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Physics 1 Topic 1: Thermal Energy Transfers

Extended Writing Task: Heating the Home


With energy prices increasing it is important that we insulate our homes to prevent heat from
escaping. Some of the methods are simple to put into place whilst others require a large financial
investment.
Outline the ways in which we can prevent heat escaping from our homes. You should include:

Where heat escapes from our homes

What we can do to prevent this

An explanation of what conduction, convection and radiation are

An explanation of how your prevention methods stop conduction, convection or radiation

A justified opinion on which insulation methods someone should buy first.


Continue this task on lined paper and attach it behind this sheet.

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Physics 1 Topic 1: Thermal Energy Transfers

Extended Writing Task: Heating the Home

This work was done by ________________________________________ and was marked by __________________________________________

P
I

Praise. What were the positive aspects of the work? What did they do well? What skills did they demonstrate?

Improvements. What were the literacy issues in the piece of work?


Always use capital letters at the beginning of a sentence.
Always use capital letters for proper nouns.
Make sure you write on the line and not above or below it.
Use scientific vocabulary appropriate to the task.

Write in ink.
Draw in Pencil.
Use a ruler.
Learn the spellings identified in your work.
Ensure sentences make sense.
Use correct punctuation.
Vary your sentences to demonstrate your understanding.

D answer
Some of the places where heat escapes from
a house are listed or labelled on a diagram.

B answer
Most of the places where heat escapes from a
house are listed or labelled on a diagram.

Some methods of preventing heat loss from a


house are listed or labelled on a diagram.
Conduction is described as heat transfer in
solids.
Convection is described as heat transfer in
liquids and gases.

Most methods of preventing heat loss from a


house are listed or labelled on a diagram.
Conduction is the passing on of vibrations to
neighbouring atoms...
Convection is when atoms gain energy,
vibrate more, become less dense and rise...

Radiation is described as heat transfer as a


wave.
Some of the named insulation methods are
linked to conduction, convection or radiation.
An opinion on which insulation method to

Radiation is an electromagnetic wave that


doesnt need atoms to happen.
All of the named insulation methods are
linked to conduction, convection or radiation...
...which has some justification in terms of cost

A* answer
The places are listed as: through the walls,
windows and roof, under doors, out of
keyholes and letter boxes and any reference
to human action e.g. leaving windows and
doors open.
All methods of preventing heat loss from a
house are listed or labelled on a diagram.
...metals have free electrons which makes
them better conductors.
...when they lose energy they cool, become
more dense and fall. This is a convection
current.
Radiation is infrared radiation that doesnt
need atoms the happen.
...with an explanation of how they stop or slow
it from happening.
...the term payback time is used or explained.

install first is stated...


or saving compared to the other methods...
Next Steps. How can they move their work onto the next grade? What didnt they include?

Grade

Effort

Physics 1 Topic 2: Energy, Efficiency and Power


Extended Writing Task: Reducing the Bills
With energy prices increasing it is important that we dont waste electricity in our homes. Some
appliances are very inefficient and many are left on standby when they are not being used.
Explain why using an inefficient television and keeping it on standby is a waste of money. You
should include:

The energy transformations the television makes happen (including a Sankey diagram)

What efficiency means and how it is calculated

What happens when the television is left on standby

An explanation of where energy is transferred to and why it is difficult to use again

An explanation of how our electricity bills are calculated

An explanation of how we can reduce our electricity bills.


Continue this task on lined paper and attach it behind this sheet.

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Physics 1 Topic 2: Energy, Efficiency and Power

Extended Writing Task: Reducing the Bills

This work was done by ________________________________________ and was marked by __________________________________________

P
I

Praise. What were the positive aspects of the work? What did they do well? What skills did they demonstrate?

Improvements. What were the literacy issues in the piece of work?


Always use capital letters at the beginning of a sentence.
Always use capital letters for proper nouns.
Make sure you write on the line and not above or below it.
Use scientific vocabulary appropriate to the task.

Write in ink.
Draw in Pencil.
Use a ruler.
Learn the spellings identified in your work.
Ensure sentences make sense.
Use correct punctuation.
Vary your sentences to demonstrate your understanding.

D answer
The energy transformations are described as
electric in and light and sound out.
The Sankey diagram has one arrow going in
and some arrows coming out but labels may
be missing.
Efficiency is described in basic or incorrect
terms such as how much energy it wastes or
how good something is at giving out energy.

B answer
The energy transformations are described as
electric in and light, sound and thermal out.
The Sankey diagram has one arrow going in
and three arrows coming out which are
labelled...
Efficiency is explained from an efficient or
inefficient example rather than a general
definition.

The term standby is described as not quite


off or ready to start quickly.

Either of the efficiency equations are present.


There is an explanation that a device on
standby is still using/transferring energy.

There is an explanation that energy is


transferred to the things around the device
e.g. air or table.
The cost of electricity is described as how

A* answer
Electric energy is put in, light and sound come
out as useful and thermal comes out as waste.
...and are of appropriate size; the out arrows
add up to the in arrow.

The terms surroundings is used in the


explanation of where energy is transferred to...

Efficiency is described as a measure of how


much useful energy comes out of a device
compared to the total energy put in to the
device.
Both efficiency equations are present.
There is an explanation that devices on
standby still use energy but less than when
they are on.
...it is more difficult to use because it is spread
out and difficult to get back into one place.

