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BANK PROTECTION

REFERENCE MANUAL
Bank Protection
2
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Maccaferri would like to thank the AIPIN (Associazione Italiana per la Ingegneria Naturalistica - Italian
Association of Bio-Engineering) for its help in collecting the necessary literature and data regarding the Bio-
Engineering techniques.
Made by E.H.S. S.r.l.
P.za di Porta Maggiore, 5 BOLOGNA
for MACCAFERRI
Bank Protection
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PART I - REFERENCE MANUAL
INTRODUCTION
1. THEORY AND METHODS OF CALCULATION
1.1. General criteria for planning
1.2. Methodology of calculation
1.3. Hydraulic calculation for open channels
1.4. Rating curve
1.4.1. Input data
1.4.2. Rating curve calculation
2. BANK LINING CHECK WITH RESPECT TO THE FLOW CHARACTERISTICS
2.1. General information
2.2. Check in terms of tractive forces
2.3. Check in terms of tractive forces for Reno mattress and gabions
2.4. Check of deformations for Reno mattress and gabion protections
2.5. Check for the water velocity at the upper/lower lining interface
2.6. Resistance of sand asphalt mastic grouted Reno mattress and gabion linings
2.7. Macmat-R protections
2.8. Bank protection using Bio-Engineering techniques
2.9. Bank stabilization - Toe protection
3. LINING DESIGN WITH RESPECT TO WAVE MOTION
4. TABLES
5. LEGEND
6. BIBLIOGRAPHY
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INTRODUCTION
The MACRA1/Bank Protection software was developed to provide engineers with a rapid and efficient tool
with which to conduct the stability analysis of watercourse cross-sections with respect to both water flow and wave
motion. This program allows the user to check a large number of hydraulic conditions of watercourse sections lined
with Maccaferri products, such as gabions, Reno mattresses and Macmat-R, as well as with the most widespread
bio-engineering techniques.
The MACRA1/Bank Protection software enables the user to verify, under the hypothesis of uniform flow, a
generic bank protection typology given the allowable tractive force
c
and roughness coefficient n, comparing for
each material the maximum shear stress with the allowable tractive force.
The software aims to provide engineers with an open tool where their professional experience and the
progress of the knowledges in the bio-engineering ambit, allow to bring up to date the
c
and n values, for which
reference values are given.
In addition, the software facilitates the design of a lining with respect to wave motion (i.e. basins or navigable
channels), providing the Reno mattress thickness needed to guarantee the stability of the bank protection.
To facilitate the use of this software, it was developed using a Windows
TM
type structure in order to check
simply and directly the input data and calculation results.
The first part of this manual illustrates the calculation procedures, the hypotheses assumed and their limits of
variability, the second part illustrates how to use the program, the third part gives a numerical example.
1. THEORY AND METHODS OF CALCULATION
1.1 General criteria for planning
In planning a watercourse, the designer may use three fundamental classes of training and hydraulic protection
structures:
- transverse works (weirs, falls, dams) to guarantee the longitudinal stabilization of a watercourse;
- groynes, to centralise the direction of the flow which is threatening the stability of the banks;
- longitudinal works, defining structures with their length parallel to the river flow. They are used for a variety of
purposes, such as:
1- flood protection: to guarantee the containment of the flood flow;
2- erosion protection of river banks: to avoid situations in which currents erode banks or the toes of banks
rendering both slopes and embankment unstable;
3- control of meanders: stabilisation of stream beds to avoid erosion or unacceptable sedimentation;
4- delimitation of the normal flow channel: centralization of the low flow channel to guarantee its
navigability or the utilization of the berms.
The Bank Protection software is a tool that allows the user, in the case of longitudinal works, to verify the
watercourse planning with regard to:
- containment of the flood flow: the rating curve computed according to the geometry and the materials which
will avoid river overflows;
- erosion protection of river banks: the allowable shear stress of the material or technique used in a bank
stabilization shall be greater than the maximum active shear stress caused by the water motion.
With such an approach heavy structures, such as gabion walls, reinforced soil structures (e.g. Terramesh), pile
walls etc. will not be taken into account, as they are not really bank protections, but rather retaining structures
whose purpose is to guarantee the overall stability of the embankment, allowing the overhanging bank linings to
carry out their function.
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This is the reason why such structures, whose design reqires calculation methods different from the simple
comparison between active and allowable shear stresses, are not taken into account by the Bank Protection
software; these works are briefly shown in paragraph 2.9 to give general directions for the construction criteria.
Finally it is important to point out that the basic principle of hydraulic planning should be to operate when and
how it is necessary, allowing water to be as free as possible: sometimes, once the designer has evaluated the
potential dangers and risks, the zero option may be taken into account, that is to avoid any work and retain present
conditions.
1.2 Methodology of calculation
In a training and hydraulic protection structure design where Reno mattress, gabions and bio-engineering
techniques are used, the planner shall take into account the vegetation growth over time, (as it modifies the
protection characteristics) and shall refer to two different situations:
The two situations are:
- END OF INSTALLATION: the material or technique used for the structures present the lowest allowable tractive
force and Manning roughness values. This is the most critical situation to take into
account for the bank protection check (see par. 2.2)
- VEGETATION COMPLETELY GROWN: after some years the vegetational growth consolidates the bank
protection which increases its resistance to erosion. Meantime the roughness increase in
the cross-section might cause the failure of the hydraulic check (river overflows)
The situation with vegetation completely grown (taking into account a minimum time
equal to 3 years after the end of the installation) becomes the most critical: it is necessary
to check if the cross-section is sufficient to contain the design flow with the new values of
the roughness n (see par. 1.4)
The Bank Protection software gives the user the roughness and shear resistance values for the situation at the
END OF INSTALLATION: the user shall execute the checks for the situation WITH VEGETATION COMPLETELY
GROWN.
1.3 Hydraulic calculation for open channels
This paragraph contains a summary of the fundamental criteria for the calculations for open channels and some
formulae for the solutions of the most elementary problems in hydraulics. The subject can be studied further by
reference to the specialist publications [1, 2, 3, 4]
The types of flow occurring in open channels of fixed cross section (no account is taken of changes of the cross-
section caused by erosion or deposition of transported solids, of the influence on the flow by bed load or material
carried in suspension) can be summarized as follows:
a) VARIED FLOW: when at every point in the mass motion, the velocity, density and pressure characteristics
vary not only from point to point, but also in relation to time.
The behaviour of a water flow can be represented by De Saint Venant equations for the variable motion:
(1)

Q
x
A
t
q + 0
(2)
( )

Q
t
QV
x
gA
Z
x
B
qU
w
q
+ +
0
0
where equation (1) is the law of conservation of mass at constant density, and equation (2) is the law of
conservation of momentum.
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b) STEADY FLOW: when at every point in the mass motion, the velocity, density and pressure characteristics do
not vary in relation to time but only from point to point.
By annulling the partial derivatives with respect to time, two new equations which represent the steady flow can
be obtained:
(3)

