the rotars boundary conditions compared to an
isolatedrotar.Inorderfortherotartomeettheconditionofzeroamplitudeateachofthetwo
100% reflectors, the rotar must possess two frequencies that are both propagating to the left
and right in figure 124. These two frequencies traveling both directions produce the
stationary standing wave pattern shown in this figure. This pattern looks similar to the de
Brogliewavespreviouslyshown. However,deBrogliewaveshavethewaveenvelopemoving
fasterthanthespeedoflightwhilethewaveenvelopeshowninfigure124isstationaryinthe
sensethatitsnodesandantinodesdonotmove.
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127
Next,wewillreturnbacktothehydrogenatomthathasitselectroninthe1sorbitaldepictedin
figure121.Theelectronandprotonareboundtogetherbyattraction.Theelectronlost13.6
eV energy when it went from being an isolated electron to being an electron bound in the 1s
orbital of a hydrogen atom. The quarks that form the proton also lost a small amount of
energy, but this is negligible and will be ignored. New frequencies were introduced to the
electron in this binding process so that the average frequency of the electron is less than the
Compton frequency ofan isolatedelectron. All the orbitals of an electron in ahydrogenatom
haveawavestructurethatinvolvestwoormorefrequencieswithfractionalamountsofenergy
compared to E . The total of the energy is equal to the electrons energy in isolation
minus the energy lost to form the hydrogen atom in the designated orbital. Orbital angular
momentum also has a wave explanation that involves waves of slightly different frequencies
propagating in opposite rotational directions around the proton. This is analogous to the
waveshavingarotatingframeofreference.
WhiletheBohratommodelhasbeenreplacedbythequantummechanicalmodel,thepointis
thatthesuperpositionofcounterpropagatingwavesinspacetimetravelingatthespeedoflight
canachievethedesiredorbitalangularmomentum.Itisproposedthatitisgoingtobepossible
to combine the spacetime wave model with the quantum mechanical atomic model to give a
conceptually understandable model of an atom. The mechanism that eliminates energy loss
from an atom is unknown, but presumably it is similar to the mechanism proposed for
stabilizingisolatedrotars.
Thisexplanationleavesalotofquestionsunanswered.Perhapsthemostobvious:Istherestill
a rotating dipole quantum volumeburied somewhere within the bound electrons lobes? The
electron retains its angular momentum inaddition toorbital angular momentum present
in most atomic orbitals. Further insights clearly will involve the marriage of quantum
mechanicsandimprovedversionsofthespacetimewavetheoryofrotars.Thedifferenceinthe
spectrumofhydrogenanddeuteriumisduetothedifferenceintheamountofnutationthetwo
differentmassnucleiexperience.Thisseemstoindicatethattheelectronretainsasubstantial
amountofconcentratedinertiawithintheelectroncloudthatiscausingthenucleustonutate.
HadronsandQuarks
Background: The standard model of particles depicts hadrons as being made of low energy
quarks. Currently, an up quark is thought to have energy in the range between 1.5 and 3.3
MeV. A down quarks energy is currently thought to be in the range of 3.5 to 6 MeV. Since a
protonhasenergyofabout938MeV,thismeansthatthestandardmodelhasonlyabout1%of
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128
aprotonsmass/energyisprovidedbytherestmassofthequarks.Thecurrentthinkingisthat
about99%ofaprotonsenergyisfromtheenergyofgluonsthatbindthequarkstogetherand
fromthekineticenergyofthequarks.
The spacetime wave model of a hadron is more complex than either an isolated rotar or an
electron bound in a hydrogen atom. A proton, for example, has three fundamental rotars
quarksthataredipolewavesinspacetimepossessingquantizedangularmomentum.These
three quarks are strongly interacting both with each other and also interacting with the
surrounding sea of vacuum fluctuations dipolewaves that lackangular momentum. We are
inthepositionoftryingtointerpretexperimentalobservationsandseeingiftheyareplausibly
compatible with the proposed wave theory of matter dipole waves in spacetime traveling at
thespeedoflightinaconfinedvolume.Somecharacteristicsofgluonswillalsobeexamined.