The cost of electricity is described as the

The cost of electricity is described as how

much electricity is used how much


number of units used how much each unit
many kWh used how much each kWh costs.
electricity costs.
costs.
There is an explanation of how to reduce our
...the explanation outlines using more efficient
...the explanation outlines using another
bills with some reference to using less or
appliances...
energy provider that charges less per kWh.
turning off...
Next Steps. How can they move their work onto the next grade? What didnt they include?
Grade
Effort

Physics 1 Topic 3: Generating Electricity


Extended Writing Task: Future Energy
The UK depends heavily on the burning of fossil fuels to provide the electricity we need.
Many renewable resources are used to generate the electricity but these only account for 5.6% of
all the electricity produced in the UK.
Explain how you think we should generate electricity in the future. Your opinion should include:

Which methods you think we should use

An explanation of how they work including the energy transformations that are occurring

The advantages and disadvantages of using these methods

Why you have chosen these methods over the other methods that we have covered.
Continue this task on lined paper and attach it behind this sheet.

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Physics 1 Topic 3: Generating Electricity

Extended Writing Task: Future Energy

This work was done by ________________________________________ and was marked by __________________________________________

P
I

Praise. What were the positive aspects of the work? What did they do well? What skills did they demonstrate?

Improvements. What were the literacy issues in the piece of work?


Always use capital letters at the beginning of a sentence.
Always use capital letters for proper nouns.
Make sure you write on the line and not above or below it.
Use scientific vocabulary appropriate to the task.

D answer
One method of generating electricity is
covered.
The explanation of how each method
generates electricity is poorly organised, with
almost no specialist terms and little or no
detail.
For any of the named methods of generating
electricity the input and output energy types
are stated but some may be incorrect.
Advantages are given in terms of running out,
fuel costs or protecting the environment...

Disadvantages are given in terms of running


out, fuel costs or harm to the environment...
There is an overall opinion on how to

Write in ink.
Draw in Pencil.
Use a ruler.
Learn the spellings identified in your work.
Ensure sentences make sense.
Use correct punctuation.
Vary your sentences to demonstrate your understanding.

B answer
Two methods of generating electricity are
covered.
The explanations for each method have some
structure and organisation, some detail is
given and some specialist terms are used.

A* answer
Three (or more) methods of generating
electricity are covered.
The explanations are clear and written in an
organised way, it contains a range of a
relevant specialist terms.

All the named methods of generating


electricity have the correct input and output
energy types stated...
...the environmental damage that it prevents is
described in detail e.g. it does not add to
global warming because it doesnt give out
CO2...
...the environmental damage that it causes is
described in detail e.g. it releases sulphur
dioxide which causes acid rain...
The overall opinion shows consideration of

...including the wasted energy out and where


this transformation occurs.
...sustainability, reliability, running costs and
suitability for the location/availability of
locations.
...sustainability, reliability, running costs and
suitability for the location/availability of
locations.
...of several methods of generating electricity

generate electricity with some reasons given.


the advantages and disadvantages...
(including the methods not chosen).
Next Steps. How can they move their work onto the next grade? What didnt they include?
Grade

Effort

Physics 1 Topic 4: Waves


Extended Writing Task: What do Waves do?
There are many different types of wave in the world around us; some that we can see and others
that we cant. Although two waves may look differently, all waves have similar properties and
behave in the same way. Outline the similarities and differences in the different types of waves and
what they do. You should include:

An explanation of how waves are created and what they do

An explanation of the key characteristics of a wave (like wavelength)

The wave speed equation with rearrangements and units

An explanation of the two types of waves and give examples of each

An explanation of what reflection, refraction, and diffraction are

Diagrams to support your explanations.


Continue this task on lined paper and attach it behind this sheet.

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Physics 1 Topic 4: Waves

Extended Writing Task: What do Waves do?

This work was done by ________________________________________ and was marked by __________________________________________

P
I

Praise. What were the positive aspects of the work? What did they do well? What skills did they demonstrate?

Improvements. What were the literacy issues in the piece of work?


Always use capital letters at the beginning of a sentence.
Always use capital letters for proper nouns.
Make sure you write on the line and not above or below it.
Use scientific vocabulary appropriate to the task.

D answer
It is explained that waves are made by
vibrations...
Wavelength, amplitude, frequency, peak,
trough and wave speed are listed as
characteristics...
The wave speed equation is present in words
or in symbol form (c = f x )...
The two types of waves are named as
longitudinal and transverse...

There is a diagram showing both types of


wave...
Reflection and refraction are explained as
bouncing off and bending through...

Write in ink.
Draw in Pencil.
Use a ruler.
Learn the spellings identified in your work.
Ensure sentences make sense.
Use correct punctuation.
Vary your sentences to demonstrate your understanding.

B answer
...they reflect, refract and diffract...

A* answer
...they all transfer energy from place to place.

...some of these characteristics are explained


or defined...

...all of these characteristics are explained or


defined.

...the units are stated as metres per second


(m/s), Hertz (Hz) and metres (m) and linked to
the correct quantity...
...examples of each type of wave are given.
Examples include light, any EM waves, water
wave or Mexican wave for transverse waves
and sound waves for longitudinal waves...
...with some of the characteristics labelled...

...the equation is shown rearranged to make f


and the subject.

...the law of reflection is described. Diffraction


is described as waves spreading out through a
gap...

...refraction is explained as the bending of


light as it travels from one material to another.

...longitudinal is described as having vibrations


in the same direction as wave travel and
transverse with vibrations at right angles to
the direction of wave travel.
...with all of the characteristics labelled.

There are some diagrams to support the


There is a diagram for reflection, reflection
...which are labelled.
above explanations but they may be unclear...
and diffraction...
Next Steps. How can they move their work onto the next grade? What didnt they include?

Grade

Effort

Physics 1 Topic 5: EM Spectrum and Space


Extended Writing Task: Thinking Backwards
Many scientists believe that the universe started from one concentrated point with a Big Bang
however,theres more to the theory than this. Explain what the Big Bang theory is and explain how
scientists came up with it. You should include:

What is red shift and how it happens

How this led to the idea that the universe is expanding

How this led to the Big Bang theory

What cosmic background radiation is

How this supports the Big Bang theory

Why people may not believe the theory.