Q
x
q 0
(4)
( )
dH
dx
B
gA
q
gA
U V
q
+


0
0
.
.
Steady flow can be said to occur in the following conditions:
- in prismatic channels;
- in channels of gradually varying width, depth and bed slope;
- in channels in which the width changes suddenly, or the section is restricted abruptly, by rock formations,
bridges, weirs and other structures;
- in channels in which the flow varies due to the flow or outflow of water.
For the planning and checking of a steady flow channel you must use the MACRA (Maccaferri River Analysis)
software, which allows the designer to take into account the variations of cross-section, roughness and flow typical
of a real watercourse.
c) UNIFORM FLOW
In designing open channels, the flow can be assumed to be uniform, i.e. steady uniform flow in a prismatic
channel having a constant bed slope, and in which the water surface slope is parallel to that of the bed. Hence,
uniform flow can be assumed, provided the cross section does not differ greatly from the prismatic form, and
provided there is no backwater effect caused by changes in the cross-section or bed slope upstream or downstream.
Uniform flow is illustrated in fig. I.1; in the case of uniform flow we have i
h
= i
w
= i
f
.
Fig I.1 Geometric and hydraulic elements
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By annulling q in (3), (4) and assuming the inclination of the load line equal to the slope of the channel bed,
the equation of the uniform motion can be obtained:
(5) Q = constant
(6)
dH
dx
i
f
.
The eq. (6) can be written in the equivalent form (Chezys formula)
(7) Q A Ri
f

where the roughness coefficient is connected to the Manning coefficient n by means of the relation:
(8)

n R
1 1 6 /
where
(9) R
A
B

is the hydraulic radius of the cross-section. Writing the equation (7) by means of equations (8) and (9) we finally
obtain the following equation (Manning-Stricklers formula):
(10) Q A B n i
f

5 3 2 3 1 1 2
.
The symbols used in the above equations and figure correspond to:
A = wetted cross sectional area (m
2
);
B = wetted perimeter (m);
b = width of water surface (m);
= momentum coefficient;
g = acceleration of gravity (m/s
2
);
H = total hydraulic head (m);
i
f
= river bed slope;
i
h
= slope of energy line;
i
w
= slope of water surface;
L = length of river segment (m)
l = length of horizontal projection of river segment (m);
Q = cross-section discharge (m
3
/s);
q = lateral discharge per unit of length (m
2
/s);

0
= unit weight of water (kg/m
3
);
t = temporal coordinate (s);

0
= shear stress along the banks (N/m
2
);
U
q
= x component of flow velocity q (m/s);
V = mean flow velocity in the cross-section (m/s);
x = curvilinear abscissa along the river bed (m);
y = maximum depth of water area (m)
Z
f
= level of river bottom in section a-a (m)
Z
w
= level of free water surface (m).
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1.4 Rating curve
The first problem a designer has to solve is to guarantee the containment of the design flow Q
p
inside the cross-
sections where the works have been planned.
The design flow is computed on the basis of hydrological studies or by means of historical measured flood
levels. As a rule the design flow corresponds to a return time equal to 100 years; in the case of rivers which can
tolerate floods, one can choose design flows with a smaller return time, thus accepting more frequent inundations.
Beginning from these data, in accordance with the responsible agencies and authorities, one can calculate the
watercourse cross-section or the corresponding water depth, according to cases.
The planner shall guarantee the passage of the design flow through the designed cross-sections; in other words,
the following condition must be verified:
(11) Q A B n i
f

5 3 2 3 1 1 2
> Q
p
In this check the most critical situation is the one with vegetation completely grown, because this is the
condition with the highest Manning roughness values. The rating curve calculation (and at the same time the bank
protection check) shall be made twice to verify the cross-section in two different conditions:
- end of installation: using the minimum roughness values (tables 1 and 2)
- vegetation completely grown: using the roughness values for vegetated banks (tables 3, 4 and 6)
1.4.1. Input data
The user is required to type in the design data, that is the river discharge Qp and the natural bed slope i
f
, or the
design slope. The user is then required to type in the geometric and hydraulic charateristics of the cross-section
which is generally represented by a double trapezoidal section (Fig.I.2), consisting of 9 segments. f
gl
and f
gr
representing the left and right ground level whereas the other seven segments represent the cross-section geometry.
For f
gl
and f
gr
the user must specify:
- the level of the lower edge f
i
referred to the channel bed (m),
- the slope expressed in terms of y x ;
for the other segments the user must also specify:
- the length l
i
(m).
When required, the i-th segment can be divided into 3 additional sub-segments, i1, i2, i3, (Fig.I.2b), for which
the user must provide (considering the horizontal segments from the left to the right and the others from the top to
bottom):
- the length L
ij
(m),
- the type of lining or material.
Depending on the type of lining the program will automatically provide the relevant Mannings roughness
coefficient n
ij
(s/m
1/3
).
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Cross-section i
th
- segment
Li1
Li2
Li3
ai1
bi1=ai2
bi2=ai3
bi3

gd
sd ss
gs
f
f
f
gl
gs
gd
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
fi
a
b
f
gr
Fig.I.2. Scheme of the river cross-section
Depending on the type of lining selected the program will also automatically provide (situation at the end of
installation), in the case of Maccaferri products (see tables 1 and 5):
- the thickness s (m),
- the roughness n (s/m
1/3
),
- the average diameter of the filling material d
m
(m),
- the limit (allowable) tractive force
l
(kg/m
2
).
If the user chooses another protection material, the program suggests an indicative value for roughness and
allowable shear stress (see table 2), values which can possibly be modified by the user on the basis of personal
experience.
Table 6 gives the Manning roughness values to be used for natural streams, according to materials constituting
the bank (or a sub-stretch of the bank), when the material is not included in table 2: in such a case the user can
type in any material for which are known the roughness n and the allowable shear stress
c
(see also par. 2.8 and
9.5).
The roughness coefficient n can be evaluated, as well as from table 6, using the Meyer-Peter and Muller
formula, valid for gravelly and sandy river beds:
(12) n = 0.0385 d
90
1/6
where d
90
is the diameter of a sieve that will permit passage of 90 % of the bed material expressed in meters [5, 6,
7].
By using the Manning-Strickler equation, the program automatically calculates the rating curve in uniform
flow:
(10) Q A B n i
f

5 3 2 3 1 1 2
.
If the user needs detailed information on the flow velocity, the program will divide the rivers cross-section into
so many parts which will be equal to the number of segments specified by the user, and will calculate the
roughness coefficient as the mean roughness with respect to the length of the three sub-segments. The discharge
will be calculated as the sum of the contribution of each single segment (during the calculation, the program will
consider different parallel channels with the same water level and zero shear stress along the banks).
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1.4.2. Rating curve calculations
This program conducts the rating curve calculation step by step, dividing the total height between river bed and
ground level into 20 equal segments. Therefore starting with a water level equal to fp/20 the program calculates
the outflow discharge for each segment and the total discharge Q
k
as the sum of the single contribution of each
segment.
Before proceeding to the next upper water level (by increasing the level by fp/20) the program checks if Q
k
is
lower than Q
p
; if this condition is not satisfied, the program searches, by successive iterations, for the water level
Y
max
corresponding to Q
p
. If the design discharge turns out to be equal to a water level higher than the ground
level, the program will display a message informing the user that the cross-section selected is not able to carry the
design discharge.
For each segment the program also calculates the mean velocity V
mi
:
(13) v
Q
A
mi
p
i

