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YDS 2000 (47-49) Some 130 million years ago, a spike-backed dinosaur walked heavily through the wilderness of what came to be A stralia, and left its footprints as a gift for the future. !hey were the worl"#s best im$ressions o% a "inosa r#s two-ton %oot%alls& When they were found seven years ago in a remote valley in northern Australia, they $ro'i"e" scientists with the %irst clear e'i"ence that "inosa rs ha" li'e" in A stralia. This discovery provided further evidence for the theory that A stralia was once (oine" to a 'ast s $ercontinent that included what is now South America, Africa, India and Antarctica. 1& )t is clear %rom the $assage that* millions o% years ago* A stralia ----& A was undoubtedly the only suitable place in the world for the survival of dinosaurs +) was almost certainly not* as it is to"ay* a se$arate continent ! was, for the first time, inhabited by a large variety of dinosaurs " was for the most part a wilderness where no living being could survive # with its geography and climate resembled South America and Africa 2& !he $assage ma,es it clear that the "inosa r %oot$rints "isco'ere" in A stralia in recent years ----& A are the same as those also found in South America, Africa, India and Antarctica $ have little attracted many a scientist interested in the distant past of the continent ! could only have been made by dinosaurs weighing a lot more than two tons D) are in s r$risingly goo" con"ition altho gh millions o% years ha'e $asse" since they were ma"e -.DD.A/)* s $erlati'e0 # have made scientists revise the most recent theories concerning dinosaurs 3& 1ne reason why the "isco'ery in A stralia o% the "inosa r %oot$rints is so im$ortant is that* ----& A) $re'io sly* no one ,new %or certain whether this co ntry ha" e'er been inhabite" by "inosa rs -.DD.A/)* %irst0 $ contrary to the popular view, this continent had always been a vast wilderness ! until this discovery, nothing was known about the early climate of this continent " presumably, they will provide clues for future geological changes in this continent # up to this point, no one knew for sure that dinosaurs could weigh two tons

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

Ya,la23, 130 milyon y3l 4nce, diken-s%rtl% bir dino&or, A' stralya olaca, olan vah'i do(an%n i)inde yava' yava' y*r*m*' ve ard%nda gelecek i)in bir hediye olarak ayak i&lerini b%rakm%'t%. + nlar bir "ino5or n i,i tonl , a"3mlar3n3n "6nya"a,i en iyi i5leriy"i& +edi y%l ,nce -u&ey Avustralya.da u&ak bir vadide bulunduklar%nda, bilim a"amlar3na "ino5orlar3n A' stralya7"a ya2am32 ol" 8 n n il, a93, ,an3t3n3 sa8la"3lar. $u ke'if ayn% &amanda A' stralya7n3n 'imdi /*ney Amerika, Afrika, 0indistan ve Antarktika olan 'eyi de 1 Antarktika.y% da ihtiva eden geni2 bir s6$er ,3taya 5aman3n"a biti2i, ol" 8 na ek kan%t sa(lad%.

YDS 2000 (:9-;1) <ea"ing on $a$er is so m ch a $art o% o r li'es that it is har" to imagine anything co l" e'er re$lace the $rinte" boo,s we are se" to& $efore printed books came in, books had to be copied by hand3 this was obviously a slow process and very e4pensive. 5nce /utenberg had invented an economical way to make movable letters in the 26th century, it became $ossible to $ro" ce rea"ing material = ic,ly, comparatively cheaply and in large 7uantities. Since then, the printed word has become a permanent part of our everyday lives. So, how could anyone believe that sales of electronic books will e7ual those of paper books within a decade or so8 Still* some $eo$le thin, that they will& 4& !he $assage $ ts %orwar" the i"ea that* e'en tho gh the $rinte" boo, contin es to be $o$ lar* ----& A it will soon be completely replaced by the electronic book +) the electronic boo, may well be on its way in ->)!/)?0 ! it is no longer as popular as it used to be " fewer books are being sold than formerly # compared with the electronic book, it is very e4pensive

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

?H83ttan o, ma, ya2amlar3m353n o ,a"ar b6y6, bir $ar9as3 olm 2t r ,i* herhangi bir 2eyin al32m32 ol" 8 m 5 bas3l3 ,ita$lar3n g6n ol $ "a yerini alabilece8ini hayal etme, (bile) g69t6r. $as%l% kitaplar ortaya )%kmadan ,nce, kitaplar elle )o(alt%lmak &orundayd%. $u a)%k)a belli ki yava' bir s*re)ti ve pahal%yd%. /utenberg 26. y*&y%lda hareketli harfler yapman%n ekonomik bir yolunu icat etti(inde, o, ma materyallerini h35l3, nispeten ucu& bir 'ekilde ve bol miktarlarda 6retme, m6m,6n ol" . 5 &amandan beridir, bas%l% s,&c*kler g*nl*k ya'amlar%m%&%n daimi bir par)as% haline geldi. "olay%s%yla, nas%l olup da herhangi birisi elektronik kitaplar%n sat%'lar%n%n on on-be' y%l i)inde k:(%t kitaplar%n sat%'lar%na denk olaca(%na inanabilir ki8 Anca, ba53 insanlar b n n b4yle olaca83na inan3yorlar.


)n this $assage* the a thor s ggests that* in s$ite o% technological a"'ances* some $eo$le ----& A are dissatisfied at the rising prices of printed books $ still regard /utenberg as the leading figure in book technology @) will be rel ctant to gi'e $ the $rinte" boo, an" t rn to the electronic one -S1 !AA!0 " find it difficult to buy the kind of book they are looking for # realise that books published in our time are not as well-made as those in the past


)t is clear %rom the $assage that B tenberg#s in'ention o% the $rinting $ress ----& A was the only ma9or technological advance in the 26th century $ did not have any noticeable effect upon the prices of books ! did not put an end to the practice of copying books by hand " failed to spread the love of reading among ordinary people C) increase" the s$ee" at which boo,s co l" be $ro" ce" -SC+CD-S1EFG0

YDS 2001 (41-43) Eew B inea is home to some o% the worl"#s strangest creat res& Ior instance* there is a s$ecial s$ecies o% ,angaroo that lives in trees. There are also li&ards that are five metres long, and butterflies that are as big as dinner plates. <ew /uinea is an island hardly any larger than the state of Te4as, but it has as many bird species as are to be found, for e4ample, in the whole of <orth America. This is $artly " e to the %act that it has largely remaine" isolate" %rom the rest o% the worl". $ut it is also due to the fact that it has an incre"ible 'ariety o% ecological %eat res* ranging %rom tro$ical rain %orests to glaciers& 7& Je learn %rom the $assage that Eew B inea ----& A has actually fewer bird species than it formerly had $ is in many respects very similar to Te4as -DAS.I S1<BF0 ! owes its characteristic physical features to glaciers D) is an islan" with a remar,able range o% climatic %eat res -S)<A/)-KADDC/.L SC+CD0 # is gradually increasing its contacts with <orth America

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

Yeni Bine "6nyan3n en t ha% yarat3,lar3n3n bir ,3sm3na e' sahi$li8i ya$ma,ta"3r& Orne8in* a8a9lar"a ya2ayan 45el bir ,ang r t6r6 'ar"3r& Ayn% &amanda be' metre u&unlu(unda kertenkeleler ve servis taba(% b*y*kl*(*nde kelebekler de mevcuttur. +eni /ine Teksas #yaletinden pek de b*y*k olmayan bir adad%r, ancak, ,rne(in ku&ey Amerika=n%n tamam%nda bulunabilecek kadar )ok ku' t*r*ne sahiptir. + ,3smen a"an3n b6y6, oran"a "6nyan3n geri ,alan3n"an i5ole olmas3 ger9e8i y656n"en"ir. Ama ayn3 5aman"a tro$i, ya8m r ormanlar3n"an t t n "a b 5 llara ,a"ar "e8i2en inan3lma5 9e2itlili,te e,olo(i, 45elli,lere sahi$ olmas3 ger9e8in"en "e ,ayna,lan3r.

E1!> T0# ?A!T T0AT )evirilerinde T0# ?A!T ifadesini yok saymak, yerle'ik bir uygulamad%r> Son iki c*mle ',yle de )evirilebilirdi> $u k%smen adan%n b*y*k oranda d*nyan%n geri kalan%ndan i&ole olmas% y*&*ndendir. Ama ayn% &amanda tropik ya(mur ormanlar%ndan tutun da bu&ullara kadar de(i'en inan%lma& )e'itlilikte ekolo9ik ,&elliklere sahip olmas%ndan da kaynaklan%r.


Accor"ing to the $assage* ,angaroos that li'e in trees ----& A are very commonly to be seen in rain forests everywhere $ are only on the increase in <ew /uinea @) are ( st one eNam$le o% the o"" creat res to be %o n" in Eew B inea -.DD.A/)* s $erlati'e0 " are a threat to the bird population of <ew /uinea # are considerably smaller than the average kangaroo


!he writer $oints o t that one o% the reasons why there are 'ery many "i%%erent ,in"s o% bir"s in Eew B inea is ----& A that the climatic conditions of the island are suitable for rain forests $ the fact that many migrate there for the winter from <orth America ! that the island is a protected environment, and new species are constantly being taken there D) that this islan" has mostly been c t o%% %rom the rest o% the worl" -SC+CD-S1EFG0 # the fact that there is very little else of interest regarding wildlife

YDS 2002 (44-4;) The Aovell Telescope is the world.s oldest and most sensitive radio telescope. It consists of a giant white dish supported at a great height on a large and complicated structure of steel. !he telesco$e can $ic, $ signals in the ni'erse that are 10 billion light years away. And so it is truly e4traordinary. The steel structure that carries it, however, has the usual and very ordinary disadvantage of being liable to rust. !his o% co rse means that it has to be $ainte" reg larly. Bainting this, however, is not an ordinary or a simple task. !he men who "o the $ainting are gi'en a s$ecial training which incl "es resc e wor,& As they do the painting, the men work from ropes as this is the method which has been found to be the safest way of working at a height. 10& )t is $ointe" o t in the $assage that the /o'ell !elesco$e P& A only picks up signals effectively when the angle of the dish is in line with them +) can $ic, $ signals that are an immense "istance away -.DD.A/)* ra,am0 ! is no longer the world.s most sensitive radio telescope -DAS.I S1<BF* tersi 'ar0 " does not need to be supported at a great height in order to function efficiently # is old and so less efficient than it used to be

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

Aovell Teleskobu d*nyan%n en eski ve en hassas radyo teleskobudur. /eni' ve karma'%k bir )elik yap% *&erinde )ok y*ksekte tutulan devasa bir beya& )anaktan olu'ur. !eles,o$ 10 milyar 323, y3l3 5a,l3,ta,i e'ren"en sinyalleri to$layabilir . Ce bu y*&den ger)ekten ola(an*st*d*r. Ancak, onu ta'%yan )elik yap%n%n yayg%n ve )ok s%radan paslanmaya meyilli olmak gibi bir de&avanta9% vard%r. + 26$hesi5 "65enli olara, boyanma, 5or n"a olmas3 "eme,tir. ?akat bunu boyamak s%radan ve basit bir i' de(ildir. +oya ya$an insanlara can, rtaranl3, 9al32mas3n3 "a i9eren 45el bir e8itim 'erilir. $oya yaparken adamlar halatlardan Dsarkarak )al%'%r, &ira bu y*ksekte )al%'man%n en g*venli yolu olarak bulunmu' olan y,ntemdir.

11& )t7s clear %rom the $assage that the steel str ct re s $$orting the /o'ell !elesco$e P& A should have been given a less complicated design $ turned out to be more e4pensive than had been estimated ! has to be replaced completely at regular intervals D) $resents a serio s maintenance $roblem -SC+CD-S1EFGL >1<FE/F/F?0 # has to be painted at least once a year

12& )t is clear %rom the $assage that the wor, o% $ainting the steel str ct re o% this telesco$e ---& A) re= ires s$ecial s,ills an" is also com$arati'ely "angero s $ is 7uite straightforward once the method has been learned ! re7uires the removal of the dish " is relatively easy but e4tremely boring # can be done by anyone who knows how to paint +* D ve C se)enekleri A se)ene(inin tersini s,yl*yor

YDS 2002 (:0-:2) In one part of the <airobi <ational Bark there is a nursery for baby elephants whose mothers have been killed. There are at least two African keepers for each baby elephant, and a strong feeling of love soon develops between them. The keepers spend all day out in the park with the young elephants, hel$ing them to learn which %oo"s are best to eat an" to become con%i"ent among the so n"s an" smells o% nat re ( st as their nat ral mothers wo l" ha'e "one. #ach evening they return to the nursery. And, after a feed of milk, the young elephants settle down beside their favourite keepers and presently fall asleep.

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

In one part of the <airobi <ational Bark there is a nursery for baby elephants whose mothers ha'e been ,ille". There are at least two African keepers for each baby elephant, and a strong feeling of love soon "e'elo$s between them. The keepers s$en" all day out in the park with the young elephants, hel$ing them to learn which foods are best to eat and to become confident among the sounds and smells of nature 9ust as their natural mothers wo l" ha'e "one. #ach evening they ret rn to the nursery. And, after a feed of milk, the young elephants settle "own beside their favourite keepers and presently %all aslee$.

13& Irom the $assage* it is = ite ob'io s that the ,ee$ers "escribe" P& A $ ! " are responsible for all the nurseries throughout the <airobi <ational Bark are somewhat indifferent to the needs of the baby elephants are over-worked because they have to look after so many baby elephants actually know little about elephants and their environment

DSR G*AC/D)EBST i)in l*tfen YAD) 'e ?F//AE)K notuna bak%n%&. <airobi Hilli park%n%n bir b,l*m*nde anneleri ,ld*r*lm*' olan filler i)in bir bak%mevi 'ar. 0er yavru fil i)in en a& iki Afrikal% bak%c% me'c t ve aralar%nda k%sa &amanda g*)l* bir sevgi hissi geli2iyor. $ak%c%lar b*t*n g*nlerini parkta yavru fillerle ge9irme,teler, Dve onlar%n, t%pk% Dya'asalard% annenlerinin ya$aca, oldu(u gibi, hangi yiyecekleri yemenin en iyi oldu(unu ,(renmelerine ve do(adaki sesler ve kokular aras%nda kendilerini g*vende hissetmelerine yar"3mc3 ol yorlar. ?iller her ak'am bak%mevine "4n6yorlar. Ce, s*tle beslendikten sonra, yavru1gen) filler en be(endikleri bak%c%lar%n%n yan%na ,3'r3l3yorU94,6yor ve k%sa &amanda y, ya "al3yorlar.

C) ha'e ta,en o'er the role o% mother ele$hants %or the baby ele$hants -+CE>C!KC* B.>/. ?1QF/0

14& Je n"erstan" %rom the $assage that* in this n rsery* baby ele$hants P& A) are not only %e" b t also hel$e" to a"a$t themsel'es to the nat ral en'ironment $ ! " # spend a good part of each day e4ploring the park by themselves are looked after by keepers because the mother elephants have deserted them take a very long time to get used to their keepers and trust them are rarely treated as well as they ought to be

1:& 1ne can concl "e %rom the "etails gi'en in the $assage that the (ob the ,ee$ers "o P& A $ ! is largely concerned with feeding and physical e4ercising is an easy one, but e4tremely boring re7uires a period of thorough training in veterinary skills

D) re= ires a "ee$ n"erstan"ing o% the nat re an" nee"s o% baby ele$hants # cannot compare at all with the way a mother elephant brings up her baby

Fekimli y*klemlerin alt%n% )i&ersek>


YDS 2002 (:9-;1) A group of biologists studying the habits of chimpan&ees, around the -oba <ational Bark, made a surprising discovery. !here was $lenty o% water a'ailable %or them in the $ools le%t in ri'er be"s, but these animals always liked to dig their own pools by hand or with the help of sticks. As a result the water they drank had been filtered through the sand and so contained none of the "isease-carrying s bstances normally to be %o n" in water that is not mo'ing. In fact, they were "rin,ing clear water& 1;& As it is $ointe" o t in the $assage* water P& A $ ! D) # is responsible for more diseases than most people think must always be filtered through sand to make it drinkable is hard to find at certain times of the year that isn7t mo'ing is li,ely to contain harm% l s bstances -<@0 is of no importance to chimpan&ees

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

-oba Hilli park% civar%ndaki 'empan&elerin davran%'lar%n% inceleyen bir grup biyolog 'a'%rt%c% bir ke'if yapt%. Eehir yata,lar3n"a arta,alan ,696, s biri,intilerin"e onlar3n i9mesi i9in m6saitUme'c t bol mi,tar"a s 'ar"3, ama bu hayvanlar her &aman elleri veya )ubuklar yard%m%yla kendi su birikintilerini ka&may% tercih ediyorlard%. Sonu) olarak, i)tikleri su kum vas%tas%yla s*&*lm*'t* ve bu y*&den hare,et etmeyen bir s "a normal"e b l nabilece, hastal3, ta23yan ma""elerin hi) birini ta'%m%yordu. /er)ekten de, 2em$an5eler temi5 s i9iyorlar"3.

17& )t is clear %rom the $assage that there was $lenty o% water rea"ily a'ailable %or the chim$an5ees to "rin, P& A $ ! " # in the small $ools %orme" in ri'er be"s -<@0 in all areas of the -oba <ational Bark but they preferred river water as it was always moving and so clean but sometimes this water made them ill though they had to be taught how to dig holes to get it

1M& !he research team o% the $assage was s r$rise" to learn that the chim$an5ees P& A $ ! D) # never allowed anyone near their water pools could dig a hole in any part of the -oba <ational Bark were very careful not to waste water ha" %o n" a way o% getting clean water -DFYBF0 dug holes to get water if there was none left in the rivers

YDS 2003 (:M-;0) Space camps are a response to the rapidly e4panding discovery of space and to the %ascination with the n,nown which is s ch a "ee$ly ingraine" as$ect o% h man nat re& The birth of the space camp pro9ect, designed to educate young people about space, goes back to the year 2JK;. With the support of <ASA, the camps aim to teach yo ng $eo$le abo t the latest s$ace technology an" sciences in an entertaining atmos$here. They are America=s most popular educational centres. "r Werner von $raun, the scientist celebrated as the father of the Saturn C rocket, which carrie" the %irst manne" %light to the moon, was the first person to put forward the idea of space camps. 19& Je n"erstan" %rom the $assage that the main reason why s$ace cam$s are set $ is to ----& A help improve <ASA=s in9ured public image $ promote the scientific activities undertaken by <ASA ! encourage young people to consider making a career for themselves in space sciences " spread among young people "r Werner von $raun=s theories concerning space C) gi'e yo ngsters an o$$ort nity to en(oy learning abo t s$ace an" relate" scienti%ic acti'ities -AKAG0

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

M&ay kamplar% h%&la geni'leyen u&ay ke'fine ve insan "o8as3n3n b4ylesine "erin"en ,4,le2mi2 bir 45elli8i olan bilinmeyenin b6y6s6ne ,a$3lmaya bir kar'%l%k1bir yan%tt%r. Focuklar% u&ay hakk%nda e(itmek i)in tasarlanm%' olan u&ay kamp% pro9esinin do(u'u 2JK; y%l%na u&an%r. <ASAn%n deste(i ile, ,am$lar e8lenceli bir atmos%er"e son 5ay te,nolo(isi 'e bilimi ha,,3n"a gen9 insanlar3 e8itmeyi he"e%leme,te"ir. $unlar Amerika=n%n en reva)ta e(itim merke&leridir. Aya il, insanl3 9 2 ger9e,le2tiren Sat*rn C roketinin babas% olarak me'hur bilim adam% olan "r. Werner von $raun u&ay kamplar% fikrini ortaya atan ilk ki'i idi.

20& As it is $ointe" o t in the $assage ----& A man=s knowledge of space grew immensely with the landing on the moon $ space camps were set up as soon as space e4ploration began ! the e4ploration of space has revealed nearly all the secrets of the universe D) man has always %elt attracte" to the n%amiliar an" the neN$lore"* s ch as s$ace -<@0 # the Saturn C rocket has been used for various purposes in the e4ploration of space

21& As is $ointe" o t in the $assage* the $erson who %irst s ggeste" the establishment o% s$ace cam$s ----& A) was also res$onsible %or sen"ing the %irst astrona ts to the moon -.DD.A/)R I)<S! L -<@00 $ had himself always been fascinated by space ! was actually little known until the first moonlanding " had been working for <ASA since the early 2JKLs # had always stressed that the education of young people should have a practical approach

YDS 2003 (;1-;3) Ooses are the oldest source of perfume. Ancient documents mention rose oil, which is the strongest form of this scent, and in The Iliad Aomer relates how A$hro"ite r bbe" Aector#s "ea" bo"y with rose oil. What was meant by rose oil in these te4ts was not what we mean by this term today, since we learn from 0ippocrates that it was obtaine" by stirring rose $etals into hot oli'e oil. The method of e4tracting essential oil of roses was not discovered until much later. The most delightful story told of the discovery of the essential oil relates to the #mperor Pihangir D26IJ-2I;N who is sai" to ha'e ha" "istille" rose water $o re" into channels in the eNtensi'e gar"en o% his $alace so that the air was %ille" with this bea ti% l scent. 22& Je learn %rom the $assage that rose oil ----& A as we know it today is the same as that mentioned in early te4ts -DAS.I S1<BF0 +) was* accor"ing to Ai$$ocrates* ma"e by miNing rose $etals into hot oli'e oil -EAS)/0 ! cannot be e4tracted with the use of olive oil " is now unimportant in the perfume industry # only became popular in the time of the #mperor Pihangir

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

/*ller parf*m*n en eski kayna(%d%rlar. Antik belgeler bu kokunun en g*)l* bi)imi olan g*l ya(%ndan bahsederler, ve lyada a"l3 eser"e Aomeros A%ro"it#.n Ae,tor# n 4l6 '6c " n g6l ya83 ile nas3l o'ala"383n3 anlat3r. $u metinlerde g*l ya(% ile kastedilen 'ey, bi&im bug*n bu terimle kastetti(imi& 'ey de(ildir, )*nk* 0ipokrat=tan ,(reniyoru& ki o g6l ta9 ya$ra,lar3n3n ,35g3n 5eytinya83na ,ar32t3r3lmas3 ile el"e e"iliyor" . /*llerden u)ucu ya(1esans ya(% elde etme1)%karma metodu )ok sonras%na kadar ke'fedilmeyecekti. M)ucu ya(lar%n ke'fine dair en ho' hikaye, ha'a b g65el ,o, yla "ols n "iye* saray3n3n geni2 bah9elerin"e,i ,anallara "am3t3lm32 g6l ya83 "4,t6r"686 s4ylenen Qah !ihangir=e D26IJ-2I;N dairdir.

23& )t#s clear %rom the $assage that the Cm$eror Vihangir ----& A followed the method of 0ippocrates in the making of rose oil $ helped to develop the process of distilling rose water ! e4tended his garden so that more roses could be grown " learned about rose oil from his readings of 0omer C) li,e" the l N ry o% %illing his gar"en with rose scent -AKAG c6mlesi* <@0

24& )t is clear %rom the $assage that the se o% rose oil ----& A began with the #mperor Pihangir $ was first introduced by Aphrodite ! was originally reserved for the dead D) goes bac, to mythological times an" stories o% go"s an" go""esses # was restricted to the wealthy and the powerful

YDS 2004 (;M-;0) The invention of the printing press during the Oenaissance, together with im$ro'e" metho"s o% man %act ring $a$er, made possible the rapid spread of knowledge. In 2ENI, William !a4ton set up #ngland.s first printing press at Westminster, a part of Aondon. +y 1;40* that $ress an" others ha" $rinte" more than 2;*000 "i%%erent wor,s an" e"itions& Jith the $rinting $ress an" the increase" a'ailability o% boo,s* literacy increase". It is estimated that by 26@L more than half the population of #ngland was literate. 2M& Je n"erstan" %rom the $assage that $a$er $ro" ction metho"s P&

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

O,nesans esnas%nda matbaan%n icad%, ka(%t *retiminin geli'tirilmi' y,ntemleri ile birlikte, bilginin h%&l% yay%lmas%n% m*mk*n k%ld%. 2ENI y%l%nda, Aondra.n%n bir mahallesi olan Westminster.ta William !a4ton Rngiltere.nin ilk matbaas%n% kurdu. 2IEL y%l% itibariyle, bu matbaa ve di(erleri ;ILLLden farkl% eser ve edisyon basm%'lard%. Hatbaa ve artm%' kitaplara eri'im sayesinde, okurya&arl%k artt%. -aba hesaba g,re 26@L itibariyle Rngiltere n*fusunun yar%s%ndan fa&las% okur ya&ard%. $y 2IEL, that press and others had printed more than ;I,LLL different works and editions> 2IEL y%l%na gelindi(inde, bu matbaa ve di(erleri ;ILLLden farkl% eser ve edisyon D&aten basm%'lard%.

A) ha"* $rior to the intro"

ction o% the $rinting $ress* been relati'ely $oor -A<A @WK/C0

$ had, for many years, been a serious concern for !a4ton ! improved rapidly around the year 2IEL " contributed to the reduction in the printing costs of books # in Oenaissance #ngland were far ahead of those in other countries

29& )t is $ointe" o t in the $assage that* " ring the <enaissance* more an" more $eo$le P& A began to settle in Aondon, particularly in the neighbourhood of Westminster $ were setting up printing presses ! began to collect the early editions of the books printed by !a4ton " reali&ed the need to improve methods of paper production C) began to rea" an" write as more boo,s were $rinte" an" easy to obtain -SC+CD-S1EFG0

30& )t is clear %rom the $assage that %rom the time o% @aNton to the mi"-17th cent ry P& A there was no progress whatsoever in the techni7ues of printing $ most books were only popular for a few months ! a remar,able 'ariety o% boo,s became a'ailable in Cnglan" -.DD.A/) ra,am* tarih* ,ar23la2t3rma0 " #ngland.s population nearly doubled # the number of literate people remained the same

YDS 2004 (::-:7) Dro" cing %oo" costs the earth "early& Iirst o% all, to grow food, we clear land, which always incurs losses of native ecosystems and wildlife. !hen we plant crops or gra&e animals on the land. !he soil loses n trients as each cro$ is ta,en %rom it* so %ertili5er is a$$lie"& Some fertili&er runs off, polluting the waterways. Some plowed soil runs off, which clouds the waterways and interferes with the growth of a7uatic plants and animals. !o $rotect cro$s against wee"s an" $ests, we a$$ly herbici"es an" $estici"es. !hese chemicals also $oll te the water and, wherever the wind carries them, the air. Host herbicides and pesticides kill not only weeds and pests, but also native insects, and animals that eat those plants and insects. 31& !he main $oint ma"e in the $assage is that ----& A we "amage lan" in 'ario s ways in o r e%%orts to grow cro$s %or %oo" -KADDC/)* S)<A/) AE/A!)0 $ it is possible to grow plenty of food without using any fertili&ers ! the pollution caused by herbicides and pesticides can easily be overcome " a7uatic plants and animals are the ones that suffer most from the use of chemicals # ecosystems worldwide are being seriously threatened with e4tinction

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

+iyecek yeti'tirmek topra(a )ok pahal%ya mal olmaktad%r. Rlk olarak, yiyecek yeti'tirmek i)in tarla a)ar%&, ki bu da her &aman yerel ekosistem ve yaban hayat%nda kay%plara yol a)ar. "aha sonra bu ara&ide bitki yeti'tirir veya hayvan otlat%r%&. 0er ekin kendinden al%nd%(%nda, toprak besin maddelerini yitirir, dolay%s%yla g*bre tatbik edilir. $a&% g*breler ta'ar1ak%p gider ve akarsular% kirletir. $ir k%s%m s*r*lm*' toprak da s*&*l*p gider, bu ise akarsular% bulan%kla't%r%r ve su bitki ve hayvanlar%n%n b*y*mesini engeller. Ayr%k otu ve &ararl%lara kar'% ekinleri korumak i)in ot ilac% ve &ararl% ilac% tatbik ederi&. $u kimyasal maddeler de suyu ve, r*&gar her nereye ta'%rsa, oradaki havay% kirletir. Fo(u ot ilac% ve &ararl% ilac% sadece ayr%k otunu ve &ararl%lar% ,ld*rmekle kalma&, ayn% &amanda o bitki ve b,cekleri yiyen yerel b,cekleri ve hayvanlar% da ,ld*r*r.

32& !he a thor $oints o t in the $assage that the chemicals we se to grow %oo" ----& A do not as a general rule pollute either the water or the air $ ultimately cause serious soil loss ! are the same type of chemicals as herbicides and pesticides " also support the wildlife in the region C) are both bene%icial an" harm% l -A/S10

33& )t is $ointe" o t in the $assage that %ertili5ers are se" P& A only when the crops are overgrown by weeds $ since they help to restore ecosystems ! because they have almost no ill effect upon the environment D) to re$lace the n trients that cro$s ha'e ta,en o t o% the soil -AKAG* SC+CD0 # to protect crops from pests


YDS 2004 (;1-;3) <arrowly defined, fitness refers to the characteristics that enable the body to perform $hysical acti'ity. These characteristics include fle4ibility of the 9oints, strength and endurance of the muscles, including the heart muscle, and a healthy body composition. A broader definition of fitness is the ability to meet routine $hysical "eman"s with enough reserve energy to rise to a sudden challenge. This definition shows how fitness relates to everyday life. 1r"inary tas,s s ch as carrying hea'y s itcases* o$ening a st c, win"ow* or climbing %o r %lights o% stairs* which might strain an n%it $erson, are easy for a fit person. Still another definition is the body.s ability to withstand stress, meaning both $hysical an" $sychological stresses. !hese "e%initions "o not contra"ict each otherL all three describe the same wonderful condition of the body. 34& Accor"ing to the $assage* %or $eo$le who are not %it* P& A psychological depression is more or less inevitable +) the carrying o t o% 'ario s a$$arently or"inary tas,s can be rather "i%%ic lt ! the first thing to consider is a better diet " recommendations on how to achieve fitness invariably have no appeal # e4ercise is tiring and should be avoided

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

"ar tan%m%yla, SfitnessT&indelikS v*cudun fi&iksel aktiviteler yapmas%na imkan veren ,&ellikleri kastetmektedir. $u ,&ellikler eklemlerin esnekli(ini, kalp kas% da dahil olmak *&ere kaslar%n g*) ve dayan%kl%l%(%, ve sa(l%kl% bir v*cut kompo&isyonunu i)erir. S?itnessS%n daha geni' bir tan%m% ise, ani bir s%k%nt%yla ba'a )%kabilecek yeter miktarda depo edilmi' ener9i ile rutin fi&iksel talepleri yerine getirebilme kabiliyetidir. $u tan%m GfitnessU%n g*nl*k ya'am ile nas%l ba(lant%l% oldu(unu g,steriyor. ?ormda olmayan bir insana &or gelebilecek a(%r bavullar% ta'%mak, s%k%'%k bir pencereyi a)mak veya d,rt kat merdiven t%rmanmak gibi s%radan i'ler &inde bir birey i)in kolayd%r. $ir di(er tan%m ise v*cudun bask%ya, yani hem fi&iksel hem de manevi bask%lara dayanabilme g*c*d*r. $u tan%mlar birbirlerini yalanlama&lar3 *)* de v*cudun ayn% m*kemmel durumunu tasvir eder.

3:& )n the $assage the writer ----& A points out that everyday life presents many challenges that even the very fit cannot cope with $ attaches more importance to physical fle4ibility than to physical endurance @) gi'es three "e%initions o% %itness that "o not con%lict with each other " suggests that people routinely perform various tasks to maintain their fitness # claims that physical fitness can easily be maintained

3;& !he i"ea o% %itness $ t %orwar" in the $assage ----& A seems rather outdated and controversial $ is complicated and contradictory ! seems to ignore the ability to withstand stress " relates more to the sports enthusiasts than to ordinary people C) incl "es not only $hysical %itness* b t also the $sychological one


YDS 200: (::-:7) #dmund 0illary and the porter, Ten&ing <orgay, got the glory for con7uering #verest, b t it was Vohn A nt who ma"e their s ccess $ossible. Pohn 0unt was an e4cellent manager and paid great attention to detail. ?or instance, he specified that each bo4 of rations contained ;J tins of sardines. 0is strategy, which was soon to become standard in mountaineering, called for an army of climbers, especially porters who would methodically move up the mountain, carrying supplies to ever higher camps. 0unt gave the human element systematic attention as well. #verest demands an Gunusual degree of selflessness and patienceU, he later wrote. GIail re* whether moral or $hysical* by e'en one or two $eo$le wo l" a"" immensely to its "i%%ic lties.U X!he "esire to reach the to$T* he a""e"* Xm st be both in"i'i" al an" collecti'e .U That last point was important> the goal of this huge effort was to deliver 9ust two climbers to the summit. 37& )t is clear %rom the $assage that Vohn A nt ----& A) regar"e" the con= est o% C'erest as a team s ccess -A/)E!)* +.<.E.E ?AEAA!.0 $ was a good mountaineer, but not a good organi&er ! wanted to get to the top of #verest himself " was involved in several disputes with various team members # was largely concerned with the training of the porters 3M& As we n"erstan" %rom the $assage* the s ccess o% C"m n" Aillary an" !en5ing Eorgay ----& A aroused a great deal of envy among the other team members $ gave rise to a lot of talk about how selfish they both were and how undeserving of the fame they achieved ! added to the fame that 0unt already en9oyed D) "e$en"e"* to a 'ery large eNtent* on the $re$arations $lanne" an" carrie" o t by Vohn A nt -b t B.<.Q.* @/CI! SCE!CE@C0 # turned mountaineering into a fashionable sport worldwide

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

#dmund 0illary ve ta'%y%c% Ten&ing <orgay #verest.e ilk )%kma 'erefine nail olmu'lard%, ama onlar%n ba'ar%s%n% m*mk*n k%lan Pohn 0unt idi. Pohn 0unt m*kemmel bir y,netici idi ve ayr%nt%ya b*y*k ,nem verirdi. Vrne(in, her bir ia'e1istihkak kutusunun ;J konserve sardalye i)ermesi gerekti(ini Dbile belirlemi'ti. -%sa &aman i)inde da(c%l%kta bir standart Dhaline gelecek olan strate9isi bir t%rman%c%lar ordusunu, ,&ellikle mal&emeleri her defas%nda bira& daha yukar%daki kamplara ta'%yarak sistematik bir 'ekilde da(a t%rmanan hamallar% gerektiriyordu. 0unt insan unsuruna da sistematik ,nem vermekteydi. S#verest al%'%lmad%k derecede fedakarl%k ve sab%r isterS diye ya&m%'t% daha sonralar%. S$ir iki ki'inin bile yapt%(%, gerek moral gerekse fi&iksel ba'ar%s%&l%k, onun &orluklar%na &orluk katacakt%r.S SWirveye ula'ma ar&usuS diye eklemi'ti Shem bireysel hem de kolektif olmal%d%r.S Qu son nokta ,nemliydi> bu devasa )aban%n hedefi sadece iki da(c%y% &irveye teslim etmekti.

39& As it is $ointe" o t in the $assage* in the o$inion o% Vohn A nt* ----& A the use of porters would contribute very little to the success of the e4pedition $ the food for the climbers was only of minor importance @) climbing C'erest re= ires not only $hysical strength b t also certain moral = alities -A/)E!)0 " 0illary and Ten&ing did not deserve the fame they had # in mountaineering, the height of a mountain is of little importance


YDS 200: (70-72) The wind that day was light and fresh and came from the west, and with it at noon a little boat came 7uickly, over the bright waves, into Sattins 0arbour. While it was still 7uite a distance away, a sharp-eyed boy spotted it and, since he ,new, 9ust as every child on the island knew, e'ery sail of the %orty boats o% the islan" %ishing %leet* he ran "own the street calling o t* XA %oreign boat* a %oreign boatYT !he lonely islan" was rarely 'isite" by a %oreign boat, so* by the time the boat ha" arri'e" hal% the 'illage was there to greet it. Iishermen were following it homewards, and those who ha$$ene" to be inlan", were climbing $ an" "own the roc,y hills* an" h rrying towar"s the harbo r.

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

5 g*n r*&gar hafif ve serindi ve bat%dan esiyordu, ve ,(le vaktinde beraberinde parlak dalgalar *&erinde ufak bir tekne Sattins Aiman%na girdi. 0ala epey u&aktayken, keskin g,&l* bir delikanl% onu fark etti ve, t%pk% adadaki her )ocu(un bildi(i gibi, ada bal%k)% filosunun k%rk teknesinin her bir yelkenini tan%d%(%ndan, Syabanc% bir tekne, yabanc% bir tekneXS diye ba(%rarak cadde a'a(% ko'tu. Iss%&l%(%n ortas%ndaki ada nadiren yabanc% bir tekne taraf%nda &iyaret edilirdi, bu y*&den, tekne gelip vard%(%nda, k,y*n yar%s% onu kar'%lamak i)in oraya1limana inmi'ti. $al%k)%lar tekneyi adalar%na1eve do(ru takip ediyorlar, ve hasbelkader karada bulunanlar kayal%k tepeleri inip )%karak limana do(ru ko'turuyorlard%.

40& @learly* the islan" "escribe" in the $assage ----& A is e4tremely fertile and can support a large population

+) is an isolate" one* inhabite" largely by %ishermen an" their %amilies -O>C//.?/C AADDCE !1 i%a"esi a"an3n genel olara, bal3,93lar"an ol 2t 8 n g4steriyor0 ! " # is fre7uently visited by foreign boats has a community that is hostile to foreigners is better suited to farming than to fishing

41& As we n"erstan" %rom the $assage* the boy ----& A $ ! was the only child on the island who could recogni&e every boat in the fishing fleet wanted to be the first to see the boat at close 7uarters was particularly interested in foreign boats

D) ,new that the boat that was coming in was %oreign* beca se he "i"n#t recogni5e the sail -SC+CD-S1EFG0 # didn=t see the foreign boat until after it had entered the harbour

42& )t is clear %rom the $assage that the arri'al o% the %oreign boat ----& A $ upset the islanders as they didn=t e4pect it so early caused a great deal of uneasiness, especially among the fishermen

@) aro se" a great "eal o% eNcitement among the islan"ers -.DD.A/) Z hal% the 'illage0 " # surprised people since these were dangerous waters for sailors aroused the curiosity of the children but was ignored by everyone else


YDS 200; (:M Z ;0) #lephants have to keep in touch across large distances. C'en when they are o t o% hearing range o% one another* in %orests or the great $lains o% Cast A%rica* they are o%ten s$otte" mo'ing in the same "irection. Sometimes they seem to stan" still in their trac,s an" mo'e their %eet $ an" "own, which lea"s some scientists to belie'e they ha'e sensiti'e cells in their %eet. Such cells would enable them to pick up low fre7uency vibrations from the ground, waves that travel distances of up to 2I km. 43& Je n"erstan" %rom the $assage that* when ele$hants are a goo" "istance a$art* they ----& A $ become nervous and stamp their feet feel very insecure

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

?iller geni' mesafeler boyunca ileti'imi s*rd*rmek &orundalar. "o(u Afrika.n%n ormanlar%nda veya geni' d*&l*klerinde birbirlerini i'itemeyecekleri bir mesafede olduklar%nda bile, s%k s%k ayn% do(rultuda ilerledikleri farkedilir. $a&en patikalar% *&erinde durup, ayaklar%n% bir a'a(% bir yukar% hareket ettirdikleri g,r*l*r, bu da ba&% bilim adamlar%n%n fillerin ayaklar%nda hassas h*creler oldu(una inanmalar%na yol a)maktad%r. $,ylesi h*creler onlar%n, yerdeki d*'*k frekanstaki titre'imleri, yani 2I km.ya kadar gidebilen ses dalgalar%n% toplamalar%na imkan veriyordur.

E1!> Rsimden sonra gelen virg*ll* isim gruplar% asl%nda indirgenmi' SRelative ClauseS lard%r. $a'lar%na JA)@AUJA1 )S vb bir 'ey ekleyin. Such cells would enable them to pick up low fre7uency vibrations from the ground, Dwhich are waves that travel distances of up to 2I km. Sometimes they seem to stand still in their tracks and move their feet up and down, JA)@A leads some scientists to believe they have sensitive cells in their feet. X+FT 'eya X+F DF<FKT anlam3n"a,i t6m c6mleyi ,aste"en JA)@AR Sometimes they seem to stand still in their tracks and move their feet up and down. !A)S leads some scientists to believe they have sensitive cells in their feet. Sometimes they seem to stand still in their tracks and move their feet up and down, and !A)S leads some scientists to believe they have sensitive cells in their feet. !AA! sometimes they seem to stand still in their tracks and move their feet up and down leads some scientists to believe they have sensitive cells in their feet.