Continue this task on lined paper and attach it behind this sheet.

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Physics 1 Topic 5: EM Spectrum and Space

Extended Writing Task: Thinking Backwards

This work was done by ________________________________________ and was marked by __________________________________________

P
I

Praise. What were the positive aspects of the work? What did they do well? What skills did they demonstrate?

Improvements. What were the literacy issues in the piece of work?


Always use capital letters at the beginning of a sentence.
Always use capital letters for proper nouns.
Make sure you write on the line and not above or below it.
Use scientific vocabulary appropriate to the task.

Write in ink.
Draw in Pencil.
Use a ruler.
Learn the spellings identified in your work.
Ensure sentences make sense.
Use correct punctuation.
Vary your sentences to demonstrate your understanding.

D answer
Red shift is described as light appearing
redder because it is stretched.

B answer
Red shift is described as light from start being
shifted to the red end of the spectrums
because it is moving away.

There is a statement that red shift was


observed from all the stars that we see...
There is a statement that scientists arrived at
the Big Bang theory by thinking backwards or
thinking in reverse.
Cosmic Background Radiation is described as
radiation coming from space.

...suggesting that they are all moving away


from each other...
Scientists arrived at the Big Bang theory by
thinking that if every star is moving away from
every other...
Cosmic Background Radiation is described as
microwave radiation that has been detected
coming from space...
CBR is linked to the Big Bang theory in terms
of (gamma) radiation being present just after
the Big Bang...
...it is based on theory and not observation...

CBR is linked to the Big Bang theory in terms


of it being the echo from the bang (or the
heat that remains).
It is explained that some people may not
believe it for religious reasons...

A* answer
Red shift is described as light from
stars/galaxies having a longer wavelength
than it should because the star is moving
away from the observer.
...and the universe is expanding.
The furthest stars show the biggest red shift.
...they all could have started in the same point
before the expansion/explosion.
..in/from all directions.

...which has stretched over time (red shifted)


to become microwaves.
...people may not understand the evidence or
the evidence may be interpreted in a different

way.
Next Steps. How can they move their work onto the next grade? What didnt they include?

Grade

Effort

Physics 2 Topic 1: Forces and Motion


Extended Writing Task: Speed Limits
There have been discussions recently on raising the national speed limit on motorways from 70 to
80 miles per hour and lowering the limit in built up areas from 30 to 20 miles per hour. What is
your opinion on these changes? You should consider:

What an increase in speed means in terms of journey time

An appropriate calculation to support this

An explanation of what stopping distance is and what affects it

What a decrease in speed means in terms of pedestrian safety

Summarise your opinion.


Continue this task on lined paper and attach it behind this sheet.

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Physics 2 Topic 1: Forces and Motion

Extended Writing Task: Speed Limits

This work was done by ________________________________________ and was marked by __________________________________________

P
I

Praise. What were the positive aspects of the work? What did they do well? What skills did they demonstrate?

Improvements. What were the literacy issues in the piece of work?


Always use capital letters at the beginning of a sentence.
Always use capital letters for proper nouns.
Make sure you write on the line and not above or below it.
Use scientific vocabulary appropriate to the task.

D answer
There is a statement that increasing the speed
decreases the journey time...
There is a calculation where speed, distance
or time is calculated. The units are
inconsistent or missing.
Stopping distance is explained in terms of
driver and vehicle.
The factors that affect stopping distance are
listed as the use of drugs or alcohol, weather
conditions, the condition of the brakes and
tyres...
There is a basic statement that cars travelling
at a lower speed are safer for pedestrians...
The summary contains an opinion on raising
or lowering the speed limit.

Write in ink.
Draw in Pencil.
Use a ruler.
Learn the spellings identified in your work.
Ensure sentences make sense.
Use correct punctuation.
Vary your sentences to demonstrate your understanding.

B answer
...because speed is a measure of how much
distance is covered per time/second/hour. The
equation s = d/t is present...
There is at least one calculation relating to
journey time with consistent units.
Stopping distance is explained in terms of
thinking distance and braking distance.
...concentration of the driver (e.g. using a
mobile phone), condition of the road surface,
mass and speed of the vehicle...
...as drivers will not travel as far whilst they are
reacting...
The summary contains an opinion on raising
the motorway and lowering the built up
limits...

A* answer
..and rearranged into t = d/s to support the
explanation.
There are at least two calculations that
compare the journey times for two different
speeds. The units are consistent.
Stopping distance is explained in terms of
thinking distance plus braking distance.
...and how these factors affect the stopping
distance is described.

...pedestrians are more likely to live if they are


hit by slower moving vehicles.
...with a justification for each opinion.

Next Steps. How can they move their work onto the next grade? What didnt they include?

Grade

Effort

Physics 2 Topic 2: Energy and Momentum


Extended Writing Task: Vehicle Design
In 1983 it became a legal requirement to wear a seatbelt whilst travelling in a car in the UK. Since
then new car designs have developed to increase the safety of the driver and passengers. Outline
these safety designs. You should include:

A description of the safety features of a vehicle

An explanation of how they protect the people in the car

The Physics principles in action when the vehicle stops suddenly or crashes (see topic title
for help)

Any ideas you have on future vehicle safety features

Diagrams to support your description.


Continue this task on lined paper and attach it behind this sheet.

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Physics 2 Topic 2: Energy and Momentum

Extended Writing Task: Vehicle Design

This work was done by ________________________________________ and was marked by __________________________________________

P
I

Praise. What were the positive aspects of the work? What did they do well? What skills did they demonstrate?

Improvements. What were the literacy issues in the piece of work?