and the Froude number F


i
:
(14) F
v
g
A
b
i
mi
i
i

with A
i
(wetted perimeter) and b
i
(width of the free water surface) corresponding to Y
max
.
2. BANK LINING CHECK WITH RESPECT TO THE FLOW CHARACTERISTICS
2.1. General informations
The calculation (design or verification) of a bank protection can be made using two different methods based on:
- velocity
- tractive forces
The second method is more correct from the technical point of view and that is the reason why the Bank
Protection program uses this approach, even if the velocity method is often easier to apply, as it is simpler to
measure or to calculate an average velocity in a cross-section instead of shear stresses.
In order to evaluate the anti-erosion efficacity of a bank protection, one has to take into account all the hydraulic
and geometric parameters: water depth, bank slope, plan configuration, flood duration; this means, in other words,
that it is necessary to express the laboratory test results and the consequent design criteria in terms of allowable
shear stresses, more significant than water mean velocity from the technical point of view.
It is particularly important also to refer to the flood duration factor as well as the water depth considering an
average flood duration, and ignoring those of less than a few hours. This factor does not apply to the bank
protections where the shear resistance is due to the material own weight: for rip-rap protection the limit of the
revetments stability is when the shear stress is equal to the point at which the stones are about to move (initial
movement stress, which depends only on shape and dimensions of stones). In the case of Reno mattress and
gabions, the containment offered by the mesh increases the resistance, allowing a partial stone movement within
the mattress compartments without risk to the revetment (see par. 2.3).
The data about material (not a stone revetment) resistance as a function of flood duration, are limited to a few
laboratory-tested materials, i.e. the Macmat-R (see par. 2.7), for which the fig. I.8 shows the permissible shear
stresses as a function of the flood duration. In general this kind of detailed information is not available: this is the
reason why the shear stress check usually does not take this aspect into account.
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2.2. Check in terms of tractive forces
This method is based on the comparison between the active (depending on the hydraulic and geometric
characteristics) and the allowable (depending on the material) shear stresses.
ACTIVE STRESSES
The maximum shear stress on the revetment at the bottom is related to the hydraulic radius according to the
formula [1]:
(15)
b w f
Ri . (on the bottom)
For natural watercourses and wide channels the hydraulic radius R is almost equal to the water depth; the
previous formula, valid for a point on the bottom, is therefore (this simplification is in safetys favour):
(16) ( )
b w i f
Y z i
max
(on the bottom)
where z
i
is the elevation of the i-th check point.
If the point is on the banks of a straight line watercourse (in the horizontal plane), the shear stress
m
is reduced
and is equal to [1]:
(17) ( )
m w i f
Y z i 0 75 .
max
(on the straight line bank)
Otherwise, in curved canal stretches the shear stress increases along the outer bank by means of the coefficient K,
as a function of the ratio of the width of the water surface to the radius of the curvature (see Fig. I.3).
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2
Ratio of the shear stress on the outer bank to average shear stress
R
a
t
i
o

o
f

t
h
e

r
a
d
i
u
s

o
f

t
h
e

c
u
r
v
a
t
u
r
e

t
o
t
h
e

w
i
d
t
h

o
f

t
h
e

w
a
t
e
r

s
u
r
f
a
c
e
Fig. I.3 Effect of a curve in the watercourse upon the shear stress acting on the outer bank.

m
is therefore:
(18) ( )
m w i f
K Y z i 075 .
max
. (on the curved bank)
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RESISTANT STRESSES AND THEIR CHECK
Regarding the resistant shear stress, we define maximum (allowable) tractive resistance
c
as the critical value
at which the lining material begins to move. In the case of non cohesive soils
c
can be obtained using the
expression [9]:
(19)
c
= 80 d
75

where

c
= maximum (allowable) shear stress (kg/m
2
)
d
75
= diameter of a sieve that will permit passage of 75% of the bed material (cm)
The revetment is stable if one can verify, for a point on the bed:
(20)
b c
, (on the river bed)
In the case of non cohesive material laid horizontally, we must take into account the maximum shear stress
s
reduction (due to the bank slope) by means of a corrective coefficient; comparing the new
s
value with the
maximum active stress
m
we obtain:
(21)
m s
, (on the sloped bank)
where
(22)

s c
sin
sin
1
2
2
and where:
= angle of internal friction of the non cohesive material forming the bank
= bank side slope.
Since the value under the square root tends to 0 and becomes negative for values of > , the program allows
us to calculate
s
assuming that for bank slopes > ( - 2) the value of the square root remains constant and equal
to
(22)

s c
sin
sin


1
2
2
2
( )
providing a residual resistance to the material.
To determine the friction angle in non cohesive materials, when no laboratory test is available, the abacus
shown in fig. I.4 can be used
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Fig. I.4 Abacus to establish the friction angle for non cohesive materials
2.3. Check in terms of tractive forces for Reno mattress and gabions
Gabion and Reno mattress structures present a spontaneous vegetation growth helping the natural recovery of
destroyed or damaged biocenosis. Vegetation and gabions/Reno mattress have shown their ability to co-exist and
provide to one another favourable conditions to development: this statement can be considered as a milestone of
bio-engineering which is aimed at combining living and artificial materials for the protection works intended to
counteract erosion [10].
On the basis of this evidence one can assume that the resistent shear stress values for vegetated Reno mattress
and gabions (table 3) are independent from the revetment thickness, as the interlacing between stones, wire mesh,
soil fill, roots and natural soil forms a single structure whose resistance is due to the mobilization of its different
components.
In general, a stone revetment is considered to be stable when there is no movement of the individual stones. This
holds true for Reno mattress and gabion revetments in which the stone is encased in steel wire mesh, and also for
those of loose stone rip-rap. For these structures the limit of the revetments stability is when the shear stress is
equal to the point at which the stones are about to move (initial movement stress). The active shear stress on the
revetment is given by eq. (16)
Given a stone having an equivalent diameter equal to the mean diameter d
m
of the fill (that is the seive size
through which 50% of the stone in the revetment will pass) the dimension given by the following expression is
defined as Shields parameter.
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14
(23)
( )
C
d
c
s w m
*


The denominator is proportional to the normal stress on the invert due to the submerged weight of the stone; the
Shields parameter is therefore analogous to a friction coefficient. The shear stress on the invert that can be
reached without stone movement (critical shear stress) is therefore:
(24)
c
= C* (
s
-
w
) d
m
The revetment is stable if one can verify the inequality found by comparing equation (16) with equation (24):
(20)
b
<
c
With limited deformation, to take into account the stabilizing effect due to the wire mesh, one can admit for
gabions and Reno mattress an increase of resistance equal to 20 %, as with this value we have limited deformation
due to the stone movement. With
l
defined as limit shear stress one has to compare
(25)
b
<
l
where
l
= 1.2
c
The Shields parameter for loose stone rip-rap is about 0.047; for stone contained in steel wire mesh (Reno
mattress and gabions) it is [5]:
(26) C* 0.10
Given the same size stones, the filling in Reno mattress and gabions can withstand more than double the shear
stress that rip-rap can, because of the containment by the steel wire mesh.
The roughness and resistent shear stress obtained from laboratory tests [5] are shown in table 1 (situation
without vegetation growth); the values for the situation with vegetation completely grown are shown in table 3.
The preceeding expressions refer to the lining of the channel invert; for the banks the shear stress can be
expressed:
(22)

s c
sin
sin
1
2
2
where is the angle of internal friction of the stone fill; it can be assumed for Reno mattress that = 41 [5].
Since the value under the square root tends to 0 and becomes negative for values of 41 , the program
assumes that for 39 the value of the square root remains constant whereas for 39 this value remains
equal to the assumed value.
In curved canal stretches the shear stress increases along the outer bank will increase according to par. 2.2
2.4 Check of deformations for Reno mattress and gabion protections
These calculations are not made by the program.
When the shear stress reaches the critical value of the condition of initial movement, part of the stone fill
moves downstream inside each compartment of the Reno mattress (fig. I.5).
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15
Fig. I.5 General pattern of stone movement within the mattress compartment
If the shear stress further increases, one of two things may happen: either the revetment will lose effectiveness (if
the base soil under the Reno mattress becomes exposed) or a new equilibrium will be reached in which the strength
of the steel wire mesh allows it to fulfill its containment function.
The degree of protection offered by the Reno mattress to the underlying base soil remains unchanged even after
this deformation (providing the base materials are not exposed) since the velocity of the water under the Reno
mattress does not change significantly.
To evaluate the degree of deformation a parameter Dz/d
m
is used, where Dz is the height difference between the
highest and lowest rock surface within a mattress compartment. It can be defined as effective Shields parameter:
(27)
( )
( )
C
d
m s
s w m
*'