@) can still comm nicate with each other -JACE0 " # try many different ways of making contact with each other feel e4posed to attack

44& As it is clear %rom the $assage* some scientists are o% the o$inion that ----& A $ ! the sensitive cells in the feet of elephants serve a wide variety of functions the power of elephants to communicate is very weak some elephants have adapted themselves well to the specific environmental conditions of #ast Africa it is not natural for elephants to move in the same direction ele$hants ha'e cells in their %eet that are sensiti'e to 'ibrations -+.<.E.E ?AEAA!. Z S1KCL <@ A<A @WK/C0

" C)

4:& Accor"ing to the $assage* one scienti%ic ass m$tion abo t ele$hants is that ----& A $ the forest lands and plains of #ast Africa is their ideal environment they can sense all levels of vibration e7ually well

@) the $-an"-"own mo'ement o% their %eet is a means o% comm nication " # their sense of hearing enables them to pick up sounds up to 2I km away their whole body is covered with e4tremely sensitive cells


YDS 200; (;7 Z ;9) #4plaining science seems to come naturally to !harlotte, who is a young $$! presenter. She is rapidly becoming 7uite a star beca se her $assion %or wil"li%e shows 'i'i"ly on ![. And she=s every bit as enthusiastic in person. I caught up with her in $ristol, where she works for the $$!=s Wildlife Mnit. She talked about her latest pro9ect over tea and biscuits, speaking softly when reflecting on her answers and at times appearing astonished at the animals= ama&ing behaviour which she confronted on her travels. She clearly en(oye" her latest $ro(ect, Talking With Animals, which in'estigates the eNtremely "i%%erent ways in which animals comm nicate with each other. 4;& )t is clear %rom the $assage that @harlotte* ----& A) who is "e"icate" to her wor,* is eNtremely $lease" with her new $ro(ect $ ! " # whose work with the $$! has only 9ust started, is an4ious to please her viewers an established TC presenter, has only recently taken an interest in wildlife a newly-recruited $$! presenter, has been reluctant to accept wildlife programmes whose programmes have generally been a success, has nevertheless received some harsh criticism

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

$ilimi a)%klamak gen) bir $$! sunucusu olan !harlotte.a do(al geliyor g,&*k*yor. !harlotte, vah'i ya'ama olan tutkusu televi&yonda a)%k)a g,&*kt*(*nden, h%&la tam bir star haline geliyor. Ce ki'ilik)e de ayn% 'ekilde tutkulu birisi. <ihayet onu $$! Cah'i +a'am birimi i)in )al%'t%(% $ yakalad%m. Fay ve bisk*vi molas%nda son pro9esinden bahsetti, cevaplar%n% dillendirirken yumu'ak konu'uyor ve &aman &amansa seyahatlerinde kar'%la't%(% hayvanlar%n harikulade davran%'lar%na 'a'%rm%' g,&*k*yordu. A)%k)a belli ki, hayvanlar%n birbirleriyle ileti'im kurdu(u son derece farkl% y,ntemleri ara't%ran Hayvanlarla Konumak adl% son pro9esinden keyif almaktayd%1memnundu. SCCKUADDCA< !1 D1 S!R -gibi g,&*kmek, Y g,&*kmek GExplaining science seems to come naturally to CharlotteU i)in alternative )eviriler> B456,t686 ,a"ar3yla , bilimi a)%klamak !harlotte.a do(al geliyor. +elli ,i, bilimi a)%klamak !harlotte.a do(al geliyor.

47& Je n"erstan" %rom the $assage that @harlotte#s c rrent $ro(ect ----& A $ involved a great deal of travel in harsh environments has been turned down by the $$!

@) is concerne" with how animals manage to comm nicate with each other -<@ ara c6mle0 " # does not interest her as much as some of her earlier ones did concerns the variety of wildlife in the $ristol area

4M& Accor"ing to the $assage* @harlotte#s rising %ame as a ![ $resenter ----& A $ ! " C) is not well-deserved though all of her pro9ects have been very demanding has surprised everyone at the $$! is largely due to the success of her pro9ect, Talking With Animals has aroused considerable 9ealousy among her colleagues is " e to her gen ine lo'e o% wil"li%e as re%lecte" thro gh her $rogrammes -SC+CDS1EFG0


YDS 200; (73-7:) +ritain emerge" %rom her in" strial re'ol tion as the %oremost in" strial $ower in the worl". !han,s to her coal mines* her steel in" stry an" the 'ision an" s,ill o% her in'entors* she "e'elo$e" the %irst an" best machine in" stry in the worl". Steel* the most essential raw material %or all machine-engineering* was the 'ery %o n"ation o% her in" strial $ower an" was recogni5e" an" regar"e" as s ch&

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

+ritanya ,en"i sanayi "e'rimin"en en 4n"e gelen sanayi g6c6 olara, (ortaya) 93,t3. ?4m6r ma"eni* 9eli, sanayisi 'e m citlerinin hayal g6c6 'e yetene,leri sayesin"e* "6nya"a,i il, 'e en iyi ma,ine sanayisini ger9e,le2tir"i. !6m ma,ine m6hen"isli8i i9in en hayati hamma""e olan 9eli,* on n sanayi g6c6n6n en temeli i"i 'e b4yle "e ,ab l 'e sayg3 g4r"6. Steel, Dwhich is the most essential raw material for all machine-engineering,

49& )t is clear %rom the $assage that steel ----& A $ was rarely used in industry e4cept in $ritain had always been of secondary importance, compared with coal

@) was the most 'ital material %or +ritain#s in" stry -i""ial3* s $erlati'e0 " # was not valued, even in $ritain, as an industrial material was 9ust one of several raw materials to gain importance during the industrial revolution

:0& Accor"ing to the $assage* +ritain#s in" strial re'ol tion ----& A $ ! has never been regarded as in any way remarkable was a slow process in comparison with what happened elsewhere was absolutely confined to machineengineering

D) trans%orme" her into the most $ower% l in" striali5e" co ntry -i""ial3 Z s $erlati'e0 # was accompanied by a great deal of hardship

:1& Je n"erstan" %rom the $assage that +ritain became the lea"er in machine-engineering ----& A in spite of stiff competition from other industriali&ed countries

+) beca se o% her nat ral reso rces an" talente" in'entors -SC+CD-S1EFGR than,s to0 ! " # simply because of her vast reserves of coal even though she did not have a wellestablished steel industry even though her natural resources were limited


YDS 2007 (::-:7) The benefits of nuclear power are fairly clear. Iirst, unlike wind and solar power, it does not depend on the weather. Secon", since it produces a large amount of electricity in a short time, it can meet all the energy needs of cities and factories, for which wind and solar power may not be sufficient. )n a""ition, nuclear reactors release no carbon dio4ide into the atmosphere, an" they can be b ilt in inaccessible locations. /astly, nli,e the technology o% hy"rogen-$owere" % el cells* the technology o% n clear $ower is alrea"y wi"ely se".

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

<*kleer ener9inin faydalar% olduk)a a)%kt%r. Rlk olarak, r*&g:r ve g*ne' ener9isinden farkl% olarak, havaya ba(l% de(ildir. Rkinci olarak, k%sa bir &amanda bol miktarda elektrik *retti(inden, r*&g:r ve g*ne' ener9isinin yeterli olamayabilece(i t*m 'ehir ve fabrika ener9i ihtiya)lar%n% kar'%layabilir. Ayr%ca, n*kleer reakt,rler atmosfere hi) karbondioksit salma&lar ve eri'ilme& yerlere in'a edilebilirler. Son olarak, hidro9enle )al%'an yak%t h*creleri teknolo9isinin aksine, n*kleer ener9i teknolo9isi &aten geni' )apl% kullan%lmaktad%r.

It can meet all the energy nee"s of cities and factories, %or which wind and solar power may not be sufficient& Dar9alay3$ i,i c6mle ya$abiliri5R

:2& )t can be n"erstoo" %rom the $assage that n clear $ower ----& A $ ! can only be produced under good weather conditions has more disadvantages than advantages produces electricity very slowly

It can meet all the energy nee"s of cities and factories. Wind and solar power may not be sufficient %or these energy nee"s.

D) has se'eral ob'io s a"'antages -KADDC/.G1?/F AE/A!)0 # produces gases harmful to the atmosphere

:3& !he $assage $oints o t that one bene%it o% n clear reactors is that they ----& A can produce more electricity than will ever be needed

+) can be constr cte" in areas that are "i%%ic lt to reach ! " # must be located in cities use new technology pose no danger to their immediate surroundings

:4& Accor"ing to the $assage* n clear $ower is $re%erable to hy"rogen $ower beca se ----& A $ ! nuclear power works well together with solar and wind power nuclear reactors are smaller than the plants which produce hydrogen hydrogen power cannot be used for powering cities

D) it has alrea"y been trie" an" teste" -ben5etme* ben5etmeme Z nli,e0 # hydrogen power is much more dangerous than nuclear power


YDS 2007 (:M-;0) Scientists ha'e "isco'ere" that s ns$ots* that is* e4plosions on the sun=s surface* may ca se certain s$ecies o% whales to become tra$$e" in the shallow waters o% the Eorth Sea. The radiation from sunspots may interfere with the Carth#s magnetic %iel"* which the whales might be sing to hel$ them %in" their way in the oceans. Scientists thin, that this inter%erence may con% se the whales so that* " ring their yearly migration %rom the A5ores* they mista,enly go into the Eorth Sea instea" o% the "ee$er waters o% the Eorwegian Sea* their tra"itional territory. scientists ----& A $

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

have carried out much research to understand the impact of solar e4plosions upon life on #arth have always wondered about the routes whales take in the oceans for their yearly migration

@) %inally seem to n"erstan" the reasons why some ,in"s o% whales %ail to get to the Eorwegian Sea " # have overlooked the 7uestion of sunspots and their effects on the #arth=s magnetic field now know for certain that the radiation from sunspots has an adverse effect on marine life in the oceans

:7& )t is clear %rom the $assage that* tra"itionally* ---& ::& Accor"ing to the $assage* it is tho ght that* ----& A) %or their (o rneys in the oceans* some whales may "e$en"* %or "irection* on the Carth#s magnetic %iel" whenever solar e4plosions take place, there occur serious environmental problems on #arth despite the vastness of the oceans, whales may have developed a very strong sense of direction contrary to the common view, there can be no relationship whatsoever between sunspots and the #arth=s magnetic field the <orth Sea provides better shelter and more food for all kinds of whales than the <orwegian Sea does A $ the shallow waters of the <orth Sea have been a deadly trap for whales whales have always migrated from the A&ores not only to the <orwegian Sea but also to the <orth Sea scientists have been indifferent to solar e4plosions and their effects on the #arth=s magnetic field the waters around the A&ores have been the main feeding ground for all species of whales the Eorwegian Sea has been the ltimate "estination %or whales " ring their ann al migrations

" C)


Q.IAA. GC[.<.R $ilim adamlar% 'unu ke'fettiler ki g*ne' *&erindeki lekeler, yani, g*ne' patlamalar%, ba&% balina t*rlerinin -u&ey "eni&.inin s%( sular%nda s%k%'%p kalmalar%na yol a)%yor olabilir. ?.!A+. GC[.<.R $ilim adamlar% g*ne' *&erindeki lekelerin, yani, g*ne' patlamalar%n%n, ba&% balina t*rlerinin -u&ey "eni&.inin s%( sular%nda s%k%'%p kalmalar%na yol a)%yor olabilece(ini ke'fettiler. /*ne' patlamalar%ndan yay%lan radyasyon, balinalar%n okyanuslarda yolar%n% bulmak i)in kullan%yor oldu(u d*nyan%n manyetik alan%n% bo&uyor olabilir. $ilim adamlar% ',yle d*'*n*yor> $u bo&ulma1bu para&itler balinalar%n kafas%n% muhtemelen o kadar kar%'t%r%yor ki, A&or.dan yapt%klar% y%ll%k g,)leri esnas%nda balinalar geleneksel b,lgeleri olan <orve) "eni&inin daha derin sular% yerine, yanl%'l%kla -u&ey "eni&ine gidiyorlar. E1!R SScientists have "isco'ere" that cla seS yap%lar%nda )o(u &aman T0AT ifadesini QFEF anlam%nda bir &amir ve metnin geri kalan%n% yeni bir c*mle gibi d*'*nmek )eviriyi kolayla't%rmaktad%r. SScientists think thatS gibi daha kli'e ifadelerde de ayn% y,ntem denenebilece(i gibi, bu ifadeler i)in Sbilim adamlarna greS gibi )ok daha kolay alternatifler oldu(u da unutulmamal%. YDS 2007 (;1-;3)

:;& 1ne n"erstan"s %rom the $assage that


Weather science is called meteorology. Aistorically* in the $ast* no s ch science eNiste". $esides, most people then felt that there was no need for it. They believed it had all been e4plained by Aristotle, the ancient /reek philosopher. Ior them* the teachings an" writings o% Aristotle ha" eN$laine" e'erything concerning the weather an" there was no nee" %or % rther eN$lanation. 0owever, some 2LL years ago, people who wanted to learn more regarding the weather could not learn it in a university. $ut today, many people study the weather in universities throughout the world. !he main laws ha'e been establishe" altho gh there is still a lot we ha'e to learn abo t meteorology& A

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

was fully studied in the universities in the past, and contributed enormously to the development of meteorology as a science obviously paved the way for the worldwide popularity of meteorology as a field of study was regarded by universities in the past as the basis of meteorology was ignored by a great ma9ority of people in the past, who in fact relied on their own observations of the weather was consi"ere" to be s %%icient an" %inal by most $eo$le historically

$ ! "


:M& Accor"ing to the $assage* meteorology ----& A has been fully developed as a science

;0& 1ne n"erstan"s %rom the $assage that $eo$le#s concern with meteorology ----& A was part of a research interest which was fast becoming popular throughout the world $ was so e4tensive that almost every university in the world attached great importance to its study ! relied solely on what the universities taught on the sub9ect D) was mostly $ersonal* not base" on a scienti%ic st "y in a ni'ersity # was related to the fact that so many of them were farmers

+) is a relati'ely recent science which nee"s to be % rther "e'elo$e"* altho gh some $rogress has been ma"e with regar" to its essentials -be,lenme"i, 53tl3,0 ! " # has been seriously studied in universities since Aristotle=s time was of no interest to people before it began to be studied in universities took its main laws from Aristotle, whose understanding of the sub9ect was largely theoretical

0ava ilmine meteorolo9i denir. Tarihi olarak ge)mi'te b,yle bir bilim dal% mevcut de(ildi. Zstelik, )o(u insan o &aman buna ihtiya) olmad%(%n% da d*'*n*yordu. 5nlar havan%n tamamen antik yunan filo&ofu Aristo taraf%ndan a)%klanm%' oldu(una inan%yorlard%. 1nlara g4re* Aristo7n n 48reti 'e eserleri ha'aya "air her 2eyi a93,lam32t3 'e "aha %a5la a93,lamaya gere, yo,t . Ancak yakla'%k 2LL y%l ,nce, havaya dair daha fa&la bir 'eyler ,(renmek isteyen insanlar bunu *niversite de ,(reneme&lerdi. ?akat bug*n, pek )ok insan d*nyan%n her yerindeki *niversitelerde meteorolo9i okumaktalar. Aer ne ,a"ar meteorolo(i ha,,3n"a 48renmemi5 gere,en "aha 9o, 2ey 'arsa "a* ana il,eler ortaya ,on lm 2t r U is$atlanm32t3r.

:9& )t is $ointe" o t in the $assage that what Aristotle ha" sai" abo t the weather ----&

YDS 2007 (;4-;;) "uring the 5ttoman period, a small but increasing number of #uropean travellers began to e4plore and study the sites of ancient cities in Western Turkey. In this regard, the %irst systematic eN$loration was made in 2K22 by !aptain $eaufort of the $ritish Ooyal <avy, who mapped the Hediterranean coast of Turkey and identified some of the ancient sites there. This was followed by a number of other archaeological e4peditions, including !harles ?ellows=s e4plorations, from 2K@K to 2KEE, of the southwestern part of the country, called GAyciaU in anti7uity. + t the most eNciting %in" was Aeinrich Schliemann#s re"isco'ery o% !roy in eNca'ations that began in 2KNL. Since then, most of the ancient cities of Western Turkey have probably been unearthed and studied, at least to some e4tent. The more famous of them, such as Bergamum, #phesus, Sardis and Aphrodisias, are now the sub9ects of large-scale eNca'ations an" restorations that ha'e recreate" a %ragmentary image o% their %ormer s$len"o r.

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

;2& 1ne n"erstan"s %rom the $assage that* altho gh many eN$lorations o% ancient r ins were ma"e in Jestern ! r,ey in the nineteenth cent ry* ----& A e4ploration and e4cavation there has not continued into the twentieth and twenty-first centuries #phesus and Sardis, especially, have provided an e4tensive amount of data about life and society in anti7uity

@) it was Aeinrich Schliemann#s eNca'ations o% !roy that create" the most interest -+F! c6mleci8iL .DD.A/) Z the mostL @le%t Sentence0 " Aycia, as a region, has always attracted a great deal of attention from many travellers and archaeologists only Bergamum and Aphrodisias give us a full picture of their magnificence in the past

;3& )t is $ointe" o t in the $assage that* "es$ite eNtensi'e eNca'ations an" restorations* ----& A an e4tensive number of the ancient sites, including Troy, in Western Turkey, have not yet been unearthed a very large part of Troy still needs to be further e4plored and unearthed many of Aycia=s ancient cities are still buried under the ground and await digging out

$ ;1& )t is im$lie" in the $assage that the C ro$ean eN$lorations an" st "ies o% Jestern ! r,ey#s ancient sites ma"e $rior to the early nineteenth cent ry ----& A) ha" not been carrie" o t accor"ing to a $lan $ ! provided archaeologists with a great deal of information indispensable for their e4cavations mainly focused on the historically most important ones such as Bergamum, #phesus, Sardis and Aphrodisias were in fact essentially concerned with the search for the actual site of Troy had a secret military purpose and, therefore, lacked any historical interest !

D) the ancient glory o% s ch $o$ larly ,nown cities as Dergam m* C$hes s* Sar"is an" A$hro"isias has only been $artially re'eale" # the cities such as Bergamum, #phesus, Sardis and Aphrodisias are far from arousing a lasting interest in the public

" #

5smanl% d,nemi boyunca, k*)*k ama gittik)e artan say%da Avrupal% ge&gin $at% T*rkiye.deki antik 'ehir mekanlar%n% ara't%rmaya ve incelemeye ba'lam%'lard%. $u ba(lamda ilk sistematik ara't%rma, T*rkiye.nin Akdeni& k%y%lar%n%n haritas%n% )%karan ve oradaki ba&% antik mekanlar%n neresi oldu(unu tespit eden $ritanya -raliyet "onanmas%ndan kaptan $eaufort taraf%ndan, 2K22 y%l%nda yap%ld%. $unu bir s*r* di(er arkeolo9ik sefer1ara't%rma takip etti, ki bunlar i)erisinde antik )a(larda Aikya diye isimlendirilen *lkenin g*neybat% k%s%mlar%n%n 2K@K.den 2KEE.e kadar !harles ? yap%lan ke'if-incelemeleri de vard%. Ama en heyecan verici bulu' 2KNL.lerde ba'layan ka&%larda 0einrich Schliemann.%n Truva.y% yeniden ke'fiydi. 5 &amandan beridir, bat% T*rkiye.nin antik beldelerinin )o(u muhtemelen g*n y*&*nde )%kar%ld% ve incelendi, en a&%ndan k%smen. $unlar%n daha me'hurlar%, s,& gelimi Bergamon, #fes, Sardes, Afrodisias, 'imdi geni' )apl% ka&%lara ve onlar%n eski ihti'amlar%n%n k%sm[ bir g,r*nt*s*n* yeniden yaratan restorasyonlara konudurlar.


YDS 2003 (;7-;9) 5n the third day of the new year news$a$ers began to re$ort that strange things were starting to happen in the heavens, and e'eryone grew eNcite"& \A Dlanetary @ollision#* one /on"on $a$er hea"e" the news* an" $roclaime" that a strange new $lanet wo l" $robably colli"e with Ee$t ne. The leader writers of various other newspapers enlarged upon the topic. As a result, in most of the capitals of the world, on Panuary @rd, there was an e4pectation, however vague, of some approaching phenomenon in the sky3 and as the night followed the sunset round the globe, thousands of people turned their eyes skyward to see, contrary to what they had e4pected, nothing more eNciting than the ol" %amiliar stars ( st as they ha" always been& 2:& As it is clear %rom the $assage* all that anyone saw on the night o% Van ary 3r" was ----& A the familiar stars shining with e4traordinary brightness $ the collision of <eptune with a new planet @) the s al night s,y -+CE>C!KC* ?A<Q)/AQ!)<KA0 " an unknown planet passing close to <eptune # what they interpreted as the birth of a new planet

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

+eni y%l%n *)*nc* g*n*nde, ga&eteler g,ky*&*nde tuhaf 'eylerin olmaya ba'lad%(%n% rapor etmeye ba'lad% ve herkes heyecanland%. S$ir ge&egen )arp%'mas%S diyerek bir Aondra /a&etesi haberlere ,nc*l*k etmi' ve yabanc% yeni bir ge&egenin muhtemelen <ept*n ile )arp%'aca(%n% ilan etmi'ti. Fe'itli di(er ga&etelerin ,nc* ya&arlar% konuyu geni'letti. Sonu) olarak, @ 5cak.ta d*nya ba'kentlerinin )o(unda, her ne kadar mu(lak da olsa, g,ky*&*nde yakla'an bir vakaya dair bir beklenti olu'tu3 ve d*nyan%n her yerinde gece g*n bat%m%n% takip ettik)e, binlerce insan g,&lerini g,ky*&*ne )evirdi ve, beklentilerinin aksine, her &aman g,rd*kleri bi)imde eski bilindik y%ld%&lardan daha heyecan veren hi) bir 'ey g,rmedi. There was an e4pectation, however vague, of some approaching phenomenon in the sky. T 0owever vague it was, there was an e4pectation of some approaching phenomenon in the sky. Ara c*mlelerin yerini de(i'tirmek, anlamay% kolayla't%rabilir> Thousands of people turned their eyes skyward to see, contrary to what they had expected, nothing more e4citing than the old familiar stars 9ust as they had always been. T Thousands of people turned their eyes skyward, b t contrary to what they had expected they saw nothing more e4citing than the old familiar stars 9ust as they had always been.

2;& Je n"erstan" %rom the $assage that there was a great "eal o% eNcitement e'erywhere ----& A because an unknown planet had been detected from various parts of the world $ as soon as the new planet approached <eptune ! even before the planetary collision took place D) when news$a$ers anno nce" that a collision o% two $lanets was to be eN$ecte" ->AKAEA +A]/) CY/CKL KC!)EDC DFYBF0 # as many phenomena had been observed in the skies on Panuary @rd

27& 1ne can concl "e %rom the $assage that the whole a%%air o% $lanets colli"ing ----& A aroused little interest among the people in the world $ was based on scientific facts and observations @) was all imaginary* an" ma"e $ by the news$a$ers " was apparently only of interest to the newspapers # was the reason why so many people panicked


?DSS 2002 (49-:1) Hany cities in developing countries suffer from overcrowding and pollution far more than those in the industriali&ed, developed parts of the world. Hetropolitan authorities in developing countries must cope with environmental problems commonly associate" with large h man settlements Z soli" waste "is$osal* sewage treatment* an" in" strial $oll tion* as well as the socio-c lt ral im$act o% o'ercrow"ing an" congestion& If %acilities %or a sa%e water s $$ly* sewage treatment an" "is$osal* an" collection an" "is$osal o% soli" waste e4ist at all in such cities, the systems are o%ten ina"e= ate& In part, this is because developing countries lack the necessary financial resources to provide essential urban services. In addition, many cities grew up so 7uickly that there was little %oretho ght or time to "e'elo$ a rational rban $lan to accommo"ate the 'ast in%l N o% r ral $oor "raw to the city& 2&

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

Je n"erstan" %rom the $assage that* in "e'elo$ing co ntries* ----&

$ ! " #

%acilities s ch as a sa%e water s $$ly an" sewage "is$osal are %re= ently nsatis%actory -)I @/AFSC0 conditions rural areas are worse than those in urban areas the only serious problems encountered in the cities are finance \ based the attitude to overcrowding is different from that in the developed countries the problems of urban conditions are being effectively dealt with


)t is $ointe" o t in the $assage that* where'er there are large h man settlement* ----& A $ ! " there are people who complain about the inefficiency of the urban services there will be overcrowding and pollution of roughly the same intensity they will appear attractive to people in sparselypopulated rural areas the essential urban services are always insufficient even in developed countries 3& )t is clear %rom the $assage that one reason why con"itions in the cities o% "e'elo$ing co ntries are so ba" is ----& A $ ! " the difficulty of convincing people of the need for urban planning that the people there have on idea about the advantages of urban planning because people have grown so used to them they see no need to change them due to the fact that the metropolitan authorities are at a loss to know how to change them

C) there will be $roblems to sol'e* ranging %rom the $hysical an" $ractical to the socioc lt ral -KADDC/. anlat30

C) that* be%ore there ha" e'en been time to thin, abo t rban "e'elo$ment* these cities were alrea"y there -SC+CD-S1EFG0

/eli'mekte olan *lkelerdeki pek )ok 'ehir, d*nyan%n sanayile'mi' ve geli'mi' k%s%mlar%ndaki 'ehirlere g,re kalabal%k ve kirlilikten )ok daha fa&la mu&dariptir. $*y*k'ehir yetkilileri a'%r% kalabal%kla'ma ve t%kan%kl%(%n sosyo-k*lt*rel etkilerinin yan% s%ra, kat% at%k imhas%, kanali&asyon ar%t%m% ve sanayi kirlili(i, Dgibi genellikle kalabal%k insan yerle'imlerine e'lik eden )evre problemleriyle ba'a )%kmak &orundad%rlar. Temi& su sa(lanmas%, kanali&asyon ar%t%m ve imhas% ve kat% at%klar%n toplanma ve imhas% i)in tesisler bir 'ekilde varsa bile, sistemler ekseriyetle yeterli olmamaktad%r. $u k%smen geli'mekte olan *lkelerin temel kent hi&metlerini sa(layacak gerekli mal[ kaynaklardan yoksun olmalar%ndan ,t*r*d*r. Ayr%ca, pek )ok 'ehir o kadar h%&la b*y*m*'t* ki, 'ehre y,nelmi' mua&&am k%rsal fakir istilas%n% bar%nd%racak mant%kl% bir kent plan% geli'tirmek i)in Dyetmeyecek kadar a& ,ng,r* veya &aman vard%.


?DSS 2002 (:2-:4) Though forests are being consumed at great speed in developing countries for agricultural purposes, there is another side to the picture. Agricultural pro9ects can include components that e4plicitly conserve natural forest or reforest lands where the trees have been cut down, and thus enhance agricultural production in a very cost-effective manner. A case in $oint is a Jorl" +an,Z assiste" irrigation $ro(ect in )n"onesia. To prevent deforestation of the watershed above the "umoga Sulawesi irrigation works, the "umoga <ational Bark was established on ;,NLL s7uare kilometres. !he cost was less than 1 $er cent o% the total $ro(ect costs, and went mainly to establish and demarcate park boundaries, develop a management plan, hire personnel, and provide the necessary infrastructure and e7uipment. !his relati'ely small in'estment $rotects se"imentation and maintenance costs, and water necessary for optimal nice production. The park also preserves much of the rich flora and fauna that are uni7ue to the island of Sulawesi. :&

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

!he $assage "escribes the ma,ing o% the D moga Eational Dar, an" em$hasi5es ----& A its main function is to preserve the rich flora and fauna of the region

+) that the cost ma,ing it was 'ery small in"ee" ! " # now much time and planning and e4perience went into creation the uni7ueness of the scheme how difficult it was too persuade the authorities to agree to this part of the pro9ect


!he $assage ma,es the $oint that agric lt ral $ro(ects nee" not always bring abo t the "estr ction o% %orest lan"* ----& A $ especially when funding is no problem in particular when people have learned to value their flora and fauna ;& Je n"erstan" %rom the $assage that the D moga Eational Dar, ser'es a 'ery se% l % nction* ----& A $ ! " C) even though the costs of its upkeep are proving higher than was e4pected though most people still refuse to admit it though reforesting this area was a long slow process and e4tremely e4pensive as it is the only part of the island that is forested as it $rotects the D moga S lawesi irrigation wor,s imme"iately below it by re" cing se"imentation

@) an" gi'es the eNam$le o% an irrigation $ro(ect in )n"onesia " # even when rainfall is scarcely ade7uate though maintenance costs are likely to be high

5rmanlar, &irai ama)lar i)in geli'mekte olan *lkelerde b*y*k bir h%&da t*ketilse de, bir de olay%n di(er y,n* var. Tar%m pro9eleri, do(al ormanlar% a)%k)a koruyan veya a(a)lar%n kesilmi' oldu(u ara&ileri yeniden a(a)land%ran unsurlar% ihtiva edebilir, ve b,ylece &irai *retimi uygun maliyetli bir 'ekilde geli'tirebilir. Mygun bir ,rnek #ndone&ya.da "*nya $ankas% destekli bir sulama pro9esidir. Dumoga Sulawesi sulama tesislerinin *st*ndeki hav&an%n ormans%&la'mas%n% engellemek i)in, ;NLL kilometrekarelik bir alan *&erinde "umoga Hilli Bark% kuruldu. Haliyet toplam pro9e maliyetlerinin y*&de birinden daha a&d% ve bu da )o(unlukla park s%n%rlar%n% tesis ve i'aretlenmesine, bir y,netim plan% geli'tirmeye, personel tutmaya ve gerekli altyap% ve ekipman% tem'n etmeye gitti. $u nispeten k*)*k yat%r%m ),kelti ve bak%m maliyetlerinden korumakta ve optimal iyi *retim i)in gereken suyu muhafa&a etmektedir. Bark ayn% &amanda Sulawesi adas%na has olan &engin bitki ,rt*s* Dflora ve hayvan toplulu(unun Dfauna da )o(unu korumaktad%r.


?DSS 2003 (49-:2) Colcanic activity and erosion by wind and water have combined to create, over many thousands of years, a considerable number of eNtraor"inary nat ral mon ments in Turkey. Host %amo s of all their strange and startling creations are undoubtedly the rock pillars of !appadocia and the great white travertines of Bamukkale. $ut Turkey has other enchanting nat ral %ormations which %ascinate tra'ellers as m ch as they "o geologists& 5ne such is to be seen on the Island of 5rak off ?o)a on the Aegean coast. The rocks here are named after the Sirens mentioned in 0omer.s 5dyssey, and were home to Hediterranean seals until recent years. At -arap%nar in central Turkey, the eight-kilometre-long Aake Heke is another of nat re7s master$ieces. This is a volcanic lake which has formed in a main crater containing smaller 'olcano 'ents. Islands like red humps rising from the greenish water are the wor, o% these now eNtinct secon"ary 'olcanoes. Then there is +a&%l%kaya, in the province of #ski'ehir, which has carved inscri$tions in the still n"eci$here" Dhrygian lang age. It is famed for its great rocks bearing carved Bhrygian reliefs and the monument of -ing Hidas. 9&

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

Accor"ing to the $assage* /a,e Ke,e* in central ! r,ey* ----& A $ ! is of interest to geologists but the general appearance is very ordinary is the only lake in Turkey to have formed in a volcanic crater is in a constant state of change due to continued volcanic activity

D) together with its islan"s* was %orme" by s ccessi'e 'olcanic action -SC+CD S1EFG Z the wor, o%0 # has only very recently been attracting any attention


!he main aim o% this $assage is to ----& A) "escribe some o% the mon ments o% ! r,ey create" by nat ral %orces so as to ma,e them attracti'e -AEA I.?.<0 $ ! " # make people aware of the fact that Turkey.s natural monuments need to be cared for better establish the historical importance of Turkey.s natural monuments e4plain, in geological terms, how these natural monuments came into being give a purely factual account of the natural monuments of Turkey and their relative importance

10& !he $oint is ma"e in the $assage that the 'ario s nat ral mon ments o% ! r,ey ----& A $ are all related to some mythological event or personality are mostly to be found in coastal regions

@) are attracti'e to sightseers an" geologists ali,e -?)YAS/AKA0 " # are all referred to in 0omer.s 5dyssey are all unconnected with any historical event or figure


Je learn %rom the $assage that the Dhrygian inscri$tions on the great roc,s at Ya53l3,aya ----& A $ ! " C) are a particularly rare e4ample of Bhrygian writing are all related to -ing Hidas have been particularly badly eroded by wind and rain help us to understand what is happening in the Bhrygian reliefs there ha'e so %ar not been "eco"e" -<C/A!)[C @/0

Colkanik hareketler ile r*&gar ve suyun olu'turdu(u ero&yon bir araya gelip binlerce y%l boyunca T* ciddi miktarda s%rad%'% do(al abide yaratm%'t%r. 5nlar%n tuhaf ve 'a'%rt%c% eserlerinin en me'hurlar% '*phesi& -apadokya.daki peri bacalar% ve Bamukkale.nin b*y*k beya& travertenleridir. Ama T*rkiye.nin Peologlar% oldu(u kadar yolcular%1ge&ginleri da etkileyen di(er b*y*leyici do(al olu'umlar% da var. $,yle bir tanesi #ge k%y%s%nda ?o)a a)%klar%ndaki 5rak adas%nda g,r*lebilir. $uradaki kayalara 0omeros.un 5dessa "estan%nda bahsedilen su perilerinin adlar% verilmi'tir, ve Dburas% yak%n &amana kadar Akdeni& foklar%na ev sahipli(i yapmaktayd%. R) Anadolu.daki -arap%nar.da, seki& kilometre u&unlu(undaki Heke /,l* de do(an%n bir ba'ka 'aheseridir. $u, daha k*)*k volkan bacalar%n% i)eren bir ana krater i)inde olu'mu'tur. +e'ilimsi sudan y*kselen k%rm%&% deve h,rg*)lerini and%ran adalar, 'imdi s,nm*' olan bu ikincil yanarda(lar%n eseridir. $ir de #ski'ehir ilindeki +a&%l%kaya var, ki buras% hala ),&*lmemi' olan ?rigya dilinde ya&%tlara sahiptir. +a&%l%kaya ?rigya lisan%nda ka&%nm%' r,lyefleri ta'%yan b*y*k kayalar% ve -ral Hidas abidesi ile me'hurdur.


?DSS 2003 (:7-;0) A large amo nt o% nat ral reso rces is not s %%icient to g arantee economic growth& A n mber o% less-"e'elo$e" co ntries are %antastically rich in nat ral reso rces& 0owever, they have not been overly successful in e4ploiting these resources. <atural resources must be converted to useful forms. ?or e4ample, in the Mnited States the )n"ians ha" many nat ral reso rces a'ailable to them* b t they were nable to increase their stan"ar" o% li'ing or eN$erience economic growth. Beople must devise the methods to convert natural resources into usable forms. !ountries with similar natural resources vary in their ability to do this. In short, abundant natural resources are not sufficient in themselves& Deo$le are necessary to "e'elo$ reso rces into se% l things. Aess-developed nations re7uire this type of human resource before they are able to e4ploit the natural resources they possess.

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

13& Accor"ing to the $assage* se'eral o% the less"e'elo$e" co ntries ----& A are already learning to e4ploit their natural resources

+) ha'e an ab n"ance o% nat ral reso rces -.DD.A/) Z a n mber o%* %antastically0 ! " # have used up all their natural resources could achieve economic growth if only they had sufficient natural resources are completely lacking in natural resources

14& )t is em$hasi5e" in the $assage that nat ral reso rces ----& A in less-developed countries are being e4ploited by foreign countries are essential if a country is to have a sound economy are far more valuable than human resources

11& An im$ortant $oint ma"e in the $assage is that ----& A living standards always rise when there is economic growth

$ !

+) an ab n"ance o% nat ral reso rces in a co ntry is not on its own s %%icient to ma,e that co ntry rich ! " # the e4ploitation of natural resources re7uires a large capital outlay the economic position of a country is directly related to its natural resources a country.s natural resources should be used carefully as they are often very limited

D) only become 'al able when there are h man reso rces to "e'elo$ them -QA<!R necessary0 # have had an adverse effect on the development of many less-developed countries

12& Je n"erstan" %rom the $assage that the )n"ians in the FS ----& A) %aile" to ma,e se o% the nat ral reso rces at their "is$osal -+C?/CEKCYCE >)!/)?R b t0 $ ! " # managed to achieve a reasonable standard of living though they had no natural resources were envious of people with a better life-style wasted their natural resources and so remained poor had no desire to change their life-style

$ol miktarda do(al kaynak ekonomik b*y*meyi garanti etmeye yetme&. $ir s*r* a& geli'mi' *lke, do(al kaynaklarca son derece &engindir. +ine de bu kaynaklar% kullanmada )ok ba'ar%l% olmam%'lard%r. "o(al kaynaklar%n faydal% formlara d,n*'t*r*lmesi gerekmektedir. Vrne(in, Amerika $irle'ik "evletlerindeki -%&%lderililer elleri alt%nda pek )ok do(al kayna(a sahiplerdi, ama ya'am standartlar%n% art%ramad%lar ve ekonomik kalk%nma ya'ayamad%lar. Rnsanlar do(al kaynaklar% faydal% formlara d,n*'t*recek y,ntemler bulmal%d%rlar. $en&er do(al kaynaklara sahip *lkeler, bunu yapma kabiliyetleri bak%m%ndan farkl%l%k g,sterirler. -%saca, &engin do(al kaynaklar tek ba'lar%na yetme&ler> -aynaklar% faydal% 'eylere d,n*'t*rmek i)in insanlara ihtiya) vard%r. A& geli'mi' topluluklar sahip olduklar% do(al kaynaklardan istifade edebilmek i)in bu tip insan kayna(%na muhta)t%rlar.

!ountries with similar natural resources vary in their ability to do this. !ountries which ha'e similar natural resources vary in their ability to do this


?DSS 2004 (4:-4M) Deo$le "on7t ha'e to r n marathons to gain the health rewar"s o% $hysical acti'ity& Host e4perts agree that any $hysical acti'ity* e'en mo"erate acti'ity* $ro'i"es health bene%its. In fact, $eo$le who are eNtremely inacti'e can e4pect to get the greatest health benefits by ta,ing $art in reg lar* mo"erate-intensity* en" rance-ty$e acti'ity& The authors of an e4tensive study on fitness and mortality concluded that Smo"erate le'els o% $hysical %itness that are attainable by most adults a$$ear to be $rotecti'e against early mortalityS. It makes sense, then, to encourage the least acti'e $eo$le to $artici$ate in whate'er acti'ities they can rea"ily $er%orm since they may benefit most.

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

17& !he writer $oints o t that* in or"er to bene%it %rom $hysical acti'ity ----& A $ ! " C) one must, in the first place, en9oy good health we must all follow a fi4ed schedule which includes a variety of activities some endurance-type activities are essential the change from inactivity to activity must be a gradual one one "oesn7t ha'e to $er%orm stren o s or eNha sting acti'ities -E1! AA[C !10

1:& )n this $assage* the a thor is really s$ea,ing to $eo$le ----& A $ whose reasons for physical activity are varied who are e4perts in the problems related to physical activity 1M& Accor"ing to the res lts o% a research wor, re%erre" to in the $assage* ----& A $ ! the health benefits of long-distance running are enormous intense physical activity is usually harmful adults should avoid all types of physical activity

@) who are rarely in'ol'e" in any sort o% $hysical acti'ity " # for whom physical activity is a prime aim in life with whom he takes part in various physical activities

D) it seems that a reasonable amo nt o% eNercise lea"s to a longer li%e -SC+CD-S1EFQL A/)E!) (!)<EA?)0 # the same balanced programme of physical activity is suitable for everyone

1;& !he $hysical acti'ity that the writer )s re%erring to in this $assage ----& A) is an or"inary ty$e o% acti'ity that "oesn#t re= ire m ch $hysical e%%ort $ ! " # is one that is suitable for adults only should only be undertaken under e4pert guidance is specifically recommended for people of middle age benefits the young rather than the elderly

Rnsanlar fi&iksel aktivitenin sa(l%k ka&an%mlar%na eri'mek i)in maraton ko'mak &orunda de(ildir. Fo(u u&man herhangi bir fi&iksel eylemin, hatta orta halli bir hareketin bile, sa(l%k faydalar%n% temin edece(inde hemfikirdirler. R'in asl%, son derece hareketsi& olan insanlar, d*&enli orta yo(unlukta dayan%kl%l%k tipi aktiviteler yapmak suretiyle en b*y*k sa(l%k faydalar%na eri'meyi *mit edebilirler. Spor ve ,l*m *&erine yap%lan kapsaml% bir )al%'man%n ya&arlar% 'u sonuca gelmi'lerdir> SFo(u yeti'kinin yapabilece(i orta seviyelerde fi&iksel spor, erken ,l*me kar'% koruyu g,&*kmektedir.S 5 &aman, en hareketsi& insanlar% &orlanmadan yapabilecekleri hangi aktivite olursa olsun buna te'vik etmek, mua&&am bir fayda sa(layabilece(inden, gayet ak%ll%cad%r.


?DSS 2004 (49-:2) Kore than e'er be%ore* $eo$le are now learning abo t n trition as they watch television, read newspapers, turn the pages of maga&ines, talk with friends, and search the Internet. They want to know how best to take care of themselves. In some cases, they are seeking miracles> tricks to help them lose weight, foods to forestall aging and supplements to build muscles. Deo$le7s heightene" interest in n trition an" health translates into billions o% "ollars s$ent on ser'ices an" $ro" cts sol" by both gen ine an" %ra " lent b sinesses. While consumers who obtain genuine products can improve their health, those who are "ecei'e" by cle'er a"'ertising may lose their health* their sa'ings or both. Ironically* s ch "ece$tion in n tritional matters $re'ents $eo$le %rom attaining the health they see, by giving them false hope and "elaying the im$lementation o% e%%ecti'e strategies& 19& As is $ointe" o t )n the $assage* in recent years ----& A people have been giving great importance to their health and always consult 7ualified doctors if there is a problem nutritional standards everywhere have risen noticeably people know a lot more about nutrition but continue to eat what they know is bad for them a great deal of money is being spent on health aids and the results are always worth it $eo$le ha'e become increasingly intereste" in n trition an" health

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

21& Accor"ing to the $assage* many o% the health items on the mar,et act ally ha'e an a"'erse e%%ect $on the cons mer* ----& A $ ! which the manufacturers find very worrying but this is rarely made known to the public but some do achieve the miracles they promise

D) beca se they ma,e one "elay see,ing $ro$er me"ical a"'ice -SC+CD S1EFGR by "oing S!0 # but never of a serious nature

$ ! " C)

22& Je n"erstan" %rom the $assage that a great "eal o% money is being s$ent on s$ecial n trition $ro" cts ----& A though the media constantly insists that they are harmful

+) b t the "esire" res lts are not always reali5e" ! " 20& !he $assage contains a warning that ----& A) many n trition-relate" $ro" cts ma,e %alse claims abo t what they can achie'e -those <@0 $ ! " # much information that can be obtained from the Internet is completely unreliable too much interest in health actually has an adverse effect on one.s health efforts to forestall aging have proved particularly dangerous there are more fraudulent health products and services than genuine ones # but it is the normal diet that is really important and the main aim is invariably to lose weight most of which are useless but at least none are harmful

Televi&yon seyrettik)e, ga&eteleri okuduk)a, dergi sayfalar%n% kar%'t%rd%k)a , arkada'lar%yla konu'up internette ara't%rma yapt%k)a, insanlar beslenme hakk%nda eskiye k%yasla )ok daha fa&la 'ey ,(reniyorlar. -endilerine en iyi nas%l bakacaklar%n% ,(renmek istiyorlar. $a&% durumlarda, muci&e pe'inde ko'uyorlar> kilo kaybetmelerine yard%mc% olacak p*f noktalar%, ya'lanmay% engelleyici yiyecekler ve kas yapacak ek g%dalar Dgibi . Rnsanlar%n beslenmeye ve sa(l%(a artan ilgisi hem ger)ek hem de doland%r%c% i' d*nyas%n%n satt%(% servis ve *r*nlere harcanan milyarlarca dolara d,n*'*yor. /er)ek *r*nlere ula'an m*'teriler sa(l%klar%n% geli'tirirken, kurna& reklamlarla kand%r%lanlar sa(l%klar%n%, birikimlerini veya her ikisini birden yitirebiliyorlar. R'in tuhaf%, beslenme konusundaki bu t*r doland%r%c%l%klar insanlara sahte umutlar vererek ve etkin strate9ileri uygulamalar%n% geciktirerek arad%klar% sa(l%(a kavu'malar%n% engelliyor.