Always use capital letters at the beginning of a sentence.
Always use capital letters for proper nouns.
Make sure you write on the line and not above or below it.
Use scientific vocabulary appropriate to the task.

Write in ink.
Draw in Pencil.
Use a ruler.
Learn the spellings identified in your work.
Ensure sentences make sense.
Use correct punctuation.
Vary your sentences to demonstrate your understanding.

D answer
Safety features are listed as: seat belts,
airbags...
There is a basic statement about the safety
features. This could include ideas that they
stop us hitting our heads or being thrown
from the vehicle.
There is some mention of momentum being
conserved...

B answer
...crumple zones, roll cages, side impact bars...

There is some mention of energy being


conserved...

...the kinetic energy of the vehicle before the


collision is transferred to other places in other
forms...
A future idea on vehicle safety is described in
detail which relates to the passengers...
The supporting diagrams show a vehicle with

A future idea is described but detail is lacking


on how this relates to the passengers.
The supporting diagrams are unclear,

There is a statement which outlines that the


safety features make a collision take longer
and so reduce the force experienced...
...the total momentum before a collision is
equal to the total momentum after the
collision...

A* answer
...anti-lock braking systems and traction
control.
...there is a reference to a change in velocity or
momentum taking longer.
ABS and traction control are explained in
terms of keeping control of the vehicle.
...the importance of this is explained. For
example, a collision would transfer
momentum to the other vehicle or if the
vehicle stops the passengers still have
momentum.
...such as sound into the air, kinetic energy to
anything the vehicle crashes into and heat to
the road surface.
...and explains how this will keep passengers
safe.
The supporting diagrams show a vehicle with

unlabelled or missing.
some of the safety features labelled.
all of the safety features labelled.
Next Steps. How can they move their work onto the next grade? What didnt they include?
Grade

Effort

Physics 2 Topic 3: Electrical Circuits


Extended Writing Task: Using Static Electricity
We can build up static electricity by rubbing a balloon against our head or when certain clothing
materials are rubbed together. Static electricity is used in many industrial processes, outline one of
these.You should include the following:

How static electricity occurs

The rules of electrostatic attraction and repulsion

An example of a situation where static electricity is used with an explanation of what


happens

Advantages and disadvantages of using static electricity for this job

Diagrams to support your explanations.


Continue this task on lined paper and attach it behind this sheet.

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Physics 2 Topic 3: Electrical Circuits

Extended Writing Task: Using Static Electricity

This work was done by ________________________________________ and was marked by __________________________________________

P
I

Praise. What were the positive aspects of the work? What did they do well? What skills did they demonstrate?

Improvements. What were the literacy issues in the piece of work?


Always use capital letters at the beginning of a sentence.
Always use capital letters for proper nouns.
Make sure you write on the line and not above or below it.
Use scientific vocabulary appropriate to the task.

D answer
A statement is made about static electricity in
terms of the movement of electrons/charges...

A simple statement is made about either


attraction or repulsion.
The use of static electricity is named but the
explanation of what happens is incorrect or
missing.
The advantages of using static electricity are
weak or missing.

Write in ink.
Draw in Pencil.
Use a ruler.
Learn the spellings identified in your work.
Ensure sentences make sense.
Use correct punctuation.
Vary your sentences to demonstrate your understanding.

B answer
... by friction. Removing electrons leaves the
material positively charged and adding
electrons leaves the material negatively
charged...
The statement outlines that opposites attract
and likes repels.
The use is named and there is a basic
explanation of what happens...
The advantages of using static electricity are
stated and explained...

A* answer
... which will build up if the electrons land on
an insulator because they cannot move
through it.
The statement outlines that opposite charges
attract and like charges repel.
...with an indication of where the positive
charge and negative charges are.

...the alternative to using static electricity is


described and it is explained why using static
electricity is the better choice.
The disadvantages of using static electricity
The disadvantages of using static electricity
...and are relevant to the use of static
are weak or missing.
are stated and explained...
electricity that is described.
The supporting diagrams are missing or
The diagrams show how static electricity is
... and the charged areas/places/objects are
incorrect.
being used...
labelled.
Next Steps. How can they move their work onto the next grade? What didnt they include?
Grade
Effort

Physics 2 Topic 4: Mains Electricity


Extended Writing Task: 3 Instead of 2?
Plugs and plug sockets in the UK have 3 pins but some only have 2. Do we need three pins if much
of the rest of the world only uses 2 pins? Your answer should include the following:

What the 3 pins are and which of the pins are present in the 2 pin plugs

An explanation of what the two common pins do

An explanation of what our third pin does

An explanation of the term double insulated

Common mistakes in the wiring of a 3 pin plug

A justified opinion onthe need for the third pin

Diagrams to support your explanation.


Continue this task on lined paper and attach it behind this sheet.

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Physics 2 Topic 4: Mains Electricity

Extended Writing Task: 3 Instead of 2?

This work was done by ________________________________________ and was marked by __________________________________________

P
I

Praise. What were the positive aspects of the work? What did they do well? What skills did they demonstrate?

Improvements. What were the literacy issues in the piece of work?


Always use capital letters at the beginning of a sentence.
Always use capital letters for proper nouns.
Make sure you write on the line and not above or below it.
Use scientific vocabulary appropriate to the task.

D answer
The three pins are named as live, neutral and
earth with live and neutral present in two pin
plugs...
The earth wire is described as a safety aspect...
The term insulated is explained as something
that doesnt conduct electricity.
The common wiring mistakes are described as
the wrong wire being attached to the pin...

Write in ink.
Draw in Pencil.
Use a ruler.
Learn the spellings identified in your work.
Ensure sentences make sense.
Use correct punctuation.
Vary your sentences to demonstrate your understanding.