The relationship of Dz/dm and C* is expressed by the curve in fig. I.6.
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1 0.11 0.12
Effective Shields parameter C'*
D
e
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n

p
a
r
a
m
e
t
e
r

D
z
/
d
m
Fig. I.6 Relationship between the deformation factor and the effective Shields parameter
The reduction in the filling rock thickness in the upstream portion of the Reno mattress compartment is Dz/2;
therefore to insure that the underlying soil does not remain unprotected and exposed directly to the current, it is
essential that:
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16
(28) ( ) Dz d s d
m m
2 1 .
where s is the mattress thickness.
The same procedure for evaluating the acceptability of deformations is followed also for the Reno mattress on
the banks. From laboratory tests [5] it can be seen that beyond certain values of C* the factor Dz/d
m
does not
increase; for this reason Reno mattress of a thickness 1.8-2.0 times the size of the stable stone can withstand
much more adverse conditions than those of the initial design without losing effectiveness.
b
can be allowed to
exceed
c
but not by more than 20%; it is still necessary, however to control the deformations for a given design
flow.
2.5 Check for the water velocity at the upper/lower lining interface
In both Reno mattress and gabion linings and rip-rap, the thickness of the lining and the size of the stones must
resist the movement caused by the current and prevent erosion of the face material.
The velocity v
b
of the water at the interface with the stone layer and the base soil must therefore be slow enough
not to move the particles that form the soil.
Since the velocity of the water under the revetment depends mainly on the slope of the channel and on the size
of the voids between the stones, (that is, on the size of the stones themselves), assuming that the predominant
direction of flow is parallel to the surface of the Reno mattress, the velocity will remain practically constant in the
face of varying hydraulic conditions and thicknesses of the Reno mattress. The velocity under the Reno mattress
laid on the river bottom, at the interface with the base soil or with the filter, can be determined from the Manning
formula.
(29) v
n
d
i
b
f
m
f

_
,

1
2
2 3
,
where n
f
is the roughness coefficient of the bottom equal to:
n
f
= 0.02 if there is a geotextile filter or no filter under the Reno mattress;
n
f
= 0.025 if there is a gravel filter.
Velocity v
b
must be compared to velocity v
e
allowable at the interface with the base material.
The v
e
for cohesive soil can be obtained from fig. 1.7.
Fig. I.7 Maximum permissible velocities for cohesive soils
Bank Protection
17
For cohesionless soil the expression is:
(30) v d
e
161 . ,
where v
e
is expressed in m/s and d (m) is the soil particle size to be retained.
Where geotextile filters are used, the velocity of the flow passing through the geotextile is reduced. At the
interface with the soil it is 1/2-1/4 of the value of v
b
obtained from (29), depending on the type of geotextile. The
program takes into account a medium geotextile and assumes that v
b
under the geotextile is equal to 1/3 the value
given by (29).
If using a geotextile filter under the mattress, the water velocity at the filter/soil interface is more than the
permissible velocity, it will be necessary to employ a gravel filter (this check is not made by the program). Such a
filter should have a thickness between 0.15 and 0.20 m and at least greater than:
(31) S
d
f
v
v
v e
b

_
,

1
]
1
1
1
2
,
where f is the Darcy-Weisbach coefficient (it may be assumed as f=0.05) and d
v
is the equivalent voids diameter
(m). This latter may be assumed to equal 1/5 of the gravel filters average particle size:
(32) d
d
v
filter

50
5
( )
.
The grading of the filter is determined by the following equations [11]:
(33)
d
d
filter
soil
50
50
40
( )
( )
,
(34) 5 40
15
15

d
d
filter
soil
( )
( )
,
(35)
d
d
filter
soil
15
85
5
( )
( )
.
2.6. Resistance of sand asphalt mastic grouted Reno mattress and gabion linings
Grouting with sand asphalt mastic, whether for consolidation only or for the complete filling of the voids, gives
the lining monolithicity and also a greater total weight; therefore the resistance to flow is improved. In particular,
the mastic keeps the rocks from moving inside the mattress and so the condition of initial movement cannot be
used to define stability.
The mode and cause of deformation is completely different to that of ungrouted Reno mattresses and gabions;
therefore grouted linings can be used for much more severe conditions.
Mastic grouted Reno mattress and gabions are used, besides cases of high resistance structures such as sloped
weirs, where impermeability and a smooth surface to reduce the roughness factor are required.
In Table 1, the values of the allowable shear stresses of grouted mattress (thickness 0.23-0.25 cm) are shown [5].
Bank Protection
18
2.7. Macmat-R protections
In the case of bank protections made with Macmat-R, the allowable shear stresses of the material have been
evaluated by means of experimental studies carried out in the USA [12] and in Europe [13]: the test results are
shown in fig. I.8, where the Macmat-R allowable tangential shear stress is shown as a function of the flood
duration time.
The curve was obtained using a factor of safety of 3, in accordance with normal practice in this particular field
of engineering, in terms of the figures obtained for a saturated soil protected only by a three-dimensional geogrid,
without a cover of vegetation, as this may be considered the worst case.
0
2.5
5
7.5
10
12.5
15
17.5
20
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
Flood duration (hrs)
A
l
l
o
w
a
b
l
e

s
h
e
a
r

s
t
r
e
s
s

(
K
g
/
m
2
)