Wewillstartbyexaminingbindingenergyingeneral,thenattempttoapplythisideatoquarks
bound into hadrons. Since the standard model says that a proton is approximately 100 times
more energetic than its component quarks, this implies that the binding energy provided by
gluons is a large positive energy. Also, according to thestandard model, the quarkswould be
masslesswithouttheexistenceofaHiggsfield.Itisinterestingtothinkaboutthehypothetical
roleoftheHiggsfieldinthestructureofaprotonandtheimpliedenergydensityoftheHiggs
field.
Intrinsic Energy of Quarks: The low intrinsic energies of up and down quarks between
1.5and6MeVinthestandardmodelisincompatiblewiththewavetheoryofmatterproposed
here.Forexample,arotatingspacetimedipolewithenergyof2.4MeVwouldhaveaquantum
radiusofR
q
8x10
14
m.Thissinglequarkisabout100timeslargerthantheexperimentally
measured radius of a proton. Even if there is a relativistic length contraction, the transverse
dimensions remain unchanged. Clearly the idea of low energy up and down quarks is
incompatiblewiththewavemodelpresentedhere.
The proposed alternative explained below is that up and down quarks are intrinsically high
energy rotating dipoles that are strongly bound together when they form hadrons. There are
no isolated first or second generation quarks because they simply do not attain stability as
isolatedrotars.Thetopquarkwillbediscussedlater.Attemptingtoremovequarksfroma
hadronagainstthestrongforceincreasesthequarksenergyComptonfrequencyuntilanew
meson is formed. When new mesons are formed, the binding force between former
components of the split hadron decreases to near zero. Single first or second generation
quarksareneverproduced.
However, to illustrate the concepts, we will imagine what it would be like if isolated quarks
wereallowed.Itisproposedherejustifiedlaterthatifisolatedupanddownquarksexisted,
theywouldberotatingdipoleswithenergysubstantiallygreaterthan400MeV.Ifupanddown
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129
quarks existed as isolated rotars, then they would shed energy when they bond to form a
protonorneutron.Hadronscomeintoexistencealreadyformedsincethisisthelowestenergy
stateandtheonlyformthathasstability.However,itisinformativetoimaginethestepsthat
wouldoccurifahadronwasformedfromisolatedquarks.
Energy Well: When two or more rotars are bound together by attraction, this is always an
energy well. Energy is lost when the bound state is formed by attraction compared to the
hypothetical unbound state. For example, a photon is emitted when a proton captures an
electrontoformahydrogenatom.Thisislostenergycomparedtotheunboundstate.Another
example is gravitational bonding. When distributed mass comes together to form a planet or
star,thegravitationalenergymustbeconvertedtoheatandradiatedaway.Thislostenergyis
thenegativegravitationalbindingenergy.
What change takes place when a rotar, such as an electron, goes from an isolated state to a
boundstate?
1 Itlosesenergythroughsomeformofenergyemission.
2 ThislowerstherotarsComptonangularfrequency
c
.
3 ThestrainamplitudeH
oftherotardecreases.
4 ThequantumradiusR
q
increases.
5 Theboundaryconditionsarechangedcomparedtoanisolatedrotar.Thischangesthe
energydistributionfromtheisolatedrotarmodel.Apparentlyanelectronboundinan
atombecomesalargercloudlikeenergydistribution.
Itistheusualconventioninphysicstoconsiderbindingenergyaspositiveenergy.However,it
should be remembered that this is just a convention. In nature, virtually all bonding is
accomplishedbyforceswhichareattracting.Thismeansthattheboundstatehaslessenergy
thanthehypotheticalunboundstate.
The spacetime wave model of a hadron depicts the bound quarks rotars as being in a very
deep energy well. This means that quarks bound together in a hadron have much less
mass/energy than the same quarks would have if they could exist as isolated rotars. This
concept represents a strong conflict with the standard model. As previously stated, the three
quarks that form a proton supposedly account for only about 1% of a protons mass/energy.