B answer
...the live and neutral wires are described as
the wires that electrons move through...
...if there is a short circuit a current will flow
through the earth wire...
Double insulated is described in terms of the
appliance having a plastic or rubber casing...
...the casing being cracked, the cable grip
missing, the fuse being blown or missing...

A* answer
...the neutral wire is described as staying at
zero volts and the live wire alternates between
a positive and negative voltage.
...(instead of a person touching the case) and
so blow the fuse, breaking the circuit.
...and the cable being coated in plastic.

...the wires having too much metal exposed


and the cable having the inner wires exposed
out of the plug casing.
There is an opinion on if the third pin is
The opinion shows some understanding of
The opinion is justified with an argument that
needed.
the earth wires role.
shows some consideration of the opposite
opinion.
The diagram has the casing and the three
...in the correct location and correctly
...with a fuse drawn and everything correctly
wires...
coloured...
labelled.
Next Steps. How can they move their work onto the next grade? What didnt they include?
Grade
Effort

Physics 2 Topic 5: Atoms and Radioactivity


Extended Writing Task: Rutherford
Rutherfords scattering experiment changed the way that we think about atoms. Outline the
significance of the results of his experiment. Your answer should include the following:

What the Plum Pudding model of the atom is

The experimental set up that Rutherford used

What results he obtained

The nuclear model of the atom

How his results supported the nuclear model of the atom

How the results disproved the Plum Pudding model of the atom.
Continue this task on lined paper and attach it behind this sheet.

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Physics 2 Topic 5: Atoms and Radioactivity

Extended Writing Task: Rutherford

This work was done by ________________________________________ and was marked by __________________________________________

P
I

Praise. What were the positive aspects of the work? What did they do well? What skills did they demonstrate?

Improvements. What were the literacy issues in the piece of work?


Always use capital letters at the beginning of a sentence.
Always use capital letters for proper nouns.
Make sure you write on the line and not above or below it.
Use scientific vocabulary appropriate to the task.

D answer
The Plum Pudding model is described with a
reference to the positive and negative
charges.
The experimental setup is described as alpha
particles being fired at a piece of gold.
The results are described as most of the alpha
particles passed through but some came
back.
The nuclear model of the atom is described as
a nucleus in the middle and electrons around
it.
A statement links the fact that most of the
alpha particles passed through without
deflection to the atom being mostly empty
space...
A statement that the Plum Pudding model is

Write in ink.
Draw in Pencil.
Use a ruler.
Learn the spellings identified in your work.
Ensure sentences make sense.
Use correct punctuation.
Vary your sentences to demonstrate your understanding.

B answer
There is a reference to the positive dough
and negative plums.

A* answer
There is a reference to the negative plums
scattered at random across positive dough.

The setup described as alpha particles being


fired at a thin piece of gold and their paths
observed...
The results are described as most passed
through without deflection but some were
reflected back.
A positive nucleus with negative electrons in
shells around it.

...the alpha source is moved and the process


is repeated. The experiment took place in a
vacuum.
Approximately 1 in every 8000 was deflected
by more than 90.

...since alpha particles are positive the nucleus


must also be positive to repel them...

A tiny nucleus made of positive protons and


neutral neutrons with negative electrons
orbiting in shells.
...and negative charges around the outside
since atoms are neutral.

...because the positive charge would be thinly

...and so unable to repel a (fast moving) alpha

wrong because no alpha particles should have


spread...
particle.
been deflected...
Next Steps. How can they move their work onto the next grade? What didnt they include?

Grade

Effort

Physics 2 Topic 5: Atoms and Radioactivity


Extended Writing Task: Using Radiation
Some people are afraid of radiation even though they are exposed to a level of it every day.
Outline how radiation is used in the home, hospital and work place. You should include:

What the three types of radiation are

Similarities and differences between the three types and the effect each has on the human
body

Choose one of the three types and outline how it is used. You should include:

A description of how they are used

An explanation of why this type of radiation is used instead of the other two

A justification of the half-life that would be required.


Continue this task on lined paper and attach it behind this sheet.

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Physics 2 Topic 5: Atoms and Radioactivity

Extended Writing Task: Using Radiation

This work was done by ________________________________________ and was marked by __________________________________________

P
I

Praise. What were the positive aspects of the work? What did they do well? What skills did they demonstrate?

Improvements. What were the literacy issues in the piece of work?


Always use capital letters at the beginning of a sentence.
Always use capital letters for proper nouns.
Make sure you write on the line and not above or below it.
Use scientific vocabulary appropriate to the task.

Write in ink.
Draw in Pencil.
Use a ruler.
Learn the spellings identified in your work.
Ensure sentences make sense.
Use correct punctuation.
Vary your sentences to demonstrate your understanding.

D answer
The three types of radiation are named as
alpha, beta and gamma.

B answer
Alpha is described as a helium nucleus, beta
as an electron and gamma as a wave.

The three types are compared in terms of


their charges (+2, -1 and 0), masses (4, 1/2000
and 0)...
There is a general statement that radiation
causes mutation, illness, cancer or death.

...penetrating powers (weakest to strongest),


ionising powers (strongest to weakest)...

A* answer
Alpha is described as two protons and two
neutrons, beta as an electron and gamma as
an electromagnetic (EM) wave.
...and their deflection by electric and magnetic
fields (yes, yes, and no).

There is a statement that compares the


damage that they do from inside or outside
of the body.
The use is described and the correct type of
radiation has been given.
The explanation of why this type of radiation
is used refers to the properties (ionising and
penetrating power, range and danger to
humans) of two types of radiation.
A half-life value is given that is appropriate for
the use given.

