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1) Fault Vs Test coverage.

Fault Coverage :- Fault coverage is a percentage of number of detected faults over all the complete fault list considering untestable faults as undetected faults. Formula given below

#DET x 100 #FULL

Test Coverage :- Fault coverage is a percentage of number of detected faults from all the testable fault. As here we are considering only tetstable faults, test coverage will be always higher than the fault coverage. Formula given below
#DET x 100 #TESTABLE

Classification of UNT Faults :Untestable faults are those faults which could not be excited or which could not be propagated to POs. These faults cant cause functional failure and hence can be removed from the fault list while calculating coverage. Types of UNT faults are mentioned below. UNUSED faults :- This class includes faults on the pin which are not connected to the observation point and faults on floating primary output pins. TIED faults :- This class includes faults on gates where point of the fault tied to value identical to the stuck fault. TIED circuit may be due to Tied signals or AND and OR gates with complementary inputs or EXOR with same inputs or may be because of the constraints on the pins. BLOCKED faults :- This class include faults, which cannot be propagated to the observation point because of the TIED signals in the path. Redundant Faults :- After application of all exhaustive patterns to the design if some fault remains as UND then that fault comes under this class.

2) Why INPUT to OUTPUT path is not preferred during scan chain back tracing ? If we start tracing the scan chain from input to output then it is really very difficult to trace the scan chain properly as a flop may have multiple outputs and because of this tracing a scan chain becomes painful but if we trace from SO to SI then going form D input to previous Q is easy and hence this method is preferred for scan chain tracing.

3) What are two basic requirements for scan chain? Two basic requirements are 1. Clock should be controlled form TOP level, as uncontrolled clock may lead to malfunctioning of the scan chain. 2. RESET should be controlled, if it is uncontrolled for the scan chain then some of the flops may get reset during shift and we will lose the intended data for scan chain.

4) Why we need sometimes more than one capture clock in the design? If there are some non-scanable flip slops are present in the design then we need more than one capture clock. As During capture design will be in functional mode and non-scanable cell can excite combo logic next to its Q with desired value after getting triggered.

5) What are different types of the faults? Faults are classified broadly in to three types a) UNTESTABLE Faults b) TESTABLE Faults c)UNDETECTED Faults. Classification under UNT faults is mentioned in answer of the question 1. Classification under TESTABLE faults :1) DETECED faults :- This class include all the faults which are detected by ATPG patterns. It has two types a) det_simulation(DS) :- Faults detected during simulation. b) det_implication(DI) :- Faults detected when tool perform learning analysis. DS faults will be always more. 2) POSDET faults :- Possible detect fault, as fault is possible detect when a good machine have a binary result 0 or 1 and a faulty machine have result as X. A detected fault is a result of the binary difference between faulty machine and good machine and not X. This class has two sub classifications as below. a) Posdet_testable. b) Posdet_untestable. 3) ATPG_Untestable faults (AU):It include all faults which test generator was unable to find pattern but cannot be proven to be redundant fault. Testable faults become AU because of constraints and limitation on tool.

Fault may be possibly detected if we remove some constraints or change the sequential depth. Classification under UNDETECTED faults. Faults comes under this category which cannot be proved as AU or UNT faults. This type has two categories a) Uncontrolled :- fault comes under this category when required value at point to detect the fault doesnt achieved during simulation and hence becomes uncontrolled fault. b) Unobserved :- A fault comes in this category whose effect doesnt propagates to the observation point.