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Some possible things you could try to find are (depending on the topic): - In what kind of devices there

are these kind of wear issues? What are the main reasons causing them? - Which materials are usually used / present in the applications and why (what are their good properties for the specific applications)? What are the effective materials in this tribosystem (e.g., if there is abrasive wear, which is the abrasive)? - Which wear mechanisms / modes are present in the system and which are the most common ones? How do they affect the device e.g., the usability? What is the most likely cause to the problems? Where specifically do these wear mechanisms occur (which part of device / component)? - How is the wear observed? - Which environmental conditions or other parameters are important in these contacts (e.g. temperature, humidity or other things)? Which factors promote and prevent certain wear mechanisms - environmental conditions etc.?

A ball bearing is a type of rolling-element bearing that uses balls to maintain the separation between the bearing races. The purpose of a ball bearing is to reduce rotational friction and support radial and axial loads. It achieves this by using at least two races to contain the balls and transmit the loads through the balls. In most applications, one race is stationary and the other is attached to the rotating assembly (e.g., a hub or shaft). As one of the bearing races rotates it causes the balls to rotate as well. Because the balls are rolling they have a much lower coefficient of friction than if two flat surfaces were sliding against each other.
All machined metal surfaces appear rough under the microscope. The individual roughnesses are of varying height and depth. When two bearing surfaces are brought into contact, they touch at an extremely small number of points.

How can the wear rate be tested? Which test methods could be used?

Bearing test rig (

Through testing, suitable materials can be selected for certain applications. To benefit from the results, a proper testing method must be selected to determine the important properties. A material that has been performing successfully in abrasive wear test, may have poor wear resistance in a different wear form. To make things complicated, a component can be subjected to multiple types of wear. In addition to wear mechanism, size matters Wear phenomena depend on the scale too. Testing can save time as the phenomena are accelerated. However it must be ensured that the increase in load/speed does not alter the effective wear mechanisms. More than just one kind of test may be necessary to evaluate the suitability of the material.

To obtain steady-state data, time-dependent changes in wear behaviour must be minimized by subjecting the samples to a running-in period before the actual test. Several tests must be conducted with each material in each condition to evaluate the test repeatability. Four requirements for testing: 1. Understanding the characteristics of the test method being applied 2. Expecting differing degrees of repeatability from different material types 3. Selecting the right testing tool for the job 4. Coupling measurements with physical observations of contact surfaces to ascertain the causes for the physical behaviour. Many of the wear tests are customized, non-standard tests to fulfill the requirements of simulating certain operating conditions and a plain number will not reveal much about a materials wear resistance. It is useful to compare the acquired data with results from a reference material. The reference material should be a well-known material with which there is only very little scatter in the results meaning that the results are well repeatable. With reference materials, the condition of the wear testing equipment and the reliability of the results can be determined. Documenting the tests: Wear testing equipment Geometry of contact Motion type (sliding, rolling, continuous, oscillating) Applied load perpendicular to contact area Velocity Environmental conditions (temperature, humidity) Wearing mediums (abrasives) Materials (also the counterface) Lubricants If a run-in/wear-in period is applied, description of it Specimen preparation (surface finish etc) Duration Date Observations Many types of frictional tests exist: With proper lubrication: the material pair is separated by a lubricant film; the friction coefficient is the friction coefficient of the lubricant. If partial contact exists, the friction coefficient is a sum of many aspects. With fluid, the friction coefficients can be serveral orders of magnitude lower compared to those of solid contacts. There are various standards of different wear tests to enable comparison of test results. Some equipment are commercially available, for example pin-on-disc or rubber-wheels. If the equipment is self-constructed even according to standards, some deviation in results may occur. Standard or close-to-standard equipment are normally model or semitribocouple tests (e.g. pin-on-disk). When close to reality tests are required, often tailormade semi-tribocouple or tribocouple test equipment is needed.

Testing for abrasive wear The abrasive is varied in terms of size, shape, hardness. Using a tribometer test. The

In adhesion, many phenomena may be effective. Even minor alterations in the environment can lead to changes. Test results might be difficult to interpret.

Which factors should be considered in testing these parts? What kind of parameters should be used?
How varying certain parameters will affect the rates of the different wear processes. Total wear rate is affected by the forces required to (1) shear metallic junctions (2) plow through softer metal (3) shear the surface films and/or lubricant.

Material properties of Bearing & Test surface: Strength, Ductility, Corrosion resistance. Typical bearing materials have been: Chrome Steel (for environments where corrosion resistance is not critical) SAE 52100 Steel is most comon (extreme noise-sensitive applications) DD400 Matersitic stainless steel combined with heat treatment (superior hardness, low noise characteristics, decent corrosion resistance) Synergetic effects of the two surfaces, namely the Bearing and Test surfaces The properties of the abrasive affect the abrasive wear rate Specimen preparation and storage according to same procedure

Test design
Loading The rate of corrosive wear may be increased by increasing the load Motion type

Control of the apparatus operating parameters Unwanted effects like uncontrolled vibration

Environmental conditions
Failure to include corrosion-preventive measures during installation can result in rusting of bearings, thus producing abrasive wear and pitting of the races.

Temperature, humidity, etc. may vary depending on the season The effect of temperature on wear is complicated by opposing factors. The increasing ductility of metals (with increasing temperature) aids junction growth and seizure, lowering adhesion wear rate. With increasing air temperature, the rate of oxide formation also increases, resulting in transition in the coefficient of friction at a critical value of oxide thickness. In the event of a high vacuum, for example in space, the effect of oxide formation is negligible. Contamination Wear can occur due to contamination by foreign matter and corrosion. Fretting corrosion can be a resulting phenomena; it occurs at the contact area between two materials under load and subject to minute relative motion by vibration or some other force. A rust like powder is resulted.
Chlorine gas, ozone, and other chemicals will shorten bearing life, due to contamination

(Seals are necessary to provide optimum ball bearing life by retaining lubricants and preventing contaminants from reaching central work surfaces)

Presence of lubricant Amount of lubricant: Excessive grease can cause shearing, heat buildup.

Lubricant properties Type of lubricant:

Oils: Used to cover all liquid lubricants. Previously most lubricating oil was refined from petroleum. Today, synthetic oils have found accpetance due to improved properties. Basic lubricant for ball bearings. Greases: Oils which contain a thickening agent to make them semi-solid, preventing oil migration from the lubrication site. Used when frequent lubricant replenishment is undesirable. Use of grease rather than oil results in higher starting and running torque and can limit the bearing to lower speeds. Dry lubricants: Include any lubricants in solid form such as loose powders

Gases: Such as air Low temperature properties, volatility, temperature/viscosity characteristics

Diesters in general have better low temperature properties, lower volatility, and better temperature/viscosity characteristics. Silicons and fluorinated compounds possess even lower volatility and wider temperature/viscosity properties. Petroleum mineral lubricant are useable only at moderate temperature ranges (-30 to 120 degrees celsius) Chemical properties

Petroleum and diester oils contain additives that limit chemical changes/increase oxidation resistance and protect the bearing metal from corrosion.

(Improperly lubricated bearings and incomplete or flawed wear analysis of bearings can lead to destructive wear and bearing failures. Using an oil which is too volatile can result in significant viscosity increase through evaporation, leading to excessive power demands on the drive.) Pressure, absence of oxygen, temperature extremes, electromagnetic radiation, can drastically affect lubricants and the bearing surface. Thin film lubrication Thick film lubrication