There is a statement that compares the


damage that they do from inside and outside
of the body.
The use is described in detail and the correct
type of radiation has been given.
The explanation of why this type of radiation
is used refers to the properties (ionising and
penetrating power, range and danger to
humans) of all three types of radiation.
There is a statement giving the half-life with
an explanation of why it is not too long or

The use of radiation is named but the type of


radiation is incorrect or missing.
The explanation of why this type of radiation
is used refers to the properties (ionising and
penetrating power, range and danger to
humans) of one type of radiation.
The answer shows that the student knows
what half-life is but the value may be

incorrect or missing.
short for the use given.
Next Steps. How can they move their work onto the next grade? What didnt they include?

Grade

Effort

Physics 2 Topic 6: Nuclear and Stars


Extended Writing Task: Nuclear Power
Nuclear reactions are often deemed by the public as dangerous and many people react with fear
at the thought of a nuclear power station being built. Outline what nuclear actually means. You
should include the following:

An explanation of what nuclear fusion is

An explanation of what nuclear fission is

An description of where nuclear fusion happens and why it is important

An explanation of how a fission reaction could lead to a chain reaction

How a chain reaction can be stopped

Diagrams to support your explanations.


Continue this task on lined paper and attach it behind this sheet.

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Physics 2 Topic 6: Nuclear and Stars

Extended Writing Task: Nuclear Power

This work was done by ________________________________________ and was marked by __________________________________________

P
I

Praise. What were the positive aspects of the work? What did they do well? What skills did they demonstrate?

Improvements. What were the literacy issues in the piece of work?


Always use capital letters at the beginning of a sentence.
Always use capital letters for proper nouns.
Make sure you write on the line and not above or below it.
Use scientific vocabulary appropriate to the task.

Write in ink.
Draw in Pencil.
Use a ruler.
Learn the spellings identified in your work.
Ensure sentences make sense.
Use correct punctuation.
Vary your sentences to demonstrate your understanding.

D answer
A statement is made that explains that nuclear
fusion is the joining of two atoms or nuclei.

B answer
Nuclear fusion is the joining of two nuclei to
form one nucleus.

A statement is made that explains that nuclear


fission involves splitting of an atom or
nucleus.
The supporting diagrams of fusion and fission
are incorrect or missing.
There is a statement that nuclear fusion
happens in stars and keeps them shining.

Nuclear fission is the splitting of a nucleus


into two nuclei and releases energy.

A chain reaction is described as one atom or


nucleus splitting and causing another one to
split.

A chain reaction is described as a nucleus


splitting and releasing a neutron which is then
absorbed by another nucleus which splits and
so on...
The statement refers to the removal of
neutrons (or when all the nuclei have

There is a statement that a chain reaction can


be stopped with some reference to the

The supporting diagrams are labelled...


Nuclear fusion happens in stars and the
energy given out heats and lights the Earth.

A* answer
Nuclear fusion is the joining of two small
nuclei to form one larger nucleus and releases
energy.
A heavy nucleus absorbs a neutron and splits
into two smaller nuclei releasing energy and
two or three neutrons.
...the fission diagrams shows two or three
neutrons released.
Nuclear fusion happens in stars where
Hydrogen is fused into Helium and gives out
heat and light.
...the explanation mentions that each fission
event releases two or three neutrons.

...a steady state is reached when the fission of


one nucleus goes on to cause one more to

neutrons.
There is a diagram of a chain reaction...

undergone fission)...
split.
...showing one nucleus split and release a
...the nucleus releases two or three neutrons
neutron which is absorbed by another
and is labelled.
nucleus...
Next Steps. How can they move their work onto the next grade? What didnt they include?
Grade
Effort

Physics 3 Topic 1: Medical Uses of Physics


Extended Writing Task: Body Scanning
X-rays, CT scans and ultrasounds are used in medicine to produce images of the structures inside
the human body. For each of these methods outline:

How they are used to produce images

The scientific principles behind the medical use

An example situation where the method would be used

Advantages of using this method over the other two

Disadvantages of using this method over the other two

The risks involved.


Continue this task on lined paper and attach it behind this sheet.

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Physics 3 Topic 1: Medical Uses of Physics

Extended Writing Task: Body Scanning

This work was done by ________________________________________ and was marked by __________________________________________

P
I

Praise. What were the positive aspects of the work? What did they do well? What skills did they demonstrate?

Improvements. What were the literacy issues in the piece of work?


Always use capital letters at the beginning of a sentence.
Always use capital letters for proper nouns.
Make sure you write on the line and not above or below it.
Use scientific vocabulary appropriate to the task.

D answer
There is a statement about ultrasound being a
sound and it bouncing off or bouncing back.
The example of prenatal scanning is given as
a situation when ultrasound would be used.
The risks of using ultrasound are described as
being minimal or nil.
There is a statement about X-rays being an
EM wave and it passes through the body.
The example situation of checking for broken
bones is given.
The risks of X-rays are described as cells being
ionised, damaged, killed or made cancerous.
There is a statement about CT scans using X
rays.
The example of searching for cancer is given.
The risks of CT scans are described as cells

Write in ink.
Draw in Pencil.
Use a ruler.
Learn the spellings identified in your work.
Ensure sentences make sense.
Use correct punctuation.
Vary your sentences to demonstrate your understanding.