?DSS 200: (49-:2) Beople may be overweight, not because they eat too much, b t beca se they s$en" too little energy. Hore than one - third of the overweight population report no physical activity at all during their leisure time. Some overweight people are so e4traordinarily inactive that e'en when they eat less than thin $eo$le, they still have an energy surplus. Oeducing their food intake further would be a threat to their health. Bhysical activity, then, is a necessary component of nutritional health. Beople must be physically active if they are to eat enough food to deliver all the nutrients they need without unhealthy weight gain. 5ne hundred years ago, @L per cent of the energy used in farm and factory work came from muscle power3 today only 2 per cent does. Ko"ern technology* res lting in s ch things as com$ ters an" washing - machines* has re$lace" $hysical acti'ity at home* at wor,* an" in trans$ortation& Mnderactivity is probably the single most important contributor to overweight. And in most cases, tele'ision watching ma,es the biggest contrib tion to $hysical inacti'ity.

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

2:& As it is $ointe" o t in the $assage* mo"ern technology ----& A $ may make our working hours less active but does not affect our leisure hours has more advantages than disadvantages

@) is* "irectly or in"irectly* res$onsible %or many o% the o'erweight $eo$le in the worl" -SC+CD-S1EFGR res lting in0 " # has led to a greater reduction of physical activity at home than in the workplace has revolutioni&ed the work of the agricultural labourer but not of the factory worker

2;& Accor"ing to the $assage* there are many %actors contrib ting to mo"ern-li%e n"eracti'ity* b t the main one is ----& A driving to work instead of walking

23& 1ne $oint em$hasi5e" in the $assage concerning the $roblem o% o'erweight is that ----& A $ ! " C) it is threatening the lives and the happiness of a great many people the best solution is to eat less it is by no means a modern phenomenon people need to be made more aware of how it can be overcome it is s ally the res lt o% too little $hysical acti'ity -SC+CD-S1EFG- beca seL E1! +F!0

+) watching tele'ision -.DD.A/)R biggestL SC+CD-S1EFGR contrib tion0 ! " # labour-saving devices in the home the use of computers in offices fast - food services

24& Accor"ing to the $assage* some o'erweight $eo$le ----& A $ ! rarely bother to turn the television on do not regard being overweight as a problem are 7uite as physically active as the average person

Rnsanlar, )ok yedikleri i)in de(il, )ok a& ener9i harcad%klar% i)in kilolu olabilirler. -ilolu n*fusun *)te birinden daha fa&las% bo' vakitleri boyunca hi) bir fi&iksel aktivite yapmad%klar%n% belirtiyorlar. $a&% kilolu insanlar ,ylesine hareketsi& ki &ay%f insanlardan daha a& yediklerinde bile ener9i fa&lal%klar% oluyor. +iyecek al%mlar%n% daha da a&altmak, Dbu insanlar%n sa(l%klar% i)in bir tehdit olacakt%r. 5 &aman fi&iksel hareketlilik sa(l%kl% beslenmenin gerekli bir unsurudur. Rnsanlar kilo ka&anmadan ihtiya)lar% olan t*m besinleri sa(layacak yeterlilikte yemek yemek istiyorlarsa, fi&iksel olarak hareketli olmal%d%rlar. +*& y%l ,nce, )iftlik ve fabrikalarda kulan%lan ener9inin y*&de @L=u kas g*c*nden geliyordu3 bug*n bu orada sadece y*&de 2. $ilgisayar ve bula'%k makinesi gibi 'eylere yol a)an g*n*m*& teknolo9isi ev, i'yeri ve ula'%mda fi&iksel hareketin yerini ald%. 0areketsi&lik muhtemelen a'%r% kilodaki en b*y*k tek etken. Ce )o(u durumda, televi&yon seyretmek fi&iksel hareketsi&li(e en b*y*k gerek)eyi te'kil etmektedir.

D) may act ally eat less than thin $eo$le -?A<Q)/AQ!)<KA0 # seem to en9oy e4cellent health


?DSS 200: (:7- ;0) The conventional photography industry is facing difficult times now that digital cameras have come to the fore in all parts of the world. Deo$le with "igital cameras ta,e more $ict re than "o those with con'entional cameras, but ma,e %ewer $rints. They tend to share pictures over the internet and get any prints they do want from their computers, instea" o% going to a $hotogra$hy sho$ %or $rints. ?urther, a new threat has now appeared> camera-e7uipped mobile phones. !hese co l" change the nat re o% $hotogra$hy entirely, beca se they ma,e the sharing o% "igital $hotogra$hs %ar easier. In all probability they will soon be 7uite the most popular form of camera.

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

camera-e= i$$e" mobile $hones ----& A will only en9oy a short period of popularity

+) are going to bring ra"ical changes to the %iel" o% $hotogra$hy -.DD.A/)R entirely0 ! " # will soon be able to produce photographs of higher 7uality will always be a lu4ury item will soon be replaced by a much smaller camera

27& )t is clear %rom the $assage that $eo$le with "igital cameras ----& A) "o not nee" the ser'ices o% the $hotogra$hy in" stry -?A<Q)/AQ!)<KA L DC[<)?0 $ ! " # regard themselves as professional photographers can=t take better photographs than people with conventional cameras take fewer photographs than one might e4pect are not interested in camera-e7uipped mobile phones

30& 1ne a"'antage o% a mobile $hone camera o'er the reg lar "igital camera is that ----& A $ it has a greater ability to store pictures prints of the photographs can be made

@) it ma,es the sharing o% $ict res m ch more $ractical -SC+CDR beca seL ?A<Q)/AQ!)<KAR %ar easier0 " # it can be operated more easily the photographs it takes are of better 7uality

2M& Je n"erstan" %rom the $assage that* with the coming o% "igital cameras* ----& A $ ! " C) photography has been made rather easy the photography industry has been en9oying a period of prosperity no one ever bothers to print any photographs more and more people have started to use the internet $eo$le are ta,ing more $hotogra$hs than be%ore -?A<Q)/AQ!)<KAR more $ict res than0

Al%'%ld%k foto(raf sanayisi d*nyan%n her yerinde di9ital foto(raf makineleri ,ne )%kt%(% i)in s%k%nt%l% &amanlar ya'%yor. "i9ital foto(raf makinesi olan insanlar, tipik foto(raf makinesi olanlara k%yasla daha )ok foto(raf )ekiyorlar, ama daha a& )%kt% al%yorlar. 5nlar foto(raflar% internette payla'mak ve, ta.b i)in bir foto(raf)% d*kkan%na gitmek yerine, ar&u ettikleri herhangi bir )%kt%y% ise bilgisayarlar%ndan almak e(ilimindeler. "ahas%, yeni bir tehdit ba' g,sterdi> kameral% cep telefonlar%. $unlar foto(raf)%l%(%n do(as%n% tamamen de(i'tirebilir, &ira di9ital foto(raflar%n payla'%m%n% )ok daha kolay hale getirmekteler. $*y*k ihtimalle, k%sa &aman i)inde en tercih edilen foto(raf makinesi t*r* olacaklar.

29& Accor"ing to the $assage* it seems li,ely that


?DSS 200; (4:-:M) Mnlike ;Lth-century technologies like nuclear weapons, which were sel%-limiting beca se they "e$en"e" on rare an" eN$ensi'e materials, new technologies s ch as genetic engineering* nanotechnology an" robotics are easily within the reach o% in"i'i" als or small gro $s. With each of these new technologies, a se7uence of small, harmless advances lea"s to an acc m lation o% great $ower* an" at the same time* great "anger& Individuals with knowledge of the technologies could use them to ca se great "amage to the h man race or to the earth. <anotechnology, for e4ample, could create viruses that reproduce uncontrollably and cover the planet. Intelligent robots could make copies of themselves and eventually control our civili&ation. Accordingly, with new technology comes the new res$onsibility to se it to hel$* rather than harm* the h man race an" the $lanet&

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

33& )t can be n"erstoo" %rom the $assage that 20th cent ry technologies s ch as n clear wea$ons ----& A could easily have been controlled by a few individuals

+) were easy to control " e to their reliance on costly reso rces that are "i%%ic lt to obtain -<@0 ! " were easy to control since only the national governments had access to them were controlled by the national governments of a very few countries, and thus, were unlikely to prove dangerous were far more likely to prove beneficial than harmful

31& Je n"erstan" %rom the $assage that the new technologies o% the $resent cent ry ----& A $ are not likely to bring any benefits, not even of a temporary nature will certainly put an end to life on the planet 34& )t is ma"e clear in the $assage that new technologies s ch as genetic engineering* nanotechnology an" robotics co l" $ro'e "angero s ----& A $ ! even though those working on them are all fully aware of their responsibilities since they are designed to harm not to help life on earth as they are already showing signs of getting out of control

@) $ose a $ossible threat to society an" the $lanet -SC+CD Z S1EFGR ca se0 " # are largely controlled by individuals and groups that want to destroy the planet are already showing signs of controlling our civili&ation

D) " e to their easy accessibility by in"i'i" als or small gro $s # 32& )t is clear %rom the $assage that the writer ----& A) belie'es that in"i'i" als with access to the new technologies m st se them res$onsibly -DC[<.? @WK/CR comes the new res$onsibility0 $ is sure that only responsible individuals have so far been allowed access to the new technologies is confident that individuals with access to the new technologies will definitely use them to help, rather than harm, the human race and the planet fears that all the individuals with access to the new technologies wish to harm the human race and the planet is e4tremely optimistic about how the new technologies will be used A& bulunur ve pahal% materyallere ba(%ml% olduklar% i)in kendi kendini s%n%rlayan n*kleer silahlar gibi ;L. +*&y%l teknolo9ilerinden farkl% olarak, genetik m*hendisli(i, nano teknolo9i ve robot bilimi gibi yeni teknolo9iler bireylerin veya k*)*k gruplar%n kolayl%kla eri'imleri d:hilindedir. $u yeni teknolo9ilerin her biriyle birlikte, bir di&i k*)*k Dve &arars%& geli'me, b*y*k bir g*c*n ve ayn% &amanda, b*y*k bir tehlikenin birikmesine yol a)ar. $u teknolo9i bilgisine sahip olan insanlar, onu insan %rk%na veya d*nyaya b*y*k &arar vermek i)in kullanabilirler. Vrne(in nano teknolo9i kontrols*& bir 'ekilde )o(alan ve ge&egeni kaplayan vir*sler yaratabilir. Ak%ll% robotlar kendi kopyalar%n% yapabilir ve sonunda medeniyetimi&i ele ge)irebilirler. "olay%s%yla, yeni teknolo9iyle birlikte onu insan %rk%na ve ge&egene &arar vermekten &iyade yard%mc% olmak i)in kullanmak Dgibi bir sorumluluk da gelir. but nobody e4pects them to do so



?DSS 200; (49 Z :2) ?or thousands of years the wil" orang tan lived in rich tropical forests. The species has no natural enemy, but in the last three "eca"es it has been "ri'en to eNtinction. !he main ca ses %or this are miners, peasants and illegal loggers who ha'e "estroye" the orang tan#s habitat on the Indonesian islands of Sumatra and $orneo. Hore than half of these lowland forests were cut down during Bresident Suharto=s autocratic reign, b t the change to "emocracy in )n"onesia in the late 1990s "i" nothing to sto$ the %orest clearing. In addition, illegal hunters have killed more than 2,LLL orangutan mothers per year, stealing their babies to sell on the black market. +eca se orang tans bree" slowly* they co l" not re$ro" ce = ic,ly eno gh to co nter these threats to their e4istence and so they died out.

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

37& !his $assage is mainly concerne" with ----& A) how the wil" orang tan has become eNtinct -AEA I.?.< S1<BF/AKAS)0 $ ! " # the difficult life of the miners and loggers on Sumatra and $orneo how the lowland forests of Sumatra and $orneo are disappearing former Indonesian president Suharto=s autocratic reign the change to democracy in Indonesia in the late 2JJLs

3:& )t is clear %rom the $assage that "es$ite the shi%t to a "emocratic go'ernment in )n"onesia* ----& A $ ! " C) the practice of selling baby orangutans on the black market increased the orangutans there began to have a better life the illegal hunting practices of the loggers were stopped the orangutans were moved to safety the %orests there contin e" to be c t "own -+C?/CEKCYCE S1EFGR b t0

3M& Je can n"erstan" %rom the $assage that the $rimary reason %or the "isa$$earance o% the orang tans is ----& A $ illegal hunting by miners the dictatorship of former Bresident Suharto

@) the "estr ction o% their %orest habitat -<@L SC+CD S1EFGL .DD.A/)Rmain0 " # the start of democracy in Indonesia the fact that they have no natural enemy

3;& )t is $ointe" o t in the $assage that the orang tans weren#t able to re$lace those that ha" "ie" or been stolen beca se ----& A the government gave its support to the destruction of the forests

+) they co l" only re$ro" ce 'ery slowly -SC+CD-S1EFG0 ! " # the black market price for young orangutans was rising rapidly no one, anywhere, showed any interest in the fate of the orangutans illegal hunters had carried out their plan to kill all the orangutan females

Cah'i orangutan binlerce y%l boyunca &engin tropik ormanlarda ya'ad%. T*r*n hi)bir tabii d*'man% yoktur ama son @L y%ld%r h%&la nesli t*kenmekte. $unun ana sebepleri orangutan%n #ndone&ya=n%n Sumatra ve $orneo adalar%ndaki ya'am alan%n%n madenciler, k,yl*ler ve ka)ak ormanc%larca tahrip edilmesidir. $u al)ak ovalar%n yar%s%ndan fa&las% $a'kan Suharto=nun despot iktidar% boyunca kesilmi'ti, ama 2JJLlar%n sonunda #ndone&ya=da demokrasiye ge)i' Dde orman katliam%n% durduracak hi)bir 'ey yapmad%. Zstelik, ka)ak avc%lar her y%l 2LLL=den fa&la orangutan annesini ,ld*rmekte ve karaborsada satmak i)in bebeklerini )almaktalar. 5rangutanlar yava' *redikleri i)in, varl%klar%na y,nelik bu tehditlere kar'% koyabilecek h%&da )o(alamad%lar ve bu y*&den yok olup gittiler.


?DSS 200; (:7 Z ;0) In recent years, scientists have come to an agreement that the Carth is warming mostly " e to the emission o% carbon "ioNi"e %rom electrical $ower $lants that b rn coal* oil an" nat ral gas. "iscussions of alternatives to these fossil fuels generally include windmills, photovoltaics Dpanels which convert sunlight to electricity and even hydrogen fuel. Although these technologies hold a great deal of promise for the long term* none o% them $ro'i"es an imme"iate sol tion to the $roblem o% global warming& C'en i% these new technologies % l%ill their $otential at some time in the % t re* it is nclear whether they will meet the worl"#s energy nee"s& ?or this reason, n clear $ower still remains the only really attracti'e alternati'e to %ossil % els&

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

41& )n the $assage* se'eral alternati'es that co l" be se" to re$lace %ossil % els are "isc sse" b t ----& A $ ! all of them pose health problems all are re9ected for one reason or another fossil fuels remain the best choice

D) with one eNce$tion* it is not li,ely that they will e'er be able to s $$ly eno gh energy -C[CE )I0 # they all present insurmountable technological problems

39& Accor"ing to the $assage* n clear $ower ----& A) is seen as a goo" alternati'e to %ossil % els beca se it co l" s $$ly the worl"#s energy nee"s -SC+CD-S1EFGR %or this reason0 $ ! is less attractive than fossil fuels as it is the main cause of global warming has a great future potential for clean energy production, but is not a practical solution at present presently supplies the world with more than half its energy en9oys very little favour as it is so dangerous

42& Je learn %rom the $assage that one im$ortant ca se o% global warming is ----& A $ the sudden growth in the world=s energy needs the increasing use of photovoltaics to produce electricity

@) the $ro" ction o% electrical $ower %rom coal* oil an" nat ral gas -SC+CD-S1EFGR " e to0 " # related to the closure of so many nuclear power plants the failure to recogni&e the potential of windpower

" #

?.!A+.R Son y%llarda bilim adamlar% d*nyan%n daha )ok k,m*r, petrol ve do(al ga& yakan elektrik g*) santrallerinden yay%lan karbondioksit sal%m% y*&*nden %s%n%yor oldu(u konusunda bir u&la'%ya vard%lar. 40& )t is $ointe" o t in the $assage that altho gh %ossil % els co l" be re$lace" by cleaner* sa%er alternati'es to $ro" ce electricity ----& A the price of electricity would soar Q.IAA.R Son y%llarda bilim adamlar% 'u konuda hemfikir oldu> "*nya daha )ok k,m*r, petrol ve do(al ga& yakan elektrik g*) santrallerinden yay%lan karbon dioksit sal%m% y*&*nden %s%n%yor. $u fosil yak%tlara alternatifler genellikle yel-de(irmenlerini, fotovoltaikleri Dyani g*ne' %'%(%n% elektri(e )eviren panelleri ve hatta hidro9en yak%t%n% i)ermekte. 0er ne kadar bu teknolo9iler u&un vadede b*y*k umutlar vaat etse de, hi) biri k*resel %s%nmaya acil bir ),&*m sa(lam%yor. $u yeni teknolo9iler gelecekte herhangi bir &amanda potansiyellerini yerine getirseler bile, d*nyan%n ener9i ihtiya)lar%n% kar'%lay%p kar'%lamayacaklar% a)%k de(il. $undan dolay%, n*kleer ener9i fosil yak%tlar%n hala tek ger)ek ca&ip alternatifi olmaya devam ediyor.

+) this cannot be achie'e" in a short s$ace o% time -+C?/CEKCYCE >)!/)?R altho gh0 ! " # these will certainly never be sufficient to meet the world=s energy needs all known possible alternatives are potentially dangerous none of these alternatives has as yet been tested


?DSS 2007 (:7 Z ;0) The !hannel Islands fo4 is one of America=s most photogenic creatures \ and one of its most endangered. As recently as 2JJE, scientists estimated that more than 2,6LL of the tiny fo4es lived on Santa !ru& Island, the biggest in the island chain which lies off the coast of Aos Angeles. Today, however, only about KL remain in the wild there. Island mammals, because they=re cut off from other environments, are particularly sensitive to disruptions in the balance of predators and prey, and it was a series of unrelated events on the northern !hannel Islands that caused the present crisis. Scientists discovered in the mid-2JJLs that most o% the %oNes on the islan"s were being ,ille" by gol"en eagles* which ha" $re'io sly been ,e$t away by the $resence o% bal" eagles* which %ee" mainly on %ish an" seal carcasses. $ut the bald eagle began to disappear in the 2J6Ls, the 'ictim o% ninten"e" $oisoning by a nearby chemical %actory& !he %actory ha" " m$e" $estici"es into the /os Angeles sewer system , which empties into the ocean. The waste contaminated the marine wildlife which the bald eagles fed on, thus contaminating the bald eagles as well, and by 2JIL, bal" eagles ha" 'anishe" %rom the islan"s. !he bal" eagles# "isa$$earance le%t an o$ening %or the gol"en eagles, and by the mi"-1990s gol"en eagles ha" become the main $re"ator o% the @hannel )slan"s %oN.

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

4:& )t is $ointe" o t in the $assage that bal" eagles were not a "anger to the @hannel )slan"s %oN as ----& A $ ! " C) the fo4es had learned ways to outsmart them the fo4es lived in protected areas on the islands the bald eagles had been driven away from the islands by golden eagles bald eagles had never inhabited the islands %oNes were not a large $art o% the bal" eagles# "iet -<@0

4;& Je can n"erstan" %rom the $assage that the " m$ing o% $estici"es into the /os Angeles sewer system ----& A eventually killed off all the golden eagles in the area

+) in"irectly le" to a h ge re" ction in the local bal" eagle $o$ lation ! " # had no effect whatsoever on the local sea animals caused the e4tinction of the fo4es on the islands did not affect the !hannel Islands fo4 because of its relative isolation

43& Je see %rom the $assage that gol"en eagles ----& A) ha'e not always been $resent on the @hannel )slan"s $ ! " # fre7uently hunt together with bald eagles eat mostly fish and seal carcasses are suffering due to their isolation from the mainland had disappeared from the !hannel Islands by the mid-;Lth century

44& )t is clear %rom the $assage that the @hannel )slan"s %oN is in "anger o% "isa$$earing altogether " e mostly to ----& A $ the island chain=s nearness to Aos Angeles a local reduction in the population of marine wildlife

@) the gol"en eagle* its main $re"ator -.DD.A/)R most o%L .DD.A/)Rmain $re"ator0 " # the presence of contaminated seal carcasses on the !hannel Islands the presence of bald eagles

-anal Adalar% tilkisi Amerika.n%n en foto9enik yarat%klar%ndan biridir - ve en )ok yok olma tehlikesiyle kar'% kar'%ya olanlardan da biridir. "aha 2JJE y%l%nda bilim adamlar% Aos Angeles sahili a)%klar%nda u&anan tak%madalardan en b*y*(* olan Santa !ru& Adas%nda en a& 26LL adet mini tilkinin ya'ad%(%n% hesaplam%'lard%. Ama bug*n orada yaban hayat%nda ancak KL kadar% geriye kalm%'t%r. Ada memelileri, di(er ortamlardan ba(lar% kopuk oldu(undan, av ve avc% dengesindeki bo&ulmalara kar'% ,&ellikle hassast%rlar, ve mevcut kri&e yol a)an 'ey ku&ey kanal adalar%nda birbiriyle ba(lant%s% olmayan bir di&i olayd%. $ilim adamlar% 2JJLlar%n ortalar%nda ada tilkilerini )o(unun alt%n kartallarca ,ld*r*ld*(*n* ke'fettiler3 bu kartallar daha ,nce, )o(unlukla bal%k ve fok le'iyle besleniyor olan kel kartallar%n varl%(% sayesinde Dadadan u&akta tutulmaktayd%. Ama kel kartal kom'u bir kimya fabrikas%n%n kas%tl% olmayan &ehirlemesinin bir kurban% olarak 2J6L.lerde ortadan kaybolmaya ba'lad%. ?abrika ha'ere-ila)lar%n% okyanuslara d,k*len Aos Angeles kanali&asyon sistemine bo'altm%'t%. At%k, kel kartallar%n beslendi(i deni& yaban hayat%na mikrop bula't%rm%', b,ylece kel kartallar%n% da hasta etmi'ti, ve 2JIL itibariyle kel kartallar adadan Dtamamen yok olmu'lard%. -el kartallar%n ortadan kalkmas% alt%n kartallar i)in bir a)%kl%k b%rakm%', ve 2JJLlar%n ortalar%na gelindi(inde alt%n kartallar -anal adalar% tilkisinin ba' avc%s% haline gelmi'ti.


?DDS 1992 ?AS)K () <igeria is heavily dependent on the e4port of crude oil to finance industrial development. 90^ o% Eigeria7s eN$orts by 'al e are cr "e oil& At c rrent $ro" ction rates* ,nown reser'es are only s %%icient ntil the en" o% the cent ry. )n" strialisation was booste" a%ter )973* %ollowing the %o r%ol" increase in oil $rices& In the early 2JKLs prices fell, and <igeria lost important income. 5il production peaked in 2JNE when output reached 22; million tonnes. 1& )t is $ointe" o t in the $assage that the shar$ rise in oil $rices in 1973 ----& A had less effect on <igeria=s economy than might have been e4pected

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

<i9erya sanayi kalk%nmas%n% finanse etmek i)in b*y*k oranda ham petrol ihracat%na ba(%ml%d%r. <i9eryan%n ihracat%n%n de(er bak%m%ndan ] JL=% ham petrold*r. Hevcut *retim h%&%nda Dgidilirse , bilinen petrol yataklar% ancak y*&y%l%n sonuna kadar yeterli olacakt%r. Sanayile'me, petrol fiyatlar%n%n d,rt kat artmas%n% takiben, 2JN@ten sonra artm%' idi.2JKLlerin ba'%nda fiyatlar d*'t* ve <i9erya ,nemli miktarda gelir kaybetti. Betrol imalat%, 2JNE=te *retim 22; milyon tona ula't%(%nda &irve noktas%na ula'm%'t%.

+) contrib te" greatly to in" strial "e'elo$ment in Eigeria ! " # coincided with a considerable fall in oil production provided <igeria with a high revenue well into the late 2JKLs put a great deal of pressure on <igeria=s oil reserves


)t is n"erstoo" %rom the $assage that only a %raction o% Eigeria eN$orts ----& A) are goo"s other than cr "e oil $ ! " # would be needed to support industrial development were affected by the fall in oil prices in the 2JKLs were oil-related have benefited from price increases


Accor"ing to the $assage* so long as the c rrent rate o% oil $ro" ction is maintaine" ----& A $ world oil prices are not e4pected to rise significantly <igeria=s industrial development plans will soon be fully realised

@) Eigeria is li,ely to ha'e no oil reser'es le%t by the year 2000 " # <igeria will continue to en9oy large revenues the variety of goods e4ported from <igeria will increase


?DDS 1992 ?AS)K () @om$ ters sho l" ne'er ha'e ac= ire" the eNalte" stat s they now ha'e. ?ascinating and invaluable as they are, e'en the most a"'ance" ha'e less brain $ower than a three-year-ol". !hey "o* howe'er* score on singlemin"e"ness. The three-year-old uses his brain not only to think but also to do tasks like seeing, hearing and running about, which need incredibly rapid and sophisticated electro-mechanical interactions - we too run on electricity. $ut the computer 9ust sits there and sends spacecraft to the moon or re-organises the world banking system, which is very much easier. That.s why man=s dream of robot servants is still a long way off. 4& !he main $oint ma"e by the $assage is that the h man brain ----& A is much inferior to any known computer

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

$ilgisayarlar%n 'u an sahip olduklar% y*ce stat*ye asla sahip olmamal%lar% la&%md%. <e kadar b*y*leyici ve paha bi)ilme olsalar da, en ileri olanlar% bile *) ya'%ndaki bir )ocuktan daha d*'*k bir beyin g*c*ne sahiptir. Ama onlar puanlar%n% Dmeca&> yani itibarlar%n% tek y,nl* d*'*nmek suretiyle ger)ekle'tirirler. Z) ya'%ndaki bir )ocuk beynini sadece d*'*nmek i)in de(il, Dama ayn% &amanda g,rmek, i'itmek ve ko'u'turmak gibi i'ler i)in de kullan%r, ki bunlar inan%lma& h%& ve geli'mi' elektromekanik veri transferleri gerektirir> $i& de elektrikle )al%'maktay%&. 5ysa bilgisayar sadece orada oturur ve aya u&ay arac% g,nderir veya d*nya bankac%l%k sisteminin yeniden d*&enler, bunlarsa )ok daha kolayd%r. R'te bu y*&den insano(lunun robot hi&met)i r*yas% daha )ok u&aklarda.

+) is in%initely more com$leN an" $ower% l than any com$ ter ! " # reaches its ma4imum efficiency at the age of three is not as complicated and mysterious as has usually been thought has been entirely reproduced in computer form


)t is eN$laine" in the $assage that the e%%iciency o% the com$ ter ----& A $ ! will soon make it possible for man to be served by robots depends on the speed with which the data are fed can best be appreciated in the decision making positions

D) is the res lt o% its being concentrate" on one tas, at a time # depends upon sophisticated electromechanical interactions


!he a thor %eels that com$ ters ----& A $ are becoming unaffordable as they get more advanced have contributed immensely to the improvement of living standards

@) ha'e been nnecessarily o'errate" " # will be a ma9or force behind all future progress are capable of doing all the tasks the human brain performs even more efficiently


?DDS 1992 ?AS)K () Hany substances, whether man-made or natural, can cause harm to man or the environment. Some of these reach the environment in waste streams3 howe'er* emission limits an" en'ironmental = ality stan"ar"s can* in some instances* re" ce the amo nts release". $ut some other substances cannot be controlle" in this way because they are released, not in industrial waste streams, b t thro gh the se or "is$osal o% $ro" cts which contain them. In many cases these substances pose little or no threat if the product containing them is used and disposed of properly. !he right way to "eal with them is usually thro gh controls over their supply, use and disposal. 7& Accor"ing to the $assage* the threat o% certain s bstances to the en'ironment ----& A is far less than that to man

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

/erek insan yap%m% gerek do(al pek )ok madde insan ve )evreye &arar verebilir. $unlar%n bir k%sm% )evreye at%k su kanallar% i)inde ula'%r. Ancak ba&% durumlarda emisyon s%n%rlamalar% ve )evre kalite kontrolleri sal%nan miktar% a&altabilir. Ama di(er ba&% maddeler bu 'ekilde kontrol edileme&ler )*nk* onlar D)evreye sanayi at%k kanallar% i)inde de(il, kendilerini i)eren *r*nlerin kullan%m% veya imhas% vas%tas%yla sal%n%rlar. Fo(u durumda bu maddeler e(er kendilerini i)eren *r*n d*&g*n bir 'ekilde kullan%l%r veya imha edilirse D)evreye )ok a& verir veya hi) &arar verme&ler. $unlar%n icab%na bakman%n Den do(ru yolu, genellikle ar&, kullan%m veya imhas% *&erinde denetlemeler yoluylad%r.

+) co l" be re" ce" by en%orcing emission limits an" en'ironmental controls ! " # has been unnecessarily overemphasised has to date been completely ignored can be eliminated by the use of industrial waste streams


!he a thor $oints o t that the "anger $ose" to man by many s bstances ----& A $ ! " C) is unrelated to environmental pollution is even greater than generally admitted continues to grow despite constant control of disposal systems is solely due to the use of industrial waste streams arises %rom their mis se an" wrong "is$osal -SC+CD-S1EFGR thro gh0


!he $assage is concerne" with the = estion o% ----& A) how the harm% l e%%ects o% certain s bstances can be bro ght n"er control -AEA I.?.<0 $ ! " # why industrial waste streams have caused so much pollution whether man made substances or natural ones cause more pollution what measures are to be taken against the supply of dangerous substances who is responsible for taking the re7uired measures


?DDS 1993 ?AS)K () There are twelve and a half acres of land for each man, woman, and child in the world today. 0owever, only three and a half acres of this land can be cultivated. If the population of the world reaches si4 billion by the year ;LLL, there will be only one an" a hal% acres %or each $erson. Kan ( st increases his $ro" ction o% %oo". 5ne scientist has said that the worl" co l" s $$ort ten billion $eo$le i% better agric lt ral metho"s were se" e'erywhere. The supply of food can also be increased by the control of plant diseases, and by the irrigation of desert lands& +y sing these ways an" others* man can %ee" himsel% an" his %ellow men& 10& !he $assage em$hasises that the growth o% the worl" $o$ lation ----& A) ma,es %oo" $ro" ction a 'ital = estion $ ! " # must not be allowed to continue at the present rate is no longer a cause for international concern has now made it necessary to cultivate all the desert lands in the world has 9eopardised the farmlands in the world.

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

$ug*n d*nyada her bir erkek, kad%n ve )ocuk i)in on iki bu)uk akrelik ara&i vard%r. Ancak bu ara&inin sadece *) bu)uk akresi ekilip bi)ilebilmektedir. "*nya n*fusu ;LLL y%l% itibariyle alt% milyara ula'acak olursa, ki'i ba'%na sadece bir bu)uk akre olacakt%r DTkalacakt%r . R'te insano(lu Dyapacak ba'ka bir 'ey yok yiyecek *retimini art%rmaktad%r. $ir bilim adam% daha iyi &irai y,ntemler her tarafta kullan%lsa d*nyan%n on milyar insan% destekleyebilece(ini DTbesleyebilece(ini s,yledi. +iyecek ar&% bitki hastal%klar%n%n kontrol* ve kurak DT),l ara&ilerin sulanmas% ile de art%r%labilir. $u ve di(er y,ntemleri kullanmak suretiyle insano(lu kendini ve etraf%ndakileri besleyebilir.

11& !he writer s ggests that* by the en" o% the cent ry* the amo nt o% the arable lan" a'ailable ----& A $ ! will be doubled in si&e through the irrigation of desert lands per person will drop to three and a half acres from twelve and a half will be fully ade7uate for the support of a ten billion world population

D) $er $erson will %all %rom three an" a hal% acres to one an" a hal% # will continue to diminish and, hence, famine will be inevitable

12& Accor"ing to the $assage* the worl" %oo" $roblem can be sol'e" ----& A $ ! " C) by a fair and even distribution of available arable land throughout the world only if new ways of overcoming plant diseases can be discovered simply by cultivating desert lands in an efficient way so long as the population does not e4ceed ten billion at the most i% 'ario s e%%ecti'e meas res are ta,en* s ch as the im$ro'ement o% %arming techni= es


?DDS 1993 ?AS)K () Though there has always been a certain amount of concern about pollution since the start o% the )n" strial <e'ol tion, this was largely an interest of relatively limited numbers of concerned people. $ut during the 2JILs there was a great upsurge of an4iety which was reflected internationally by the calling of the Stockholm M< !onference. In response to the rising public pressures, action has been taken mainly in the industrial countries, even though sometimes rel ctantly an" with many warnings %rom in" stry an" go'ernments abo t the costs. 0owever, in many areas there has been a grati%ying im$ro'ement. 13& !he a thor $oints o t that* to some eNtent* $ blic awareness o% $oll tion ----& A) "ates bac, to the %irst years o% the )n" strial <e'ol tion $ ! " # emerged late in the process of industrialisation first appeared in the 2JILs was first voiced at the Stockholm M< conference played a part in the rapid development of industry.

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

Sanayi devriminin ba'lang%c%ndan beri kirlili(e dair her &aman belirgin miktar bir endi'e olsa da, bu daha )ok nispeten k%s%tl% say%daki duyarl% insanlar%n ilgisini )ekiyordu. Ama 2JILlar boyunca b*y*k bir endi'e art%'% oldu, ki bu endi'e art%'% $H Stokholm -onferans%n%n yapt%(% )a(r%yla1bildiriyle uluslararas% yans%ma da buldu. Artan kamu bask%s%na kar'%l%k, )o(unlukla sanayi *lkelerinde olmak *&ere ,nlemler al%nd% Dharekete ge)ildi , her ne kadar ba&en g,n*ls*& bir 'ekilde ve sanayinin ve h*k*metlerin maliyete ili'kin pek )ok uyar%yla birlikte yap%lm%' olsa da. +ine de, pek )ok alanda memnuniyet verici bir ilerleme oldu.

14& )t is im$lie" in the $assage that both in" stry an" go'ernments ha'e ----& A found ways of thwarting public pressures as regards pollution

+) not always been willing* mainly %or economic reasons* to ta,e action to $re'ent $oll tion ! come out in support of the policies recommended at the Stockholm M< conference constantly been in the forefront of pollution control policies since the 2JILs done more than was re7uired of them in eliminating pollution.

" #

1:& Accor"ing to the $assage* in s$ite o% the lac, o% coo$eration %rom in" stry an" go'ernments ----& A $ ! " C) the M< has introduced drastic measures to ensure the prevention of any further pollution the problem of pollution has now been fully solved worldwide the costs of pollution control work have been less than was e4pected the prices of goods remained the same some consi"erable $rogress has been ma"e towar"s controlling $oll tion


?DDS 1993 ?AS)K () ?or nearly a decade now, the man %act ring o% a tomobiles has been n"ergoing ra"ical changes. The principle cause is the introduction of new production and management techni7ues, originally engineered by Toyota and subse7uently applied by other Papanese car manufacturers. This is called GleanU production. It implies no less a revolution in the process of car manufacturing than the mass production 0enry ?ord introduced at the beginning of the century. In fact, lean $ro" ction combines the a"'antages o% cra%t an" mass $ro" ction. A vital feature of this production techni7ue is that it achieves its highest efficiency, 7uality and fle4ibility when all acti'ities - %rom "esign to assembly - occ r in the same area. 1;& )t is $ointe" o t in the $assage thatL in the car in" stry* the tra"itional mass $ro" ction techni= es ----& A $ ! introduced by ?ord were soon outdated are popular only in Papan have contributed significantly to Papanese success in this area

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

Qu an itibariyle neredeyse 2L y%ld%r, otomobil *retimi ciddi de(i'iklikler ge)irmektedir. Temel sebep, ba'lang%)ta Toyota taraf%ndan geli'tirilen, daha sonraysa di(er Papon araba *reticilerince tatbik edilen yeni *retim ve i'letme tekniklerinin ortaya )%kmas%d%r. $una GleanU *retim denir. $u, araba *retim s*recinde, 0enry ?ord=un y*&y%l%n ba'%nda ortaya koydu(u toplu1seri *retimden daha a'a(% kal%r bir devrim de(ildir. /er)ekten de lean retim el i')ili(i1&anaat% ve seri *retimin *st*n y,nlerini biraya getirir. $u *retim tekni(inin hayati bir ,&elli(i onun en y*ksek verim, kalite ve esnekli(e, di&ayndan tutun da monta9a kadar t*m aktiviteler ayn% mek:nda ger)ekle'ti(inde ula'mas%d%r.

D) are beginning to %all o t o% %a'o r # in fact re7uire a higher degree of management efficiency.

17& !he writer eN$lains that* in lean $ro" ction* ---& A $ ! " C) Papanese, companies have followed 0enry ?ord.s e4ample there is less need for skilled workers costs are kept to a minimum the techni7ues of mass production are no longer applicable the best o% mass an" cra%t $ro" ction come together&

1M& Accor"ing to the $assage* lean $ro" ction techni= es wor, best ----& A $ ! in industries where specialised craftsmanship is not re7uired not only in car manufacturing but also in other branches of machine production in a country like Papan where the skilled work force is limited

D) when the whole $ro" ction $rocess ta,es $lace in one $lace # if management procedures do not disrupt the manufacturing process


?DDS 1992 KAY)S () When it was formed many million years ago the earth was a li7uid. It is still cooling and many miles below the har" cr st is still hot. 0owever, in some $laces the heat is closer to the s r%ace. These places are associated with volcanic activity or hot sulphur springs. $y drilling deep into the earth=s crust we can reach rocks that are much warmer than those at the surface. Bumping water down into contact with these roc,s an" eNtracting the steam so $ro" ce" is a so rce o% energy that can be se" to $ro" ce electricity& It is called geothermal energy.

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

Hilyonlarca y%l ,nce olu'tu(unda, d*nya bir s%v% idi. 0ala so(uyor ve sert kabu(un millerce alt% hala s%cak. Ancak ba&% yerlerde s%cakl%k y*&eye daha yak%n. $u yerlere genellikle volkanik aktivite veya s%cak k*k*rt %l%calar% e'lik etmekte. "*nya kabu(unun derinlerine sonda9 yaparak y*&eydekinden )ok daha s%cak olan kaya)lara eri'ebiliri&. $u kayalara temas edecek 'ekilde suyu a'a(% pompalamak ve b,ylece *retilmi' buhar% )%karmak elektrik *retiminde kullan%lan bir ener9i kayna(%d%r. $una 9eotermal ener9i denir.

19& )t is eN$laine" in the $assage that n"er the har" s r%ace o% the earth there ----& A) eNists a hot core which can be se" as a so rce o% energy $ ! " # seems to be a great deal of volcanic activity which threatens life is a hot li7uid layer which has never been drilled could be a number of hot sulphur springs, the main cause of volcanic activity has never been sufficient heat to melt rocks

20& Accor"ing to the $assage* geothermal energy ----& A $ ! has been used by man for millions of years can be produced both plentifully and cheaply is a by-product of e4tensive volcanic activity

D) is the res lt o% the contact o% water with the hot roc,s below the earth#s s r%ace # is recognised as the only form of energy that would never be e4hausted

21& Je can in%er %rom the $assage that the earth#s cr st ----& A $ ! " C) has completely stopped the process of cooling underneath is a constant source of geothermal energy is not suitable for any kind of drilling is constantly warming and cooling due to volcanic activity 'aries in thic,ness %rom $lace to $lace -?A<Q)/AQ!)<KAR closerL >)!/)?R howe'er0


?DDS 1992 KAY)S () When we turn to the problem of fishing, we see that through a M< !onvention on the Aaw of the Sea, the worl"#s nations ha'e in"icate" that they recogni5e the ris,s o% o'er-%ishing. <ations can now declare ;LL-mile e4clusive economic &ones and e4clusive fishing &ones and control the catch at a le'el that is s stainable. "eveloping nations seem to be beginning to benefit from the new fisheries regime which offers the promise of allowing them to manage fishing resources for optimum, that is long-term* bene%its.

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

$al%k)%l%k problemine d,nd*(*m*&de, g,r*yoru& ki, $H deni& hukukuna dair toplu karar%yla, d*nya devletleri1milletleri a'%r% bal%k avc%l%(%n%n tehlikelerini resmen tan%d%klar%n% g,stermi'lerdir. "evletler art%k ;LL millik ,&el ekonomik m%nt%ka veya ,&el bal%k)%l%k m%nt%kas% tayin edebilmekte ve bal3, a'c3l383n3 s6r"6r6lebilir bir se'iye"e t tabilme,teler. /eli'mekte olan *lkeler, bal%k)%l%k kaynaklar%n% en iyi* yani* 5 n 'a"e"e faydal% olacak 'ekilde i'letme imk:n% vaat eden bu yeni bal%k)%l%k d*&enlemesinden Dhali ha&%rda fayda sa(lamaya ba'lam%' g,&*k*yorlar.