Fig. I.8 Macmat-R allowable shear stress as a function of flood duration
The values shown in fig. I.8 are valid at the bottom of straight lines: in the case of a bank sloping at to the
horizontal, it is possible to calculate the critical shear value on the slope. If the slope is on the outside bank of a
bend in the river the active shear stress may be obtained by including the K coefficient (see par. 2.2).
2.8. Bank protection using Bio-Engineering techniques
Bank protection works aim to stabilize the bank areas and carry out their protective function at the transition
point between water and soil, protecting the banks from stream actions and the transport of solids.
From the various bio-engineering techniques available to a designer, the Bank Protection software suggests the
main ones, providing the corresponding roughness and resistant shear stress values obtained from the technical
literature.
The values shown in table 2 [1, 14] have to be seen as temporary and shall be modified on the basis of the
laboratory and on-site test results, but they allow the user to have a reference range from which to select the correct
designs.
For this kind of technique the resistant shear stresses have been obtained from experimental observations during
flood events and shall be taken into consideration as the values measured up to now without rupture of the
revetmnent.
The software provides, besides some natural river materials (sand, gravel, cobbles) the following main bio-
engineering techniques:
1) Grass mats
2) Cutting-Shrubs
3) Brush mattress with willow
4) Riparian wattle fences
5) Willow protection
6) Vegetated rock wall
For each of them, the typical sketch is shown in fig. I.9.
Bank Protection
19
Fig. I.9: Main Bio-Engineering techniques
The software enables the user to verify a generic bank protection typology: the user shall type in the technique
name, the allowable tractive force
c
and roughness coefficient n (see Reference manual)
Bank Protection
20
2.9 Bank stabilization - Toe protection
When, besides the simple bank protection, it is necessary to guarantee the retaining/reinforcement of the bank to
be protected, the designer will have to take into account other structures, such as gravity structures, reinforced soil
structures and toe protection works where the foundation dimensioning must be particularly accurate to avoid
failures caused by erosion at the toe of a bank.
The design of such structures shall be done according to geotechnical principles to guarantee the overall
structure-soil stability; for each of them the typical sketch is shown in fig. I.10:
- Gabion wall: design is made by means of the GAWAC software
- Green Terramesh: design is made by means of the MACSTARS software
- Terramesh System: design is made by means of the MACSTARS software
- Pile wall: for design criteria see [15, 16]
- Fascine along the toe of embankment: for design criteria see [15, 16]
Fig. I.10 Typical sketches of some bank stabilization and toe protection structures.
Bank Protection
21
3. LINING DESIGN WITH RESPECT TO WAVE MOTION
The banks of large canals, irrigation basins and large lakes are subject to wave action generated by wind in the
same way as the seashore; also navigation canal banks are subjected to wave action caused by vessels, which
induces waves of a height which depends on the velocity and dimensions of the vessel and the cross section of the
canal. The principal parameters in designing revetments for this purpose are the wave height and the bank slope.
The equations utilized by the program to check the linings ability to resist wave motion (Reno mattresses and
gabions) refer to some field trials conducted by Brown and Pilarczyk [17]. These equations are used to find the
linings minimum thickness t
m
:
(37)
( )
t
H
n m
m
s

2 1 cot
,
valid for cot 3, that is:
(38)
( ) ( )
t
H
n m
m
s

4 1
1 3
cot
,
valid for cot 3. H
s
is the design wave height, is the linings inclination angle, n is the material porosity and
m the unit weight of the submerged material ( m
s w
w

).
In most cases, ( ) 1 1 n m , and (37) and (38) yield:
(39) t
H
m
s

2cot
for cot 3,
(40)
( )
t
H
m
s

4
1 3
cot
for cot 3.
WARNING
These equations are valid both for wind-induced waves lower than 1 m, and infrequent waves 1.5 m high (due to
boats passing through). In the case of higher waves the soil under the lining and the filling material must be
properly compacted.
4. TABLES
The following tables give the fundamental parameters (
c

l
n) taken into account in the bank protection
calculation, where:

c
critical shear stress: value of the maximum shear resistance for the material (or technique) laid horizontally.

l
limit shear stress: (only for gabions and Reno mattress) value of the maximum shear resistance for the material
laid horizontally, causing acceptable deformations due to the stones movement. This is the value used by the
software to check Reno mattress and gabion protections (situation at the end of the installation).
Bank Protection
22
SITUATION AT THE END OF INSTALLATION
MACCAFERRI PRODUCTS END OF INSTALLATION
Roughness n
(s/m
1/3
)
Allowable tractive force
l
(N/m
2
)
Gabions 50 cm 0.0301 342
Reno Mattress 15-17 cm 0.0277 204
Reno Mattress 23-25 cm 0.0277 234
Reno Mattress 30 cm 0.0277 270
Mastic grouted R.M.23-25 cm 0.0158 324
Macmat-R 0.0303 35-160 (a)
(a) = function of the flood duration (see fig. 1.8)
Tab.1: Allowable tractive force and roughness values for Maccaferri products at the end of installation [5, 11]
B.E. TECHNIQUES END OF INSTALLATION
Roughness n
(s/m
1/3
)
Allowable tractive force
c
(N/m
2
)
Fine sand (< 0.2 mm) 0.02 2
Gravel (< 2 cm) 0.02 15
Sand and gravel 0.03 30
Cobbles and shingles 0.035 50
Grass mats 0.04 10
Cutting - Shrubs 0.10 10
Brush mattress with willow 0.10 50
Riparian wattle fences 0.10 10
Willow protection 0.10 20
Vegetated rock wall 0.04-0.07 (b) (c)
(b): The coefficient shall be computed on the basis of the real typology of the work, taking into account shape and
dimensions of the stones using equation (12).
(c): The actual resistant shear stress depends on the stone dimensions and may be computed using the equation
(24)
Tab.2: Reference values of the allowable tractive force and roughness for some natural materials and for some
bio-engineering techniques at the end of installation [1, 14].
SITUATION WITH VEGETATION COMPLETELY GROWN
MACCAFERRI PRODUCTS VEGETATION COMPLETELY GROWN
Roughness n (s/m
1/3
) Allowable shear stress
c
(N/m
2
)
Gabions 50 cm 0.07-0.4 (d) 400
Reno Mattress 15-17 cm 0.07-0.4 (d) 400
Reno Mattress 23-25 cm 0.07-0.4 (d) 400
Reno Mattress 30 cm 0.07-0.4 (d) 400
Mastic grouted R.M.23-25 cm 0.07-0.4 (d) 400
Macmat-R 0.07-0.4 (d) 300
(d) = depends on the vegetation growth (see table 4)
Tab.3: Allowable tractive force and roughness values for Maccaferri products with vegetation completely grown
Bank Protection
23
B.E. TECHNIQUES VEGETATION COMPLETELY GROWN
Roughness n (s/m
1/3
) Allowable shear stress
c
(Kg/m
2
)
Fine sand (< 0.2 mm) 0.02 (d) > 0.2 (d)
Gravel (< 2 cm) 0.02 (d) > 1.5 (d)
Sand and gravel 0.03 (d) > 3 (d)
Cobbles and shingles 0.035 (d) > 5 (d)
Grass mats 0.05 (d) 3
Cutting - Shrubs 0.07-0.4 (d) 6
Brush mat. with willow 0.07-0.4 (d) 30
Riparian wattle fences 0.07-0.4 (d) 5
Willow protection 0.07-0.4 (d) 10
Vegetated rock wall 0.07-0.4 (d) 35 (e)
(d): depends on the vegetation growth (see table 4)
(e): The actual resistant shear stress depends on the stone dimensions and may be computed using the equation
(24)
Tab.4: Reference values of the allowable tractive force and roughness for some natural materials and for some
bio-engineering techniques with vegetation completely grown [1, 14].
MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF MACCAFERRI PRODUCTS
MACCAFERRI PRODUCTS Thickness
s (m)
Average diameter
d
50
(m)
Gabions 50 cm 0.5 0.19
Reno Mattress 15-17 cm 0.15-0.17 0.11
Reno Mattress 23-25 cm 0.23-0.25 0.12
Reno Mattress 30 cm 0.3 0.125
Mastic grouted R.M.23-25 cm 0.23-0.25 0.12
Tab. 5: Thickness and average diameter of the filling stones for Reno mattress and gabion protections.
Bank Protection
24
MINOR STREAMS (top width at flood stage < 30m) Minimum
n
Normal
n
Maximum
n
Streams on plain
1. Clean, straight, full stage, no rifts or deep pools 0.025 0.030 0.033
2. Same as above, but more stones and weeds 0.030 0.035 0.040
3. Clean, winding, some pools and shoals 0.033 0.040 0.045
4. Same as above, but some weeds and stones 0.035 0.045 0.050
5. Same as above, lower stages, more ineffective slopes and sections 0.040 0.048 0.055
6. Same as 4, but more stones 0.045 0.050 0.060
7. Sluggish reaches, weedy, deep pools 0.050 0.070 0.080
8. Very weedy reaches, deep pools, or floodways with heavy stand of timber and
underbrush
0.075 0.100 0.150
Mountain streams, no vegetation in channel, banks usually steep, trees and
brush along banks submerged at high stages
9. Bottom: gravels, cobbles, and few boulders 0.030 0.040 0.050
10. Bottom: cobbles with large boulders 0.040 0.050 0.070
FLOOD PLAINS
Pasture, no brush
11. Short grass 0.025 0.030 0.035
12. High grass 0.030 0.035 0.050
Cultivated areas
13. No crop 0.020 0.030 0.040
14. Mature row crops 0.025 0.035 0.045
15. Mature field crops 0.030 0.040 0.050
Brush
16. Scattered brush, heavy weeds 0.035 0.050 0.070
17. Light brush and trees, in winter 0.035 0.050 0.060
18. Light brush and trees, in summer 0.040 0.060 0.080
19. Medium to dense brush, in winter 0.045 0.070 0.110
20. Medium to dense brush, in summer 0.070 0.100 0.160
Trees
21. Dense willows, summer, straight 0.110 0.150 0.200
22. Cleared land with tree stumps, no sprouts 0.030 0.040 0.050
23. Same as above, but with heavy growth of sprouts 0.050 0.060 0.080
24. Heavy stand of timber, a few down trees, little undergrowth, flood stage below
branches
0.080 0.100 0.120
25. Same as above, but with flood stage reaching branches 0.100 0.120 0.160
MAJOR STREAMS (top width at flood stage >30 m)
The n value is less than that for minor streams of similar description, because
banks offer less effective resistance.
26. Regular section with no boulders or brush 0.025 ...... 0.060
27. Irregular and rough section 0.035 ...... 0.100
Tab. 6: Values of the roughness coefficient n in natural streams [1]
Bank Protection
25
5. LEGEND - (Measurement Units expressed with the Technical System)
Input data for the rating curve calculation:
Q
p
= design flow (m
3
/s);
i
f
= slope of invert (%);
L
i
= length of the i-th segment (m);
f
i
= elevation of the lower edge of the i-th segment (m)
1
f
g
= ground level (m)
1
;