The standard model requires that about 99% of a protons mass/energy comes from the
bindingenergyofthegluonsandkineticenergyofthequarks.Forthismodeltobecorrect,the
gluonbondingwouldneedtosomehowaddenergyratherthanremoveenergy.Gluonbonding
does not create an energy well compared to the sum of the mass/energy of the component
parts.Insteadtheboundstatehasupto100timesmoreenergythanthecomponentquarks.
Thespacetimewavemodelofaprotonalsomustcontendwithenergytravelingatthespeedof
light in a confined volume. This confined energy does indeed generate the high pressure just
like the confined light example. An energy density of 3 x 10
35
J/m
3
of dipole waves in
spacetimewouldgenerateabout10
35
kg/m
2
pressure.Thespacetimewavemodelcounteracts
thispressurebyproposingthatthefewfrequenciesandconfigurationsthatarestableachieve
stabilitybyinteractingwiththepressureofthevacuumfluctuationswavesinspacetimethat
fill the universe. In the chapters on cosmology 13 & 14 the energy density and pressure of
vacuumenergywillbeestimated.Itwillbeshownthatvacuumenergyhasmuchmoreenergy
density pressure than the minimum required to stabilize the rotar model of all known
fundamentalparticles.
Binding Energy of Nucleons: While it is very difficult to make energy and force
measurementsinsideaprotonorneutron,wecanobtainahintofwhatisgoingonbylooking
atthebindingthatoccursbetweennucleons.Accordingtothestandardmodel,gluonsarealso
responsibleforthebindingofnucleons,theresidualstrongforce.Dothegluonsincreaseor
decrease the total energy when we go from unbound nucleons to bound nucleons? Does a
heliumatom
4
Hehavemoreorlessmass/energythan2deuteriumatoms?
The answer is obvious. The binding energy of nucleons is a negative form of energy energy
reduction compared to the sum of the unbound components. There is a decrease in
mass/energywhennucleonsareboundtogetherfromhydrogenatoms.Atfirstitmightappear
that
235
U and other heavy atoms are an exception to this rule, but this is incorrect. The
strongestboundatomicnucleolusis
56
Fewithabindingenergyof8.79MeVpernucleon.
235
U
hasabindingenergyof7.79MeVpernucleonandthisiscomparabletothebindingenergyper
nucleon of carbon or nitrogen. Breaking
235
U apart releases energy because the two lighter
nuclei formed have a greater binding energy per nucleon than
235
U. A greater binding energy
meansthatexcessenergymustbereleaseduponformation.Thepointisthateven
235
Uhasless
mass/energy than the energy of the protons, neutrons and electrons that form the uranium
atom. Binding energy between nucleons is negative energy. Similarly, quarks bound into
hadrons must have less energy than the total energy of the hypothetical isolated quarks. We
nevergettodothisexperimentbecauseisolatedquarksaresoenergeticthattheydonotexist
inisolation.
ofthetotal.
Therearetwootherfamiliesofhadronsthatconsistofonlyupanddownquarks.Thesearethe
pimesonspionsandthedeltabaryons.ThedeltabaryonshavespinofJ
3
/
2
ratherthanthe
spinofforthenucleons.Thereare4deltabaryons.Theseare:
uuu;
uud;
o
uddand
ddd.
Theseallhaveaboutthesameenergy1,232MeVthereforetheupanddownquarksboundin
thishadronhaveenergyofabout
1
/
3
thisvalue:~411MeV.
The pions consist of a quark and an anti quark such as an up quark and an anti down quark.
The net spin of the pions is zero counter rotating dipoles. The energy of the pions is 139.5
MeVforthetwochargedpions
and
andabout135MeVfortheneutralpion
o
.This
means that the up and down quarks in a pion have average energy of about 70 MeV for the
chargedpions
and
andabout68MeVforaneutralpion
o
.
Thereforewehaveexampleswhereupanddownquarkshaveenergyrangingfrom411MeVto
68 MeV. The standard model deals with this difference by assuming that an isolated up or
down quark has energy of only a few MeV. The extra energy required to reach 68 MeV, 313
MeVor411MeVisassumedtobepre