22& Je can n"erstan" %rom the $assage that the stat tory meas res ta,en by the FE* regar"ing %ishing ----& A $ are unlikely to be abided by, at least not in the near future have had no beneficial impact on the situation

@) ha'e been welcome" by all the member co ntries " # came into effect too late to be of any use whatsoever have unfortunately served the interests of only the developed countries

23& 1ne ma(or bene%it arising o t o% the 200-mile eNcl si'e %ishing 5one is* as we n"erstan" %rom the $assage* to ----& A ensure that an ever increasing 7uantity of fish shall be caught

+) ,ee$ n"er control the amo nt o% %ish ca ght ! " # e4ploit the marine resources through international cooperation help developing countries to improve their inefficient economies prevent new fisheries from coming into being

24& )t is state" in the $assage that in the management o% %isheries* ----& A $ ! no consideration should be given to the si&e of the catch one cannot plan ahead to the future the introduction of restrictive measures should be avoided

D) one sho l" gi'e im$ortance to % t re rather than to $resent gains # the ;LL-mile &one policy can be ignored


?DDS 1992 KAY)S () The e4act number of people who died in the cyclone that struck $angladesh last year will probably never be known. Winds reaching 2E6 miles per hour hammered the country=s low-lying south-eastern coast for nine hours, at one point driving a wall of water roughly ;L feet high across the area \ one o% the most "ensely $o$ late" $laces in the worl". )t was the strongest storm e'er recor"e" in the region. The o%%icial news agency reported that 2;6.LLL victims had been confirmed dead, b t it was belie'e" that the toll was act ally m ch higher&

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

/e)en y%l $anglade'=i vuran kas%rgada ,len insanlar%n ger)ek say%s% muhtemelen asla bilinmeyecek. Saatte 2E6 mile ula'an r*&garlar, *lkenin al)akta u&anan g*ney do(u sahilini, tek bir noktada b,lgeye do(ru ;L fit y*ksekli(inde bir su duvar%n% s*r*kleyerek, doku& saat boyunca D)eki)le d,ver gibi d,vd*> $,lge d*nyan%n en kalabal%k yerlerinden biriydi. $u o ana kadar b,lgede kaydedilmi' en 'iddetli f%rt%na idi. Oesmi haber a9ans% 2;L.LLL kurban%n ,l*m*n*n teyit edildi(ini rapor etti, ama ger)ek ,l* say%s%n%n )ok daha y*ksek oldu(una inan%l%yor.

2:& 1ne can in%er %rom the $assage that one reason why so many li'es were lost in the cyclone was beca se ----& A $ ! " C) most of the population had no decent housing the $angladesh government had failed to foresee such a disaster the country had still not recovered from the previous similar cyclone it struck only a very narrow stretch of land the area str c, was one o% the most o'ercrow"e" in the worl"

2;& Je can n"erstan" %rom the $assage that the o%%icial %ig res gi'en regar"ing the "eath toll ----& A) "i"n#t re%lect the act al eNtent o% the trage"y -,3yaslamaL o%%icial U b t act ally0 $ ! " # overestimated the number of victims were much higher than the authorities e4pected included only those drowned e4ceeded the number of those who survived the disaster

27& !he $assage aims to im$ress on the rea"er ----& A the e4tent of suffering e4perienced by the people in $angladesh

+) the magnit "e o% the cyclone#s "estr cti'e %orce ! " # the inade7uacy of the relief work sent in the e4tent of poverty and misery in $angladesh the fre7uency with which such disasters hit the world


?DDS 1993 KAY)S () The practical advantages of prefabrication are twofold> )t is = ic,er and it does away with uncertainty. Speed in building is important in these days because of the high cost of land> the time " ring which s ch an eN$ensi'e commo"ity is o t o% se m st be re" ce" to a minim m. And $artly or wholly $re%abricate" metho"s o% constr ction sa'e time on the 9ob because parts are prepared in the factory beforehand. Brefabrication does away with uncertainty because it means that the whole building is made of standard parts the beha'io r o% which is ,nown an" has been teste"&

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

Brefabrik in'aat%n avanta9lar% ikiye ayr%l%r> "aha h%&l%d%r, ve belirsi&likten kurtar%r. Rn'aat h%&% bug*nlerde y*ksek arsa maliyetinden dolay% ,nemlidir> $,ylesine pahal% bir mal%n kullan%m d%'% oldu(u m*ddet minimuma indirilmelidir. Ce, k%smen veya tamamen prefabrik in'aat metotlar% i'te &amandan ka&and%r%r &ira par)alar ,nceden fabrikada ha&%rlan%r. Brefabrik in'aat belirsi&li(i ortadan kald%r%r1giderir &ira o t*m binan%n davran%'lar% bilinen ve test edilmi' olan standart par)alardan yap%ld%(% anlam%na gelmektedir.

2M& Since lan" is eNtremely 'al able it is im$ortant that ----. A $ ! " C) costs do not continue to rise the building materials should also be e4pensive people should not disagree as to the advantages of prefabrication building costs be reduced to a minimum it "oes not remain o t o% se %or long

29& 1ne a"'antage o% sing $re%abricate" $arts is that ----& A $ ! fewer skilled workmen are re7uired this method is much cheaper than standard methods less land is re7uired

D) b il"ings can be $ t $ m ch %aster # there is more scope for e4periment

30& Jhen a b il"ing is constr cte" %rom stan"ar" $arts that ha'e been well teste" ----& A $ ! there is no scope for originality the costs will naturally be e4cessively high new methods of construction are overlooked

D) one ,nows in a"'ance that the res lt will be satis%actory # one is still not sure how they will behave in a particular situation


?DDS 1993 KAY)S (-) @om$ ters can store vast amounts of information in a very small space and are se" by the banks to keep accounts, print out statements and control transactions. !hey are also se" by the police to keep personal records, fingerprints and other details& )n the ra$i"ly "e'elo$ing %iel" o% robotics* com$ ters are now being se" to control man al o$erations "one by mechanics& !hese* too* are ta,ing o'er wor,* $re'io sly "one by $eo$le in the man %act re o% cars* in wea'ing an" in other in" stries. @om$ ters $lay an im$ortant role in controlling artificial satellites, decoding information and communications generally. They are se" to $re"ict the weather with increasing accuracy. 31& 1ne can concl "e %rom the $assage that ----& A) com$ ters ha'e become an in"is$ensable $art o% o r li%e -AEA I.?.<L S)<A/) AE/A!)* be se" i%a"elerine "i,,at0 $ despite great advantages in computer techni7ues, they are not proving as useful as once was hoped weather forecasts carried out by computers are not reliable at all robotics has long been a field of keen scientific interest for man computerised banking has led to an increase in unemployment.

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

tutmak, dekontlar%1belgeleri basmak ve i'lemleri kontrol etmek i)in kullan%l%rlar. Ayn% &amanda polislerce ki'isel kay%tlar%, parmak i&lerini ve di(er ayr%nt%lar% tutmak i)in kullan%l%rlar. 0%&la geli'en robot ilmi alan%nda, bilgisayarlar art3, operat,rlerce yap%lan man*el i'lemleri kontrol etmek i)in kullan%l%yorlar. $unlar ,nceden araba *retiminde, dokumada ve di(er end*strilerde insanlarca yap%lan i'leri de *stlenmekteler. $ilgisayarlar yapay uydular%n kontrol*nde, bilginin de'ifre edilmesinde ve genel olarak ileti'imde ,nemli rol oynamaktad%r. /ittik)e daha tutarl% bir 'ekilde havay% tahmin etmede D"e) kullan%lmaktad%rlar.

! " #

32& !he a thor $oints o t that ----& A $ ! " C) industry is turning back to traditional methods of production the police use computers to make sure that their records are not tested the principal use of computers is in space industry computers are too comple4 for everyday use the se o% robots* "irecte" by com$ ters* is becoming wi"es$rea" in in" stry

33& !he $assage is not concerne" with ----& A the application of computers in industry

+) how com$ ters are man %act re" ! " # the conservation of information by computers the role played by computers in crime detection the use of computers in communications and the transfer of information

$ilgisayarlar mua&&am miktarda bilgiyi )ok k*)*k bir yerde depo edebilirler ve bankalar taraf%ndan hesaplar%

?DDS 1993 KAY)S (-) Aooking ahead from the $resent $osition where %oo" $ro" ction has ,e$t ahea" o% $o$ lation growth globally, b t has %allen $er ca$ita in :: (mainly A%rican) co ntries, it wo l" seem that these tren"s will contin e. Abo t 30 co ntries most o% them A%rican - can eN$ect serio s $roblems nless they re" ce $o$ lation growth an" gi'e higher $riority to agric lt re an" conser'ation. Though a warmer, wetter earth with high !5; levels is likely to be capable of producing more food, the amounts will still be inade7uate for many poorer countries. In many cases, the population pro9ections are greater than the entire local land resources can support. 34& 1% all the co ntries in the worl" it is those in A%rica ----& A which have taken the most drastic measures to prevent population growth

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

+iyecek *retiminin k*resel n*fus art%'% ile ba'aba' gitti(i ama D)o(unlu(u Afrikal% 66 *lkede ki'i ba'%na d*'t*(* mevcut konumdan ileriye bakarsak1bak%nca, bu e(ilim devam edecek g,&*k*yor. Fo(unlu(u Afrikal% yakla'%k @L *lke, n*fus art%'%n% a&altmad%k)a ve &iraat ve korumaya daha y*ksek ,ncelik vermedik)e, ciddi problemler bekleyebilirler. +*ksek !5; seviyelerine sahip daha s%cak ve daha nemli1sulak topra(%n daha fa&la yiyecek *retme kabiliyetine sahip olmas% ihtimaline ra(men, miktarlar )o(u fakir *lke i)in hala yetersi& olacakt%r. Fo(u durumda, n*fus beklentileri b*t*n yerel ara&i kaynaklar%n%n besleyebilece(inden daha b*y*kt*r.

+) that are most threatene" by %oo" shortages -.DD.A/)R mainly* most o%0 ! " # which are environmentally most at disadvantage that are most conscious of the need to preserve this environment in which poverty has been greatly reduced through agricultural development

3:& )t is arg e" in the $assage that ----& A $ changes in the world climate are increasing the problems of food production agricultural development will presently put an end to global food shortages

@) with the eNce$tion o% A%rican co ntries* the global $ro" ction o% %oo" is a"e= ate an" li,ely to contin e so " # the conservation of land resources is of minor importance any effort must be made to prevent the !5; level from rising

3;& Accor"ing to the $assage it is antici$ate" that ----& A $ ! " C) the per capita income in African countries will continue to increase food production will double in the years ahead the present situation concerning population growth and population will soon improve all the African countries will soon solve all their population problems nless serio s meas res are ta,en* the $oor co ntries o% the worl" will be %ace" with %amine -?1QF/R nless0


?DDS 1994 KAY)S () Since early times it has been ass me" that the actions o% animals are nconscio s& $ehaviour, in this view, stems almost e4clusively from instinct. If animals behave in ways that seem pretty clever, they do so without thinking about it. Animals may know things, the argument goes, but they don.t know that they know. 5r do they know8 Oecent research reports suggest a startling depth of intelligence among animals. Although no one can yet .prove. the e4istence of animal consciousness, the "ata o%%ere" ma,e a com$elling case %or at least consi"ering it.

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Rlk )a(lardan beri hayvanlar%n eylemlerinin bilin)si& oldu(una inan%l%r. "avran%', bu bak%' a)%s%na g,re, neredeyse tamamen i)g*d*den kaynaklanmaktad%r. #(er hayvanlar olduk)a ak%ll% g,&*ken bir 'ekilde davranm%'larsa, bunu d*'*nmeksi&in yap%yorlard%r. G0ayvanlar bir 'eyler bilebilirU diye devam ediyor bu sav, Gama bildiklerinin bilme&ler.U +oksa1+a da biliyorlar m%8 Son &amanlarda yap%lan ara't%rma raporlar% hayvanlarda 'a'%rt%c% derinlikte bir &ek: Doldu(unu ileri s*rmektedir. 0en*& hi) kimse hayvan bilincinin varl%(%n% Gispatlayamam%'U olsa da, sunulan veriler en a&%ndan konunun d*'*n*lmesi i)in kar'% konulama&1ikna edici bir dava olu'turmaktad%r. Gma,e com$elling S!U asl%nda serbest )eviriye daha uygun bir ifadedir> Her latest !ook makes compelling rea"ing# $%Son kita!&n& !alay&nca insan el"en !&rakam&yor#' "olay%s%yla 'u ifade kastedilene daha uygun olurdu> Y, sunulan veriler insan%n bu konuyu en a&%ndan g,&den ge)irmesini ka)%n%lma& k%lmaktad%r.

37& )t is $ointe" o t in the $assage that tra"itionally* animals are belie'e" to ----& A $ ! behave not instinctively but logical have an intelligence comparable with man=s imitate man in many ways

D) act on instinct # know e4actly what they are doing

3M& )t is $ointe" o t in the $assage that mo"ern research %orces one to consi"er ----& A why animals behave differently under different circumstances

+) the $ossibility o% intelligence in animals ! " # the means by which animal behaviour can be improved how animals can be made to ac7uire new skills animals to be the e7ual of man in intelligence

39& !he $assage ma,es it = ite clear that* in the light o% mo"ern research* o r tra"itional ass m$tions abo t animal beha'io r ----& A $ have been totally disproved have been confirmed

@) ha'e to be reconsi"ere" " # were indeed based on scientific fact should never have been 7uestioned


?DDS 1994 ?AS)K () Kerc ry has a n mber o% interesting $ro$erties an" a 'ariety o% in" strial ses& )t eN$an"s at a constant rate thro gh the range o% tem$erat res at which it is a li= i". $ecause of this property and because it does not cling to glass, mercury is often used in thermometers. At ordinary temperatures it evaporates very slowly and can thus be left in an open container for long periods of time. ?or this reason it is used in one type of barometer. Hercury is a good electrical conductor and is used in sealed electrical switches. An electric c rrent $assing thro gh merc ry 'a$o r ca ses it to gi'e o%% light3 hence, it is used in certain kinds of lamps. 40& )n the $assage* it is $ointe" o t that merc ry ----& A $ ! never ceases to be a li7uid is used primarily in the making of barometers is of limited use since it is a poor conductor of electricity

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

!%va bir )ok ilgin) ,&elli(e ve )e'itli sanayi kullan%mlar%na sahiptir. S%v% olarak kald%(% s%cakl%k aral%(% s*resince sabit bir oranda genle'ir. $u ,&elli(inden dolay% ve cama yap%'mad%(% i)in, c%va s%k s%k termometrelerde kullan%l%r. <ormal s%cakl%klarda )ok yava' buharla'%r ve bu y*&den u&un m*ddetli(ine a)%k bir kapta b%rak%labilir. $u sebepten bir t*r barometrede kullan%l%r. !%va iyi bir elektrik iletkenidir ve kapal%1s%&d%rma&1contal% elektrik d*(melerinde kullan%l%r. !%va buhar% i)inden ge)en bir elektrik ak%m% onun %'%k sa)mas%na yol a)ar3 bu y*&den3 ba&% lamba t*rlerinde kullan%l%r.

D) has certain s$ecial = alities that ma,e it a 'ery se% l s bstance -AEA I.?.<* ma""eli anlat30 # has certain unpleasant characteristics

41& Kerc ry is o%ten se" in thermometers ----& A because it never turns into a solid

+) since* so long as it is a li= i"* it eN$an"s at a constant rate ! " # as it is unaffected by temperature change since it is attracted to glass even though it shows a tendency to evaporate slowly even in an enclosed space.

42& Kerc ry 'a$o r will gi'e o%% light ----& A) when an electric c rrent is $asse" thro gh it $ ! " # if left to evaporate slowly but no use has been found for this property so it is a good conductor of electricity and is commonly used to light up electrical switches


?DDS 1994 ?AS)K () Brotoplasm, which is the fundamental basis of life, is constantly undergoing physical and chemical change. Aife, therefore, is the resultant of these constantly occurring changes. There are two great groups into which living things may be classed> plants and animals. $oth the plant and the animal kingdoms are very e4tensive. It is customary, therefore, to regard the science of life under two comprehensive heads, namely, botany which is the study of plants, and &oology which is the study of animals. $oth sub9ects are subdivided into various specialised sections. 43& )t is $ointe" o t in the $assage that li%e is the o tcome o% ----& A $ ! " # the interaction between plants and animals change from a physical to a chemical state of being physical change taking place in the animal world the constant change, both physical and chemical, occurring in protoplasm constant transformations in the plant world

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

+a'am%n temeli olan protopla&ma s*rekli fi&iksel ve kimyasal de(i'imler ge)irmektedir. $u y*&den ya'am bu devaml% olu'an de(i'imlerin sonucudur. !anl%lar%n s%n%fland%r%labilece(i iki b*y*k grup vard%r> bitkiler ve hayvanlar. 0em bitkiler hem de hayvanlar alemi )ok geni'tir. $u y*&den ya'am bilimini iki kapsaml% ba'l%k alt%nda, yani, bitkilerin incelenmesi Dolan botanic ve hayvanlar%n incelenmesi Dolan &oolo9i ad% alt%nda g,rmek bir gelenek olmu'tur. 0er iki konu da )e'itli ,&el k%s%mlara ayr%lm%'t%r.

44& )t is n"erstoo" %rom the $assage that the science o% botany ----& A $ ! " # is less specialised than that of &oology deals with a limited number of plants is concerned with the plant world is a subsection of &oology fundamentally concentrates on the study of protoplasm

4:& !he a thor $oints o t that the st "y o% li'ing things* altho gh carrie" o t n"er 'ario s s$ecialise" hea"ings* ----& A $ ! " # emphasises the importance of genre and species depends upon e4tensive field research is mainly related to &oology takes physical rather than chemical changes into consideration actually involves two basic fields of science


?DDS 1994 ?AS)K (-) Those who visit the Hediterranean are invariably impressed with its unity. #verywhere it is the same, for the shades of difference here is less important than the resemblances. +et this unity is the result of aggressive contrast3 sea and mountain, sea and desert, sea and oceanX In these respects the Hediterranean is very different from either central #urope, or high tablelands of Asia, the Syrian and Saharan deserts, or even the Atlantic 5cean. 4;& Jhat "isting ishes the Ke"iterranean %rom the other $arts o% the worl" is ----& A $ ! " # that it is characterised by high tablelands the fact that the landscape varies greatly from part to part that it is surrounded by vast deserts the combination of features, everywhere, is the same that it is attracting more and more visitors

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

Akdeni&i &iyaret edenler her &aman onun b*t*nl*(*nden etkilenirler. 5 heryerde ayn%d%r, &ira burada ayr%m%n n*anslar% ben&erliklerden daha a& m*himdir. Ama bu birlik da( ve deni&, deni& ve ),l ve deni& ve okyanus gibi agresif te&at%n sonucudur. $u bak%mdan, Akdeni& gerek 5rta Avrupa, gerek Asya platolar%, gerekse Suriye ve Sahra F,llerinden veya hatta Atlas 5kyanusuundan )ok farkl%d%r.

47& Accor"ing to the $assage* within the general nity o% the Ke"iterranean ----& A $ ! " # the deserts of Syria and the Sahara have their special place the contrast between the sea and the desert is e4ceptional one is also aware of startling contrast some people find a depressing monotony there is very little that appeals to the eye

4M& )t is stresse" in the $assage that the Ke"iterranean ----& A $ ! " # e4tensively resembles the rest of the world is, in many ways, similar to central #urope has an endless changing coastline is the most crowded part of the world makes the same impression on all visitors to the area


?DDS 199: KAY)S () 5f all the environmental problems facing us today, global warming is likely to have the most devastating effects. In order to combat these, the emission of harmful gases must be reduced3 for this purpose, the rainforests, which absorb carbon dio4ide in vast 7uantities, must be protected. /lobal warming will place a premium on energy efficiency, for controlling global warming inescapably means reducing the burning of fossil fuels. The two industries that are most obviously going to be affected are the power suppliers and the vehicle manufacturers, but since energy is consumed by almost everything we manufacture, design or do, the effects will be felt everywhere.

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

$ug*n kar'% kar'%ya oldu(umu& t*m )evre problemleri i)erisinde, k*resel %s%nma muhtemelen en y%k%c% etkilere sahip olacakt%r. $u etkilerle m*cadele etmek i)in, &ararl% ga&lar%n sal%m% a&alt%lmal%d%r3 bu ama)la, bol miktarlarda karbondioksit emen ya(mur ormanlar%n%n korunmas% gerekir. -*resel %s%nma ener9i verimlili(ine ekstra bir ,nem ka&and%racakt%r, )*nk* k*resel %s%nman%n kontrol edilmesi ister isteme& fosil yak%tlar%n kullan%lmas%n%n a&alt%lmas% demektir. #n a)%k)a etkilenecek iki end*stri g*) santralleri ve ta'%t *reticileri olacakt%r, ama ener9i neredeyse *retti(imi&, tasarlad%(%m%& veya yapt%(%m%& her 'ey taraf%ndan t*ketildi(i i)in, bu etkiler her yerde hissedilecektir.

49& )t is em$hasise" in the $assage that global warming seems to be ----& A $ ! " # easier to control than other environmental problems of less of a threat than formerly it used to be the most terrible of the problems facing the environment one of the causes for the disappearance of the rainforests reasonably under control in all parts of the world

:0& !he a thor eN$lains that nless the b rning o% %ossil % els is ra"ically re" ce" ----& A $ ! " # global warming cannot possibly be held in check they will soon be used up traditional power supplies will not be ade7uate energy efficiency cannot be achieved the effects will be far reaching and beyond our control

:1& Accor"ing to the $assage* $ower s $$ly an" 'ehicle man %act ring ----& A $ ! " # are two industries that do not affect global warming rely heavily on fossil fuels are environmentally less harmful than other industries have carried the problems of global warming everywhere must be strictly controlled to prevent any further pollution


?DDS 199: KAY)S () $uilt by the disconsolate #mperor Shah Pahan in memory of his wife, the Ta9 Hahal mausoleum has survived the rise and fall of many empires and it attracted looters, too3 over the years they carried away the silver doors from its gates, the precious stones from its marble wall> and the gold from its graves. $ut those were small threats compared with the modern danger of pollution. #missions from the coal-fired steel foundries thermal power stations, cars and an oil refinery in the industrial belt around Agra are corroding and yellowing the Ta9 Hahal.s white marble.

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

#'inin hat%ras%na kederli Rmparator Qah !ihan taraf%ndan yap%lan Tac Hahal an%tme&ar% nice imparatorlu(un y*kseli'i ve d*'*'*ne kar'%n ayakta kalm%' ve ya(mac%lar% da kendine )ekmi'tir. +%llar y%l%, bu ya(mac%lar, giri'inden g*m*' kap%lar%, mermer duvar%ndan k%ymetli ta'lar% ve me&arlar%ndan alt%nlar% al%p gitmi'lerdi. Ama bunlar modern kirlilik tehlikesi ile k%yasland%(%nda k*)*k tehditlerdi. -,m*rle )al%'an )elik d,k*mhanelerinden, termal ener9i istasyonlar%ndan, arabalardan ve Agra civar%ndaki sanayi m%nt%kas%nda bulunan bir petrol rafinerisinden yay%lan emisyonlar Tac beya& mermerini a'%nd%rmakta ve sarartmaktad%r.

The Ta9 Hahal mausoleum has survived the rise and fall of many empires. :2& Accor"ing to the $assage* the !a( Kahal ma sole m ----& A $ ! " # is no longer richly decorated as it once used to be is not in need of any e4tensive restoration has, on several occasions, been almost completely destroyed was built to be the tomb of the #mperor Shah, Pahan was deliberately sited in an industrial area Tac Hahal an%tme&ar% nice imparatorlu(un y*kseli'ine ve d*'*'*ne 'ahitlik etmi'tir.

:3& At $resent* the main threat to the s r'i'al o% the !a( Kahal is ----& A $ ! " # the lack of interest in the building small scale robbery on-going looting industrial pollution damaging effects of the climate in Agra

:4& !he $assage is mainly concerne" with ----& A $ ! " # the restoration work planned for the Ta9 Hahal the steadily worsening condition of the Ta9 Hahal mausoleum measures taken to prevent robbery in the past the various kinds of industries in the Ta9 Hahal area historic importance and value of the Ta9 Hahal mausoleum


?DDS 199: ?AS)K () The fact that the brain is divided into a left and a right half is not a new discovery. 5nce the skull is removed, the division is obvious to the naked eye, and it is a common feature of brains throughout the animal kingdom. What is interesting about this division in man is that each half seems to have developed specialised functions> the left side appearing to be better at some tasks and the right side better at others. The most obvious difference in functioning is that the left side of the brain receives sensations from and controls the right side of the body, and vice versa. The reasons for this are still unclear. "espite a number of interesting theories, there is no obvious advantage in such a crossover. ::& As the writer $oints o t* it has long been ,nown that ----& A $ ! " # damage to the left half of the brain produces far more serious defects the human brain, unlike that of other animals, has a very complicated structure the right side of the brain has the same functions as the left side the left side of the brain works more efficiently than the right in the animal world brains consist of two halves

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

$eynin sol ve sa( yar% olarak ikiye b,l*nm*' oldu(u ger)e(i yeni bir ke'if de(ildir. -afatas% ortadan kald%r%ld%(%nda, bu ayr%m )%plak g,&le g,r*lebilir ve b*t*n hayvanlar alemindeki beyinlerin ortak bir ,&elli(idir. $u ayr%ma dair insano(lunda ilgin) olan 'ey her bir yar%n%n ,&el i'levler geli'tirmi' g,&*kmesidir> sol taraf ba&% i'lerde daha iyi, sa( taraf ise di(erlerinde daha iyi g,r*nmekte. R'levdeki en bari& ayr%m 'udur> $eynin sol yar%s% sa( taraf%ndan duyu al%r ve sa( taraf% kontrol eder, ve Dsol taraf% ise tam tersi. $unun sebepleri hala net de(il. $ir s*r* ilgin) teoriye ra(men b,ylesi bir )apra&-ge)i'in bari& bir avanta9% yoktur.

:;& Je can n"erstan" %rom the teNt that* in man* each hal% o% the brain ----& A $ ! " # is characteri&ed by a crossover of innumerable nerves functions in full harmony with the other in all activities performs certain specialised tasks controls the corresponding side of the body can be removed without damage being caused to the other

:7& !he $assage is mainly concerne" with ----& A $ ! " # the recent history of brain studies how the body is controlled by the brain the division of the brain into two halves and the way each half functions the reason why there is a crossover of nerves in the brain how the sensations of the body are transmitted to the brain


?DDS 199; KAY)S () Today, the Mnited States is in the grip of a second Industrial revolution. While the first, stretching from the 2KNLs to the 2JNLs, shi%te" the main sector o% the American economy %rom agric lt re to in" stry, the new revolution is shifting the economy away from traditional SsmokestackS manufacturing industries to those based upon information, services and new technologies. )t too, the co ntry "eca"es to accommo"ate the c lt ral an" social changes res lting %rom the %irst in" strial re'ol tion and it wo l" be rashly o$timistic to ass me that Americans will not %ace serio s stresses in coming to terms with the changes that are trans%orming the wor,$lace to"ay. :M& )t is n"erstoo" %rom the $assage that the American economy ----& A) was* at the beginning* largely an agric lt ral one -.DD.A/)R main0 $ ! " # was, from the start, based on heavy industry has, over the years, undergone very little radical changes has recently entered a period of recession has invariably kept a balance between agriculture and industry

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

$ug*n Amerika $irle'ik "evletleri ikinci bir sanayi devriminin etkisindedir. 2KNLlerden 2JNLlere kadar s*ren ilki, Amerikan ekonomisinin ana sekt,r*n* &iraattan sanayiye de(i'tirmi' iken, Dbu yeni devrim ekonomiyi geleneksel Sbacal%S *retim sanayiden u&akla't%r%p, bilgi, hi&met ve yeni teknolo9ilere dayanan sanayiye d,n*'t*r*yor. Rlk sanayi devriminden kaynaklanan k*lt*rel ve sosyal de(i'imlere uyum sa(lamas% *lkenin onlarca y%l%n% alm%'t%, ve Amerikal%lar%n bug*n i'yerlerini ba'ka bir 'ekle d,n*'t*ren de(i'imlerle u&la'mada ciddi s%k%nt%larla kar'%la'mayacaklar%n% varsaymak fa&laca iyimser olur.

A ve $ se)enekleri aras%ndaki &%tl%(a dikkat :9& !he writer $oints o t that the change in America %rom an agric lt ral to an in" strial economy ----& A $ ! was bitterly opposed by a large segment of society was achieved in a very short period of time, actually only about two decades made the use of information technologies indispensable

D) bro ght with it many new c lt ral an" social con"itions which too, years to resol'e # brought little benefit to the country as a whole

;0& !he a thor is worrie" that the Americans ----& A) will %in" the secon" in" strial re'ol tion har" to co$e with $ ! " # are closing down heavy industry far too soon don.t pay ade7uate attention to conditions in the workplace may turn back to an agricultural economy have already lost their control over manufacturing industries

"uygunun kar%'t%(% metinler SM$P#!TIC# ifadelerdir ve genelde sorgulan%rlar


?DDS 199; KAY)S () A great many boo,s ha'e been written on com$ ters, computer programming languages, particularly ?ortran. !o $ro" ce another boo, on Iortran* even the newest ?ortran IC* $robably seems nreasonable to most, and it is with mil" tre$i"ation that, I, the author, embark on this pro9ect. 0owever, several good reasons can be stated for doing 9ust that. Host computer professionals will agree that the field of computer and information science has 7uickly become a valid discipline for academia and that rapid changes are occurring in computer programming languages. +oth o% these %acts "eman" that a new "irection be ta,en in $resenting the s b(ect. ;1& Irom the $assage we n"erstan" that the writer is somewhat a$$rehensi'e in case ----& A $ computer sales should drop sharply developments in computer programming will become more and more costly

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

$ilgisayarlara, bilgisayar programa dillerine, ve ,&ellikle ?ortran.a dair 'imdiye kadar bir s*r* kitap ya&%ld%. ?ortran hakk%nda bir ba'ka kitap *retmek, Dmev&u en yenisi olan ?ortran IC bile olsa, muhtemelen )o(u ki'iye mant%ks%& g,&*kecektir, ve ben, Dyani ya&ar, bu pro9eye bira& teredd*tle ba'lad%m. Ama, i'te bunu yapmak i)in bir ka) iyi sebep s,ylenebilir. Fo(u bilgisayar u&man% kabul edecektir ki bilgisayar ve bili'im bilimi alan% akademik )evre i)in h%&la bir disiplin haline gelmi'tir ve bilgisayar programlama dillerinde h%&l% de(i'imler ger)ekle'mektedir. $u iki ger)ek de konunun sunumunda yeni bir y,n*n takip edilmesini gerektirmektedir.

@) his boo, will be %elt* by many $eo$le* to be s $er%l o s " # computer programming should be taken over by professionals programming languages should become far more complicated

"uygunun kar%'t%(% metinler SM$P#!TIC# ifadelerdir ve genelde sorgulan%rlar ;2& Accor"ing to the $assage* $ blications on com$ ter technology ----& A are only concerned with ?ortran computer programming

+) ha'e alrea"y reache" a 'ery high n mber -.DD.A/)R a great many0 ! " # are brought out by academia for academia invariably cause a great deal of public reaction are largely repetitive and very costly

;3& !he writer o% this $assage %eels that his new boo, on Iortran is ( sti%ie" beca se ----& A $ computer science is a new science with little relevant literature computer professionals have not as yet recognised the changes taking place in computer science it will boost the sale of computers throughout the world

D) it intro" ces a new a$$roach to com$ ter $rogramming lang ages -BC<C?/./.?R "eman" U SF+VFE@!)[CL BOEDC<KCR these0 # it will change the concept of computer science among academia


?DDS 199; KAY)S () The shopping centre emerged in the early 2JLLs in the suburbs that encircled American cities. S b rbs o% that time ten"e" to be chiefly residential and to "e$en" on the tra"itional city centres %or sho$$ing. The first suburban commercial centres had three identifiable features3 they consisted of a number of stores built and leased by a single developer3 they were s ally sit ate" at an im$ortant intersection* an" they $ro'i"e" $lenty o% %ree* o%%-street $ar,ing. !hese _sho$$ing 'illages_ resemble" smalltown sho$$ing "istricts* both in their architect re, which was carefully traditional, an" in their layo t, which integrated them into the surrounding neighbourhood. The stores faced the street, and the parking lots were usually in the rear. ;4& +e%ore the intro" ction o% sho$$ing centres those li'ing in the resi"ential s b rban areas ----& A were an4ious to keep commercial activities there to a minimum $ usually preferred to go to nearby small towns in order to do their shopping ! found parking a great problem when they went downtown to shop D) ha" to go into the centre o% the city to "o their sho$$ing # felt that shopping facilities could not be integrated into such neighbourhoods ;:& A $o$ lar site %or the early sho$$ing centres in the Fnite" States was ----& A the very heart of a big city with roads directly serving all the suburbs +) one near an im$ortant roa" ( nctions with eno gh s$ace to $ro'i"e a"e= ate $ar,ing %acilities -KADDC/. anlat30 ! the villages bordering on the suburbs of a town, since they too would benefit from the facilities " a suitable point far away from two or three suburban areas # one that was in the hands of a single developer and architect ;;& !he new _sho$$ing 'illages_ were reminiscent o% small-town sho$$ing areas ----& A since many architects felt these could hardly be integrated effectively into suburban conditions $ although the stores faced onto the parking lots, not the streets @) as regar"s both the architect ral style an" the arrangement o% the b il"ings -+1!AS AEDS0 " even though the architecture was very different # as most developers wanted to bring something new into the commercial activities of the region

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

Al%'veri' merke&leri 2JLL.lerin ba'lar%nda Amerikan 'ehirlerini )evreleyen kenar mahallelerde ortaya )%km%'t%. 5 &aman%n kenar mahalleleri daha )ok konut i)in olma e(ilimindeydi ve al%'veri' i)in geleneksel 'ehir merke&lerine1)ar'%ya ba(%ml%yd%lar. Rlk al%'veri' merke&leri *) ay%rt edilebilir ,&elli(e sahipti> Tek bir giri'imci taraf%ndan yap%lan ve kiraya verilen bir s*r* ma(a&a i)eriyorlard%, genellikle ,nemli bir kav'akta bulunmaktayd%lar ve bol miktarda *cretsi& ve cadde *&eri olmayan oto-park sa(lamaktayd%lar. $u Sal%'veri' k,yleriS kasaba al%'veri' m%nt%kalar%n% and%r%yordu3 hem son derece geleneksel olan mimarileri hem de kendilerini )evreleyen mahalleyle uyum i)indeki genel planlar% itibariyle. Ha(a&alar caddeye bakard%, ve park alanlar% genellikle arkadayd%.

?DDS 199; ?AS)K () !ertain features of the motorway n"o bte"ly ease the strain of driving& Bra"ients an" ben"s are so controlle" as to ob'iate the necessity o% shar$ bra,ing, and the absence of traffic approaching from the other direction remo'es one o% the commonest so rces o% acci"ents. Kany "angers remain, howe'er, ma"e more terrible by the high s$ee"s o% 'ehicles& A collision at seventy miles an hour is almost inevitably appalling in its results. A mechanical defect in the car or a puncture can lead to loss of control and catastrophe. The car should be completely roadworthy and tyre pressures and treads need to be checked at regular intervals. ;7& !he $assage em$hasises ----& A $ ! that uneven tyre pressures and poor treads are the ma9or cause of accidents the fact that speed limits on motorways should be reviewed the high incidence of accidents on motorways in comparison with other roads

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

5toban%n ba&% ,&ellikleri araba s*rme &ahmetini '*phesi& a&alt%yor. Oampa ve vira9lar ani fren ihtiyac%n% ,nleyecek 'ekilde ,&el olarak yap%lm%'lard%r ve di(er y,nden yakla'an trafi(in olmamas% ka&alar%n en yayg%n sebeplerinden birini ortadan kald%rmaktad%r. Ama pek )ok tehlike hala s*rmektedir Dve bunlar ara)lar%n y*ksek h%&lar% sayesinde daha da korkun) hale gelmi'lerdir. Saatte yetmi' mil h%&daki bir ka&a, sonu)lar% bak%m%ndan neredeyse ka)%n%lma& olarak *rk*n)t*r. Arabada bir mekanik ar%&a veya lastik patlamas% kontrol kayb%na ve felakete yol a)abilmektedir. Araba yola uygun olmal%d%r ve lastik havalar% ve lastik di'leri d*&enli aral%klarla muayene edilmelidir.

D) both the a"'antage an" the "isa"'antages o% motorway # the fact that basically motorways are no different from other roads, only wider

;M& As is $ointe" o t in the $assage* the "esign o% motorways is s ch that ----& A) it sho l" ne'er be necessary to bra,e s ""enly -AKAGR so as to0 $ ! " # catastrophes can always be averted so long as the car has no mechanical defect a collision at seventy miles an hour is rarely fatal the dangers of driving are minimised but not the strain it is difficult to estimate whether a vehicle really is roadworthy

;9& 1ne can n"erstan" %rom the $assage that the ma(ority o% motorway acci"ents are catastro$hic ----& A as they involve head on collisions

+) beca se they occ r at high s$ee"s -SC+CDR ma"eS0 ! " # as brake defects are the cause since they occur on gradients or bends since the motorways themselves are not ade7uately policed and controlled


?DDS 199; ?AS)K () The Antarctic is the most remote continent in the world and the last to be discovered, but nevertheless constitutes about one tenth of the world=s land surface. So %ar it has esca$e" the worst of man#s "estr cti'e ingen ity but today it is threatened by man#s insatiable a$$etite for natural resources, and seems to be in danger of losing its $ristine environment which serves as the perfect natural laboratory for scientists to pursue knowledge for its own sake. 70& !he h man = alities that are "welt $on in this $assage are mainly man#s ----& A $ ! concern for the environment and his determination to protect it devotion to knowledge and scientific e4periment concern for the underprivileged and his desire to open up new areas of natural resources for them respect for man and the whole created world gree" an" the rec,less way he s$oils the worl"

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

Antarktika d*nyadaki en u&ak ve en son ke'fedilen k%tad%r, ama yine de d*nya kara y*&eylerinin onda birini te'kil eder. Qimdiye kadar insano(lunun y%k%c% &ek:s%n%n1maharetinin en k,t*s*nden ka)m%'t%r, ama bug*n insanl%(%n do(al kaynaklara kar'% doymak bilme& i'tah% taraf%ndan tehdit edilmektedir, ve s%rf bilgi hat%r%na bilgi pe'inde ko'an bilim adamlar% i)in m*kemmel laboratuar olarak hi&met eden bakir )evresini yitirme tehlikesinde g,&*kmektedir1olabilir.

" C)

71& Je can n"erstan" %rom the $assage that the Antarctic ----& A) is at $resent 'irt ally ns$oile" $ ! " # is a very small and 7uite useless continent has nothing to offer in the way of natural resources has suffered greatly from natural sources of destruction has a climate so incompatible to man that it is safe from man

72& 1ne can n"erstan" %rom the $assage that the writer ----& A $ greatly admires man=s persistent search for fresh natural resources looks forward to the time when the world will benefit from the rich natural resources of the Antarctic is opposed to all scientific pro9ects concerning the Antarctic

D) "oes not want to see the eN$loitation o% the Antarctic by man -G)?A<)K0 # is rather scornful of those who pursue knowledge for its own sake


?DDS 199; ?AS)K () If the key to good nutrition is consuming a variety of foods, then vegetables can truly stand as the cornerstone of a health diet. 5f all foods, they offer the most diversity. There are literally hundreds of varieties available to us, and beca se o% care% l $lant bree"ing* to"ay#s 'egetable har'est is contin ally being eN$an"e" an" im$ro'e". In addition, vegetables are replete with nutrients. They supply nearly all of the vitamins and minerals re7uired for good health, many of them \ especially starchy vegetables like potatoes and winter s7uash - contain comple4 carbohydrates, which % rnish s with energy. Host also provide dietary fiber, and a few, such as lima beans and potatoes, can contribute significantly to our protein intake. At the same time, 'egetables contain no cholesterol* ha'e little or no %at* an" are low in calories . In nutritional parlance, vegetables are Gnutrient denseU \ that is, their store of nutrients is relatively high for the number of calories they supply. 73& )t is em$hasise" in the $assage that 'egetables ----& A provide us with vitamins and minerals but not carbohydrates or proteins $ are a pleasant but unessential part of most people.s diet @) are highly n tritio s an" at the same time low in calories " have a surprisingly high calorie content # cannot take the place of meat in our diet 74& !he a thor $oints o t that the ,in"s o% 'egetable at o r "is$osal ----& A) are constantly increasing as new ,in"s are %re= ently being bre" -SC+CD-S1EFG0 $ are deceptive as the nutrient content is invariably the same ! are unfortunately inade7uate in most parts of the world " are not sufficient to keep anyone in really good health # have a dangerously high cholesterol content 7:& Je can n"erstan" %rom the $assage that ----& A vegetables must be eaten in con9unction with foods rich in fats and minerals $ only a limited range of vitamins are to be found in vegetables ! potatoes are among the least valuable of the vegetables D) the starchy 'egetables are a goo" so rce o% energy # only a small fraction of the nutrients we need for health can be derived from vegetables

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

#(er iyi beslenmenin s%rr% )e'itli yiyecekler t*ketmek ise, o &aman seb&eler sa(l%kl% bir beslenmenin ger)ekten k,'e ta'% olarak durmaktad%rlar. T*m yiyecekler i)inde, en )ok )e'itlili(i onlar sunar. #limi&in alt%nda ger)ekten de y*&lerce )e'idi vard%r ve dikkatli bitki %slah% sayesinde, g*n*m*& seb&e hasad% devaml% b*y*yor ve geli'iyor. Ayr%ca, seb&eler besinlerle doludurlar. Ryi sa(l%k i)in gerekli vitamin ve minerallerin neredeyse tamam%n% sa(larlar3 bunlar%n )o(u -,&ellikle patates ve k%' kaba(% gibi ni'astal% olanlar- bi&i ener9iyle donatan kompleks karbonhidratlar i)erirler. Fo(u ayn% &amanda besinsel lif sa(larlar, ve bir k%sm%, ,rne(in lima be&elyesi veya patates, protein al%m%m%&a ,nemli katk%lar sa(layabilirler. Ayn% &amanda seb&eler hi) kolesterol i)erme&ler, )ok a& ya( i)erirler veya hi) ya( i)erme&ler ve kalorice d*'*kt*rler. $esincilerin deyi'iyle seb&eler Sbesin yo(unSdurlar - yani besin depolar% sa(lad%klar% kalori miktar%na g,re nispeten y*ksektir.