i
= slope of the i-th segment (deg);
n
i
= Manning roughness coefficient of the i-th segment (s/m
1/3
);
Values calculated during the first step (rating curve):
Y
max
= water level corresponding to the design flow (m)
1
;
v
mi
= mean flow velocity along the i-th segment relevant to the design flood (m/s);
F
i
= Froude number relevant to the i-th segment and to the design flood (adim).
Input data to run the lining stability check against flow velocity:
t = flood duration (hrs.), (this parameter is required only in the case of a Macmat-R lining);

c
= allowable shear stress along the horizontal segments (kg/m
2
);
s = lining thickness (m);
= internal friction angle of the material forming the bank (deg); default value = 30, for gabions
and Reno mattress the value is 41;

w
= water unit weight (kg/m
3
); default value = 1000 kg/m
3
;
v
e
= admissible maximum flow velocity under the lining (m/s);
d
m
= mean diameter of the filling material (m);
n
f
= channel bed roughness coefficient, default value = 0.020 valid whether or not a geotextile filter has been
considered under the lining. Conversely the default value is equal to 0.025 if a gravel filter has been
considered;
K = coefficient of increment of the shear stress on the outer bank along a bend (adim);
Results of the lining check against flow velocity:

b
= maximum active shear stress along the horizontal segments (kg/m
2
);

m
= maximum active shear stress along the banks (kg/m
2
);

s
= allowable shear stress on the banks (kg/m
2
);
v
b
= flow velocity under the lining (m/s) calculated using Mannings equation;
Input data to design the lining against wave motion:
H
s
= design wave height (m);
= slope of the revetted area (rad);
Calculated values:
t
m
= minimum lining thickness (m).

1
All elevation are referred to the river bed.
Bank Protection
26
6. BIBLIOGRAPHY
[1] V. T. CHOW, Open channel hydraulics, Mc Graw - Hill Book Co., New York, Toronto, London, 1959.
[2] U. PUPPINI, Idraulica, Ed. Zanichelli, Bologna, 1947.
[3] G. SUPINO, Idraulica generale, Ed. Patron, Bologna, 1965
[4] B. PRZEDWOJSKI, R. BLAZEJEWSKI, K. W. PILARCZYK, River training techniques, Balkema,
Rotterdam, Brookfield, 1995
[5] D.B. SIMONS, Y. H. CHEN, L. J. SWENSON, Hydraulic test to develop design criteria for the use of
Reno mattresses, Fort Collins, Colorado, 1983.
[6] D.B. SIMONS, LI & ASSOCIATES, Consideration of risk in hydraulic design of bank protection using
Reno mattresses and rip-rap, Fort Collins, Colorado, 1983.
[7] D.B. SIMONS, R. H. LI, W. S. LIANG, Design guidelines & criteria. Channels & hydraulic structures
on sandy soils, Fort Collins, Colorado, 1981.
[8] B. LACHAT Guide de protection des berges de cours deau en techniques vegetales, Ministere de
lEnvironnement - Diren Rhone Alpes, 1994.
[9] A. LENCASTRE, Manuel dhydraulique generale, Ed. Eyrolles, Paris, 1979.
[10] V.N. MARTINO E ALTRI, Ricerca sulle implicazioni ambientali di opere in gabbioni e materassi Reno
in ambito fluviale, Compositori, Bologna, 1995.
[11] U. S. DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS, Wire mesh gabions (slope and
channel protection), CW-02541, 1980.
[12] L. HOFFMAN & R. ADAMSKY, Nylon erosion control mat - Presented at session 136 of the 61st
Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington D.C., 1982.
[13] CIRIA, Designed of reinforced green waterways, Report 116, 1987.
[14] W. BEGEMANN & H. M. SCHIECHTL, Ingenieurbiologie - Handbuch zum naturnahen Wasser und
Erdbau, Bauverlag, Wiesbaden und Berlin, 1986.
[15] MINISTERO DELLAMBIENTE, Opere di ingegneria naturalistica sulle sponde - Tecniche costruttive
ed esempi nel Cantone di Berna (Svizzera), Roma, 1993.
[16] REGIONI EMILIA-ROMAGNA E VENETO, Manuale tecnico di ingegneria naturalistica, Bologna,
1993.
[17] PIANC, Guidelines for the design and construction of flexible revetments incorporating geotextiles for
inland waterways, Supplemento al bollettino n57, Brussels, 1987.
MACRA 1 Manual / Bank Protection
1
PART II - USERS MANUAL
INTRODUCTION
The MACRA1/Bank Protection software was developed to operate in a Windows environment: it was therefore
provided with several simple options. It is fairly simple to use even if the user is not familiar with a PC.
Chapter 7 illustrates the program installation procedures and its supporting files.
Chapter 8 briefly reviews the main basic concepts to allow the amateur user to operate the program.
Chapter 9 illustrates how to run the program and its possible options.
7. SOFTWARE INSTALLATION
The Bank Protection software is supplied in a floppy disk 3 format. To install it, the user must insert the floppy
disk in drive A: and proceed as follows:
If you are in Windows:
1) You must quit all active Windows applications including the clock, the antivirus etc.;
2) Select the Install option from the File menu;
3) Type a:setup.exe and press Enter.