B answer
There is a statement that ultrasound is a high
frequency sound which bounces off
boundaries between two materials. There is a
reference to the time taken to return to the
detector...
The advantages and disadvantage of using
ultrasound are relevant to the use...
The statement outlines that X-rays are sent
through the body and affect photographic
film the same way that light does. This would
form the shadow of the bone...
The advantages and disadvantage of using Xrays are relevant to the use...
The statement describes how it uses X-rays in
a circular source and detector that can
rotate...
The advantages and disadvantage of using CT

A* answer
...the statement includes the value 20000Hz
and the terms reflect or echo. It includes that
some of the wave reflects back and some
continues forward. There is a reference to s =
d/t.
...and compared to the use of X-rays or CT
scans for the same situation/use.
...because X-rays are absorbed by bone and
metal but transmitted by soft tissue. X-rays
have a very short wavelength.
...and compared to the use of ultrasound or
CT scans for the same situation/use.
...to create a 3D image of the body. CCDs are
used instead of photographic film.
...and compared to the use of ultrasound or X-

being ionised, damaged, killed or made


scans are relevant to the use...
rays for the same situation/use.
cancerous.
Next Steps. How can they move their work onto the next grade? What didnt they include?
Grade

Effort

Physics 3 Topic 2: Lenses and Vision


Extended Writing Task: Glasses for the Third World
A retired Physics professor has developed adjustable glasses which can be distributed to the
people of the third world. The glasses consist of two pieces of plastic with a fluid inside them to
form a lens. The amount of fluid between the plastic can be adjusted to change the shape of the
lens.
Explain how these will be a benefit to the people of the third world. Your answer should include:

The structure of the eye

How images are formed in a normal eye

Why people are long/short sighted and what happens in their eyes

How they are corrected

How the adjustable glasses would help the people they are given to

Diagrams to support your explanation.


Continue this task on lined paper and attach it behind this sheet.

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Physics 3 Topic 2: Lenses and Vision

Extended Writing Task: Glasses for the Third World

This work was done by ________________________________________ and was marked by __________________________________________

P
I

Praise. What were the positive aspects of the work? What did they do well? What skills did they demonstrate?

Improvements. What were the literacy issues in the piece of work?


Always use capital letters at the beginning of a sentence.
Always use capital letters for proper nouns.
Make sure you write on the line and not above or below it.
Use scientific vocabulary appropriate to the task.

Write in ink.
Draw in Pencil.
Use a ruler.
Learn the spellings identified in your work.
Ensure sentences make sense.
Use correct punctuation.
Vary your sentences to demonstrate your understanding.

D answer
A diagram may be present and some of the
terms are labelled.

B answer
Some of the terms are defined and labelled
on a clear diagram.

There is an explanation of how images are


formed in terms of rays of light and the retina.

There is a reference to refraction taking place


at the lens and rays of light being focussed
onto the retina.

There is a basic description of the limitations


of long/short sight to focus on near/far
objects.
The supporting diagrams are missing or
incorrect.
A basic statement is made in terms of using
lenses to correct vision.

There is a reference to the length of the eye


linked to the inability to focus...
Diagrams show parallel rays of light being
focussed on, in front and behind the retina...
The statement connects short sight with
concave lenses and long sight with convex
lenses. ..

A* answer
The following terms are defined and correctly
labelled on a diagram: retina, cornea, lens, iris,
pupil, ciliary muscle and suspensory
ligaments.
There is reference to the ciliary muscles
changing the shape of the lens so that near
and far objects are focussed on the retina by
refraction.
...the malfunction of the ciliary muscles is
linked to the inability to change the shape of
the lens.
...the lines are drawn with a ruler and include
directional arrows.
...the statement includes a reference to the
power of the lens being dependent on the
specific person. Diagrams support the
explanation.

An advantage to using the glasses is outlined.

The use of the adjustable glasses is compared


The use of the adjustable glasses is compared
to the use of fixed glasses in terms of cost or
to the use of fixed glasses in terms of cost and
convenience.
convenience, related to the user.
Next Steps. How can they move their work onto the next grade? What didnt they include?
Grade
Effort

Physics 3 Topic 3: Moments and Stability


Extended Writing Task: Double Decker Design
Double decker buses are very tall vehicles but they very rarely topple over. Outline the reasons that
they dont fall over when they drive on a slope or in a circle.Your answer should include:

An explanation of what moments are

An explanation of what the centre of mass of an object is

What factors affect the stability of an object and how stability is increased or decreased

An explanation of when an object will topple over

An explanation of why they allow people to stand downstairs on a bus but not upstairs

Diagrams to support your explanations.


Continue this task on lined paper and attach it behind this sheet.

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Physics 3 Topic 3: Moments and Stability

Extended Writing Task: Double Decker Design

This work was done by ________________________________________ and was marked by __________________________________________

P
I

Praise. What were the positive aspects of the work? What did they do well? What skills did they demonstrate?

Improvements. What were the literacy issues in the piece of work?


Always use capital letters at the beginning of a sentence.
Always use capital letters for proper nouns.
Make sure you write on the line and not above or below it.
Use scientific vocabulary appropriate to the task.

Write in ink.
Draw in Pencil.
Use a ruler.
Learn the spellings identified in your work.
Ensure sentences make sense.
Use correct punctuation.
Vary your sentences to demonstrate your understanding.

D answer
There is a basic statement that a moment is a
turning effect of a force...

B answer
...with the equation moment = force x
distance from the pivot...

Centre of mass is described as where all the


mass is.

There is a statement that having more people


upstairs is more unstable...

Centre of mass is described as the point


where all the mass may be thought to be
concentrated...
...there is a statement on changing the
stability but it is unclear if this increases or
decreases it.
There is a statement that something will
topple over when the centre of mass is not
above the base...
...because this raises the centre of mass
making the bus more unstable...

The supporting diagrams are unclear,

There are some of the supporting diagrams

The factors that affect stability are named as


the height of the centre of mass and width of
the base...
There is a basic statement that an object will
topple over when it is tilted too far.