?DDS 1997 KAY)S () The unfavourable effects of cigarette smoking on the heart have fre7uently been described, but the e4act basis for these effects has not been clarified. Some investigators believe nicotine to be culprit, and there has been some e4perimental work in animals indicating that large doses of nicotine in con9unction with cholesterol feeding and vitamin " could produce a disease of the arteries resembling that seen in humans. An alternative e4planation has been offered by other scientists who have pointed to the possible role of carbon mono4ide being inhaled with the cigarette smoking. 7;& )t is $ointe" o t in the $assage that nicotine ----& A is considered by some to be one of the reasons why smoking has an adverse effect on the heart is the only harmful factor in relation to smoking affects animals more seriously than humans has been established as more dangerous than carbon mono4ide for smokers has an adverse effect only upon the arteries

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

$ ! " #

77& Accor"ing to the $assage* st "ies into the a"'erse e%%ects o% smo,ing ----& A $ have ruled out any relationship between smoking and cholesterol levels in humans have not been able to establish for certain whether or not carbon mono4ide could be a factor have so far not raised any controversial opinions have shown that vitamin " reduces nicotine in the body indicate that nicotine and carbon mono4ide may be only minor factors

! " #

7M& !he main concern o% the $assage is to ----& A $ ! " # describe certain e4periments on animals relating to the effects of carbon mono4ide emphasises the role nicotine and vitamin " play in the heart diseases demonstrate that the adverse effects of smoking on the heart are still under debate compare the effects on the heart of nicotine and carbon mono4ide give an account of the research work concerning animal diseases


?DDS 1997 KAY)S (-) Agriculture remains the most crucial area for development, here it seems that the most intractable problems of resistance to change eNist. 5ne may arg e that scientific training in agriculture by itself is nli,ely to have any marked impact on agricultural output. Any attempt at vocational training in agriculture $res $$oses that a meaningful structure of incentive eNists for the individual farmer to increase his output, improve his techni7ues, and e4pand his range of activities. Without such incentives and opportunities, agricultural education can ha'e little impact.

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

Tar%m kalk%nma i)in hala en hayati alan"3r, ,yle g,&*k*yor ki3 en inat)% de(i'ime diren) problemleri i'te burada mevcuttur. Wiraatta tek ba'%na bilimsel e(itimin tar%m *retimi *&erinde herhangi bir belirgin etki yapmas%n%n olas3 olma"383 iddia e"ilebilir. Dveya olas% olmad%(%n% s,ylemek yanl%' olmayacakt%r . Tar%mda meslek e(itimine y,nelik herhangi bir giri'im, bireysel )ift)inin *retimini art%rmas%, tekniklerini geli'tirmesi ve aktivite kapsam%n% art%rmas% i)in anlaml% yap%da bir te'vi(in 'ar olmas3n3 $e2inen 2art ,o2ar. $,yle te'vik ve f%rsatlar olmaks%&%n, &irai e(itimin )ok a& etkisi olabilece,tir. Dveya pek etkisi olmayacakt%r

79& !he a thor is o% the o$inion that im$ro'ements in the %iel" o% agric lt re ----& A $ ! " # cannot be achieved through vocational training can easily be realised have already led to good results are absolutely vital for productivity have largely been confined to technology

M0& Je can n"erstan" %rom the $assage that the agric lt re comm nity ----& A $ ! " # tends to disregard the problems of the individual farmer is eager for more vocational training is fully aware of the long-term benefits of scientific training has already begun to benefit from the improved techni7ues is not the one that welcomes change

M1& !he a thor concl "es that 'ocational training in agric lt re ----& A $ ! " # will be an effective way of eliminating resistance to change in society will provide farmers with a wide range of opportunities will be futile unless it=s backed up with various incentives is regarded as a priority for social development has often been underestimated by various authorities


?DDS 1997 KAY)S () Tigers grow to lengths of ten feet or more and can be bigger than the largest lion. They have immense strength. They clutch their prey to them, holding on with their claws, and depend on the crushing bite of their powerful 9aws to end the struggle. They swim very well and can often be seen splashing about in water on very hot days, since they apparently suffer from heat. When the air is chilly, however, they avoid wet or damp vegetation. They can climb, but do not approach the leopard=s ability in this. They can negotiate treacherous rocky areas but generally prefer to stay on level ground. They are not as well e7uipped with senses as one might e4pect. They apparently depend on their hearing while hunting. Their eyesight is not particularly good, they seem unable to spot prey until it moves.

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

-aplanlar 2L fit veya daha fa&las%na kadar b*y*rler ve en b*y*k aslandan Dbile daha iri olabilirler. Hua&&am g*)leri vard%r. Ben)eleri ile tutarak avlar%n% kendilerine do(ru )ekerler1kavrarlar ve bo(u'may% bitirmek i)in kudretli )enelerinin par)alay%c% %s%r%(%n% kullan%rlar. Fok iyi y*&erler ve s%cak g*nlerde su i)inde oyna'%rken s%kl%kla g,r*lebilirler, &ira belli ki s%caktan ma(dur olmaktad%rlar. Ama hava so(ukken %slak ve nemli bitki ,rt*lerinden u&ak dururlar. T%rmanabilirler fakat bu konuda leopar%n kabiliyetine ula'Da ma&lar. Tehlikeli kayal%klarda ba'ar%l% bir 'ekilde dola'abilir ama genellikle yer seviyesinde kalmay% tercih ederler. "uyularla san%labilece(i kadar donat%lm%' de(illerdir. /,r*n*'e bak%l%rsa avlan%rken i'itme duyular%n% kullanmaktad%rlar. /,rme duyular% s%ra d%'% bir 'ekilde geli'mi'1iyi de(ildir3 avlar%n% hareket edinceye kadar fark etmedikleri g,r*l*r.

M2& )t is clear %rom the $assage that tigers ----& A $ ! " # rely on their huge claws alone to catch and kill their prey are the most skilful climbers of all wild animals are sensitive to significant variations in temperature closely resemble lions as regards si&e, speed and strength rely heavily upon their eyesight in locating and catching prey

M3& As is mentione" in the $assage* a %lat terrain ----& A $ ! " # is usually the favoured habitats of the tiger rather than rocky cliffs gives tigers better opportunities for hiding provides camouflage for leopards is usually wet, so tigers prefer higher levels usually has thicker vegetation which shelters more prey

M4& Irom the $assage we learn that* contrary to what is generally tho ght ----& A $ ! " # once a prey starts to move a tiger can rarely catch it hearing is the least developed sense of the tiger the leopard=s hunting ability is far behind that of the tiger rocky areas are invariably avoided by all wild animals the tiger=s senses are not particularly well developed


?DDS 1997 KAY)S (-) Scientists have long sought ways to define and measure human intelligence. And while theories of intelligence have grown more sophisticated since the 2KLLs when some believed mental abilities were determined by the si&e of a person=s head, researchers still do not agree about certain fundamental principles of human thought. They, therefore, continue to debate such basic 7uestions as whether heredity or the environment is more important in forming intelligence. ?DDS 1997 ?AS)K ()

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

M:& As we learn %rom the $assage* the age-ol" contro'ersy abo t whether intelligence "e$en"s $on here"ity or the en'ironment ----& A $ ! " # is now being ignored as it is seen to be fruitless was finally received in the 2KLLs has only recently become a sub9ect for serious research does not seem to have ceased yet was more sophisticated in the 2Jth century than it is today

In earlier centuries it was thought that a great continent must e4ist in the southern hemisphere, around the South Bole, to balance the known land masses in the north. Its real e4tent was better understood in the 2Kth century, particularly when !aptain !ook sailed for the first time south of the Antarctic !ircle and reached the edge of the icepack. A portion of the ice-covered continent was first sighted by #dward $ransfield in 2K;L. #4plorers of several other nations also sighted portions of the coast-line in other 7uarters and wrote detailed accounts of their observations. 0owever, in the light of these accounts, the first e4tensive e4ploration was made by !aptain Pames !larke Ooss in 2KE2 when a great part of the Antarctic was discovered. MM& As we can n"erstan" %rom the $assage* it was ass me" many cent ries ago that the large lan" mass aro n" the Eorth Dole ----& A $ ! " # seemed to be impenetrable and, hence, ine4plorable. could not have a counterpart in the southern hemisphere. had a regular and unchanging coastline. must have been balanced by a similar e4tent of land mass around the South Bole. would be reduced in si&e once the edge of the ice-pack began to melt.

M;& Accor"ing to the $assage* in the early nineteenth cent ry* some $eo$le hel" the 'iew that a $erson#s mental ca$acity ----& A $ ! " # could never be changed depended upon the head si&e was purely heredity was completely shaped by the environment was fundamental to his character

M9& )t is $ointe" o t in the $assage that it was only with @a$tain @oo,#s 'oyage in the 1Mth cent ry that ----& A $ ! " the first serious e4pedition into the interior of the Antarctic was launched a partially accurate assessment of the si&e of the Antarctic could be made. people began to realise 9ust how small the land mass here was. multi-national pro9ects for the e4ploration of the Antarctic were put into effect. the rich natural resources of the Antarctic became known to the outside world.

M7& 1ne may concl "e %rom the $assage that a % ll n"erstan"ing o% the nat re an" the ca$acity o% h man intelligence ----& A $ ! " # can only be achieved by e4ceptionally sophisticated minds has finally been achieved by modern scientists is sure to be realised within the ne4t few years is not likely to be achieved in the near future will emerge through theoretical rather than e4perimental studies

90& )t is clear %rom the $assage that* %ollowing 'ario s earlier re$orts concerning the Antarctic* ----& A $ ! #dward $ransfield 9oined the international pro9ect to study the ice-pack of the continent. many e4plorers were discouraged from undertaking any serious e4ploration there. e4plorers from various countries began to compete with each other for the con7uest of the continent. !aptain !ook decided to undertake a second voyage of discovery in the area. the first ma9or, large-scale discovery of the continent was undertaken by Pames !larke Ooss in 2KE2.

" #

?DDS 1997 ?AS)K ()


5ceanography is the scientific study of the world=s oceans which cover over NL percent of the earth=s surface. The beginnings of modern oceanography go back to the 2KNLs when, for the first time, wide ranging scientific observations and studies of the oceans were undertaken by $ritish. Since then, oceanography has developed into a highly technical and interdisciplinary science which is now divided into several fields of study. These are biological oceanography, which deals with the study of the marine organisms and marine ecology, chemical oceanography, which is concerned with the composition of sea water, and physical oceanography, which studies ocean currents, tides, waves, and the role played by the oceans in climate and weather. /eological oceanography is also another branch of oceanography and is mainly concerned with the formation, composition and evaluation of the ocean basins. 5ceanographic knowledge is essential to allow e4ploitation of the enormous food, mineral and energy resources of the oceans with minimum damage to the ocean environment. 91& )n the $assage the writer "oes not "well on ----& A $ ! " # the purpose and research concerns of biological oceanography. the history of oceanography studies, and the range of these studies how oceanographic studies can contribute to the improvement of shipping. the uses for us of the information provided by oceanographic studies about the oceans. what geological oceanography and chemical oceanography deal with.

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

very early times. The papyrus reeds of the <ile swamps served the ancient #gyptians for sheets upon which to inscribe their records. The !hinese and Papanese, centuries later, were using something more akin to modern paper in substance, an Asiatic paper-mulberry, yielding a smooth fibrous material, being utilised. With the spread of learning in Western #urope the necessity of a readier medium made itself felt, and paper began to be manufactured from pulped rags and other substances. 5ther papermaking staples were later introduced, such as linen cotton and wood-pulp. The chief raw material in the world paper industry now is wood-pulp, the main e4porters being the timber-growing countries of !anada, Sweden and ?inland. 94& Je can n"erstan" %rom the $assage that* thro gho t history* $a$er ----&
A $ ! " #

has played a vital role in the advancement of learning has been a ma9or e4port item for Asian countries, and for !hina in particular has been produced from a wide range of materials has been valued as a means of communication more in the West than in the #ast has largely been used for documentation rather than for learning

9:& )t is ob'io s %rom the $assage that to"ay the woo"-$ l$ nee"e" %or the man %act re o% $a$er ----& A $ ! " # is largely provided by the countries which produce a great deal of timber is produced from a variety of substances other than timber can only be produced economically with the aid of sophisticated technology is normally made from raw materials locally available can most readily be prepared from timber with a high fibrous content

92& )t is clear %rom the $assage that* " e to the com$leNity an" 'ariety o% its research acti'ities* oceanogra$hy ----& A $ ! " # cooperates with some of the other sciences focuses only on the discovery of the new energy resources in the oceans benefits e4tensively from the findings of biology. is rarely concerned with the problems of the ocean environment. has developed into a separate and independent discipline with no relationship with other sciences.

9;& !he main concern o% the $assage is to ----& A $ ! " # e4plain why there has been so little change in the development of papermaking describe how the West learned the techni7ues of papermaking account for the economic implications of the paper industry give a historical account of papermaking with emphasis on the main raw materials used alert the reader to the fact that very large amounts of timber are consumed in papermaking

93& Je n"erstoo" %rom the $assage that o'er the last h n"re" years or so ----& A $ ! " # many wide ranging studies have been made of ocean currents and their effects on climate the oceans have been e4tensively e4ploited for food and mineral deposits $ritish scientists have carried out e4tensive studies of the ocean basis scientists have been much concerned with the pollution of the ocean environment much progress has been made in the development of oceanography as a science

?DDS 199M KAY)S () Baper has been known in one form or another from

?DDS 199M KAY)S () The great e4pansion in energy demand over recent years has been met to a large e4tent by petroleum oil. The total world reserves of petroleum oil are still uncertain since large parts of the world are still not fully prospected. The cutback in oil production and the rise in the price of Hiddle #astern oil following the 2JN@ Arab-Israeli war unleashed a worldwide energy crisis which affected the economies of consumer countries. 5ne result of this crisis has been that $ritain has increased its <orth Sea oil production and become the fifth largest oil producing country in the world. ?DDS 199M KAY)S (-)

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

In 2JL@ the Mnited States signed a treaty with Banama, which gave the Mnited States rights in perpetuity ever a 2I km wide strip of land e4tending across the narrowest part of Banama for the purpose of building and running a canal. The canal built, now known as the Banama !anal, connects the Atlantic and the Bacific 5ceans and is 9ust over KL km long. Its depth varies from 2; to ;I meters. It is constructed above sea-level, with locks and has been available for commercial shipping since @ August 2J2E. An agreement was reached in 2JNK for the waterway to be turned over Banama by the end of the century. 100& Accor"ing to the $assage* with the 197M agreement concerning the Danama @anal it was agree" that ----&
A $ ! " #

97& )t is $ointe" o t in the $assage that* to meet its increasing energy nee"s* the worl" ----& A $ ! " # will have to develop new sources of energy in addition to petroleum oil has had to face a recurrent energy crisis has, in recent years, relied heavily on petroleum oil has had to rely more and more on $ritish oil is learning to depend upon a larger variety of energy sources

shipping through the !anal would be 9ointly supervised by Banama and the Mnited States the right to operate the !anal would rest with the Mnited States for ever the !anal would revert to Banama at the end of the century the costs would be shared e7ually between Banama and the Mnited States the !anal had to accept commercial shipping from all countries

9M& 1ne can n"erstan" %rom the $assage that % rther oil eN$lorations ----& A $ ! " # would inevitably result in a drop in oil prices are unlikely to produce any positive results should be carried out both in the Hiddle #ast and in the <orth Sea may cause new tensions in the Hiddle #ast could lead to the discovery of rich reserves of petroleum as yet untapped

101& Je n"erstan" %rom the $assage that the loc,s in the Danama @anal are essential ----& A $ ! " # as, for a canal, KL kilometres is a very long stretch of waterway since the canal authorities need to be supervise shipping in the canal lest enemy ships attempt to enter the !anal even though the Mnited States would have preferred not to build them because there is a difference between the level of the !anal and that of the sea

99& Accor"ing to the $assage* one res lt o% the oil crisis ca se" by the Arab-)sraeli war has been that ----& A $ ! " # the world has learned to reduce its energy consumption $ritain has become one of the leading oil producers many new oil fields throughout the world have been prospected and brought into production $ritain has emerged as the largest e4porter of petroleum oil in the world consumer countries have had to redefine their economic priorities

102& As it is $ointe" o t in the $assage* the Danama @anal ----& A $ ! " # will continue to be run 9ointly by Banama and the Mnited States has continuously caused friction between the Mnited States and Banama has had an increasing volume of shipping since it was first opened was constructed to connect the Atlantic and Bacific 5ceans at their closest point has become the world=s busiest waterway for commercial shipping

?DDS 199M KAY)S ()


When there has been a serious disaster such as an earth7uake or flooding, various relief efforts are rapidly put into effect. 0owever, e4perience has shown that it is s ally im$ractical to attem$t mass imm nisation imme"iately %ollowing a "isaster and that, when attempted, it "etracts %rom the o'erall relie% e%%ort witho t $ro" cing a "iscernible bene%it. C%%ecti'e imm nisation re= ires $rior $lanning* goo" systems o% comm nication an" trans$ort* an" access to the $o$ lation at ris,& !hese re= irements cannot be met in the imme"iate $ost-"isaster $erio". C%%orts to achie'e mass 'accination in the relie% $hase also "rain whate'er limited manpower, comm nication %acilities, an" trans$ortation eNist. A $ ! " C)

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

it is not often possible to have access to ade7uate communication facilities the transport of relief workers to the area should be carefully planned untold benefits are to be derived from mass immunisation the distribution of food and medicine is the main activity of the relief phase con"itions are not %a'o rable %or the im$lementation o% an e%%icient imm nisation $rogramme ->1<FE/F/F?R re= ire U S)<A/) U AEA I.?.<0

103& )t is $ointe" o t in the $assage that* as $art o% the relie% wor, %ollowing a "isaster* ----& A the most difficult to organise is the fair distribution of supplies

10:& Je can n"erstan" %rom the $assage that* i% trans$ort an" comm nication %acilities are ina"e= ate* ----& A) then relie% e%%orts will be a"'ersely a%%ecte" $ ! " # the population at risk has to be removed to a safer place the problems facing relief workers will not be so obvious relief efforts have to be doubled to improve the situation the amount of man power has to be increased by every means available

+) mass imm nisation is not s ally to be recommen"e" ->AKAEA ?1QF//F CY/CK0 ! " # communication facilities are among the most urgent measures to be taken it is important to plan comprehensively the evacuation of the badly wounded one of the priorities must be the resettlement of the displaced population

"eprem veya sel gibi ciddi bir felaket oldu(unda, )e'itli kurtarma )abalar% h%&la uygulamaya konur. Ancak, tecr*beler g,stermi'tir ki bir felaketin hemen akabinde toplu a'%lamaya giri'mek genellikle pratik de(ildir ve te'ebb*s edildi(inde g,&le g,r*l*r bir fayda sa(lamaks%&%n b*t*n kurtarma )al%'mas%n%n g*c*n* a&alt%r. #tkin a'%lama, ,n planlamay%, iyi ileti'im ve ula'%m sistemlerini ve risk alt%ndaki n*fusa eri'imi gerektirir. $u gereksinimler hemen felaket ard%ndaki d,nemde kar'%lanama&. -urtarma safhas%nda toplu a'%lama yapma )abalar% ayn% &amanda mevcut k%s%tl% miktardaki herhangi insan g*c*, ileti'im olanaklar% ve ula'%m% da kurutacakt%r.

104& Je can n"erstan" %rom the $assage that* in the main* in the a%termath o% a "isaster* ----&

?DDS 199M ?AS)K () All of us are born, all of us will die3 b t there is in%inite 'ariety in the nat re an" circ mstances o% these two e'ents themsel'es an" in what ha$$ens to o r bo"ies an" o r min"s in between. Some individuals, for e4ample, are born without difficulty and grow uninterruptedly during childhood and adolescence, suffering at worst only minor infectious diseases and accidents. As adults, they reproduce their kind. They age gradually until, in e4treme old age, they die peacefully without pain or discomfort. !his is an i"ealise" $ict re o% how we wo l" li,e things to be* rather than the reality that most $eo$le eN$erience. Death comes to many o% s* not when we are ol"* b t " ring or be%ore birth* in in%ancy* in a"olescence* in early a" lthoo" or in mi""le age.

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

107& !he writer $oints o t that* tho gh most $eo$le eN$ect li%e to be %ree o% care an" "eath easy* ----& A $ this is not likely to happen either in adolescence or in adulthood they have to strive hard to attain this idealised condition

@) this is* in %act* 'ery rarely the case " # for many people a worthwhile life has more to it than this this is seldom the case e4cept in old age

10;& 1ne $oint ma"e by the a thor in this $assage is that we* as h man beings* ----& A $ ! " C) must face the fact that accidents in old age are inevitable have all similar opportunities but use them differently all en9oy a happy childhood and a healthy adolescence ought to take certain measures to avoid infectious diseases in childhood ha'e wi"ely "i%%ering eN$eriences o% birth* li%e an" "eath -.DD.A/)R in%inite0

10M& )n this $assage the writer $oints o t the "is$arity between ----& A $ ! the basically fortunate lives of the ma9ority and the tragic e4perience of a small minority what everyone e4pects of life and what he actually achieves in life the early happy years of our lives, and the later tragic ones

D) the near i"eal li%e eN$erience o% the %ew an" the act al li%e eN$erience o% the ma(ority -AEA I.?.<0 # the happier middle years of a person=s life and the more trying later years


?DDS 1999 KAY)S () The Ama&on is the largest river in the world. It carries about a 7uarter of the world.s running water and is the secon" longest a%ter the Eile. K ch o% it is brown* brac,ish* piranha-infested and bitterly cold. Oanging from narrow tributaries and raging rapids to stretches of prodigious width and calm, the river.s banks can take half a day to reach. In parts, it can drop up to EL metres in less than a kilometre. ?urthermore, it runs through deep canyons and steep gorges that have been carved out by its turbulent waters.

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

Ama&on d*nyadaki en geni'1hacimli nehirdir. "*nya akarsular%n%n neredeyse d,rtte birini ta'%r ve <il=den sonra ikinci en u&un nehirdir. Fo(unlukla kahverengi, ac%ms%, pirana ile dolu ve bu& gibidir. "ar kollar ve ihti'aml% h%&lardan mua&&am d*&l*kler ve s*kunete kadar de(i'iklik g,steren nehrin bir yakas%ndan ,teki yakas%na varmak yar%m g*n* al%r. +er yer, bir kilometreden daha k%sa bir mesafede EL metre kadar d*'ebilir 1 kota fark% g,sterebilir. "ahas%, derin kanyonlar ve )alkant%l% sular%n%n yar%p dik bo(a&lar i)inden akar.

109& Je learn %rom the $assage that* tho gh the Ama5on has the largest 'ol me o% water o% any ri'er in the worl"* ----& A) it is not the longest -.DD.A/)R secon"0 $ ! " # it is in no parts particularly wide there is very little topographical variety in its course it is seldom used for the transportation of goods it is in most parts congested with mud and slime, hence slow-moving

110& )t is $ointe" o t in the $assage that the waters o% the Ama5on ----& A shelter many species of e4otic fish

+) are in $arts m ""y an" not %resh ! " # form a chain of spectacular waterfalls are not suitable for the survival of piranha flow calmly throughout its course

111& !he $assage largely "eals with ----& A $ ! " the differences and the similarities between the Ama&on and the <ile the varying problems of navigation along the Ama&on the geological formation of the course of the Ama&on the number and the si&e of the Ama&on.s many tributaries the si5e o% the Ama5on an" its to$ogra$hical an" a= atic %eat res -AEA I.?.<0



?DDS 1999 KAY)S () Bollution is no respecter of national boundaries today. $ut en'ironmental scientists can still be s r$rise" by the "istances that large = antities o% in" strial $oll tants can sometimes be carrie" by win"s. ?or instance, a group of chemists at the Mniversity of Washington in Seattle have been involved in a case study of such pollutants which reached the West !oast of America all the way from Asia. !hey are ,een to n"erstan" how such an event could take place and to what eNtent it co l" ha'e been %orecast. In fact, back in Harch 2JJN, $oll tants s ch as carbon-monoNi"e %rom Asia ha" been s$otte" as %ar across the Daci%ic 1cean as Aawaii. Thus, it seems increasingly li,ely that the Jest @oast o% America is $artic larly eN$ose" to $oll tion %rom Asia& 112& )t is s ggeste" in the $assage that in" strial $oll tion in o r worl" to"ay ----& A $ ! " C) is largely concentrated in the Bacific 5cean is gradually being brought under full control has been the main concern of scientists from the Mniversity of Washington can be predicted and the necessary measures taken can tra'el ama5ing "istances -.DD.A/)R as %ar across asL DFYBFR s r$rise"0 " $ ! ?DDS 1999 KAY)S

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

C'erybo"y nee"s 'itamins an" minerals to remain healthy. !he = estions are* which ones* how m ch an" when` An" the answer is s r$risingly sim$leR ta,e aaa. Actually, the "epartment of 0ealth has recognised 1M essential 'itamins an" mineral that we nee" on a "aily basis. The daily amount re7uired of these vitamins and minerals is termed the Oecommended "aily Allowance DO"A . ^^^ meet this re7uirement and more. As a new vitamin comple4, it contains these 2K essential vitamins and minerals, plus a total of no less than @2 other micro-nutrients, including the complete antio4idant group and folic acid. !here is no more com$lete a m ltimineral-m lti'itamin on the mar,et. So, because you don=t always eat as you should, it makes sense to take ^^^. 11:& 1ne essential $oint ma"e in the $assage is that ----& A vitamins and minerals must always be taken in con9unction with other micro-nutrients the Oecommended "aily Allowance of vitamins and minerals is actually not ade7uate the Oecommended "aily Allowance of vitamins and minerals should not be e4ceeded by a supplementary intake of other nutrients micro-nutrients, such as folic acid, are an ade7uate substitute for the 2K basic vitamins and minerals a "aily inta,e o% 'itamins an" minerals is 'ital %or goo" health ->1<FE/F/F?R nee"0

C) 113& )t is $ointe" o t in the $assage that one o% the iss es the chemists %rom the Fni'ersity o% Jashington are serio sly concerne" with ----& A is how to clean up the Bacific 5cean and save it from industrial pollutants

11;& )n the $assage it is claime" that aaa ----& A) is the easiest way o% getting an a"e= ate s $$ly o% 'itamins an" other micro-n trients "aily $ ! " # has been strongly recommended by the "epartment of 0ealth is the only multimineral-multivitamin comple4 currently on sale is particularly effective if it is taken after meals is an aid to better eating habits

+) is whether it may be $ossible to %oretell the mo'ements o% $oll tants %rom Asia ! is whether it might be possible to change the course of industrial pollutants along the West !oast has been the measurement of carbon mono4ide levels around 0awaii should be the prevention of the emission of pollutants along the West !oast of America

" #

114& 1ne can concl "e %rom the $assage that Asian in" stry a$$ears to ----& A $ ! be in desperate need of reconstruction and relocation be doing all it can to prevent environmental pollution be emitting more carbon-mono4ide than any other industrial pollutant

117& )t is clear %rom the $assage that* in ta,ing 'itamins an" minerals* the basic $roblem one %aces is to ----& A $ ! decide the 7uantity re7uired in any given situation keep the correct balance between the two avoid an e4cessive intake of the anti-o4idant group

D) $ose a serio s en'ironmental threat to the Jest @oast o% America # be a ma9or competitor for the American industrial enterprises along the West !oast

D) "etermine the ,in" an" the amo nt to be ta,en "aily # follow a strict diet that includes them all

?DDS 1999 ?AS)K


#dison, one of the pioneers of modern technology, lacked formal education. 0is understanding of literature, art, history and philosophy was superficial. Also, despite the fact that he had invented the phonograph and founded a recording company, his musical taste was abominable. Ae is* there%ore* sometimes regar"e" with "is"ain by aca"emic scientists, who o%ten %orget that his ingenuity, in7uiring spirit and tireless efforts contrib te" signi%icantly to the "e'elo$ment o% mo"ern technology.

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

11M& Je can n"erstan" %rom the $assage that some scientists in the ni'ersities ----&
A) $ ! " #

are obli'io s o% C"ison7s achie'ements an" loo, "own on him argue that modern technology owes everything to #dison have followed closely in #dison.s footsteps and upgraded his inventions possess the same in7uiring spirit as #dison did have no greater an appreciation of literature than did #dison

119& )t is stresse" in the $assage that* with his creati'e talent* C"ison ----&
A $ @) " #

became a favorite model for the scientists in the universities achieved great success in many disciplines was able to contrib te enormo sly to the $rogress o% mo"ern technology e4ercised a lasting influence in the music world was able to put his formal education to pragmatic uses

120& !his $assage* while a"mitting some "e%iciencies in C"ison* ----&

A $ ! " C)

seeks to establish his moral integrity in fact stresses his achievements in the humanities finds nothing to critici&e in his academic abilities suggests that he has been un9ustly critici&ed by non-scientists act ally %oc ses on the 'al e o% his wor, in technology -AEA I.?.<0


?DDS 1999 ?AS)K Atmos$here is the gaseo s en'elo$e o% the earth* an" consists o% a miNt re o% gases an" water 'a$o r. The variability of the latter is meteorologically of great importance. The o&one layer, which absorbs solar ltra-'iolet ra"iation* es$ecially lethal to $lant li%e, lies between 2; and 6L kilometres above the earth. The lower level of the atmosphere, up to a height of about 2; kilometres, is known as the troposphere, and it is in this region that nearly all weather $henomena occ r. This is the region of most interest to the forecaster studying temperature, humidity, wind-speed and the movement of air masses.

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

?or many years after Ht. #verest had been shown to be the highest mountain in the world, political conditions in <epal, lying south of the summit, and in Tibet to the <orth, prevented mountaineers from attending an ascent. At last in 1921 the Tibetan authorities gave permission, and the %irst eN$e"ition organise"* as were all s bse= ent eN$e"itions* by international 9oint committee, was sent o t. !his was $rimarily a reconnaissance& +esi"es ma$$ing the Eorthern %lan,* it %o n" a $racticable ro te $ to the mo ntain. +y 1939* siN % rther eN$e"itions ha" climbe" on the northern face. Some were hampered by bad weather, others by problems previously little known, such as the effect of high altitudes on the human body and spirit. <evertheless, notable climbs were accomplished, though the s mmit was ne'er reache". 124& )t is $ointe" o t in the $assage that " ring the 1920s an" 1930s ----& A the governments in the #verest area were invariably suspicious of the purpose of the climbing e4peditions

121& Accor"ing to the $assage* the earth ----&


is e4posed to the deadly effects of the dangerous gases and water vapour that surround it is s rro n"e" by gases in combination with water 'a$o r has an atmosphere which is comprised of e4tremely harmful gaseous substances has a constant climate in spite of meteorological variations in the atmospheric gases gives off a constant supply of water vapour into the atmosphere

+) ! "

+) se'eral attem$ts were ma"e to climb Kt& C'erest an" learn more abo t it ! " # it was <epal that made possible the various efforts to climb it was finally established that Ht. #verest was indeed the world=s highest peak climbers heading for Ht. #verest encountered almost no problems

12:& Je learn %rom the $assage that the %irst C'erest eN$e"ition ----& A $ was sponsored and encouraged by the Tibetan government established that high altitudes have a negative impact on the human body

122& As we learn %rom the $assage* it is the $lants o% the earth that ----&
A $ ! D) #

are most obviously affected by the meteorological changes in the atmosphere benefit most from the water vapour in the atmosphere help to reduce the effects of solar radiation s %%er most %rom the ltra-'iolet ra"iation o% the s n -.DD.A/)R es$ecially U <@0 contribute to the elimination of to4ic gases in the atmosphere

@) aime" to eN$lore the terrain an" chart o t a %easible ro te to the $ea, -.DD.A/)R $rimarily0 " # was greatly hampered by the adverse political conditions prevailing in <epal and Tibet undertaken by an international team failed to achieve its ob9ectives

123& Je n"erstan" %rom the $assage that the tro$os$here is o% 'ital im$ortance as regar"s the weather* ----&
A $ ! " C)

12;& Accor"ing to the $assage* se'eral eN$e"itions ha"* by the en" o% the 1930s* attem$te" to climb Kt& C'erest b t ----& A) none o% them s ccee"e" in reaching the to$ -.DD.A/)R ne'er0 $ ! " # none of them achieved any measure of success at all no suitable routes to the top could be found unfavourable weather conditions meant that no progress could be made at all only one or two of them were in any way successful

even though wind-speeds cannot be accurately measured here as it accommodates the o&one layer even though the atmospheric variability is not predictable since it prevents solar radiation from reaching the earth beca se all the meteorological $henomena ta,e $lace in this region -@/CI! SCE!CE@C0

?DDS 2000 KAY)S 0eat-waves, if the temperature is high enough,


?DDS 1999 ?AS)K

above EL_L for instance, lead to wilting, and even death in plant, beca se o% str ct ral "amage to essential $roteins. The problem is that $lants react by closing their $ores when* " e to a serio s heat-wa'e, they are sub9ected to water stress, so shutting down on transpiration and conserving water. Pust as the body would overheat dangerously if it shut its pores to prevent sweating, so, in a plant, the shutting of the pores will cause permanent damage, if not death. Temperatures above -6_! can damage most plants if lasting for half an hour or more. Aigh soil tem$erat res will also "amage roots an" $re'ent n trient $ta,e.

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

stresine maru& kald%klar%nda, g,&eneklerini kapatmak, dolay%s%yla terlemeyi durdurmak ve suyu muhafa&a etmek 'eklinde reaksiyon vermeleridir. TIB-I v*cudun terlemeyi durdurmak i)in g,&eneklerini kapat%rsa tehlikeli bir 'ekilde a'%r% %s%naca(% /R$R, DA+<I Q#-RA"# bir bitkide DC g,&enekleri kapatmak, ,l*me de(ilse bile, kal%c% &arara yol a)acakt%r. E6 derecenin *&erindeki s%cakl%klar, e(er yar%m saat veya *&erinde devam ederse, )o(u bitkiye &arar verebilir. +*ksek toprak s%cakl%klar% da k,klere &arar verecek ve besin al%m%n% engelleyecektir.

127& As we learn %rom the $assage* a heat-wa'e can ca se serio s "amage to $lant li%e ----& A $ ! even if the essential proteins remain unharmed even when the temperature remains below EL_! unless the soil temperature remains stable

D) thro gh harming the $lant7s essential $roteins # especially if the soil is fertile

12M& )t is $ointe" o t in the $assage that the "eath o% a $lant in a heat-wa'e is " e to ----& A $ a sudden loss of proteins which can occur within half an hour e4cessive transpiration in an effort to keep its temperature down

@) o'erheating in the $lant %ollowing the closing o% the little holes in its s r%ace " # a structural deformation which cannot be detected easily the plant.s inability to conserve water in its cells

129& )t is n"erstoo" %rom the $assage that* in eNtremely high tem$erat res* the roots o% a $lant ----& A) %ail to s $$ly the $lant with a"e= ate n trients $ ! " # dry out well before the leaves begin to wilt store an ade7uate amount of nutrients to prolong plant life increase their nutrient intake in order to protect the plant maintain their vitality so that they can function normally

Is% dalgalar%, e(er s%cakl%k yeterince y*ksekse, mesela EL derecenin *&erinde ise, temel proteinlere yap%sal &arar%ndan ,t*r* bitkide solmaya ve hatta ,l*me yol a)ar. Broblem bitkilerin ciddi bir %s% dalgas% y*&*nden su

?DDS 2000 KAY)S A conspicuous feature of cities in many countries, in particular those of Western #urope, is that b il"ings an" streets "e'astate" " ring the war are* once $eace is reinstate"* reb ilt in eNactly the same manner as they eNiste" be%ore& Cnormo s e%%orts are ta,en to recreate the en'ironment with total %i"elity. This reflects the e4tent to which ordinary people value the traditions and culture of the past. )n Va$anese cities* howe'er* one sees little e'i"ence o% s ch res$ect %or tra"ition. Tokyo presents an e4treme e4ample> it is 7uite common these days for the appearance of a street or 7uarter to change almost beyond recognition every year. )n $ro'incial cities as well* one o%ten %in"s that an absence o% se'eral years has ren"ere" a city almost nrecognisable. 130& )t is em$hasi5e" in the $assage that in Jestern C ro$e* in the $ost-war $erio" ----& A $ people relished the chance to break with tradition and create a new style of city new style of architecture were favoured in the bigger cities

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Bek )ok *lkedeki, ,&ellikle bat% Avrupa *lkelerindeki 'ehirlerin g,&e )arpan bir ,&elli(i, sava' boyunca mahvolmu' olan bina ve caddelerin, bar%' yeniden sa(lan%nca, eskiden oldu(u 'ekliyle t%pat%p ayn% 'ekilde yeniden in'a edilmeleridir. Huhiti asl%na tam uygun bir 'ekilde yeniden yaratmak i)in mua&&am )abalar g,sterilmektedir. $u s%radan insanlar%n ge)mi'in geleneklerine ve k*lt*r*ne hangi boyutta ,nem verdi(ini yans%t%r. Ancak Papon 'ehirlerinde gelene(e b,ylesi bir sayg%n%n i&i-emaresi pek g,&*kme&. Tokyo u) bir ,rne(i temsil eder> bug*nlerde bir caddenin veya )evrenin her y%l neredeyse tan%namayacak oranda de(i'mesi gayet s%radand%r. Ta'ra kentlerde de, birka) y%l 'ehirde olmamak neredeyse 'ehri tan%namayacak bir boyuta getirir.

@) e'ery e%%ort was ma"e to reb il" the cities in the $re-war style " # environmental concerns were usually disregarded in the reconstruction of cities many countries were still doubtful about the permanence of the peace

131& Accor"ing to the $assage* nli,e the C ro$eans* the Va$anese ----& A $ ! " C) take every opportunity to promote their traditions and culture reconstructed their cities in accordance with their cultural traditions were reluctant to introduce any novelties into city planning paid considerable attention to environmental matters in rebuilding their cities are* on the whole* in"i%%erent to their $ast

132& Jith re%erence to Va$anese* writer $oints o t that ----& A) the cities are constantly n"ergoing massi'e changes in a$$earance $ ! " # Tokyo is an e4treme e4ample of traditional designs in architecture provincial cities have imitated Tokyo as regards city planning in ma9or cities, the streets invariably follow a similar design there is a strong #uropean influence in city planning


?DDS 2000 KAY)S In its full force, the /ulf Stream, which begins in the B l% o% KeNico, carries warm water to a depth of up to 2LL meters at rates of up to K kilometres an hour, an" $enetrates right $ into the Arctic @ircle to the north o% Scan"ina'ia, bearing with it a climate that makes life 9ust about tolerable, even in the thick of the winter. !he energy it carries in the form of heat is e7uivalent to 2LL times the entire use of energy in human societies across the world or put another way, more than ;N,LLL times $ritain.s electricity generating capacity. In terms of temperature, the /ulf Stream heats the surface over a wide area by at least 6_!& Jere the-B l% Stream to %ail, temperatures over northern #urope would fall by more than 2L centigrade degree during the winter months. <orthern #urope would have a climate comparable to that of Siberia> ( st how it wo l" s $$ort its c rrent $o$ lation is "i%%ic lt to imagine.

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great bene%its o% the B l% Stream is that it ----& A causes an average ten percent rise in temperature in <orthern #urope throughout the winter provides a huge amount of electricity for the <orthern #urope countries warms up the whole of Scandinavia and Siberia in winter circles around $ritain and then moves into the northern waters carries warm waters nearly as %ar as the Arctic @ircle

$ ! " C)

13:& )t is clear %rom the $assage that ----& 133& !his $assage mainly "eals with ----& A $ ! " C) the adverse effects that /ulf Stream has on the wild life in Scandinavia how the /ulf Stream transforms the climate in the Arctic !ircle the 7uestion of whether man can benefit from the energy latent in the /ulf Stream the reasons why the climate of Scandinavia differs from that of Siberia the co rse* climatic e%%ects an" energy ca$acity o% the B l% Stream -AEA I.?.<0 $ A the energy to be derived from the /ulf Stream would theoretically barely meet the needs of the whole world the effects of the /ulf Stream are far more noticeable in the Arctic !ircle than along the shores of <orthern #urope

@) witho t the B l% Stream* it wo l" be almost im$ossible %or Eorthern C ro$e to s $$ort its $o$ lation -DC[<.? )I @/AFSC 'e S1EF@F0 " the /ulf Stream brings with it disadvantages as well as advantages for the people of <orthern #urope the /ulf Stream is indispensable if the people of Siberia are to survive

Tam g*) halindeyken, Heksiko k,rfe&inde ba'layan /olfstrim saatte K kilometreye kadar varan bir h%&da 2LL metreye varan bir derinlikte s%cak su ta'%r ve k%'%n en &emheri an%nda bile ya'am% g*) bela katlanabilir hale getiren bir iklimi yan%nda ta'%yarak, do(rudan Rskandinavya=n%n ku&eyine Arktik ",nencesine girer. Ta'%d%(% ener9i s%cakl%k cinsinden t*m d*nyada insan topluluklar%n%n kulland%(% t*m ener9inin 2LL kat%na denktir, veya ba'ka bir deyi'le, $ritanya=n%n elektrik *retme kapasitesinin ;NLLL kat%ndan daha b*y*kt*r. S%cakl%k cinsinden, /olfstrim geni' bir y*&eyi en a&%ndan be' derece %s%t%r. #(er /olfstrim ba'ar%s%& olsayd%, -u&ey Avrupa sath%ndaki s%cakl%klar k%' aylar% boyunca 2L dereceden daha fa&la d*'erdi. -u&ey Avrupa Sibirya=n%nkine ben&eyen bir iklime sahip olurdu> Do &aman <as%l olurdu da mevcut n*fusunu ayakta tutard% hayalini kurmak bile g*).