If you are in DOS:
4) you must enter Windows;
5) then proceed from point 1).
At this point you must follow the instructions provided by the installation program. In particular, the program
will show you the name of the directory (c:\Macra) where the Bank Protection software will be installed.
If the instructions are properly followed, the MACRA software window with the icon to activate the program
(MACRA 1) will be displayed on the screen.
WARNING!!
During the Bank Protection software installation two different message boxes could appear:
- the first one asks the user to close some active Visual Basic applications: in such case, click the OK button;
- the second one:
warns that the file COMMDLG.DLL is already in use: in this case you have to click the Ignore button;
BUT BE CAREFUL!! The program runs properly if Windows considers the dot (.) as a decimal separator and the
comma (,) as a separator of the thousands. If Windows has a different current layout, you must modify it by
entering the option International on the control panel (for additional detail refer to the Program Manager
instruction guide).
By hitting twice on the channel icon you can run the program and go to the following chapter for detailed
information on the MACRA1/Bank Protection software capabilities and instructions on how to use it.
MACRA 1 Manual / Bank Protection
2
8. BASIC INSTRUCTIONS ON HOW TO USE WINDOWS APPLICATIONS
Windows has been developed to provide the user with a direct interface. The pointing device, the pull down
menu, the graphic buttons and many other functions make it very simple to move within a Windows program.
The Bank Protection software has been provided with most Windows options to prevent the user from panicking
while he uses an application that he is not familiar with.
The help function (always available), the error messages (as specific as possible), the possibility to move from
one step to another without an imperative hierarchical order and many other functions allow the use of this
software in a flexible efficient way.
In order to make the user acquainted and comfortable with some Windows applications, some simple
information on the main elements of this environment are provided below.
Fig.II.1 shows the menu bar of the Bank Protection software which is very similar to the menu bar of any
Windows application.
Fig.II.1
By selecting one of the menus available, a series of options will be displayed (see Fig.II.2: in this case the file
menu has been selected):
Fig.II.2
The File menu consists of a series of I/O (Input /Output) options.
Each option has a different function: for example Open ... and Save as... end with 3 dots, which means that the
user must provide additional data (i.e. the name of the file the user needs to open or create)
The option New Cross-section, instead, appears with a grey background rather than black, which means that the
user cannot select the type of cross-section until the rivers general parameters have been provided.
MACRA 1 Manual / Bank Protection
3
Fig.II.3
Fig.II.3 shows a window with graphic elements, input fields and an OK button to confirm your choice, which
can be used only to type in the river general parameters.
As you will notice, one of the flow input fields in Fig. II.3 has a different color since that field has been
activated and the relative value can be typed in.
To move from field to field you can:
1) move your pointing device to the field you wish to activate and press the left button once;
2) move from field to field using the TAB key (to move from the upper to the lower field) or ALT+TAB (to move
from the bottom to the top field);
3) move your pointing device to the section of the drawing which represents the desired field and press the left
button of your mouse (i.e. by moving your pointing device onto the segment line representing the channel bed
and, clicking once, you will activate field i).
The user must remember that he/she is allowed to modify or type in only one value at a time. In order to change
the input data of one field the user must first activate the desired field and this will automatically disable the field
previously activated. The program automatically checks the numerical value you type in. If this value is not correct
(from an hydraulic point of view), you will not be able to move to another field until you delete or modify the input
value.
Once you have typed in all required input data you must press the OK button to confirm. The program will warn
you if you accidentally click the OK button when you are still typing in the input data.
Some windows may be provided with graphic buttons rather than dialogue buttons.
MACRA 1 Manual / Bank Protection
4
Fig.II.4
Fig. II.4 shows a window with action buttons performing specific functions: for example if you pick, with your
pointing device, the open faucet button the program automatically conducts the hydraulic calculations.
The above basic instructions will enable you to run and use the Bank Protection software. If you need additional
information on Windows you may resort to the Windows help guide by pressing F1 from the Program Manager.
MACRA 1 Manual / Bank Protection
5
9. HOW TO USE THE BANK PROTECTION SOFTWARE
Once you have entered the MACRA1/Bank Protection software, the Maccaferri logo will be displayed. By pressing
once the left botton of your mouse you will enter the software operative section.
9.1. General information
The MACRA1/Bank Protection software operates in a Windows environment: therefore you can enter other
Windows applications without quitting the program (this operation is referred to as multitasking) as follows:
1) by pressing CTRL+ESC simultaneously: this key combination allows you to display all active applications and
by selecting the option Move to.... to enter one of them;
2) by using the key combination ALT+TAB you can enter directly into another application;
3) by clicking on the quit button located on the menu bar (located on the upper left side of the screen) and then
select the option Move to.....
9.2. Menu bar
Once you have entered the Bank Protection software operative section, the menu bar with several options will be
displayed on the screens upper edge (Fig.II.1 - the user may move this anywhere on the screen). The following
paragraphs will illustrate how to use the menu bar.
9.2.1. File Menu
The File menu (Fig.II.5) is used to manage the input and output data.
Fig.II.5
By selecting the option New alveous the user can type in the input data of a new river (slope and discharge flow)
thus deleting all data previously provided and nulling the calculations already conducted. Therefore when you type
in new data save them before starting a new design.
The option New Cross-section allows you to select a new river cross-section maintaining the input data previously
provided. Even in this case if the user has not saved the cross section previously selected it will be replaced with
the new one.
By selecting the option Open File... the window shown in Fig. II.6 will be displayed:
MACRA 1 Manual / Bank Protection
6
Fig.II.6
The program will display on the left side of the window all files of the directory selected. Once a file has been
selected the user can enter it by clicking the OK button or pressing enter. The program will load the file selected
substituting the current data.
N.B. This option must be carefully used: in fact when the user has typed in new data and then opens an existing
file, the program will automatically open the modify file window (Fig. II.14).
The option Save File is used to save the data file previously opened. This operation is allowed only if the user is
operating with an existing file: the name of the file is always displayed on the screens upper edge. In the case of
*.* (which means that the new input data has not yet been saved with a name) the program will display an error
message.
The option Save File as... is used to save both an existing or a new file. This option operates similarly to the option
Open File ... but in addition the user must indicate the file name and its extension which must always be *.DTC.
The option Print Report allows the user to print the printpreview of the cross section analyzed and a numerical
report showing both the input and output data.
The option Save report as... allows you to save the project input and output data. You are also required to provide
both the file name and extension *.RSC. Save report and Save File as ... are very similar options except for the
file extension.
If you select an existing file you must add the last results obtained or delete them by rewriting a new document or
changing the file name.
N.B.: This type of file cannot be read by the Bank protection software through the option Open File.... To read or
print it you can resort to any editor (i.e. the MS-DOS