A* answer
...with the equation moment = force x
perpendicular distance from the pivot to line
of action of the force.
...the weight of an object acts straight down
from this point.
Lowering the centre of mass and widening the
base make an object more stable (accept the
reverse for decreasing the stability).
...so there is an overall moment which causes
it to topple over. The term line of action is
used.
...meaning it can only be tilted to a smaller
angle before it will topple over. There is a
reference to the slope of circle (mentioned in
the question).
There are diagrams for each of the

unlabelled or missing.
for moments, centre of mass and toppling.
explanations that are clear and labelled.
Next Steps. How can they move their work onto the next grade? What didnt they include?
Grade

Effort

Physics 3 Topic 4: Swings and Roundabouts


Extended Writing Task: Orbiting the Earth
A student asks If the Moon is attracted to the Earth how come it doesnt crash into us? Write an
explanation to this question based on what you know about centripetal force. You should include:

An explanation of how the Moon can move at a constant speed but still accelerate

An explanation of what centripetal force is and what provides it

An explanation of how the centripetal force can be changed

A description of what would happen if the Moon changed to a higher or lower speed

The forces involved and their relative sizes

Diagrams to support your explanation.


Continue this task on lined paper and attach it behind this sheet.

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Physics 3 Topic 4: Swings and Roundabouts

Extended Writing Task: Orbiting the Earth

This work was done by ________________________________________ and was marked by __________________________________________

P
I

Praise. What were the positive aspects of the work? What did they do well? What skills did they demonstrate?

Improvements. What were the literacy issues in the piece of work?


Always use capital letters at the beginning of a sentence.
Always use capital letters for proper nouns.
Make sure you write on the line and not above or below it.
Use scientific vocabulary appropriate to the task.

D answer
There is an explanation that the Moon is
accelerating because it is changing direction...
Centripetal force is described as the force to
make something move in a circle...
Some of the factors affecting the size of the
centripetal force are given.

Write in ink.
Draw in Pencil.
Use a ruler.
Learn the spellings identified in your work.
Ensure sentences make sense.
Use correct punctuation.
Vary your sentences to demonstrate your understanding.

B answer
...so the velocity is changing because velocity
is speed in a given direction...
...that acts towards the centre of the circle and
is provided by gravity...
The mass of the object, the speed of the
object and the radius of the circle are named
as the factors affecting the size of the force...

A* answer
...and acceleration is the change of velocity
per second.
...and is providing by the gravitational force
between the Earth and the Moon.
...increasing the speed and mass or
decreasing the radius will increase the size of
the centripetal force (accept the reverse for
decreasing the size of the force).
...because the centripetal force would be
smaller than the force of gravity for the Moon
travelling at this speed.
...because the force of gravity would be
smaller than the centripetal force for the
Moon travelling at this speed.
...and labelled.

There is a statement that if the Moon moved


...the Moon would leave the Earths orbit and
at a higher speed it wouldnt orbit the Earth
travel off into space...
anymore...
There is a statement that if the Moon moved
...the Moon would crash into the Earth...
at a lower speed it wouldnt orbit the Earth
anymore...
The supporting diagrams are unclear,
The supporting diagrams are clear...
unlabelled or missing.
Next Steps. How can they move their work onto the next grade? What didnt they include?

Grade

Effort

Physics 3 Topic 5: Electromagnetism


Extended Writing Task: Generating Electricity
Electricity (a current and potential difference) can be generated using a wire and a magnet. Outline
the different ways in which this can be done and how the electricity produced can be varied. You
should include:

A description of the set up required and what must be done

An explanation of what current and potential differences are?

An explanation of how a current and potential difference are induced

An explanation of how these are increased, decreased and reversed

Diagrams to support your explanation.


Continue this task on lined paper and attach it behind this sheet.

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Physics 3 Topic 5: Electromagnetism

Extended Writing Task: Generating Electricity

This work was done by ________________________________________ and was marked by __________________________________________

P
I

Praise. What were the positive aspects of the work? What did they do well? What skills did they demonstrate?

Improvements. What were the literacy issues in the piece of work?


Always use capital letters at the beginning of a sentence.
Always use capital letters for proper nouns.
Make sure you write on the line and not above or below it.
Use scientific vocabulary appropriate to the task.

Write in ink.
Draw in Pencil.
Use a ruler.
Learn the spellings identified in your work.
Ensure sentences make sense.
Use correct punctuation.
Vary your sentences to demonstrate your understanding.

D answer
There is a statement that a magnet and wire
are needed.
Current is described as flow and potential
difference (p.d.) as push.

B answer
The statement that a wire needs to be in a
magnetic field...
Current is described as the flow of electrons
and p.d. as the energy given to the electrons.

There is an explanation which outlines that


movement is needed and there is some
reference to the magnet and wire.
There is a statement that refers to changing
the magnet or the speed of movement to
change the p.d. or current.

The explanation states that the wire needs to


cut through the field lines (or vice versa) to
induce a p.d. across the wire...
The statement suggests that increasing the
strength of the magnet or the speed of
movement will increase the p.d. (or ref. to
decreasing)...
There is a statement that refers to turning the
magnet around and reversing the direction of
movement to reverse the p.d. (or current)...
The supporting diagrams show the magnet,

There is a statement that refers to turning the


magnet around or reversing the direction of
movement to reverse the p.d. (or current).
The supporting diagrams are unclear,

A* answer
...or a coil of wire and a bar magnet can be
used.
Current is described as the rate of flow of
charge and p.d. as the energy per unit charge.
This may be done by using the equations Q = It
and E = VQ.
...which will induce a current through the wire.
The wire needs to be at right angles to the
field.
...increasing the number of coils of wire
increases the p.d. (or ref. to decreasing). There
is a mention of cutting field lines.
...the statement refers to cutting the field lines
in the opposite direction.
The supporting diagrams show the wire, field

unlabelled or missing.

the wire and some labels are present.

lines, direction of movement and are fully


labelled.
Next Steps. How can they move their work onto the next grade? What didnt they include?
Grade
Effort