134& As we n"erstoo" %rom the $assage* one o% the


?DDS 2000 KAY)S Within a short time after the outbreak of the Second World War, $ritain was without imports of many 'ital $harmace ticals that ha" %ormerly come %rom Va$an* Bermany an" the Iar Cast. As a res lt, the first wartime government set up systematic research into the cultivation and medical use of herbs, $y 2JEL, women7s 'ol ntary organisations had been drawn into a national campaign to gather wild herbs, Mp and down the country, @o nty Aerb @ommittees were organised to oversee the gathering, drying, distillation and distribution of the medicinal herbs. /ay $eo$le were gi'en brief locally-based training in how to recognise herbs, store and dry them. Iarmers were gi'en subsidies to farm certain naturally hard-to-find herbs, $y 2JE@, every county had its herb committee and during the five years of the Second World War, over N6L tons of dried herbs were gathered and turned into medicines.

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

137& )t is 'i'i"ly "escribe" in the $assage how* " ring Jorl" Jar ))* the +ritish go'ernment ---& A banned the import of all kinds of pharmaceuticals from /ermany, Papan and the ?ar #ast gave priority to the import of medicines encouraged scientific research into improving the efficiency and variety of vital pharmaceuticals only gave subsidies to those farmers who were interested in growing herbs too, serio s meas res to ens re that the co ntry sho l" not be short o% me"icines

$ !

" C)

F,&*me katk% sa(lamayan ek bilgi> # se)ene(i SM$PM<!TIC#. Haddeli \ s%ral% anlat%

13;& Je learn %rom the $assage that* be%ore Jorl" Jar ))* +ritain ----& A $ ! rarely traded with /ermany or the ?ar #ast traded primarily with /ermany, Papan and the ?ar #ast imported raw materials from Papan, /ermany and the ?ar #ast and e4ported pharmaceuticals to them 13M& )t is clear %rom the $assage that* o% the s$ecial arrangements ma"e in +ritain " ring the war* one was ----& A the reduction of imports from /ermany and Papan

D) was largely "e$en"ent on Bermany* Va$an an" the Iar Cast %or its $harmace ticals # thought of e4porting dried herbs for pharmaceutical purposes

+) the setting $ o% local an" national organisations to $ro" ce me"icinal herbs ! " the introduction of new agricultural policies to increase production in every sphere the launching of a national women.s campaign for the distribution of medicines throughout the country the training of local people in the production of herb-based medicines

Rkinci "*nya Sava'%n%n patlak vermesinden sonra k%sa bir &aman i)erisinde $ritanya daha ,nceden Paponya, Almanya ve M&ak "o(u=dan gelen pek )ok hayati ila)tan yoksun kalm%'t%. Sonu) olarak, ilk sava' &aman% h*k*meti bitkilerin ekimi ve t%bbi kullan%m%na dair sistematik1d*&enli bir ara't%rma kurdu. 2JEL y%l% itibariyle, kad%nlar%n g,n*ll* organi&asyonlar% yaban[ ot toplamak i)in ulusal bir kampanyaya sevk edildi 1 )ekildi. $a'tan a'a(% b*t*n *lkede, t%bbi otlar%n toplanmas%, kurutulmas%, dam%t%lmas% ve da(%t%lmas%n% tefti'1icra i)in Rl $itki -omiteleri tesis edildi. S%radan insanlara bitkileri nas%l tan%yacaklar%na, depolayacaklar%na ve kurutacaklar%na dair k%sa yerel merke&li e(itim verildi. Fift)ilere ba&% do(al olarak bulunmas% &or bitkileri ekmeleri 1tar%m%n% yapmalar% i)in te'vikler verildi. 2JE@ itibariyle, her ilin kendi bitki komitesi vard% ve ikinci d*nya sava'%n%n be' y%l% boyunca N6L tondan daha fa&la kurutulmu' bitki1ot toplanm%' ve ilaca d,n*'t*r*lm*'t*.


?DDS 2000 ?AS)K In the coming weeks, wine makers north of the e7uator will oversee the harvesting and fermenting of the first vintage of the millennium. $ut long before the finished product reaches the shelves before it even makes it out of the barrel, in some cases - samples will be offered to e4porters and distributors. A select gro $ o% wine critics will also be gi'en a taste& Kost will recor" their im$ressions in the e4travagant prose that wine 9ournalists n%ort nately love to use. 5thers will go one step further and assign numerical grades. !hese "ays a high score is more e%%ecti'e than mere $raise. It can make a comparatively unknown wine into a highly desirable one that everyone is seeking to buy.

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140& )n the o$inion o% the writer* most o% the wine (o rnalists ----&
A +) ! " #

dislike the practice of awarding wines numerical grades generally se too many eNotic wor"s an" literary eN$ressions have very little influence on the public.s choice of wine are less influential than distributors in the business of buying and selling of wines should be consulted at all stages of the winemaking process

139& Accor"ing to the $assage* be%ore the new season7s wines e'en reach the sho$s* wine critics will ha'e ----&
A) $ ! " #

141& )t is $ointe" o t in the $assage that the $ractice o% awar"ing n merical gra"es to wines ----&
A $ @) " #

taste" sam$les an" "escribe" or gra"e" them suggested suitable prices for each type bought up large 7uantities of what they think will sell well advised producers on the fermenting process for the ne4t year.s vintage compared their impressions with those of other wine critics

is not as reliable or satisfactory as the practice of describing wines is not at all popular among e4porters and distributors has ha" a tr ly ama5ing e%%ect on wine sales means that little known wines never get a chance to be known is rapidly giving way to the system of verbal description

Vn*m*&deki haftalarda, #kvator=un 9u&eyindeki 'arap imalat)%lar% milenyumun ilk ba(bo&umunun hasat ve fermantasyonunu y*r*t*yor olacak.Ama olmu' *r*nler raflarda yerini almdan )ok ,nce, hatta f%)%lar%ndan bile )%kar%lmadan evvel, ba&% durumlarda ihracat)%lara ve da(%t%c%lara numuneler ikram edilecek. DZr*n bir grup se)kin 'arap ele'tirmenine de tatt%r%lacak. $unlar%n )o(u i&lenimlerini maalesef 'arap ga&etecilerinin kullanmaya a'%k oldu(u abart%l% bir ya&%yla kayda ge)ecekler. "i(erleri bir ad%m daha ileri gidecek ve rakam cinsinden punalar verecekler. $ug*nlerde y*ksek bir puan salt bir ,vg*den daha etkili. <ispeten bilinmeyen bir 'arab%, herkesin almak i)in arad%(% son derece ar&u edilir bir 'araba d,n*'t*rebiliyor.


?DDS 2000 ?AS)K In theory, the multimedia age should be killing off bookshops. Who still has time to read books, what with surfing the Internet, viewing scores of new digital television channels, and putting in everlonger hours at work8 And presumably those few people who do still read books will be buying them on the Internet. After all, Ama&on, a bookseller, is the most cited e4ample of a successful online retailer. So much for the theory. What about the practice8 This week the largest bookshop in $ritain opened up in the old Simpson.s of Biccadilly in Aondon. With ;I6,LLL titles and 2.6 million books, the new branch of Waterstone.s stretches over seven floors. A department store, which once sold everything from sushi to plus-fours, is now devoted entirely to one product - books. The new Waterstone.s is almost ne4t door to 0atchards, a mere five-storey bookshop, with a well-established clientele, and two smaller bookshops. It is also less than a mile from $orders, another huge bookstore in 54ford Street.

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

in%ormation abo t the new Jaterstone7s boo,sho$* ----&
A $ ! " #

together with the number and 7uality of the staff employed there including the e4act postal address and the incredible variety of second hand books to be found there is given special emphasis but it is the original use of floor space that receives special attention including the fact that the premises once belonged to a department store that sold literally every type of goods

142& !he $assage s ggests that* in this worl" o% technological a"'ance one might* in theory* eN$ect that ----&
A $ ! " #

144& As i% to em$hasise his own s r$rise* the writer ma,es the $oint that the new Jaterstone7s boo,sho$ ----&
A $ ! " #

is designed and run like a department store has deprived neighbouring bookshops of a lot of their trade plans to open yet another branch in 54ford Street is situated in a neighbourhood of well-established bookstores is not likely to attract many customers

Internet, among other things, would make book shops obsolete Internet would prove a serious rival to television smaller bookshops would be brought up by larger ones internet book retailers like Ama&on would find few customers new digital television channels have little chance of success

143& )n the $assage* we are gi'en a great "eal o%


?DDS 2000 ?AS)K The seventeenth-century scientist ?rancis $acon was the first to insist that science be methodically separated from values so as to make it truly .neutral., or ob9ective. In reality, he did nothing of the sort. 0is .scientific knowledge., instead of being value-free, set out e4plicitly and purposefully to give humanity power over nature. .Truth and utility are perfectly identical,. he wrote in his G<ovum 5rganumU, and .that which is most useful in practice is most correct in theory.. In effect, he merely replaced the old .sub9ective. values of .good. and .evil. with the values of .useful. and .useless., or more precisely .of contributing or not contributing to man.s domination over or transformation of the natural world.. There were to be no limits to this transformation. 0is goal was e4plicitly stated. It was to .achieve all things achievable.. At least he was honest enough to admit the fact. Hodern science has followed $acon.s lead e4actly, but does not admit it. ?DDS 2000 ?AS)K

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

14:& Accor"ing to the a thor* the broa" goals o% mo"ern scientists are i"entical with those o% +acon* ----&
A $ ! " #

If a greater proportion of the food people eat were to be locally produced, this would be of great benefit to the farmer. A mi4 of local, regional, national, and international production would still be available3 indeed, the goal would not be to put an end to the international trade in food, but to avoid transporting food thousands of miles when it could instead be produced ne4t door. Such a shift would help revitalise rural economies ruined by the global economy. Aess money would go into the hands of corporate middlemen, and far more would remain in the hands of farmers, This would especially be the case with the direct marketing of food via farmers. markets and farm stands and other forms of community supported agriculture. If farmers were not impelled to specialise their production in a few global commodities, the trend towards ever larger and more highly mechanised farms would slow down. Horeover, since small farms use a proportionally higher amount of human labour than mechanised inputs, a return to smaller farms would help bring back some of the NLL.LLL farm 9obs the M- has lost during the last half-century of agricultural progress. 14M& )t is $ointe" o t in the $assage that it wo l" be to the a"'antage o% the %armer an" the r ral economy at large i% ----& A $ ! " # people were to eat locally produced food more often the sale of farm products were in the hands of corporate middlemen the advantages of a global economy were better appreciated the practice of direct marketing of food at farmers. markets were forbidden the marketing of all food products were at a national or international level

e4cept that they regard nothing as .useless. only they avoid saying so although $acon never actually discussed goals and even more ambitious but they consider him too sub9ective in his outlook

14;& )t is arg e" in the $assage that tho gh +acon was "etermine" to ma,e science ob(ecti'e an" 'al e-%ree* ----& A $ ! " # he know he was setting himself an impossible task this was impossible as truth and utility are inseparable he did not want man to have dominion over nature he was himself greatly influenced by the concepts of right and wrong he actually simply substituted one set of values for another

149& Accor"ing to the a thor* %arms are growing larger an" more highly mechanise" ----& A $ ! " # as this is the only sure way to make money out of farming as this is what the rural community wants since no one is willing to work on the land because imported foodstuffs are so much cheaper because farmers feel obliged to concentrate on a very few products for global markets

147& Je n"erstan" %rom the $assage that +acon regar"e" science as a means to ----& A $ ! " # establish what was useful and what true overcome such sub9ective values as .good. and .evil. protect the natural world and so preserve it give man power over nature so he could benefit from it keep the natural world unchanged and unspoilt

1:0& !he a thor is o$$ose" to the tren" towar"s larger an" mere highly mechanise" %arms ----& A $ ! " # as they result in unnecessarily high food prices since the 7uality of food they produce is poor because it has resulted in a great many farm labourers losing their 9obs though he admits the 7uality of food they produce is high though this is what the owners of small farms want


?DDS 2001 KAY)S In the case of shallow tunnels or in urban areas it is often possible, by means of carefully sited boreholes, to gain an idea as to the nature of the ground and water conditions. Mnder high mountains boring becomes e4pensive so reliance has to be placed upon geological interpretations. As strata can vary so much, surprises are often met with and techni7ues sometimes have to change in a single tunnel. In the Severn railway tunnel DE mls I;K yd long, completed in 2KKI great 7uantities of water were une4pectedly encountered and are still being pumped out.

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

S%( t*neller veya kent alanlar% s,& konusu oldu(unda, dikkatli bir 'ekilde yerle'tirilmi' sonda9 delikleri sayesinde, &emin ve su durumlar%n%n tabiat%1niteli(i hakk%nda bir fikir edinmek m*mk*nd*r. +*ksek da(lar alt%nda sonda9 pahal% hale gelir, dolay%s%yla 9eolo9ik yorumlara itimat edilmesi gerekir. -atmanlar )ok fa&la de(i'iklik ar& edece(inden, s%k s%k s*rpri&lerle kar'%la'%l%r ve ba&en tek bir t*nelde tekniklerin de(i'mesi mecbur olur. Severn demiryolu t*nelinde Dki E mil I;K yarda u&unlu(unda olup 2KKI.da tamamlanm%'t%r beklenmedik bir 'ekilde b*y*k miktarda su ile kar'%la'%lm%'t% ve Dbu su hala d%'ar% pompalanmaktad%r.

1:1& !he writer eN$lains that when a t nnel "oes not go "ee$ n"ergro n"* ----& A one can learn about the type of ground it is to pass through by means of strategically placed boreholes the type of strata it is to pass through is unimportant it may prove unsuitable in urban areas the geological nature of the terrain does not, in general. have to be taken into consideration the techni7ues used to e4cavate it vary very little

$ ! " #

1:2& Je n"erstan" %rom the $assage that be%ore any t nnel is o$ene" ----& A $ ! " # an e4act understanding of the nature of the rock strata around it must be gained samples of the ground through which It is to pass must always be taken it is desirable to get an idea of the nature of the ground that is being tunnelled the area surrounding it should be drained of any underground water the suitability of the site has to be test-blasted

1:3& )t is $ointe" o t in the $assage that the geological inter$retations ma"e o% the strata thro gh which a t nnel is to go ----& A $ ! " # are based on samples of the ground taken from boreholes cannot detect underground waterways are particularly relevant in urban areas are not always reliable are especially useful if underground water is suspected


?DDS 2001 KAY)S Translation renders knowledge mobile. The task of the scientific translator, no less than the literary translator, has been to create new te4ts, to multiply sources into new languages, and thereby to produce new SoriginalsS. 5ver time, translation itself has built a great scientific library, ever more enriched, and accessible. Although we may think of scientific translation as literal, mechanical work, this has never been the case. The reasons for this are comple4, but have much to do with the lack of e4act one-to-one correspondence among languages. Translating science always involves interpretation, the remaking of an original. If it did not, machine translation would have long ago rendered the scientific translator e4tinct.

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

1:4& Accor"ing to the $assage scienti%ic translation* ( st li,e literary translation* ----& A $ ! " # re7uires a kind of rewriting of the original te4t should avoid the temptation of trying to interpret the original te4t is becoming increasingly mechanised and making translators themselves redundant has actually played a very small part in the spread of knowledge is presently being carried out into fewer and fewer languages

1::& !he writer stresses that the (ob o% a scienti%ic translator ----& A $ ! " # re7uires more technical knowledge than linguistic is far easier than that of the translation of literary te4ts has been made much easier with the introduction of machine translation is actually far more creative than has generally been assumed goes back farther in history than does that of the literary translator

1:;& As the writer s ggests* an im$ortant obstacle that a scienti%ic translator %aces* is that ----& A $ ! " # new scientific te4ts are growing more and more comple4 in content very few people are interested in the translations of scienti2ic works the machine translation of scientific te4ts has reached a high level of efficiency the work is mechanical and tedious that it offers almost no satisfaction the e4act translation of one language into another can almost never be achieved


?DDS 2001 KAY)S Jater o% "o bt% l $ rity %or "rin,ing can be ren"ere" sa%e by boiling and then can be cooled in water bags or in earthenware containers, which must be protected from dust and flies. When boiling is not possible, drinking water can, in many areas, be ade7uately sterilised by chlorination3 one tablet of hala&one is added to one litre of water and allowed to stand for @L minutes. Jater containing s s$en"e" matter sho l" be %iltere" %irst. There is, however, the danger of a particularly serious infectious disease in many regions of Africa, the Hiddle and ?ar #ast and South America. In these regions, the water of rivers, lakes and canal may be infected, and the "isease is ac= ire" when the water comes in contact with the s,in& :7& )n this $assage the writer $oints o t that boiling ----& A $ is the only safe method of producing drinking water is commonly used in Africa and the less developed countries to purify water

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

Temi&li(inden ku'kulan%lan su kaynat%larak saf hale getirilebilir ve daha sonra su torbalar%nda veya toprak kaplarda so(utulabilir, Dbu kaplar%nsa to& ve b,ceklerden korunmas% gerekir. -aynatma m*mk*n olmad%(%nda, i)me suyu pek )ok alanda klorlama ile mikroplardan yeterince ar%nd%r%alabilir3 bir tablet hala&on bir litre suya konur, @L dakika beklenir. Ask%da madde ta'%yan suyun once s*&*lmesi gerekir. +ine de Afrika, 5rta ve M&ak "o(u ve /*ney Amerika=n%n pek )ok b,lgesinde, olduk)a tehlikeli bula'%c% hastal%k riski mevcuttur. $u b,lgelerde, nehir, g,l ve kanal sular% mikroplu olabilir ve su cilt ile temas etti(inde hastal%k kap%labilir. .n"irgenmi2 <elati'e @la se Water containing suspended matter should be filtered first . Water which contains suspended matter should be filtered first .

@) is a reliable metho" o% ma,ing im$ re water sa%e to "rin, " # will purify water but must not continue for more than @L minutes is one method of combating infectious diseases in third world countries

1:M& Je learn %rom the $assage that* when sterilisation o% water is to be carrie" o t by means o% chlorination* ----& A It is important to make sure that the water is not affected

+) it m st be $rece"e" by %iltration ! " # great care must be taken that no dust be allowed to get into the water the best containers for the 9ob are earthenware one the process should be followed by the boiling of the water

1:9& Je n"erstan" %rom the $assage that* in certain regions o% the worl"* s ch as $arts o% A%rica an" Asia ----& A $ ! " C) filtration is vital for the removal of suspended matter from the water river water may be so infected that boiling cannot purify it people are cautioned not to use canal water because it is always infected 0ala&one tablets are fre7uently used to sterilise infected water s,in contact with in%ecte" water can ca se the "e'elo$ment o% a highly in%ectio s "isease

?DDS 2001 ?AS)K Although the idea of the skyscraper is modern, the inclination to build upward is not. The /reat Byramids, with their broad bases, reached heights unapproached for the ne4t four millennia. $ut even the great /othic cathedrals, crafted of bulky stone into an aesthetic of lightness and slenderness are dwarfed by the steel and reinforced concrete structures of the ;Lth century. It was modern building materials that made the true skyscraper structurally possible, but it was the mechanical device of the elevator that made the skyscraper truly practical. Ironically, it is also the elevator that has had so much to do with limiting the height of most tall buildings to about NL or KL stories. Above that, elevator shafts occupy more than ;6 percent of the volume of a tall building, and so the economics of renting out space argues against investing in greater height. 1;0& )t is clear %rom the $assage that the Breat Dyrami"s ---&
A $ ! " #

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

Although the idea of the skyscraper is modern, the inclination to build upward is not. The /reat Byramids, with their broad bases, reached heights unapproached for the ne4t four millennia. $ut even the great /othic cathedrals, crafted of bulky stone into an aesthetic of lightness and slenderness, are dwarfed by the steel and reinforced concrete structures of the ;Lth century. It was modern building materials that made the true skyscraper structurally possible, but it was the mechanical device of the elevator that made the skyscraper truly practical. Ironically, it is also the elevator that has had so much to do with limiting the height of most tall buildings to about NL or KL stories. Above that, elevator shafts occupy more than ;6 percent of the volume of a tall building, and so the economics of renting out space argues against investing in greater height. 0er ne kadar g,kdelen fikri yeni bir fikir ise de, yukar% do(ru bina yapma e(ilimi Dyeni bir e(ilim de(ildir. $*y*k Biramitler, geni' temelleri sayesinde, m*teakip d,rt bin y%l boyunca eri'ilmeyecek y*ksekliklere ula'm%'lard%. Ama iri iri ta'lar%n el &anaat% ile hafiflik ve incelik i)eren bir esteti(e d,n*'t*r*ld*(* /otik katedraller bile ;L. y*&y%l%n )elik ve betonarme yap%lar% kar'%s%nda k*)*c*k kald%lar. /er)ek bir g,kdeleni yap%sal olarak m*mk*n k%lan 'ey, modern in'a mal&emeleriydi, ancak g,kdeleni hakikaten ger)ek)i k%lan 'ey, mekanik bir ciha& olan asans,rd*. <e tuhaft%r, yine bu asans,r, )o(u y*ksek binan%n NL-KL kat ile s%n%rl% olmas%yla da )ok)a ba(lant%l%yd%. $u y*ksekli(in *st*nde, asans,r bo'luklar% binan%n toplam hacminin y*&de ;6=inden fa&las%n% i'gal etmektedir, ve mekan% d*&g*n kullanma ekonomisi daha b*y*k y*ksekliklere yat%r%ma kar'% )%kmaktad%r.

are at least as spacious as the average modern skyscraper inspired the building of the great /othic cathedrals were as tall as they were wide were designed on similar principles to the modern skyscraper had no rival, as regards height, for four thousand years

1;1& Je n"erstan" %rom the $assage that the constr ction o% s,yscra$ers only became str ct rally %easible ----&
A $ ! " #

after such new building materials as reinforced concrete came into use once Dhe techni7ue of broad foundations had been perfected after people had reali&ed how much space could be gained by them for heights of NL or KL floors if aesthetic considerations were disregarded

1;2& )t is eN$laine" in the $assage that s,yscra$ers o% abo'e 70 or M0 %loors are generally neconomic ----&
A $ ! " #

as the price of installing fast elevators is e4cessive as elevator shafts have then to occupy too large a proportion of the volume of the building since the ma9ority of people feel insecure above that height though in appearance they are most attractive even though the lower floors no longer need to be built on broad bases


?DDS 2001 ?AS)K Aand cleared of trees is e4posed to erosion, which can be severe in deforested areas having slopes greater than 26 to 2N percent. If land is not disturbed any further and new growth becomes established, erosion may gradually subside. If, however, vegetation on the cutover land is continually removed by man or livestock, erosion will intensify, and environmental problems can be severe. When a forest is removed from a slope, the rate of water runoff is increased two to tenfold or more, depending on the degree of clearing, slope, and rainfall. All too often this leads to flooding of agricultural land in the lowlands. In Bakistan, for e4ample, almost ; million hectares of standing crops on the lowlands were destroyed by floodwater in 2JN@, and about 2L,LLL villages were wiped out. Since valuable soil is lost in floods, the 7uantity of the arable lands decreases. Alluvial silt deposited elsewhere is rarely usable enough to compensate for such losses.

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

1;4& Je n"erstan" %rom the $assage that once a %orest has been remo'e" %rom a slo$e* the rate o% water r no%% ----&
A $ ! " #

may be in itself. enough to prevent the establishment of new growth there will increase irrespective of the amount of rainfall will steadily increase even after new vegetation starts to establish will depend almost wholly on the gradient of the slope will increase and this is likely to cause flooding

1;:& Accor"ing to the $assage* %loo"ing ----& 1;3& )t is $ointe" o t in the $assage that "e%orestation ----&
A $ ! " # A $ ! " #

occurs in Bakistan regularly every year results in silt deposits which compensate for earth losses elsewhere is only a temporary disaster leads to a reduction in the amount of land that can be farmed is a natural disaster that until recently has been largely overlooked

and erosion are only very loosely connected is a matter that man can do nothing about is particularly serious when it occurs on a slope will stop once man has reali&ed how serious its effects can be has been practised more in Bakistan than elsewhere

A(a)lar% kesilmi' olan ara&iler ero&yona a)%kt%r, Dve bu Dero&yon y*&de 26 il: 2N dereceden daha b*y*k e(ime sahip ormans%& alanlarda daha 'iddetli olabilmektedir. #(er ara&i daha fa&la rahats%& edilme& ve yeni bitki b*y*meleri ger)ekle'irse, ero&yon muhtemelen yava' yava' dinecektir. Ama e(er a(a)lar% kesilmi' ara&ideki bitki ,rt*s* insano(lu ve besi hayvanlar% taarf%ndan devaml% yok edilirse, ero&yon yo(unla'acak ve )evre problemleri 'iddetli olabilecektir.

1&-3& sor lar3* a2a83"a,i $ar9aya g4re


ce'a$lay3n35& There are abo t %orty "istinct ,in"s of wild cats known to inhabit the earth today. They range in si&e %rom the mighty Siberian tiger to several little spotted species about the si&e of the average domestic cat. !he cats are the most e%%icient lan" $re"ators le%t on earth. They combine power, speed, patience, camouflage, and considerable individual skill. All swim well, most climb with great agility, and at least for short distances, most can mo'e with ama5ing swi%tness. The African lion can reach a s$ee" o% almost %orty miles per hour when it charges. 1& ce'a$lay3n35&

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

$ug*n d*nyada ya'ad%(% bilinen yakla'%k k%rk farkl% t*rde vah'i1yabani kedi vard%r. $unlar heybetli Sibirya kaplan%ndan yakla'%k ev kedisi b*y*kl*(*ndeki pek )ok k*)*k benekli t*rlere kadar ebat ebatt%rlar1ebat)a de(i'iklik g,sterirler. -ediler yery*&*nde geri"e kalan en etkin kara avc%lar%d%rlar. -uvveti, h%&%, sabr%, kamufla9% ve hat%r% say%l%r bireysel beceriyi *&erlerinde toplam%'lard%r. Tamam% iyi y*&er, )o(u b*y*k )eviklikle t%rman%r, ve en a&%ndan k%sa mesafeler i)in, )o(u 'a'%rt%c% bir h%&la hareket edebilir. Afrika aslan% h*cuma ge)ti(inde, yakla'%k saatte k%rk millik bir h%&a ula'abilir. Dasa("a ' rg lan"383 65ere b g6n "6nya"a,i yabani ,e"iler ---A) $e, 9o, b6y6,l6, 'e 9e2itlili, g4sterme,te"irler $ ! " # tamam%yla Afrika k%tas%yla s%n%rl%d%rlar )evresel ko'ullardan ,t*r* h%&la a&almaktad%rlar 'u anda sadece Sibirya ve Asya=n%n geri kalan%nda bulunmaktad%rlar a(a)lara t%rmanma yeteneklerini kaybediyor g,&*kmekteler 1 olabilirler


)t is stresse" in the $assage that wil" cats in the worl" to"ay ----& A) show a remar,able range an" 'ariety $ ! " # are completely confined to the African continent are rapidly on the decline due to environmental changes are now only to be located in Siberia and the rest of Asia seem to be losing the ability to climb trees 2&

Dasa(a g4re* 'ah2iUyabani ,e"iler bir,a9 bari5 45elli,leriyle bilinme,te"irler ---A $ ,i Dbu ,&elliklerin i)inde en ,nemlisi mua&&am g*)leridir ,i Dbu ,&ellikler in hepsi kendilerini hangi b*y*kl*kte olursa olsun t*m hayvanlara fi&iksel olarak *st*n yapmaktad%r ama koku alma duyular% geli'memi'tir ,i Dbu ,&ellikler i)inde d*'mandan gi&lenme ,&elli(i en ,nemli oland%r ,i (b na) a'c3l3,ta e2i ben5eri olmayan yeterlili,leri "e "ahil"ir


Accor"ing to the $assage* wil" cats are note" %or a n mber o% "istinct = alities ----& A $ ! " C) of which their great strength is the most important which together make them physically superior to all other animals regardless of si&e but their sense of smell is poor of which their ability to hide from the enemy is of first importance incl "ing their nmatchable e%%iciency in h nting

! " #


Dasa("a i2aret e"ilmi2tir ,i 9o8 yabani ,e"inin hare,et e"er,en la2abil"i,leri h35 ---A $ ! verimli bir g,rme yetene(inin olmamas%n% telafi eder asla ,l)*lmemi'tir ger9e,ten "e ,ay"a "e8er"ir ortalama ev kedisininkini ge)me& onlara d*'manlarla dolu bir ortamda hayatta kalmaklar% i)in yard%mc% olur


)t is $ointe" o t in the $assage that the s$ee" with which most wil" cats can mo'e ----& A $ compensates for their lack of efficient sight has never been measured

" #

@) is tr ly remar,able " # doesn=t e4ceed that of the average domestic cat helps them to survive in a hostile environment

1&-3& sor lar3* a2a83"a,i $ar9aya g4re


GENEL HATIRLATMALAR ve ZM Soru ),&erken yap%lan yanl%'lar genellikle paragraf sorular%n% ),&*mde kulland%(%m%& birka) ,nemli noktan%n ihmal edilmesinden kaynaklanm%'t%r> 2R)lerinde A//* 1E/Y* @1EI)ECD !1* <CS!<)@!CD !1* Ca/FS)[C* KC<C/Y* EC[C<* !AC +CS!* !AC I)<S! gibi .DD.A/) .IADCleri bar%nd%ran se)enekler metinde ben&eri kuvvette bir ifade kullanmam%'sa yanl%'t%r. 2. soruda $, ! ve ", ;. soruda A, $ ve ", @. soruda ise $ se)eneklerindeki alt% )i&ili kelimelere bak%n. ;+ukar%daki ifadeler metinde ge)erse, genelde oradan soru gelir3 soru )%kmama ihtimali )ok d*'*kt*r. Rkinci soruya kaynakl%k eden metinde i'aret etti(im yere bak%n. 5rada kediler i)in Gen iyi avc%larU denmi'. #lbette ki a'a(%daki sorulardan biri onu sorguluyor olacakt%. Fo(umu&un do(ru cevap olarak se)ti(i $ se)ene(ine gelince, bu kedileri dino&or veya timsahlardan bile Dregar"less o% si5e daha g*)l* hale getirecektir ki metnin kast% katiyen bu de(il. +ine se)ilen " se)ene(inde sorun gi5lenmeyi di(er becerilerinden daha ,n plana )%karmas%. Hetinse bu beceriyi di(erierinin ,n*ne koymam%'. DWaten aslanlar d*'mandan gi&lenmek i)in de(il, av%na fark edilmemek i)in gi&leniyorlar. @Hetinde s%ral% olarak veya en u) noktalar% g,sterilmek suretiyle ifade edilen bir ,&ellik, s%k s%k soruda BCEC//CKC yap%larak verilir. $irinci soruda bu ,&ellik bari& olarak mevcut> Hetin hayvan%n EL kadar )e'idi D,in" olup b*y*kl*klerinin Drange in si5e ise Sibirya kaplan%ndan tutun da ta ev kedilerine kadar de(i'ebilmekte oldu(unu s,ylemi'. !evap ise ikisini toparlay%p Gpek )ok b6y6,l6, (range) ve 9e2itlili, D'ariety g,stermektedirlerU deyivermi'. Fo(u ki'inin d*'t*(* *)*nc* sorunun # se)ene(ine gelince. A1S!)/C tabiri d*'manl%k belirtir. -ediler ise herhangi bir canl%ya av olmad%klar%ndan bu tabirin do(ru olma 'ans% yok. Waten metin bu hayvanlar%n h%&%n% d*'manlar%ndan ka)mak i)in de(il, avlar%na sald%rmak i)in kullan%rken ,rneklemi'&

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

BCEC//CKC - !AE)K sor s !here are abo t %orty "istinct ,in"s o% wil" cats ,nown to inhabit the earth to"ay& !hey range in si5e %rom the mighty Siberian tiger to se'eral little s$otte" s$ecies abo t the si5e o% the a'erage "omestic cat& Jil" cats in the worl" to"ay show a remar,able range an" 'ariety 2& sor R .DD.A/) .IADC sor s !he cats are the most e%%icient lan" $re"ators le%t on earth. Jil" cats are note" %or a n mber o% "istinct = alities incl "ing their nmatchable e%%iciency in h nting 3& sor R <A?AK) YA?/AQ)? .IADC Kost can mo'e with ama5ing swi%tness. The A%rican lion can reach a s$ee" o% almost %orty miles per hour when it charges. !he s$ee" with which most wil" cats can mo'e is tr ly remar,able

1& sor R

4&-;& sor lar3* a2a83"a,i $ar9aya g4re ce'a$lay3n35& !ivil engineering offers a particular challenge because almost e'ery str ct re or system that is designed and built by civil engineers is ni= e. 5ne structure rarely duplicates another e4actly. #ven when structures seem to be identical, site re= irements or other factors generally res lt in mo"i%ications. /arge str ct res li,e "ams* bri"ges* or t nnels may "i%%er s bstantially %rom $re'io s str ct res. !he ci'il engineer m st* there%ore* always be rea"y an" willing to meet1 new challenges& 4& 4& )t is arg e" in the $assage that 'irt ally no ci'il engineering wor, ----& A $ ! is substantially different from another can be completed without benefit of other branches of engineering can be as complicated as the construction of a dam ! " # ce'a$lay3n35&

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

Rn'aat m*hendisli(i kendine ,&g* bir s%k%nt%s% te'kil eder &ira in'aat m*hendislerince tasarlanan veya in'a edilen neredeyse her yap% ve sistem e'si&dir. $ir yap% nadiren tam olarak bir di(erini kopya eder. +ap%lar%n ayn% g,&*kt*(* &amanlarda bile in'aat alan% gereksinimleri veya di(er fakt,rler genellikle de(i'ikliklere yol acar. $ara9, k,pr* veya t*nel gibi b*y*k yap%lar ,nceki yap%lardan ,nemli ,l)*de farkl% olabilirler. Rn'aat m*hendisleri, bu y*&den, her &aman yeni g*)l*klerle ba'a )%kmaya ha&%r ve g,n*ll* olmal%d%rlar.

$asa("a i""ia e"ilme,te"ir ,i nere"eyse hi9 bir in2aat m6hen"isli8i 9al32mas3 ----& A $ bir di(erinden ,nemli oranda farkl% de(ildir m*hendisli(in di(er bran'lar%n%n yard%m% olmaks%&%n tamamlanama& bir bara91bent in'aat% kadar karma'%k1s%k%nt%l% olama& bir di(eriyle tam olarak ayn% de(ildir mekan gereksinimlerinden etkilenme&

D) is eNactly the same as any other # is affected by site re7uirements :& :& Accor"ing to the $assage* since e'ery site will ha'e "i%%erent re= irements* ----& A modifications of all types should be avoided ! " # Dasa(a g4re her me,Hn %ar,l3 gere,sinimlere sahi$ ol" 8 n"an* ----& A $ her t*r de(i'iklikten ka)%n%lmal%d%r neredeyse her k,pr* ve bara91set bir di(erinden fark%d%r in'aat m*hendisli(i i'i muhtemelen tekd*&edir mekan gereksinimleri ,nemli de(ildir bu her hangi bir s%k%nt% te'kil etme&

+) almost e'ery bri"ge or "am will be "i%%erent %rom e'ery other ! " # the work of a civil engineer is likely to be monotonous site re7uirements are not important this does not pose a challenge ;&

Dasa("an anla23labilir ,iR in2aat m6hen"isi ----& A tasar%mda bir de(i'iklik yapma hususunda ,yle kolay kolay ikna olunama& her &aman geleneksel tasar%mlar% s*rd*r*r ilgisini bara9lar, k,pr*ler veya t*nellerle s%n%rland%rm%'t%r di(er m*hendislere k%yasla yeni fikirlere daha a& a)%kt%r muhtemelen mek:na uygun hale getirmek i)in yap%n%n ilk1,&g*n tasar%m%nda de(i'iklik yapacakt%r


1ne can n"erstan" %rom the $assage that the ci'il engineer----& A $ ! " C) can rarely be persuaded to modify a design always keeps to traditional designs confines his interests to dams, bridges or tunnels is less open to new ideas in construction than other engineers is li,ely to ha'e to mo"i%y the original "esign o% a str ct re to s it the site

$ ! " #

4&-;& sor lar3* a2a83"a,i $ar9aya g4re


meet> burada gere(ini yerine getirmek, ihtiyac% kar'%lamak1gidermek anlam%nda kullan%lm%' DSA!)SIY

BCEC/ AA!)</A!KA/A< 'e GO>WK


2. Basa9 i)inde bir ,ar23la2t3rma var ise Dmore than* as a"( as* the most* e= el to* s $eriorUin%erior to* s bor"inateUsecon"ary to gibi com$arison ifadeleri buradan hemen hemen her defas%nda soru gelir. "olay%s%yla, a. b. metinde b,ylesi bir ifade var ise, a'a(%daki sorulardan birinde sorulacakt%r. se)enekler aras%nda b,ylesi bir ifade var ama metin taraf%ndan desteklenmiyorsa se)enek yanl%'t%r.

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

6. soru yine bir sebep sonu) ifadesinden `<CSF/! )Ea I. soru metnin genelinden ama yine bir sebep sonu) c*mlesinden `!AC<CI1<Ca elde etmek m*mk*n idi.

;. Soru ),&*l*rken genellikle se)eneklere o kadar yo(unla'%lmakta ki, soru k,k*nde se)ene(i tamamlayan ifade ihmal edilebilmektedir. $u ise hayati sonu)lara mal olabilmektedir. Vrne(in E. soruda, soru k,k*nde yer alan alt%n% )i&di(im E1 ifadesi t*m se)enekleri negatif okutturacakt%r bi&e. Ama bu s%kl%kla dikkatlerden ka)maktad%r. @. Hetinde A//* 1E/Y* @1EI)ECD !1* <CS!<)@!CD !1* Ca/FS)[C* KC<C/Y* EC[C<* !AC +CS!* !AC I)<S! gibi iddial% bir niteleme kullan%lm%'sa a. b. buradan soru gelir. metin taraf%ndan desteklenmeyen b,ylesi bir ifade se)eneklerde yer al%yorsa, bu se)ene(in yanl%' olmas% i)in genellikle yeterlidir

4& sor R almost e'ery str ct re or system that is "esigne" an" b ilt by ci'il engineers is ni= e 'irt ally no ci'il engineering wor, is eNactly the same as any other A./C (se9ene,ler aras3 53tl3,)R A se)ene(i ile do(ru cevap olan " se)ene(i ifadelerinin motamot &%t oldu(unu g,r*yorsunu&. $u &%tl%k bi&e )o(unlukla cevab%n iki se)enekten birinde oldu(unu g,sterir :& sor R site re= irements or other %actors generally res lt in mo"i%ications& /arge str ct res li,e "ams* bri"ges* or t nnels may "i%%er s bstantially %rom $re'io s str ct res since e'ery site will ha'e "i%%erent re= irements almost e'ery bri"ge or "am will be "i%%erent %rom e'ery other ;& sor R G1ne can n"erstan" %rom the $assageU tar&% ifadeler genellikle )%kar%m sorular%d%r ve metinde motamot kar'%l%klar% olmayabilir. Ama metnin tamam% veya bir k%sm% yorumlanarak bu ifade rahatl%kla elde edilebilir. !he ci'il engineer m st* there%ore* always be rea"y an" willing to meet new challenges& !he ci'il engineer is li,ely to ha'e to mo"i%y the original "esign o% a str ct re to s it the site

E. soru bir sebep-sonu) c*mlesinden elde edilmi'ti. `+C@AFSCa


7&-9& sor lar3* a2a83"a,i $ar9aya g4re ce'a$lay3n35& All o r so rces o% $ower are \nat ral#3 we have found that matter can be turned into energy and energy into matter, but that nothing can be created. Je can con'ert one into the other with relati'e ease, but all our power is based upon the control of natural sources, in the sense that the energy or fuel is never man-made. )t alrea"y eNists in the win" an" in ri'ersL or it may be store" $ as in oil or coal& 7&

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

7&-9& sor lar3* a2a83"a,i $ar9aya g4re ce'a$lay3n35& T*m ener9i kaynaklar%m%& Gdo(alUd%r3 maddenin ener9iye ve ener9inin maddeye d,n*'t*r*lebilece(ini ancak hi)bir 'eyin `yoktana yarat%lamayaca(%n% ke'fetmi' durumday%&. `$unlar%na birini ,tekine g,rece bir kolayl%kla d,n*'t*rebiliri&, fakat b*t*n kuvvetimi& do(al kaynaklar%n kontrol*ne dayanmaktad%r, yani ener9i veya yak%t asla insan yap%m% de(ildir. Waten r*&gar ve nehirlerde mevcuttur3 yahut petrol veya k,m*rde oldu(u gibi depo edilmi' olabilir.