editor or a video writing program such as Word for
Windows,...).
The option Create .DXF file... saves the drawing of the section examined on a *.DXF file with a name provided
by the user. The drawing will have the abscissae and the ordinates of the main points of the cross-section: the point
of origin of the reference system is located on the drawings leftmost lower edge where the first and the second
number represent respectively the abscissa and the ordinate.
The option Exit ends the program.
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9.2.2. Options Menu
The Options Menu (Fig.II.7) allows you to select the language, the unit of measure and the screen background
color: your choice will be maintained until you end your working session.
Fig.II.7
The option Language allows you to choose the language you feel most comfortable with. The options available are:
Italian, English, French and Spanish. You can select any language any time: the program will instantly translate
the legend and convert both input and output data.
The option Unit of Measure is used to choose the desired unit of measure: International, Technical or American
System. You can modify your choice any time. Users must be aware that by saving a file, the program will
maintain the unit of measure used but not the language. For example if you have previously saved a file using the
Italian language and the technical system, if you enter this file and change the language and the system
respectively into English and American, when you save this file again, the program will keep the English language
but will change the American into the Technical system.
By selecting the option Screen color... you can personalize the screen background color. You can select one of
Windows standard colors or create your own.
9.2.3. Calculate Menu
The Calculate menu (Fig.II.8) allows you to run the calculation on the input data.
Fig.II.8
The option Rating Curve determines the discharge of the selected river cross-section.
By selecting the option Static Calculations the program conducts the hydraulic and static checks on the channel
lining and filters available, according to chapter 2.2 , Part I.
This option cannot be selected until the discharge value is available.
By selecting the option Waves the program will search for the lining which best counteracts wave motion. The
program will conduct this check even if the rating curve has not been previously calculated.
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9.2.4. Formula Menu
The option Unit weight water allows you to modify (i.e. when the water has a non-negligible sediment transport)
the water unit weight: the default values are respectively 1800 kg/m
3
and 1000 kg/m
3
.
Fig.II.9
9.2.5. Help Menu
Fig.II.10
This menu (Fig.II.10) provides the user with all information relevant to the pull down menu.
The option About Bank protection... consists of a help guide on the Bank Protection software. To enter this
option use F1 also.
The option Project Infos.. (Fig.II.11) allows you to type in the projects name which will be printed on the output
report. The projects name will be printed on the upper edge of the output report.
Fig.II.11
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9.3. River bed general data (Press F1 for help)
Fig.II.12
Fig.II.12 shows the window which appears on the screen after the Maccaferri Logo is displayed. This window
allows you to type in the general input data relevant to the river bed:
Q
p
= design discharge;
i
f
= slope of the river bed along the cross-section analyzed.
To move from one data field to another use the TAB key. Press enter to speed up this operation once you have
typed in the required value. You can access the following window only if all input data have been provided.
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9.4. Cross-section type selection (Press F1 for help)
Fig.II.13
Once the river bed general input data have been provided, you must select the type of river cross section.
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9.5. Specific parameters of the cross-section (Press F1 for help)
Fig.II.14
To type in the specific parameters of the cross-section you must select the desired segment of the channel cross
section (Fig.II.14) by clicking either on that segment or on the number corresponding to that segment. Than type
in the input data required (Fig.II.15).
If you mistakenly select the wrong segment, by pressing Cancel you can go back to the previous window.
N.B.: you are allowed to specify the number of sub-segments (One, Two or Three) only if the general parameters of
the cross-section have been previously provided. Conversely the program will display an error message.
When you enter this window, the program displays the default values which can be easily modified.
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Fig.II.15
Users are required to provide the following data:
Specific parameters:
Once you have selected the geometry you must specify the specific parameters of the cross-section, in particular:
Height elevation of the lower edge of the selected segment (m), referred to the river bed;
Slope slope of the selected section in terms of y/x;
Length the effective (non projected) length of the segment selected (m);
Coefficient of curvature multiplying factor for a bend, that is the increment coefficient of the shear stress
acting on the rivers outer bank. Refer to the reference manual for further
information on the value to type in (default value = 1).
Substretches select the no. of sub-segments desired 1, 2 or 3.
Velocity limit maximum admissible velocity for the granular material under the lining;
Friction angle friction angle for the granular material of the stretch
Once you have completed this operation you are allowed to select the number of sub-segments by selecting the
relative number (Fig.II.16):
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13
Fig.II.16
An additional window relevant to the sub-segment parameters will be displayed (Fig. II.16).
You must specify the sub-segment length and the type of material (Maccaferri product or BE
technique).
Once you have provided the characteristics of the selected segment and relative sub-segments,
press OK (remember that the program automatically checks the parameters of each segment while
you are selecting the number of sub-segments and it checks the sub-segments parameters when
you press OK to confirm your choice).
It is important to point out that the user may type in a personal material of which are known
roughness n and shear resistance
c
(fig. II.17), both for Maccaferri products and Bio-Engineering
techniques. The user may save in a single file up to 20 different types for each category of
products.
This opportunity allows the user to create one or more library files containing all the added
techniques: starting from these files it is possible to design all the different cross-section types.
The personal list will appear on video as shown in fig. II.18 (in this case the list is limited to 6
added techniques).
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Fig. II.17
Fig. II.18
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15
When you have completed typing in the parameters of a segment, the program will
automatically change it into a thicker segment: furthermore the field relevant to the number of
segments to select will disappear.
All of these windows will also allow you to modify the input data previously provided. By
selecting a segment, the input data previously specified will be displayed.
The buttons represented in the bottom left of the screen must be used for the following
operations:
Open faucet: conducts the rating curve calculation (equivalent to the rating curve option of the
Calculation Menu);
River bed: returns to the window relevant to the general parameters of the river (equivalent to
the option New Alveous of the File Menu);
Cross-section: returns to the cross-section type selection (equivalent to the option New Cross-
section of the File Menu)
Waves: opens the window relevant to the check against wave motion.
To make the Bank Protection software simple and quick to use, some buttons have the same
function as the options available on the pull down menu.
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9.6. Rating curve (Press F1 for Help)
Once all cross-section data has been provided, one may proceed to calculate the cross-section discharge.
The output data (the water level relevant to the flood design and the average velocity acting upon the cross-
section) are shown in the windows represented in Fig. II.19 and II.20 along with the pick buttons. The bottom
half of the screen shows a scale model of the river cross-section.
Fig. II.19
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17
Fig. II.20
The letters represented in the rectangles on each sub-stretch (capital letters for the Maccaferri products, small
letters for the B.E. techniques), according to their configuration allow the user to choose the most suitable material
for the cross-section lining.
The user may move, re-design or cancel (by a double click) the legend window if it intereferes with other
windows.
Even the print preview window may be closed with a double click.
The pick buttons, starting from the left to the right and from the top to the bottom, may be used for the following
functions:
Data sheet: returns to the type in/modify cross-section data window;
Stylized graph: plots the cross-section discharge graph. If desired, it may be closed by a double click.
River: returns to the window relevant to the river general data (it is equivalent to the option New alveous on the
File Men);
Cross-section: returns to the window for the selection of the cross-section type (it is equivalent to the option
New Cross-section of the File Menu);
Skidding car: allows one to run the lining stability checks;
Waves: activates the window to run the check against wave motion.
9.7. Lining stability checks (Press F1 for Help)
Once the hydraulic calculation has been conducted, the user can run the lining stability checks. The results
of this calculation, which may be activated from the Calculation Menu or the appropriate button, can be displayed
on the screen in a window as shown in Fig.II.21. If the results are not totally visible, it is possible to show them by
means of the button placed on the right side of the results windows. The same results shown in Fig. II.21 are
provided in the file or paper report with a different layout.
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Fig.II.21
9.8. Lining design with respect to wave motion (Press F1 for Help)
Fig.II.22
Independently from the discharge calculation, it is possible to design the most suitable lining to counteract the
wave motion.
The input data required are listed below (Fig.II.22):
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Input data required for the lining design against wave motion:
H
s
= design wave height (m);
slope = slope of the revetted area (rad);
The pick buttons (starting from the left to the right) have the following functions:
Waves: allows the design of the lining minimum thickness;
Curved arrow: returns to the previous windows.
PART III - NUMERICAL EXAMPLE
All pages of the final report are shown in the following example, where many different protection types have been
used. You can consult them by entering the Es_1.dtc file supplied along with the software.