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# x

= ! x
i
=

n
mean
s
2
= ! (x
i
- x)
2

n-1
variance
Tomato Weight
40 + 154 + 192 + 156 + 84 = 626 = 12.04
52 52
4(10-12.04)
2
+ 14(11-12.04)
2
+ 16(12-12.04)
2
+ 12(13-12.04)
2
+ 6(14-12.04)
2
= 1.29
52-1
4 10oz
14 11oz
16 12oz
12 13oz
6 14oz
Number of
Individuals weight
standard deviation = "s
2
= .36 oz
One standard deviation includes 66% of all measurements 11.68 12.40oz
Two standard deviations includes 95% of all measurements 11.32 12.76
How do measure heritability?
1. response to selection
2. compare offspring to parents offspring should resemble
parents more than unrelated individuals
3. comparison of monzygotic and dizygotic twins
if strong genetic component then monozygotic twins should
be more similar than dizygotic twins
Monozygotic or identical
twins are 100% identical
at the genetic level
Dizygotic or fraternal
Twins are on average
50% identical same as
other siblings
Concordance = frequency that both twins have same phenotype
genetically influenced traits should exhibit higher concordance in
monozygotic twins
Covariance
opulaLlon CeneLlcs
Pardy-Welnberg Law
lor 2 alleles wlLh frequencles of p and q p+q = 1.
ln equlllbrlum genoLyplc frequency p
2
+ 2pq + q
2
= 1.
PeLerozygoLe frequency never exceeds 0.3
1he frequency of heLerozygoLes ls greaLesL
when p = q = 0.3
AL equlllbrlum allellc and genoLyplc frequencles wlll noL change.
.7
.7
.3
.3
.49 .21
.21 .09
nonrandom MaLlng
lnbreedlng lncreases number of homozygoLes changlng genoLyplc frequencles.
uoes noL change allele frequencles
MuLaLlon raLe ls low for mosL genes, so change ln allellc frequency ls very small. 1he
effecL on Pardy-Welnberg equlllbrlum ls negllglble.
MuLaLlon
8 blood Lype
MlgraLlon - gene flow
Afr|can
cheetah
As|at|c
cheetah
Cheetah range |n 1900
Cheetah range today
CeneLlc urlfL
Natural Selection
Starting frequencies A = 0.5 a = 0.5
W
# reproducing
individuals fitness individuals
AA = 0.25 25 100% 25 A = 50 + 45/ 180 = 0.53
Aa = 0.5 50 90% 45 a = 40 + 45/180 = 0.47
aa = 0.25 25 80% 20
90
Change in frequencies will depend on
intensity of selective pressure
dominance relationships
naLural SelecLlon
ulsLrlbuLlon of slckle cell allele ulsLrlbuLlon of Malarla
1ypes of SelecLlon
overdomlnance
underdomlnance
Cne allele favored over Lhe oLher.
8oLh alleles favored.
PeLerozygoLe lower flLness.
"k|ght-mouthed"
1981
"Left-mouthed"
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Samp|e year
1.0
0.S
0
'82 '83 '84 '8S '86 '87 '88 '89 '90
lrequency-dependenL
selecLlon