Dasa("a ' rg lanan 4nemli bir no,ta 2 " r ,iR ----& A do(a tek ener9i kayna(%m%&d%r insan yap%m% ener9i )ok daha ekonomiktir ener9i kaynaklar% son ()*+) y&l"&r( )ok savurganca kullan%lm%'t%r d*nyan%n petrol re&ervleri )ok daha dikkatli kullan%lmal% ener9i a)%(%n% kapamak i)in k,m*r *retimim art%r%lmal%d%r


1ne im$ortant $oint em$hasi5e" in the $assage is that ----& A) nat re is the only so rce o% energy $ ! " # man-made energy is more economical energy sources have been used wastefully in recent decades the world=s oil reserves ought to be used more carefully coal production should be increased to bridge the energy gap

$ ! " #

M& A M& Accor"ing to the $assage* the con'ersion o% matter into energy an" 'ice 'ersa ----& A $ will no longer be necessary as new energy sources are found has been possible only in our century $ ! " #

Dasa(a g4re* ma""enin ener(iye 'e ener(inin ma""eye "4n62t6r6lmesi ----& yeni ener9i kaynaklar% bulundu(undan dolay% art%k gerekli de(ildir ancak bi&im y*&y%l%m%&da m*mk*n hale gelmi'tir olduk)a kolay bir i'lemdir kat% madde s,& konusu ise ge)erlidir b*y*k oranda yeni teknolo9ilere ba(l%d%r

@) is a %airly easy $rocess " # is possible only in the case of solid matter depends to a great e4tent on new technologies


Dasa("an gayet a93, ,i ener(i----& A )ok daha d*'*nceli bir 'ekilde t*ketilmelidir u&un m*ddetli(ine depolanama& insan taraf%ndan kolayl%kla yarat%labilir petrol ve k,m*r i)inde r*&gar ve suya g,re )ok daha bol olarak mevcuttur 1 istif edilmi'tir do(adaki pek )ok kaynaktan elde edilir


)t is ob'io s %rom the $assage that energy ----& A $ ! " C) should be consumed more considerately cannot be stored for long can readily be created by man is stored more abundantly in oil and coal than in wind and water is "eri'e" %rom many "i%%erent so rces in nat re

$ ! " #

)E <C@CE! DC@ADCS yerine kullan%ld%. GSO !R"#$ O %I&'IRU tabiri laf&[ )evirisidir ama T*rk)ede pek yayg%n de(il.


10&-12& sor lar3* a2a83"a,i $ar9aya g4re ce'a$lay3n35& To astronomers, the great accomplishment of the flights to the moon was the bringing back of rocks from the lunar surface. It was the first e4traterrestrial material ever to reach #arth, with the e4ception of meteorites. !he l nar roc,s seeme" to show that the moon was virtually free of water and of organic material and was, therefore, a worl" tterly witho t li%e. )n %act* this ha" been s s$ecte" by astronomers* since the 1;00s3 but there had been some hope of traces of air and water that might ha'e ma"e $ossible 'ery $rimiti'e li%e at the bacterial le'el, if nothing more. ce'a$lay3n35&

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

Astronomi bilginlerine g,re, aya u)u'lar%n b*y*k ba'ar%s% ay y*&eyinden kayalar%n geriye getirilmesiydi. `$u kayalara meteorlar% sayma&sak, d*nyaya o &amana kadar ulasan ilk d*nya-d%'% materyaldi. /,&*ken o ki ay kayalar% ay%n hemen hemen su ve organik maddeden yoksun ve dolay%s%yla, tamam%yla ya'ams%& bir d*nya oldu(unu g,steriyor. R'in do(rusu, 2ILL=lerden beridir bilim adamlar%nca bunun b,yle oldu(undan `&atena ku'kulan%l%yordu, ancak en a&%ndan bakteri seviyesinde bir ilkel ya'am% m*mk*n k%labilecek i& miktarda 1 eser miktarda hava ve su `olabilece(inea dair umutlar vard%.

10& Ya5ar3n "a i5ah etti8i gibi* ay ,ayalar3 65erine ya$3lan 9al32malar g4stermi2tirU"o8r lam32t3r ,i ----& A) ay 65erin"e hi9 bir 2e,il"e bir ya2am me'c t "e8il"ir $ ! " # sadece )ok ilkel bir ya'am bi)imi ayda olu'mu' olabilirdi 1 olu'mu' olabilir ay ger)ekte b*y*k bir meteordur bu kayalar%n bir k%sm% bakteri at%klar% ta'%makatd%r ayda d*nya d%'% ya'ama dair i&ler vard%r

10& As the a thor eN$lains* the st "y o% l nar roc,s has con%irme" that ----& A) no li%e whatsoe'er eNists on the moon $ ! " # only very primitive form of life could have e4isted on the moon the moon is actually a large meteorite some of them contain bacterial remains the moon has traces of e4traterrestrial life

11& Dasa(a g4re* bir aralar --- m l yor" & A 11& Accor"ing to the $assage* it was once ho$e" that ----& A there was a large variety of rocks on the moon ayda pek )ok )e'itlilikte kaya oldu(u

+) ay3n il,el bir ya2am3 "este,leyebilece8i ! " # ay *&erindeki su miktar%n%n gittik)e artt%(% ay *&erinde bakteri seviyesinden daha *st ya'am bi)imleri oldu(u ay y*&eyinin d*nya y*&eyine ben&edi(i

+) the moon ca$able o% s $$orting $rimiti'e li%e ! " # the amount of water on the moon was increasing there were higher forms of life on the moon than the bacterial ones D$=ye &%t c*mle the lunar surface was similar to that of the earth

12& Dasa("an g456,t686 ,a"ar3yla* ye"inci y65y3l"an beri"ir* ----& A $ insano(lu ayla ilgilenmeyi kesmi'tir aya ilgi sadece kaya )al%'malar% ile s%n%rl% hale gelmi'tir

12& )t seems %rom the $assage that* %rom the se'enteenth cent ry onwar"s* ----& A $ man has ceased to be interested in the moon interest in the moon has been confined to the study of rocks

@) g4,bilimciler ay ha,,3n"a nisbeten "o8r bir anlay32a sahi$tirler " # ay *&erinde ya'am%n var oldu(u bir ger)ek olarak kabul g,rm*'t*r meteoritler hari) pek )ok d*nya d%'% materyal d*nyaya ula'm%'t%r

@) astronomers ha'e ha" a reasonably correct n"erstan"ing o% the moon " # the e4istence of life on the moon has been accepted as a fact a large amount of e4traterrestrial material, e4cluding meteorites, has reached the earth

10&-12& sor lar3* a2a83"a,i $ar9aya g4re


13&-1:& sor lar3* a2a83"a,i $ar9aya g4re ce'a$lay3n35& We are warm-blooded animals. The temperature inside us is generally higher than the temperature outside us. It follows from this fact that, 9ust as a kettle of hot water cools as it loses heat to the air around it, so the human body is continually losing heat. $ut, unlike the kettle, it does not cool down, for all the time %resh = antities o% heat are being generate" insi"e. The body is both making heat and losing some of it at the same time. The loss of heat is controlled by a very delicate mechanism. !he bo"y resembles a thermostat heater in that while it gi'es o%% heat it manages to remain at the same tem$erat re& ce'a$lay3n35&

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

$i&ler s%cakkanl% hayvanlar%&. R)imi&deki s%cakl%k genellikle d%'%m%&daki s%cakl%ktan daha y*ksektir. $uradan yola )%karak, t%pk% bir )aydanl%k dolusu suyun etraf%na %s% verirken so(umas% gibi, insan v*cudu da devaml% %s% kaybeder. ?akat, )aydanl%(%n tersine, so(uyup kalma&, t*m bu vakit boyunca i)eride bol miktarda ta&e %s% *retiliyordur. C*cut bir yandan %s% *retiyorken bir yandan da onun bir k%sm%n% kaybediyordur. Is% kayb% )ok hassas bir mekani&ma ile denetlenmektedir. C*cut, etrafa %s% yaymaktayken ayn% s%cakl%kta kalabilmesi bak%m%ndan, bir termostat% and%r%r.

13& + $asa("a* '6c t bir termostata ben5etiliyor 96n,6 ----& 13& )n this $assage* the bo"y is li,ene" to a thermostat beca se ----& A $ ! the loss of heat would cause serious diseases the temperature of the body is always e7ual to the outside temperature the control of the body heat is unimportant A $ ! " # %s% kayb% ciddi hastal%klara yol a)ard% v*cudun s%cakl%(% her &aman d%' s%cakl%(a e'ittir v*cut %s%s%n%n kontrol* ,nemli de(ildir %s% kayb%na ra(men s%cakl%k sabit kal%r v*cut %s%s% d%' s%cakl%ktan etkilenme&

D) the tem$erat re remains constant in s$ite o% heat loss # the body heat is influenced by the outside temperature 14& 1, ma $ar9as3n"a i2aret e"il"i8i gibi '6c " n 3s3 ,ayb3 ----& A $ ! " # insano(lunun s%cak-kanl% olmad%(% anlam%na gelmektedir bir tehlike i'areti olarak de(erlendirilmelidir kolay kolay kontrol edileme& sadece )evreden etkilenir ta&e s%cakl%k *retmek suretiyle giderilir

14& )t is $ointe" o t in the $assage that the bo"y7s loss o% heat ----& A $ ! " C) means man is not warm-blooded should be regarded as a danger signal cannot be controlled easily can only be affected by the environment is com$ensate" %or by the generation o% %resh heat

1:& 1, ma $ar9as3 ---- me,ani5may3U"65ene8i a93,l3yor& A $ v*cudu ayn% s%cakl%kta tutan ayr%nt%l% bir 'ekilde %s% kayb%n% engelleyen fa&la %s% *retimi ile ilgili bir )aydanl%ktaki suyun s%cakl%(%n% d*&enleyen Dkendisi vas%tas%yla hava s%cakl%(%n%n sabit kald%(%

1:& !he $assage "escribes the mechanism ----& A) which ,ee$s the bo"y at the same tem$erat re A $ ! " which prevents loss of heat, in detail concerned with the generation of surplus heat which regulates the temperature of the water in a kettle by which the temperature of the air remains stable

! " #

13&-1:& sor lar3* a2a83"a,i $ar9aya g4re


1;&-1M& sor lar3* a2a83"a,i $ar9aya g4re ce'a$lay3n35& Benetics is the st "y o% mechanisms o% the here"itary $rocess. Ko"ern genetics began with the eN$eriments o% Bregor Ken"el in 2KI6. 0e studied the inheritance of different factors in peas, and found that some traits were SdominantS and some SrecessiveS, the _"ominant_ a$$earing in a ratio o% 'ery nearly three to one. Hendel.s results were ignored for many years until their rediscovery at the beginning of the twentieth century.

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

1;&-1M& sor lar3* a2a83"a,i $ar9aya g4re ce'a$lay3n35& /enetik, kal%t%m i'leminin mekani&mas%n% `inceleyena bilim dal%d%r. Hodern genetik /regor Hendel=in 2KI6 y%l%ndaki deneyleri ile ba'lam%'t%r. Hendel be&elyelerdeki farkl% etmenlerin kal%t%m% *&erine )al%'m%' ve ba&% ,&elliklerin Gbask%nU ve ba&%lar%n%nsa G)ekinikU oldu(unu, ve Gbask%nU olanlar%n yakla'%k bire *) oran%nda g,&*kt*(*n* bulmu'tur. Hendel=in bulgular% yirminci y*&y%l%n ba'lang%c%nda yeniden ke'fedilinceye kadar y%llarca g,& ard% edilmi'ti.

1;& Dar9aya g4re* ----& 1;& Accor"ing to the $assage* ----& A $ the results of Hendel.s e4periments were immediately put into practice the purpose of Hendel.s e4periments was primarily agricultural A $ ! " # Hendel=in deneylerinin sonu)lar% derhal uygulamaya kondu Hendel=in deneylerinin amac% daha )ok &iraiydi genetik esas itibariyle kal%t%mla ilgilenmektedir modern genetik Hendel=in deneylerine )ok a& 'ey bor)ludur kal%t%m%n nas%l i'ledi(i Hendel=den ,nce biliniyordu

@) genetics is essentially concerne" with here"ity " # modern genetics owes very little to Hendel.s e4periments the mechanics of heredity were known prior to Hendel

17& A93, bir 2e,il"e* geneti, alan3n"a* ----& A 17& @learly* in the %iel" o% genetics* ----& A $ ! certain traits have been given too much importance the ;L century has contributed very little Hendel.s e4periments have received undue attention " #

ba&% ,&elliklere gere(inden fa&la ,nem verilmi'tir ;L. y*&y%l%n )ok a& katk%s% olmu'tur Hendel=in denemeleri a'%r%1yersi& ilgi )ekmektedir Hendel bir ,nc*d*r yeni !ask&n ve ,ekinik ,&ellikler biteviye ke'fedilmektedir

$ !

D) Ken"el is the $ioneer # new dominant and recessive traits are constantly being discovered

1M& Ken"el ---- ,e2%etti& A 1M& Ken"el "isco'ere" that ----& A recessive traits e4ceeded the dominant ones $ ! " # )ekinik ,&elliklerin bask%n olanlardan daha fa&la oldu(unu be&elyelerde, bask%n t*rlerin bire *) oran%nda g,&*kt*(*n* be&elyelerde ,&elliklerin neredeyse *)te birinin bask%n oldu(unu 2KI6 y%l% itibariyle kal%t%m teorisinin ikna edici bir surette ayr%nt%s%yla ortaya kondu(unu geneti(in reva) g,ren bir bilim olmaya ba'lad%(%n%

+) in $eas* "ominant traits a$$ear in a ratio o% three to one ! " # in peas, nearly one-third of the traits were dominant by 2KI6 the theory of heredity had been convincingly formulated genetics was becoming a popular science


19&-21& sor lar3* a2a83"a,i $ar9aya g4re ce'a$lay3n35& Beologists are es$ecially intereste" in the mineral content o% roc,s. All roc,s consist o% one or more minerals, many of which are needed as raw materials for industry or have properties which make them valuable or useful. /old, for e4ample, is valuable. "iamonds are both valuable and useful. !oal is also found in rocks, usually underground, and it is vitally important as fuel in modern life. $ritain is rich in coal beca se it was co'ere" in "ense %orest more than 300 million years ago& @oal is %orme" %rom the remains o% trees an" the other $lants which ha'e gra" ally been com$resse" an" har"ene" in the rock structure of the earth. ce'a$lay3n35&

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

Peologlar ,&ellikle kayalar%n mineral i)eri(iyle ilgilenirler. $*t*n kayalar, )o(una sanayide hammadde olarak ihtiya) duyulan yahut kendilerini de(erli veya faydal% yapan ,&elliklere sahip bir veya daha fa&la say%da mineral i)erir. Vrne(in alt%n de(erlidir. #lmas hem de(erli hem de faydal%d%r. -aya)larda k,m*r de bulunur, genellikle yeralt%nda, ve modern ya'amda yak%t olarak hayati ,neme sahiptir. $ritanya k,m*rce &engindir, &ira @LL milyon y%ldan daha u&un bir &aman ,nce s%k bir orman D,rt*s*yle kapl%yd%. -,m*r d*nyan%n kaya) yap%s% i)inde yava' yava' s%k%'t%r%l%p-sertle'mi' a(a) ve di(er bitki kal%nt%lar%ndan olu'mu'tur.

19& !6m ,aya 9e2itlerin"e ----& A 19& )n all ty$es o% roc,s ----& A $ we can find the hardened remains of trees a wide variety of mineral deposits is to be found $ ! " # sertle'mi' a(a) kal%nt%lar% bulabiliri& )e'it )e'it mineral yataklar% bulunacakt%r en a&%ndan bir mineral )e'idi bulunacakt%r yak%t birikintileri bulmak olas%d%r g,&*kt*(* kadar%yla faydas%& yataklar1maden birikintileri vard%r

@) at least one ty$e o% mineral is to be %o n" " # one is likely to find fuel deposits there are seemingly useless deposits

20& .2aret e"il"i8i 65ere ,4m6r ----& A 20& )t is $ointe" o t that coal ----& A $ ! is usually found in thickly-forested regions has lost its importance as a fuel is one of $ritain=s ma9or e4ports $ ! " # genellikle s%k%-ormanl%k b,lgelerde bulunur yak%t olarak ,nemini yitirmi' durumdad%r $ritanya=n%n ba'l%ca ihracat%ndan biridir \*n olu'mas% milyonlarca y%l s*rer sanayideki en va&ge)ilme& materyaldir

D) ta,es millions o% years to %orm # is the most indispensable material for industry

21& Dar9aya g4re* yer-bilimcilerin as3l ilgi alanlar3n"an biri ----& 21& Accor"ing to the $assage* one o% the ma(or interests o% geologists is to ----& A $ determine the coal reserves in the earth produce diamonds in coal deposits A $ ! " # d*nyadaki toprak re&ervlerini saptamakt%r k,m*r yataklar%nda elmas imal etmektir kayalardaki maden yataklar%n% ara't%rmakt%r de(erli madenlerin ,&elliklerini incelemektir hangi hammaddelerin sanayide ,nemli oldu(una karar vermektir

@) eN$lore mineral "e$osits in roc,s " # study the properties of valuable minerals decide which raw materials are useful in industry

19&-21& sor lar3* a2a83"a,i $ar9aya g4re


22&-24& sor lar3* a2a83"a,i $ar9aya g4re ce'a$lay3n35& /ong a%ter the "isco'ery o% electricity* man %o n" that he co l" se the great $ower to $ro" ce it. At first, he used natural waterfalls. Aater, man began to b il" "ams to generate hy"roelectric $ower. "ams are immense structures which hold back the water of a river and form a lake behind. The water is let through under control and allowed to fall through pipes to the turbines below. The rushing water drives the turbines, and as they revolve, they s$in electromagnetsL these magnets generate electricity&

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

22&-24& sor lar3* a2a83"a,i $ar9aya g4re ce'a$lay3n35& #lektri(in ke'finden )ok sonra, insano(lu onu *retmek i)in `bua b*y*k g*c* kullanabilece(ini ke'fetti. $a'lang%)ta, do(al 'elaleleri kulland%. "aha sonra, insanl%k hidroelektrik ener9isi elde etmek i)in bara9lar1bentler yapmaya ba'lad%. $ara9 bentleri bir nehrin suyunu geride tutup ard%nda bir g,l olu'turan devasa yap%lard%r. Su kontrol alt%nda sal%n%r ve borular arac%l%(% ile a'a(%daki t*rbinlere d*'mesi sa(lan%r. Fa(%ldayan su t*rbinleri harekete ge)irir, ve onlar d,nd*k)e, elektrom%knat%slar% d,nd*r*r3 bu m%knat%slar ise elektrik *retirler.

22& Dar9aya g4re bara(lar ----& A 22& Accor"ing to the $assage* "ams ----& A $ ! " C) are primarily used to form lakes can be used to prevent flooding date back to very early times were in use well before electricity was discovered are im$ortant %or the $ro" ction o% hy"roelectric $ower -AKAG @WK/CS.R to generateS0 23& Clo,tro-m3,nat3slar t6rbinlerce hare,ete ge9irilince ----& A 23& Jhen electro-magnets are set in motion by t rbines* ----& A) electricity is generate" $ ! " # the water is allowed to fall through the pipes the water has to be held back the speed is immediately reduced the water power becomes uncontrollable 24& Dar9aya g4re* ele,tri, ---- ,e2%e"il"i& A 24& Accor"ing to the $assage* electricity was "isco'ere" ----& A after observing the immense power of water in natural waterfalls $ ! " # suyun 'elalelerdeki mua&&am g*c* g,&lendikten sonra insano(lu hidro-elektirik ener9iyi nas%l *retece(ini ,(renmeden )ok ,nce ilk bara9lar kurulduktan k%sa &aman sonra yapay %'%k *retme ihtiyac% ortaya )%kt%(% i)in insano(lu suda ne b*y*k bir g*) oldu(unu fark eder etme& $ ! " # elektrik *retilir suyun borular vas%tas%yla a'a(% d*'mesi m*mk*n olur su geride tutulmal%d%r h%& derhal d*'er su g*c* kontrol edileme& bir hal al%r # $ ! " "aha )ok g,l olu'turmak i)in kullan%l%rlar Sel ta'k%nlar%n% engellemek i)in kullan%labilir ta ilk )a(lara kadar u&an%r elektrik ke'fedilmeden )ok ,nce olduk)a kullan%mdayd% hidro-elektrik ener9i1g*) *retiminde ,nemlidir

+) long be%ore man learne" to generate hy"roelectric $ower ! " # soon after the first dams were built because of the need to create artificial light as soon as he realised how much power there was in water


2:-27& sor lar3 a2a83"a,i $ar9aya g4re ce'a$lay3n35& Weeds are plants out of place, either as the wrong plant in cultivated ground, or as any plant where none should be. !hey can ca se consi"erable %inancial loss thro gh the cost o% their control an" the "amage they "o to cro$s. Blants which become really troublesome as weeds are those which persist despite man.s efforts to control them. S ch $ersistency is " e to se'eral %actors o% which $erha$s the most im$ortant are prolific seed production, coupled with the often remarkably long periods of dormancy of the seed, and the ability o% 'egetati'e $arts o% some $lants to s r'i'e mechanical "amage and adverse conditions and to set $ new $lants. Weeds may be controlled by hand, by cultivation and other mechanical means, by biological means and by chemical weedkillers. !hemical weedkillers are widely used, either to give a total kill and suppress all vegetation or to control wee"s selecti'ely in cro$s&

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

2;& Je n"erstan" %rom the $assage that one reason why some can be $artic larly tro blesome is ----& A $ because they produce large 7uantities of seeds several times a year that they develop a resistance to chemical weedkillers

@) beca se new $lants can grow o t o% the "amage" $arts o% a $lant " # that they can become dormant when weedkillers are applied because it is impossible to kill them

2:& !he writer $oints o t that wee"s lea" to consi"erable %inancial loss ----& A $ ! " C) because they appear where they are not wanted because very little effort is made to control them as all weedkillers destroy the crops as well as the weeds as they are all aggressive and able to resist man.s efforts to control them as the control o% them is eN$ensi'e an" i% they are le%t ncontrolle" they harm cro$s

27& )t is clear %rom the $assage that some chemical wee",illers ha'e been s$ecially "esigne" ----& A $ ! to rid the soil of all unwanted seed to prevent weeds from producing seeds to destroy a weed.s capacity to produce seeds that can lie dormant over long periods of time

D) to "estroy only nwante" 'egetation -AKAGR to control wee"s0 # to sterilise the earth and prevent all forms of vegetation from appearing


2:-27& sor lar3 a2a83"a,i $ar9aya g4re ce'a$lay3n35& +abanc% otlar kendi yerleri d%'%nda bulunan bitkileridir3 ya ekili yerdeki yanl%' bitki ya da olmamas% gereken yerdeki herhangi bir bitki 'eklinde. ?ontrol maliyetleri 'e bit,iye 'er"i,leri 5arar"an 4t6r6 ci""i mHli ,ay3$lara yol a9malar3 m6m,6n"6r. +abanc% bitki olarak ger)ekten ba' belas% olan bitkiler, insano(lunun kontrol )abalar%na ra(men devaml%l%klar%n% s*rd*ren bitkilerdir. $,ylesi devaml%l%klar birka) etmen y*&*ndendir ki i)lerinde belki de en ,nemlileri tohumun baya(% baya(% u&un s*reli uyku 1 kulu)ka 1 dormansi d,nemi ile katmerlenmi'1ikiye katlanm%' bol miktarda tohum *retimi ve ba53 bit,ilerin 'e(etati% ,3s3mlar3n3n me,ani, 5arar ,ar23s3n"a hayatta ,alma 'e yeni bit,iler 6retebilme ,abiliyeti"ir. +abanc% bitkiler elle, ekim-dikim suretiyle ve di(er mekanik yollarla, biyolo9ik yollar ve kimyevi yabanc% ot ila)lar%yla kontrol alt%na al%nabilirler. -imyasal ayr%k otu ila)lar% yayg%n olarak ya b*t*n bir bitki ,rt*s*n* ,ld*r*p sindirmek i)in, ya "a e,inler i9in"e se9ici bir 2e,il"e yabanc3 bit,ileri ,ontrol alt3na alma, i9in kullan%lmaktad%r.

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

2;& Dasa("an anla"383m35 ,a"ar3yla ba53 yabani bit,ilerin 45elli,le ba2 belas3 haline gelmesi ne"enlerin"en biri ----& A $ bir y%lda birka) ke& b*y*k miktarlarda tohum *retmeleridir kimyev[ bitki ila)lar%na kar'% bir diren) geli'tirmi' olmalar%d%r

@) bir bit,inin 5arar g4rm62 bir ,3sm3n"an yeni bit,ilerin 6reyebilmesi"ir " # bitki ila)lar% uyguland%(%nda uyku haline 1 kulu)kaya ge)meleridir onlar% ,ld*rmenin imkans%& olmas%d%r

27& Dar9a"an belli ol" 8 65ere ba53 ,imye'b bit,i ila9lar3 ---- 45elli,le tasarlanm32t3r& A $ 2:& Ya5ar ----yabanc3 otlar3n ci""i %inansal ,ay3$lara yol a9t383n3 i2aret e"iyor& A $ ! " istenmeyen bir yerde ortaya )%kt%klar%ndan dolay% kendilerini kontrol i)in )ok a& )aba sarf edildi(i i)in t*m bitki ila)lar% yabanc% otlar%n yan% s%ra ekinleri de yok etti(inden tamam% sald%rgan ve insano(lunun kontrol )abalar%na kar'% koyma yetene(ine sahip oldu(u i)in ,en"ilerini ,ontrol alt3na alma, masra%l3 'e ba23bo2 b3ra,3l"3,lar3n"a e,inlere 5arar 'er"i,leri i9in ! topra(% t*m istenmeyen tohumlardan kurtarmak i)in yabanc% bitkilerin tohum *retimini engellemek i)in tohumlar%n u&un m*ddet uyku1kulu)ka halinde kalabilen tohumlar *retme kapasitesini yok etmek i)in

D) sa"ece istenmeyen bit,ileri yo, etme, i9in # topra(% sterili&e etmek ve t*m bitki t*rlerinin ortaya )%kmas%n% engellemek i)in



2M-30& sor lar3 a2a83"a,i $ar9aya g4re ce'a$lay3n35& A typical e4plosives factory is divided into two parts> the Snon-dangerS and SdangerS areas. !he main b siness o% the non-"anger area lies in the man %act re o% nitric an" s l$h ric aci"s %or the nitration $rocesses, including the recovery of these acids from the waste products of nitration. 5ther raw materials are also prepared in the nondanger area. The actual manufacture of e4plosives and their mi4ing and packing are carried out in the danger area, sub9ect to rigorous safety measures. The main danger in manufacture is ignition by spark, friction or impact, the latter two being especially ha5ar"o s i% the eN$losi'e is allowe" to become contaminate" with gritty material. <aked lights, steel tools or anything which might produce spark or flame are therefore e4cluded from the danger buildings. #ach building has a ScleanS floor which may be approached only in specially cleaned shoes* while the wor,ers are $ro'i"e" with %actory clothing to ensure that grit is not carried into the buildings.

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

29& Je learn %rom the $assage that the "anger o% ignition by %riction or im$act is greatly increase" ----& A $ ! " C) while the waste products of nitration are being e4tracted if the e4plosives is contaminated with nitric acid after the e4plosives have been packaged if the manufacturing process is carried out in artificial light i% grit is $resent

2M& Je learn %rom the $assage that* in the non"anger 5one o% a ty$ical eN$losi'es %actory ----& A) nitric an" s l$h ric aci"s are $ro" ce" an" 'ario s other raw materials are got rea"y $ ! " # the workers are provided with heavy factory clothing the e4plosives are packaged and stored nothing that might produce a spark or a flame is permitted the main waste products are the nitric and sulphuric acids

30& )t is $ointe" o t in the $assage that one o% the sa%ety meas res ta,en in an eN$losi'es %actory is ----& A $ the regular washing of the factory floors to keep them sterile the education of the workers in fire - fighting procedures

@) the $ro'ision o% s$ecial %actory clothing %or the wor,ers in the "anger area " # to keep the manufacturing processes separate from the packaging and storing processes the immediate removal of the e4plosives after packaging


2M-30& sor lar3 a2a83"a,i $ar9aya g4re ce'a$lay3n35& Tipik bir patlay%c% Dmal&emeler fabrikas% iki b,l*me ayr%l%r> GTehlikeli olmayanU ve GtehlikeliU alanlar. !ehli,eli olmayan b4l6m6n temel i2i nitrasyon 6retimi i9in nitri, 'e s6l%6ri, asit imalat3"3r* ki buna bu asitlerin at%k nitrasyon *r*nlerinden geri ka&an%m% da dahildir. Di8er hamma""eler "e tehli,eli olmayan b4l6m"e ha53rlan3r. Batlay%c%lar%n ger)ek *retimiyle, kar%'t%r%lmas% ve paketlenmesi Di'lemleri sert g*venlik ,nlemlerine maru& olan tehlikeli alanda ger)ekle'tirilmektedir. Zretimdeki ana s%k%nt% k%v%lc%m, s*rt*nme veya darbenin yol a)t%(% patlamad%r, son i,isi $atlay3c3 ma""eye , ml bir materyal ,ar32mas3na m6saa"e e"il"i8in"e 45elli,le tehli,eli"ir. "olay%s%yla a)%k ate'ler, )elik aletler ya da k%v%lc%m veya alev *retecek herhangi bir 'ey tehlikeli binalara sokulmamaktad%r. 0er binan%n sadece ,&el olarak temi&lenmi' ayakkab%larla yakla'%lacak Gtemi&U bir &emini vard%r, di(er yandan binalara kum ta'%nmad%(%ndan emin olmak i)in )al%'anlara ,&el fabrika k%yafetleri sa(lanmaktad%r.

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

29& Ketin"en 48ren"i8imi5e g4re ---- s6rt6nme 'eya "arbe sayesin"e teti,lenmeU,3'3lc3mlanma tehli,esi b6y6, oran"a artar& A $ ! " C) at%k nitrasyon *r*nler )%kar%l%rken e(er patlay%c%lara nitrik asit bula'm%'sa patlay%c%lar paketlendikten sonra e(er *retim s*reci yapay %'%k alt%nda ger)ekle'tirilirse e8er , m me'c tsa

30& Ketin"e belirtil"i8ine g4re bir $atlay3c3 ma""e %abri,as3n"a al3nan g6'enli, 4nlemlerin"en biri ----& 2M& Ketin"en 48ren"i8imi5e g4re* ti$i, bir $atlay3c3 ma""e %abri,as3n3n tehli,eli olmayan b4l6m6n"e ----& A) nitri, 'e s6l%6ri, asit 6retilir 'e "i8er 9e2itli hamma"eler ha53rlan3r $ ! " # i')ilere a(%r fabrika k%yafetleri verilir patlay%c%lar paketlenir ve depolan%r bir k%v%lc%m veya ate' *retebilecek hi)bir 'eye m*saade edilme& ana at%k maddeler nitrik ve s*lfirik asitlerdir A $ the regular washing of the factory floors to keep them sterile the education of the workers in fire - fighting procedures

@) tehli,eli alan"a,i i29iler i9in 45el %abri,a ,3ya%etlerinin sa8lanmas3"3r " # to keep the manufacturing processes separate from the packaging and storing processes the immediate removal of the e4plosives after packaging


31-33& sor lar3 a2a83"a,i $ar9aya g4re ce'a$lay3n35& The culmination of the classic age of the machine tool was the work of Poseph Whitworth. Ais $reeminence lay not so much in any far-reaching innovations as in the = ality an" acc racy o% the wor,manshi$ he was able to obtain. It was Whitworth who introduced the standard screw thread which was used in $ritish engineering until 2JEK, and it was he who revolutionised standards of measurement. Indeed, the many measuring machines of the second half of the 2Jth century, though increasing the facility, "i" not greatly increase the acc racy Jhitworth ha" attaine". At the /reat #4hibition of 2K62 his $laning* slotting* sha,ing* "rilling* $ nching an" shearing machines ma"e him the o tstan"ing machine-tool ma,er o% the age.

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

32& !he a thor $oints o t that the machine tools Vose$h Jhitworth $ro" ce" ----& A $ were soon replaced by new and better designs were all unnecessarily complicated

@) were remar,able %or their = ality an" $recision " # went unappreciated have received more attention than they deserve

31& Je n"erstan" %rom the $assage that Vose$h Jhitworth ----& A will be remembered for the improvements he made to the first standard screw thread

33& Je n"erstan" %rom the $assage that* in the %iel" o% meas rement* ----& A $ ! $ritish engineers were slow to appreciate accuracy Whitworth=s work was soon to be surpassed by far better 7uality tools <o new advances would be made until the middle of the ;Lth century

+) was the most 'ersatile an" gi%te" machine tool ma,er o% his age ! " # had only a few machine tools ready in time for the /reat #4hibition of 2K62 had brilliant ideas but was not a practical person invented nothing of lasting importance

D) Jhitworth achie'e" a remar,able "egree o% acc racy # Whitworth.s innovations attracted little attention


31-33& sor lar3 a2a83"a,i $ar9aya g4re ce'a$lay3n35& -lasik imalat makinelerinin &irvesi Poseph Whitworth=un eserleridir. 1n n 4nemiU24hreti herhangi geni' kapsaml% yeniliklerinden1icatlar%ndan )ok daha &iyade, la2abil"i8i stal383n ,alite 'e hassasiyetin"eUm6,emmelli8in"e gi5li"ir. 2JEK=e kadar $ritanya m*hendisli(inde standart olarak kullan%lan vida di'ini Whitworth icat etmi'ti ve ,l)*m standartlar%nda devrimsel de(i'ikler yapan da oydu. /er)ekten de, 2J. y*&y%l%n ikinci yar%s%ndaki pek )ok ,l)*m makinesi, kolayl%k bak%m%ndan daha geli'mi' olsa da, Jhitworth# n -9o,tan0 la2t383 hassasiyetiU"o8r l 8 $e, art3rmam32t3. 2K62 $*y*k Sergisi=nde onun tes'iye* yi'U"eli, a9ma* 93r$maUsallama* "elme* $er9inleme 'e ,3r$maU,esme ma,ineleri ,en"isini 9a83n se9,in imalat ma,inesi 6reticisi yapm%'t%.

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

32& Ya5ar3n belirtti8i gibi* Vose$h Jhitworth# n 6retti8i imalat ma,ineleri ----& A $ \nin yerini k%sa &amanda yeni ve daha iyi tasar%mlar ald% \nin tamam% gereksi& yere karma'%kt%

@) ,alite 'e hassasiyetleri ile "i,,at 9e,iyorlar"3 " # takdir g,rmedi hak ettiklerinden daha fa&la dikkat )ekmektedir

31& Ketin"en anla"383m35 ,a"ar3yla Vose$h Jhitworth ----& A ilk standart vida di'ine yapt%(% iyile'tirmelerle hat%rlanacak

33& Ketin"en anla"383m35 ,a"ar3yla* 4l96m alan3n"a* ---A $ ! $ritanyal% m*hendisler hassasiyeti takdir etmede ge) kalm%'lard% Whitwork=un )al%'malar% k%sa &amanda )ok daha kaliteli aletlerce ge)ildi ;L. y*&y%l%n ortalar%na kadar hi)bir yeni geli'me yap%lmayacakt%

+) 9a83n3n en 9o,-y4nl6 'e yetene,li imalat ma,ineleri 6reticisiy"i ! " # 2K62 $*y*k Sergisi i)in sadece bir ka) imalat makinesini &aman%nda ha&%r etmi'ti harika fikirlere sahipti ama pratik bir insan de(ildi kal%c% ,neme sahip hi) bir 'ey icat etmedi

D) Jhitworth ,ay"a "e8er bir hassasiyete la2m32t3 # Whitworth=un yenilikleri )ok a& ilgi )ekmi'ti


34-3;& sor lar3 a2a83"a,i $ar9aya g4re ce'a$lay3n35& Pust as railway bridges were the great structural symbols of the 2Jth century, highway bridges became the engineering emblems of the ;Lth century. !he in'ention o% the a tomobile create" an irresistible "eman" %or $a'e" roa"s an" 'ehic lar bri"ges throughout the developed world. The type of bridge needed for cars and trucks, however, is fundamentally different from that needed for locomotives& Kost highway bri"ges carry lighter loads than railway bridges do, and their roa"ways can be shar$ly c r'e" or stee$ly slo$ing. To meet these needs, many t rn-o%-thecent ry bri"ge "esigners began wor,ing with a new b il"ing materialR rein%orce" concrete, which has steel bars embedded in it. And the master of this new material was Swiss structural engineer Oobert Haillart, who designed some of the most original and influential bridges of the modern era.

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

@6. We can understand from the passage that, around the beginning of the ;Lth century, bridge designers ----. A $ ! " C) were e7ually involved in the buildings of roads followed Oobert Haillart.s lead and concentrated on highway bridges made highway bridges on the same design as railway bridges made some of the most spectacular bridges of the modern era began to se a new b il"ing material* ,nown as rein%orce" concrete

34. According to the passage, one important way in which highway bridges differ from railway bridges is that they ----. A are in constant use

@I. We understand from the passage that there was a great demand for highway bridges in the ;Lth century ----. A) as more an" more cars came into se $ ! " # so many railway bridges were turned into highway bridges even though the designing and building of them was uninteresting work but railway bridges continued to attract the best designers and structural engineers found they could not produce enough bridges

+) can ha'e = ite a shar$ incline ! have to carry heavier loads Ddemiryolunun ,&elli(i " # must be 7uite straight Dtam &%t se)enek are comparatively short


34-3;& sor lar3 a2a83"a,i $ar9aya g4re ce'a$lay3n35& T%pk% demiryolu k,pr*lerinin 2J. y*&y%l%n b*y*k yap% sembolleri olmas% gibi, otoyol k,pr*leri de ;L. y*&y%l%n m*hendisliklik amblemleri haline gelmi'tir. 1tomobilin ica"3 t6m geli2mi2 6l,eler"e as%altlanm32 yollar 'e ta23t ,4$r6leri i9in ,ar23 ,on lma5 bir tale$ yaratm32t3 . Ancak, araba ve kamyonlar i)in gereken k,pr* tipi, lokomotifler i)in gereken esas itibariyle farkl%yd%. Fo(u otoyol k,pr*s* demiryolu k,pr*lerinin ta'%d%(%ndan daha hafif y*kler ta'%yordu ve yollar3 ,es,in "4neme9li 'eya "i, yo, 2l olabiliyor" . $u ihtiya)lar% kar'%lamak i)in, y65y3l3n ba23n"a,i $e, 9o, ,4$r6 tasar3mc3s3 yeni bir in2a materyali ile* i9ine 9eli, 9 b ,lar3n g4m6l"686 ta,'iye beton ile* i2 ya$maya ba2lam32lar"3. Ce bu materyalin ustas%, modern )a(%n )o(u ori9inal ve etkili k,pr*lerinin bir k%sm%n% tasarlam%' olan, Rsvi)reli yap% m*hendisi Oobert Haillart idi.

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

@6. We can understand from the passage that, around the beginning of the ;Lth century, bridge designers ----. A $ ! " C) were e7ually involved in the buildings of roads followed Oobert Haillart.s lead and concentrated on highway bridges made highway bridges on the same design as railway bridges made some of the most spectacular bridges of the modern era began to se a new b il"ing material* ,nown as rein%orce" concrete

34. According to the passage, one important way in which highway bridges differ from railway bridges is that they ----. A are in constant use

@I. We understand from the passage that there was a great demand for highway bridges in the ;Lth century ----. A) as more an" more cars came into se $ ! " # so many railway bridges were turned into highway bridges even though the designing and building of them was uninteresting work but railway bridges continued to attract the best designers and structural engineers found they could not produce enough bridges

+) can ha'e = ite a shar$ incline ! " # have to carry heavier loads Ddemiryolunun ,&elli(i must be 7uite straight Dtam &%t se)enek are comparatively short


37-39& sor lar3 a2a83"a,i $ar9aya g4re ce'a$lay3n35& Strictly speaking, the term SavalancheS should be restricted to falls of snow and ice in mountainous regions, but popular usage has e4tended its meaning to cover rock fails and landslips in all environments. !he $erio" o% greatest "anger %rom a'alanches $ro$er is " ring a thaw* when melt water ma,es a goo" l bricant %or the snow and ice banked steeply against rock faces. The rising cloud of white dust, the vertical grooves and patches of bare rock formed by the scouring action, and the dull roar of the avalanche are all common features of mountains above the permanent snow line. <oc, %ragments may also be carrie" "own, %or the rec rrent %ree5ing an" thawing o% water lo"ge" in (oints an" cre'ices o% the roc, %orms a $ower% l agent o% "isintegration. The action is the same as that which leads to burst pipes. Iree5ing ca ses eN$ansion o% the water in the s$aces o% a (oint an" $ro" ces a $ress re s %%icient to brea, the roc,&

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

3M& Je learn %rom the $assage that " ring an a'alanche ----& A) $ieces o% roc, are li,ely to be carrie" "own with the %alling snow $ ! " # the falling snow and ice soon start to melt there is absolute silence the falling snow is immediately followed by e4tensive rock falls falling snow banks up steeply against the nearest rock face

39& !he writer $oints o t that the constant %ree5ing an" thawing o% water in roc, cre'ices ----& 37& !he writer $oints o t that most tr e a'alanches ----& A consist of falling rock not of snow or ice A $ ! " C) is what causes an avalanche is an unimportant detail produces a smooth rock surface causes a build-up of snow will ca se the roc, to brea, $

+) occ r when the snow has starte" to melt ! " # occur when the snow has melted a little and then fro&en hard again cause considerable disintegration of the rock surfaces they come in contact with rarely leave behind them a bare rock surface


37-39& sor lar3 a2a83"a,i $ar9aya g4re ce'a$lay3n35& Tam do(rusunu s,ylemek gerekirse 1 R'in asl% 1 -itab%na uyacak olursak G)%(U terimi da(l%k b,lgelerdeki kar ve bu& d*'*'leri ile s%n%rl% kalmal%, fakat yayg%n kullan%m !u terimin anlam%n% t*m )evrelerdeki kaya d*'*'leri ve toprak kaymalar%n% da kapsayacak 'ekilde geni'letmi'tir. Fyg n 938lar"an gelen en b6y6, tehli,e "4nemi* erimi2 s y n ,aya y65eylerin"e "i, bir 2e,il"e y383lm32 ,ar 'e b 5 i9in iyi bir ,ayganla2t3r3c3 ol" 8 bahar "4nemin"e,i ,ar erimesi"ir. +*kselen beya& to& bulutu, s*rt*nme eylemi ile olu'mu' )%plak kayalar%n dikey yar%k ve yamalar% ve )%(%n tok k*kremesi, bunlar%n hepsi, ya& k%' karla kapl% da(lar%n ortak ,&ellikleridir. ?aya $ar9ac3,lar3 "a a2a83 ta23nabiliyor, &ira ,ayalar3n ba(lant% yerlerinde ve )atlaklar%nda bulunan suyun tekrar ve tekrar donup-erimesi, $ar9alanma i9in m a55am bir etmen ol 2t r yor& 5lay borular%n patlamas%na yol a)an olay%n ayn%s%d%r> Donma ba8lant3 yerlerin"e,i s y n genle2mesine yol a9ar 'e ,ayay3 $ar9alamaya yetece, bir bas3n9 6retir.

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

3M& Dar9a"an 48ren"i8imi5e g4re bir 938 m6""etince ----& A) ,aya $ar9ac3,lar3n3n "62en ,arla a2a83 ta23nmas3 olas3"3r $ ! " # d*'en kar ve bu& k%sa &aman i)imde erimeye ba'lar mutlak Dbir sessi&lik vard%r d*'en kar% hemen yo(un kaya d*'*'leri takip eder d*'en karlar hemen en yak%n kaya y*&eyinin kar'%s%nda dik bir 'ekilde y%(%n olu'tururlar

39& Ya5ar3n i2aret etti8i gibi ,aya 9atla,lar3n"a,i "e'aml3 "onma 'e 9456lme ---37& Ya5ar3n 9o8 ger9e, 9383n ---- i2aret e"iyor& A kar veya bu& de(il d*'en kayalar% i)erdi(ini A $ ! " C) )%(a yol a)an 'eydir ,nemsi& bir ayr%nt%d%r p*r*&s*& bir kaya y*&eyi olu'turur kar%n y%(%lmas%na neden olur ,ayan3n $ar9alanmas3na yol a9aca,t3r

+) ,ar erimeye ba2la"383n"a ol 2t 8 n ! " # kar bira& eriyip daha sonra yeniden semsert dondu(unda olu'tu(una temasta oldu(u kaya y*&eylerinden ciddi kopmalara yol a)t%(%n% hemen hemen hi) ard%nda )%plak bir kaya y*&eyi b%rakmad%(%n%


40-42& sor lar3 a2a83"a,i $ar9aya g4re ce'a$lay3n35& Aircraft landing-wheel brakes are fitted to all si&es of aircraft for arresting motion after touch-down, for steering during ta4iing by differential control of port and starboard brakes, and to hol" the aircra%t stationary while the engine is warme"- $ or teste". Small aircra%t ha'e sim$le two-shoe internal eN$an"ing bra,es man ally o$erate" an" 'ery similar to the stan"ar" roa"-'ehicle bra,e, but the larger machines re7uire poweroperated brakes using compressed air or hydraulic pressure from compressors or pumps driven by the engine. $esides being as light and compact as possible, lan"ing-wheel bra,es m st remain e%%ecti'e an" balance" " ring very high rates of energy dissipation due to the great weight of the aircraft and the 'ery high lan"ing s$ee"s.

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

E2. We understand from the passage that the high landing speed of a large aircraft ----. A) has been one o% the "etermining %actors in the "esign o% bra,es o% large cra%t $ ! " # is directly related to its weight only becomes a problem on poor runways has occasionally led to wheel-locking opened the way to a more scientific study of friction

EL. It is clear from the passage that one of the functions of an aircraft.s landing-wheel brakes is to ----. A act as a substitute steering aid

E;. According to the passage, the braking system of small aircraft ----. A differs little from that of larger aircraft

+) $re'ent the cra%t %rom mo'ing " ring engine warm- $ ! " # keep the aircraft steady after touch - down assist in the dissipation of energy on landing prevent the aircraft landing at very high speeds

+) is not 'ery "i%%erent %rom that o% or"inary cars an" b ses ! " # is both power - operated and manual is specially designed for coping with high - speed landings cannot be used to steer the craft after landing


40-42& sor lar3 a2a83"a,i $ar9aya g4re ce'a$lay3n35& M)ak ini'-tekeri frenleri teker koyma-noktas%ndan sonra hareketi tutmak, pistte ilerleme esnas%nda iskele ve sancak frenlerini diferansiyel vas%tas%yla kontrol ederek manevra yapmak ve motor %s%t%l%r veya test edilirken u)a(% sabit tutmak i)in her ebattaki hava ta'%t%na yerle'tirilmektedir. -*)*k u)aklar%n basit iki-patili, man*el )al%'%p i)erden a)%lan ve standart kara-ta'%t% frenlerine )ok ben&eyen frenleri vard%r, fakat daha b*y*k makineler motorun )al%'t%rd%(% pompa veya kompres,rlerden gelen s%k%'t%r%lm%' hava veya hidrolik bas%nc% kullanan motorlu frenlere muhta)t%rlar. H*mk*n oldu(unca hafif olmal% ve a& yer kaplamalar%n%n yan% s%ra, ini'-tak%m% frenleri u)a(%n mua&&am a(%rl%(% ve )ok y*ksek ini' h%&lar%ndan kaynaklanan )ok y*ksek oranlarda ener9i da(%l%m% esnas%nda i'lek1etkin ve dengeli de kalmal%d%rlar.

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

42& Accor"ing to the $assage* the bra,ing system o% small aircra%t ----& A $ ! " # differs little from that of larger aircraft is not very different from that of ordinary cars and buses is both power - operated and manual is specially designed for coping with high - speed landings cannot be used to steer the craft after landing

40& )t is clear %rom the $assage that one o% the % nctions o% an aircra%t7s lan"ing-wheel bra,es is to ----& A $ ! " # act as a substitute steering aid prevent the craft from moving during engine warm-up keep the aircraft steady after touch - down assist in the dissipation of energy on landing prevent the aircraft landing at very high speeds

41& Je n"erstan" %rom the $assage that the high lan"ing s$ee" o% a large aircra%t ----& A $ ! " # has been one of the determining factors in the design of brakes of large craft is directly related to its weight only becomes a problem on poor runways has occasionally led to wheel-locking opened the way to a more scientific study of friction


43-4:& sor lar3 a2a83"a,i $ar9aya g4re ce'a$lay3n35& !he main a"'antages o% electric traction on railways are that it is both $leasant an" e%%icient. It brings the removal of a smoke nuisance from tunnels and from the vicinity of larger cities. ?urther, owing to high acceleration, it is possible to provide a more fre7uent and faster service on densely populated suburban lines. !he trac, ca$acity is im$ro'e" by electri%ication on mo ntaino s lines beca se o% increase o% s$ee"* both $ an" "own the gra"ient, generally using electric forms of braking in the latter case. Some of the ma9or electrification schemes of the world, for instance, those in Swit5erlan" an" Swe"en* ha'e been largely "ictate" by the "esire to o$erate the railway system witho t "e$en"ence $on im$orte" % el&

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

44& !he a thor $oints o t that on mo ntaino s lines the trac, ca$acity is im$ro'e" by electri%ication ----& A $ but the safety aspect is causing much concern but upkeep e4penses are high

@) beca se it enables trains to go %aster both $ an" "own the line " # though this is not the case in other locations unless electric forms of braking are applied

43& As is $ointe" o t in the $assage* the bene%its o% electric railway traction ----& A) incl "e a cleaner en'ironment an" an im$ro'e" $er%ormance $ ! " # can best be seen in Sweden an Swit&erland do not outweigh the problems involved have only recently become apparent are confined to mountainous conditions

4:& Swe"en an" Swit5erlan"* we are tol"* ha'e some o% the worl"#s ma(or electri%ie" railway systems ----& A $ ! since they have small populations and the electrified systems seemed ade7uate as they were determined to keep their mountain air unpolluted as other railway systems were not practical in high altitudes

D) beca se they wante" to "e'elo$ a railway system that "i" not rely on im$orte" % el # because the only safe braking system on a steep gradient is electric one


43-4:& sor lar3 a2a83"a,i $ar9aya g4re ce'a$lay3n35& "emiryollar% *&erindeki elektrikli 9e,i2in ana a'anta(lar3 hem memn niyet 'erici hem "e ran"3manl3 olmalar3"3r. D$u sistem t*nellerin ve b*y*k 'ehir )evrelerinin duman belas%n%ndan u&akla'mas%n% sa(lar. "ahas%, y*ksek h%& sayesinde, yo(un n*fuslu kenar mahalle hatlar%nda daha s%k ve daha h%&l% bir hi&met sa(lamak da m*mk*nd*r. Ge,i2 ,a$asitesi "a8l3, tren hatlar3n"a ele,tri%i,asyon ile artm32 h35 sayesin"e* hem yo, 2 a2a83 hem "e yo, 2 y ,ar3, ki ikinci durumda genellikle elektrik bi)imli frenleme kullan%l%r, "aha iyi hale getirilmi2tir. "*nyan%n ana elektrifikasyon pro9elerinin bir k%sm%n%, mesela Rsvi)re ve Rsve)=tekileri, daha )ok ithal edilmi' yak%ta ba(%ml% olmaks%&%n tren yolu sistemini i'letme ar&usu belirlenmi'tir.

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

44& !he a thor $oints o t that on mo ntaino s lines the trac, ca$acity is im$ro'e" by electri%ication ----& A $ ! " # but the safety aspect is causing much concern but upkeep e4penses are high because it enables trains to go faster both up and down the line though this is not the case in other locations unless electric forms of braking are applied

43& As is $ointe" o t in the $assage* the bene%its o% electric railway traction ----& A $ ! " # include a cleaner environment and an improved performance can best be seen in Sweden an Swit&erland do not outweigh the problems involved have only recently become apparent are confined to mountainous conditions

4:& Swe"en an" Swit5erlan"* we are tol"* ha'e some o% the worl"#s ma(or electri%ie" railway systems ----& A $ ! " # since they have small populations and the electrified systems seemed ade7uate as they were determined to keep their mountain air unpolluted as other railway systems were not practical in high altitudes because they wanted to develop a railway system that did not rely on imported fuel because the only safe braking system on a steep gradient is electric one


4;-4M& sor lar3 a2a83"a,i $ar9aya g4re ce'a$lay3n35& +otanic gar"ens may be regar"e" as ha'ing a three%ol" % nction> to please and educate the public3 to carry out investigations regarding the economic value of native and foreign plant products and acclimatisation of plants3 an" to act as centres o% in%ormation an" scienti%ic in'estigation in 'ario s %iel"s o% botany* s ch as anatomy* mor$hology an" $hysiology, for which museums, libraries and laboratories are also needed. !he search %or "r gs an" s$ices $artic larly has tem$te" men %rom early times to eN$lore all $arts o% the worl" an" this has $romote" a close lin, between eN$loration an" botanic gar"ens. 5ne well-known botanic garden is the Ooyal $otanic /arden at #dinburgh which was founded in 2INL by Oobert Sibbald for the cultivation of medical plants. Since that date it has been removed to several different sites. It is now one of the ma9or botanic gardens in $ritain with an area of over IL acres.

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

47& !he a thor $oints o t that there is a close lin, between eN$loration an" botanical gar"ens ----& A as few native $ritish plants are of use medicinally and many people now prefer natural medicines to chemical ones as many people are curious about the medicinal properties of various plants

@) beca se the "esire to %in" new "r gs an" s$ices has long been a reason behin" many eN$loratory eN$e"itions " # since plants from foreign parts will only grow in the special conditions they are used to though this is still a very new development

4;& Je learn %rom the $assage that one o% the main % nctions o% botanic gar"en is to ----& A $ ! " send out e4plorers in search of new spices provide scientists with the means for carrying out investigations into botanical sub9ects make more and more land suitable for cultivation encourage the production of natural medicines to replace chemical ones which sometimes have serious side-effects be economically self supporting and encourage young people to take an interest in gardens

4M& )n this $assage abo t botanical gar"ens* ----& A $ ! they are presented as a very pleasant lu4ury the historical aspect is completely ignored the problems of financing them are carefully considered

D) it is the % nctional as$ect that is em$hasise" # the focus is on the rarer plants of foreign origin


4;-4M& sor lar3 a2a83"a,i $ar9aya g4re ce'a$lay3n35& $otanik bah)eler *) fonksiyona sahip olarak de(erlendirilebilirler> halk% e(lendirmek ve e(itmek3 yerli ve yabanc% bitkisel *r*nlerin ekonomik de(eri ve bitkilerin iklime adapte edilmesi ile ilgili )al%'malar yapmak3 botani(in anatomi, morfolo9i ve fi&yolo9i gibi )e'itli alanlar% i)in bilgi ve bilimsel ara't%rma merke&i olmak, ki bunun i)in ayr%ca m*&elere, k*t*phanelere ve l:boratuarlara da ihtiya) vard%r. Rla) ve baharat aray%'% ,&ellikle insano(lunu ilk )a(lardan beri d*nyan%n her taraf%n% ara't%rmaya sevketmi' ve bu da ke'if ve botanik bah)eler aras%nda s%k% bir irtibat sa(lam%'t%r. He'hur bir botanik bah)e 2INL y%l%nda #dinburgh=da t%bbi ila) yeti'tirmek i)in Oobert SRbbalt taraf%ndan kurulan Ooyal $otanic /arden 1 -raliyet $otanik $ah)esi=dir. $ah)e o tarihten bu yana birka) farkl% yere ta'%nm%'t%r. Qimdi IL acre=dan daha geni' bir ara&iyle $ritanya.daki b*y*k botanik bah)elerden biridir.

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

47& !he a thor $oints o t that there is a close lin, between eN$loration an" botanical gar"ens ----& A as few native $ritish plants are of use medicinally and many people now prefer natural medicines to chemical ones as many people are curious about the medicinal properties of various plants because the desire to find new drugs and spices has long been a reason behind many e4ploratory e4peditions since plants from foreign parts will only grow in the special conditions they are used to though this is still a very new development

$ !

" #

4;& Je learn %rom the $assage that one o% the main % nctions o% botanic gar"en is to ----& A $ ! " send out e4plorers in search of new spices provide scientists with the means for carrying out investigations into botanical sub9ects make more and more land suitable for cultivation encourage the production of natural medicines to replace chemical ones which sometimes have serious side-effects be economically self supporting and encourage young people to take an interest in gardens 4M& )n this $assage abo t botanical gar"ens* ----& A $ ! " # they are presented as a very pleasant lu4ury the historical aspect is completely ignored the problems of financing them are carefully considered it is the functional aspect that is emphasised the focus is on the rarer plants of foreign origin


49-:1& sor lar3 a2a83"a,i $ar9aya g4re ce'a$lay3n35& The Ooyal Society is the national academy of science for /reat $ritain and <orthern Ireland but, unlike other national academies, is an" always has been in"e$en"ent o% state control3 it is not maintained by grants from public funds an" manages its own a%%airs. Since its foundation, however, kings, statesmen and government departments have regularly sought its advice on scientific matters3 it has ne'er hesitate" to assist go'ernments when con'ince" that the national interest calle" %or scienti%ic action. Within ten years of its foundation the society, at the invitation of !harles II and his ministers, grappled with problems of national food supply, arboriculture, naval architecture and navigation. Throughout the 2Kth century it worked with the admiralty on what was then called Gthe problem of the longitudeU in the sol tion o% which are associate" the names o% the astronomers C"mon" Aalley an" Ee'il Kas,elyne* the chronometer ma,er Vohn Aarrison an" the na'igator Vames @oo,. It found a c re for 9ail-fever and advised on the $rotection of ships of war against lightning3 it organi&ed a geo"etic s r'ey of the $ritish Isles and appointed scientific personnel to several Arctic an" Antarctic eN$e"ition.

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

:0& )t is clear %rom the $assage that* as in the case o% _the $roblem o% longit "e_* the <oyal Society ----&
A $

was obliged to advise the admiralty on procedures for the tests it was making can comman" s$eci%ic ,nowle"ge %rom a 'ariety o% %iel"s to assist in the sol tion o% m lti"isci$linary $roblems often failed to come up with a solution to a specific problem would only accept short-term commissions as it felt that long-term ones threatened its independence avoided, whenever it was at all possible to do so involvement in schemes of national importance

! "

:1& Je n"erstan" %rom the $assage that a great many of the activities of the Ooyal Society ----&

49& Accor"ing to the $assage the <oyal Society* tho gh it is a national aca"emy* ----&
A $ ! " #

are money-making schemes so that it can maintain its independence are purely theoretical and have no practical application are actually forced upon it by king or parliament though the members themselves do not like to admit this are tr ly national in character* being "esigne" to bene%it the $eo$le whether "irectly or in"irectly amount to nothing more than recommending suitable people for specific situations

$ !

is not "e$en"ent on the state %or % n"s an" so is %ree to act in"e$en"ently is only partly financed by grants from public funds has never worked directly for kings or government departments is mainly concerned with navigation and indeed all naval matters has often refused to act for the government in an advisory capacity



49-:1& sor lar3 a2a83"a,i $ar9aya g4re ce'a$lay3n35& Ooyal Society D-raliyet -urumu $*y*k $ritanya ve -u&ey Rrlanda=n%n ulusal bilim akademisidir fakat, di(er ulusal akademilerin aksine, devlet kontrol*nden ba(%ms%&d%r ve her &aman da b,yle olmu'tur3 -amu fonlar%ndan gelen ba(%'larla ayakta kalma& ve kendi i'lerini kendisi idare eder. Ancak kuruldu(u g*nden beridir krallar, devlet adamlar% ve devlet kurumlar% d*&enli olarak bilimsel meselelerde onun tavsiyesine ba'vuragelmi'lerdir. D-urum ulusal )%kar%n bilimsel bir eylem gerektirdi(ine ikna oldu(unda 1 emin oldu(unda h*k*metlere yard%mda hi) teredd*t etmemi'tir. -urulu'unun ilk on y%l% i)erisinde, ;. !harles ve bakanlar%n%n daveti *&erine ulusal yiyecek ar&%, a(a)-dikimi1pey&a9, deni& mimarisi ve deni&cilik gibi problemlerle u(ra'm%'t%r. 2K. y*&y%l boyunca Dda donanmayla o &amanlar Gboylam problemiU denilen bir mesele *&erinde )al%'m%'lard%r ki, bu problemin ),&*m*nde g,kbilimci #dmond 0alley ve <evil Haskelyne, kronometre imalat)%s% Pohn 0arrison ve kaptan Pames !ook=lar%n isimleri ge)mektedir. D-urum hapishane-hummas% i)in bir tedavi bulmu', sava' gemilerinin y%ld%r%ma kar'% korunmas% dair tavsiyelerde bulunmu', $ritanya Adac%klar%=n%n 9eodetik bir tetkikini organi&e etmi' ve Arktika ve Antartika=ya d*&enlenen birka) ke'if seferine personel atam%'t%r.

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

:0& )t is clear %rom the $assage that* as in the case o% _the $roblem o% longit "e_* the <oyal Society ----&
A $

was obliged to advise the admiralty on procedures for the tests it was making can command specific knowledge from a variety of fields to assist in the solution of multidisciplinary problems often failed to come up with a solution to a specific problem would only accept short-term commissions as it felt that long-term ones threatened its independence avoided, whenever it was at all possible to do so involvement in schemes of national importance

! "

:1& Je n"erstan" %rom the $assage that a great many o% the acti'ities o% the <oyal Society ----& 49& Accor"ing to the $assage the <oyal Society* tho gh it is a national aca"emy* ----&
A $ ! " # A $ !

are money-making schemes so that it can maintain its independence are purely theoretical and have no practical application are actually forced upon it by king or parliament though the members themselves do not like to admit this are truly national in character, being designed to benefit the people whether directly or indirectly amount to nothing more than recommending suitable people for specific situations

is not dependent on the state for funds and so is free to act independently is only partly financed by grants from public funds has never worked directly for kings or government departments is mainly concerned with navigation and indeed all naval matters has often refused to act for the government in an advisory capacity

" #


:2& - :4& sor lan* a2a83"a,i $ar9aya g4re ce'a$lay3n35& The first flight by a power driven manned aeroplane took place in 2JL@ and its subse7uent development as a military weapon was so rapid that all the belligerents entere" Jorl" Jar ) totally n$re$are" to "e%en" themselves against it& !he %irst bombing rai"s* howe'er* com$elle" the consi"eration o% anti-aircra%t meas res* an" +ritain, in particular* attacked by Weppelin airships and /otha aircraft was forced to develop a range of speciali&ed anti-aircraft e7uipment which came to include guns, searchlights, sound-locators and predictors, gi'ing it a = alitati'e ascen"ancy in this %iel" retained until the end of World War II. Indeed the first night attack on Aondon caused such public consternation that its g n "e%ences ha" to be "o ble" within %orty-eight ho rs and, though they hit few planes, their presence was of great psychological value.

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

:3& )t7s clear %rom the $assage that one reason why +ritain grew so com$etent in anti-aircra%t tactics was ----&
A $ !

the fact that, prior to the war, she already had the ascendancy in this field the absol te necessity o% "e%en"ing hersel% %rom bombing rai"s because scientists reali&ed that they had to keep ahead in this field or the country.s moral would drop that a great deal of research into predictors had already been carried out that the noise made by the /erman Weppelins was easy to recogni&e and locate

" #

:2& Je n"erstan" %rom the $assage that the "e'elo$ment o% aircra%t as a wea$on o% war was so ra$i" that at the start o% Jorl" Jar ) ----&
A $ ! "

:4& !he $assage em$hasi5es that* a%ter the %irst night attac, on /on"on* ----&
A $ ! " #

most cities had already been e7uipped with searchlights anti-aircraft procedures had already been formulated no co ntry ha" $re$are" itsel% to combat an air attac, $ritain had enough speciali&ed anti-aircraft e7uipment to see her through to the end of the war it was only in /ermany that measures had been taken to combat air attacks

enemy aircraft were continually being shot down the moral of the people there remained high the value of manned aircraft in time of war was finally admitted the city7s "e%ence system was increase" two%ol" within a co $le o% "ays it became increasingly difficult for enemy bombers to reach their targets


::& - :7& sor lar3* a2a83"a,i $ar9aya g4re ce'a$lay3n35& Scientists can now speed up the process of genetic change through biotechnology. Iarmers nee" no longer wait $atiently %or bree"ing to yield improved crops and animals, nor must they even respect natural lines of reproduction among species. Aaboratory scientists can now select desirable traits from any of a number of species and insert those traits into the genetic material of crops and animals. Among the new products of biotechnology are tomatoes that stay fresh much longer than the usual ones and so promise less waste and higher profits. <ormally, tomatoes produce a protein that softens them after they have been picked. Scientists introduce into a tomato plant a gene that is a mirror image of the one that codes for the SsofteningS en&yme. !his gene %astens itsel% to the <EA o% the nati'e gene an" bloc,s its action. A vine-ripe tomato with this special gene rots more slowly than a normal tomato, allowing growers to har'est at the most %la'o r% l an" n tritio s re" stage. The tomatoes will still last much longer during shipping and marketing than regular tomatoes harvested when green.

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

:;& Je n"erstan" %rom the $assage that biotechnology has $ro" ce" a tomato that stays %resh an" %irm m ch longer than the normal tomato* ----&
A $ !

and can be left on the vine almost indefinitely but is far more e4pensive to produce because the SsofteningS en&yme of the normal tomato has been removed by genetic engineering especially if it is harvested when it is green by intro" cing a s$ecial gene that $re'ent the _so%tening_ en5yme %rom % nctioning

" #

::& As the $assage $oints o t* genetic change is not a new $henomenon* b t ----&
A $ ! " #

%ormerly it was only achie'e" by care% l bree"ing an" was a long* slow $rocess it has only recently been applied to plants farmers have only 9ust started to take an interest in it its advantages have only 9ust become obvious to farmers the success-rate of inserting a desired trait is not very high

:7& 1ne o% the im$ortant a"'antages o% the genetically engineere" tomatoes as "escribe" in the $assage is that ---A $ ! " #

they contain a larger proportion of protein than the usual tomato they are far more nutritious than the normal ones even when picked at the green stage they can be $ic,e" when ri$e an" at their tastiest* an" won7t s$oil in trans$ort the gene used to prevent rotting is perfectly stable their appearance is far more attractive than that of other tomatoes


:M - ;0& sor lar3* a2a83"a,i $ar9aya g4re ce'a$lay3n35& To obtain power from the sun.s rays is to use n clear $ower "e'elo$e" at no e4pense in a laboratory 93 million miles away, for the radiant energy of the sun is maintained by nuclear transformation of chemical elements occurring in the sun.s interior at temperatures of many million degrees, and at pressures of many million atmospheres. The resources of solar power are enormous. If 2LL per cent efficiency could be secured in the transformation of radiant solar energy into mechanical work, a horsepower per s7uare yard of ground surface would be available under cloudless skies. !he eN$ense o% collecting solar energy still $re'ents its com$etition with the s al $ower so rces .+et, nless the 'ag e $romise o% sa%e thermon clear $ower %rom oceans becomes reali5e"* solar $ower m st s $$ly the enormo s an" growing re= irements o% $osterity within two cent ries. $ecause the ground sources Dcoal, oil and uranium as they near e4haustion will become more costly than solar power.

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

:9& Accor"ing to the $assage* solar energy is not $resently se" on a large scale ----&
A $ ! " #

since it could constitute a threat to the environment as even on cloudless days it cannot be made to yield a great deal of power even though it can be harnessed with 2LL per cent efficiency since the harnessing of thermonuclear power from the oceans is felt to be more profitable beca se the eN$ense o% harnessing it is not economically 'iable

:M& !he writer o% the $assage regar"s the s n ----&

A $ ! " #

;0& !he $assage contains a warning that ----&

A $ ! " #

as both the largest and the cheapest source of power as an inefficient source of energy as cloud prevents it from being effective as offering little more in the way of energy for the future than thermonuclear power as a %ar "istant laboratory that $ro" ces n clear $ower as a source of power too vast and dangerous to be tampered with or used

such ground sources of energy as coal and oil will be used up by the ne4t generation solar energy could prove dangerous as it is a form of nuclear energy % t re ages may ha'e no o$tion b t the s n7s rays to meet their energy re= irements thermonuclear power from oceans could prove even more costly than solar power the costs of harnessing solar power are not likely to be reduced


WDS ICE 2001 A<A/)? The design of ships is governed by scientific principles and economic considerations but in practice it has many of the 7ualities of an art. The designer may be supplied with the precise and detailed re7uirements of an owner or he may receive only the barest o tline o% re= irements s ch as the weight o% cargo to be carrie" an" the s$ee". The dimensions chosen and the main characteristics of the ship are governed by the trade in which the vessel is to compete. Aigh-"ensity cargoes s ch as iron ore re= ire little c bic ca$acityL low-"ensity cargoes s ch as bananas re= ire 'ast c bic ca$acity. !he $orts which the 'essel m st enter may im$ose restrictions on length an" "ra ght& Bassage through canals may restrict both draught and breadth. The nature of the cargo may determine the si&e of cargo holds and of the hatchways through which the cargo is loaded and unloaded& A'ailable %acilities at the $orts to be entere" a%%ect the loa"ing an" nloa"ing a$$arat s to be installe" in the 'essel.

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

;2& )t is clear %rom the $assage that* when a shi$ is being or"ere" the "esigner is o%ten gi'en a lot o% %ree"om in the ty$e o% "esign* b t he will eN$ect to be tol" ----&
A $ ! " #

something abo t what it is to carry an" how %ast it is to tra'el the type of loading and unloading apparatus to install something about the route it will normally follow the e4act dimensions that are re7uired e4actly how big the cargo holds should be

;1& Je n"erstan" %rom the $assage that the si5e o% a shi$ ----&
A $ ! " #

needs to be large if it is to have high-density cargoes will re%lect the ty$e o% goo"s to be carrie" is unimportant so long as it does not have to pass through canals has relatively little bearing upon its cost affects the system of loading and unloading of the cargo

;3& Accor"ing to the $assage* a great many %actors ha'e to be consi"ere" in the "esign o% a shi$ ----&
A $ ! " #

of which economic matters are the least important and no designer is prepared to accept 9ust a simple outline of re7uirements but one of the least important is the cubic capacity needed for the cargo incl "ing reg lations an" con"itions in the $orts it will call in at in particular the relationship between length and breadth


WDS ICE 2001 A<A/)? Crosion is regar"e" not merely as the $hysical remo'al o% soil by water an" win"* b t rather as the "eterioration o% all the com$onent $arts o% the habitat in which man an" his cro$s an" li'estoc, ha'e to eNist. Since there is no conclusive evidence for any ma9or climatic change in historic times to e4plain this deterioration, we must conclude that the ero"ing o% the total en'ironment has been " e $rimarily to tho ghtless "estr ction o% the 'egetati'e co'er. This has led to deterioration of the microclimate above and below the surface, generally in the direction of a general drying out of the soil which has e4posed it to erosive action of wind and rainfall of high intensity or fre7uency, and to the loss o% organic matter in the soil* th s re" cing its ca$acity to resist erosion by conserving the water that falls on the surface. If everything possible is done within the total environment to conserve the naturally planted or cultivated vegetation, this will also ensure optimal conservation of soil and water.

Metin Oklar ve eviriler

;:& !he "e%inition o% erosion gi'en in this $assage ----& A $ ! " # is a strictly regional one disregards man.s role in it concentrates on flooding assumes that the process is inevitable is a broa" one

;4& )t is arg e" in the $assage that the im$o'erishment o% the worl"7s habitat ----& A it is %irst an" %oremost " e to man7s irres$onsible ab se o% the 'egetable co'er o% the earth is largely due to gradual changes in climate over long years became inevitable as soon as agricultural and animal husbandry developed cannot be remedied has been needlessly e4aggerated ;;& )t is $ointe" o t in the $assage that the loss o% organic matter in the soil ----& A $ ! " # led to the destruction of the world.s vegetative cover is a direct result of insufficient rain is an irreversible process has ma"e the soil more s sce$tible to erosion came about through over-planting which robbed the soil of nutrients

$ ! " #


WDS ICE 2001 A<A/)? !he worl"7s n clear $lants have accumulated vast stocks of highly radioactive waste. Jorl"wi"e, high-level waste is c rrently stored above ground, and no go'ernment has a clear $olicy on its eventual disposal. While most e4perts believe that burying the waste is the safest bet in the long term, the problem is finding sites that everyone can agree are geologically stable. "ecaying radioactive isotopes release heat. As a result, high-level waste must be constantly cooled3 otherwise, it becomes dangerously hot. This is why many eN$erts want to store waste abo'e gro n" ntil it has "ecaye" an" is cool eno gh to be store" safely in sealed repositories several h n"re"s o% metres below gro n". According to one recent theory, however, waste should be lowered down boreholes drilled to E kilometres. !he tric, is to eN$loit heat generate" by the waste to % se the s rro n"ing roc, an" contain any lea,ing ra"ioacti'ity.

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;M& As it is $ointe" o t in the $assage* many eN$erts are o% the o$inion that ra"ioacti'e waste ----& A $ should never be stored underground as it can not then be monitored sho l" not be store" n"ergro n" while the ra"ioacti'e isoto$es contin e to let o%% s bstantial amo nts o% heat does not re7uire to be cooled when stored above ground cannot be safely disposed of anywhere and the problem of what to do with it intensifies as the amount increases can be safely left to cool down underground in sealed repositories

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;7& )t is clear %rom the $assage that the sa%e "is$osal o% ra"ioacti'e waste ----& A $ ! " # has been satisfactorily dealt with by scientists in con9unction with governments is a problem that each government must decide on for its own country remains a global $roblem o% great magnit "e is a problem that has not attracted enough attention will in all likelihood soon be resolved, and a clear policy agreed on by concerned governments

;9& !he $assage "escribes a new metho"* still only a theoretical one* %or the "is$osal o% ra"ioacti'e waste* ----& A $ which uses bore holes so that all sites are suitable at a depth considerably less than that normally recommended but the chosen site must meet certain geological re7uirements which, unfortunately, increases the time needed for cooling the waste before final disposal in which the radioactive isotopes are prevented from releasing heat whereby the heat $ro" ce" by that waste will ser'e to seal it sa%ely into the roc, n"er which it has been b rie"

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WDS ICE 2001 A<A/)? Sounds produced by continuous vibration tones are spreads waves of compression through the air. Jhere there is a soli" bo n"ary s ch as the walls o% a room the so n" wa'es are re%lecte" so that the sounds within the room are prolonged beyond what they would be in the open. The sounds produced by the voice or by a musical instrument then reverberate through the room after the actual tone production has ceased. When the sound waves strike the walls, some of the sound energy travels on and is either absorbed in the material or may penetrate to the other side3 but with the s al har"* nyiel"ing walls o% which most b il"ings are ma"e* more than 90^ o% the so n" energy is re%lecte" bac, into the room at each impact, so that some time must elapse before all is spent. )t is this re'erberation which* in its eNcess* is the $rime ca se o% the %a lty aco stics o% many $re 20th cent ry b il"ings.

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71& )t is em$hasi5e" i% the $assage that* ntil the 20th cent ry ----& A $ the sounds produced by musical instruments could not be properly controlled there was among scientists, a great deal of controversy as regards the importance of reverberation there was an unaccountable deficiency of reverberation in every ma9or building goo" aco stics were absent in the ma(ority o% b il"ings acoustics were a primary concern in the design of all buildings

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70& Je n"erstan" %rom the $assage that re'erberation ----& A $ ! " # is never taken into account in 7uestions of acoustics is less obvious in an enclosed space occ rs within an enclose" s$ace s ch as a room is of e7ually short duration both indoors and outdoors has duration e7ual to that of the tone production

72& )t is eN$laine" in the $assage that only a 'ery small $ercentage o% the so n" wa'es ----& A $ ! " # can $ass thro gh a wall ma"e o% %irm an" resistant material does actually travel back towards its source at each impact can be accurately measured for acoustic purposes has a damaging effect upon the acoustics of a room can last longer than the actual tone-production itself


WDS Ien 2002 KA<! !he <hine - < hr area became the greatest in" strial region o% Bermany* beca se it ha" at its heart the great coal %iel" o% the < hr. Hining is now almost entirely northeast an" westwar"s across the <hine& The region contains the greater part of the /erman iron, steel and heavy engineering industries. The great integrated iron and steel plants mostly cluster on the Ohine waterway. Speciali&ed steel plants and engineering works are more widespread. With a decline in coalmining and the dismantling after World War II of certain steel plants, some o% the ol"er < hr towns ha'e "i'ersi%ie" their in" stries consi"erablyR 'ehicles* electrical goo"s an" clothing are now being $ro" ce".

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74& )t is clear %rom the $assage that the immense coal "e$osits o% the < hr ----& A $ have had adverse effect upon the older towns of the area have been almost completely used up by the iron and steel industry

@) t rne" the <hine - <ohr into Bermany7s ma(or in" strial area " # were once regarded as ine4haustible even in the face of such intense mining. have no e7ual anywhere else in #urope

73& )t is $ointe" o t in the $assage that* %ollowing Jorl" Jar )) ----&


the increase in coal production gave a new impetus to the steel industry in the towns of the Ouhr area new ty$es o% in" stry * s ch as teNtiles an" car man %act ring* re$lace" the %ormer steel in" stry in certain $arts o% the < hr area the electrical industry throughout the Ouhr area of /erman became economically as important as the steel industry itself the towns in the Ouhr area rapidly achieved a high level of prosperity through improvements in the steel industry all the steel plants in the Ouhr area had to be closed down to avoid the pollution of the towns

7:& !he writer o% the $assage ma,es the $oint that the ma(or $art o% the iron an" steel in" stry o% Bermany ----& A $ ! " C) has basically remained unchanged during the last hundred years has come into being since World War II is the ma9or source of the country.s prosperity no longer depends on coal as its main source of power is locate" on either si"e o% the <hine



WDS Ien 2002 KA<! Dost war ra"ar has been "e'elo$e" %or an enormo s range o% ses %rom $olice ra"ar s$ee" tra$s to the ballistic missile early warning systems. At sea it is used on ships of all si&es from the super tankers down to pleasure craft, and the air it guards military and civilian aircraft against collisions. It is even used to keep track of the orbital 9unkyard created by innumerable space launches. Oadar found an une4pected use in astronomy and space navigation. <a"ar signals were bo nce" o%% the moon in 194; an" re%lections were obtaine" %rom [en s an" the s n in the late 19:0s& Subse7uently, radar maps were made of the moon and Cenus - not that such long ranges are essential for radar maps to prove themselves useful. ?or e4ample, satellite-borne radar aimed at the earth has actually le" to the "isco'ery o% $re'io sly n,nown remnants o% a Kayan canal "rainage system in @entral America. 7;& )t is clear %rom the $assage that %ollowing Jorl" Jar )) ----& A) the ses o% ra"ar in many %iel"s ha'e eN$an"e" 'astly $ ! " # space e4ploration has been one of the few areas of technology not to benefit from radar the e4ploration of space has been made possible through the use of radar the construction of super tankers has increased considerably radar has been replaced by other navigational devices WDS Ien 2002 KA<!

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A contraption that automatically fits deer with a pesticide impregnated collar is helping to tackle the menace of Ayme disease, which is usually spread among people by ticks that live on the deer. This disease is now one of the fastest spreading infectious diseases in the MS and can be fatal. Trapping and treating every deer in a forest with pesticides isn.t easy, so a machine has been designed to do it. The animals are lured to a feeding tray where have to place their heads in a C-shaped through to get to the food. The machine keeps an open pesticide impregnated collar at the ready, drooping ne4t to the trough where the deer will put its neck. As the animal takes the food, its neck presses down on a switch that triggers a spring- loaded arm. This propels one end of the open collar over the neck where it meets the other end. The two ends 9oin using Celcro, so within seconds of the animal.s arrival the collar is complete. 79& !he $assage is abo t a s$ecial collar %or "eer which ----& A $ ! " # keeps them tick-free and safe from Ayme disease is impregnated with a poison that kills the ticks on the deer replaces the older system of spraying them with pesticides is part of a research pro9ect to keep track of their movements has been designed to keep a check on their eating habits.

77& Accor"ing to the $assage* one o% the interesting ses o% ra"ar ----& A $ was the early warning against ballistic missiles in World War II has been to locate and demolish the orbital 9unkyard

M0& Je n"erstan" %rom the $assage that /yme "isease ----& A $ ! " # is carried and spread by ticks which live on deer is one of the rarer of the infectious diseases has killed a great many deer in the MS is rapidly on the decline in the MS affects deer more than any other animal

@) has been its contrib tion towar"s archaeological %in"s " # has been to determine speed ranges for various vehicles was to guide combat aircraft towards their targets during World War II

M1& Je n"erstan" %rom the $assage that the collars are %itte" to the "eer ----& A $ while their heads are firmly held in a C- shaped trough as fast as possible because the deer dislike the process while they feed and the process only lasts seconds with a mechanism that has to be man-operated before they are allowed near the food

7M& Je n"erstan" %rom the $assage that ra"ar signals ----& A $ ! " C) cannot provide accurate maps of the terrain of the earth have sometimes proved unreliable can control the movements of satellites are adversely affected by space launches can tra'el enormo s "istances thro gh s$ace

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WDS Ien 2002 KA<! Transport represents ;; per cent of total energy consumption in industriali&ed countries, mainly in the form of automobiles. Although this is the fastest growth sector in such countries, the rate of increase in road transport energy demand has slowed in most developed countries since the late 2JILs. This has reflected both improved vehicle efficiency and a slowing down in the level of ac7uisition of automobiles by households. These developments have encouraged hopes that saturation levels may operate at lower levels than sometimes pro9ected. In developing countries, transport represents 2E per cent of total energy consumption but the number of automobiles is appro4imately ;L12LLL people, compared to ILL12LLL people industriali&ed countries. In attention to strictly technical improvements that can be made to automobiles and trucks, there is another important area of action which could help in the solution of the problems, namely, system operation. In this category, there is a variety of actions that could be performed more efficiently such as transporting passengers and freight by other means, such as bus and rail that would result in lower energy consumption and therefore, lower emissions.

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M3& )t is $ointe" o t in the $assage that energy cons m$tion in in" strial co ntries wo l" be re" ce" ----& A $ ! " # to the level of that in the developing countries if the number of cars per household were reduced if alternative energy sources could be found for buses and cars if the governments took appropriate action if more people were to make use of public transport significantly, if certain simple measures were put into effect

M2& )t is clear %rom the $assage that trans$ort re= irements in the in" strial co ntries ----& A $ ! " # are increasing faster than ever before account for a large proportion the energy consumed will be easier to meet as vehicle efficiency improves are being reviewed with the aim of meeting them with greater efficiency will continue to rise at roughly the same rate

M4& !he writer o% the $assage %eels that one ho$e% l sign relating to the energy cons m$tion %actor is ----& A $ ! " # the growing concern about the pollution caused by car emissions that the technical improvements introduced by the car industry have led to cleaner emissions the une4pected drop in car sales the trend to send goods by train not by lorry that the number of cars per household is not increasing as fast as formerly


WDS Ien 2002 KA<! $ritain has a target to deliver 2L per cent of its electrical power from renewable resources by ;L2L. And despite what one might hear from some 7uarters, superb natural and technical resources already e4ist that could make this possible. All that is lacking is the political will3 but at present, the government seems reluctant to take any positive action. At present SnewS renewables, such as landfill gas, wind, solar, wave power and smallscale hydropower contribute around one per cent to the M-.s electrical generating capacity. /enerating power from landfill gas is already fully economic3 but has limited scope for growth as the country moves away from land filling waste. #nergy recovery from waste is highly controversial and also limited in capacity. So, if $ritain is to meet her interim target of five per cent by ;LL@ and 2L per cent by ;L2L, she must look to other renewables for growth.

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M;& )t7s clear %rom the $assage that the scheme to $ro" ce more electrical $ower %rom renewable reso rces ----& A $ ! " # has aroused very little interest among scientists and economists gives priority to the use of landfill gas rather than to any of the natural elements is regarded, by the $ritish public as technically and economically unsuitable will probably never even reach its interim target on account of the e4penses involved needs government support if it is to be implemented

M:& !he $assage contains a warning %or +ritain that ----& A if she is to produce more electricity, she has to make huge investments in renewable resources if she fails to meet her ;LL@ interim target for electrical power production, industry could come to a standstill. in order to reach her electricity target, she will have to find other renewable resources since renewable resources are never costeffective, she must develop new technologies although land filling is a feasible technology, it is highly likely to arouse a great deal of public opposition

M7& Je n"erstan" %rom the $assage that at $resent* almost all o% +ritain7s electricity ----& A $ ! " # is generated from non-renewable resources is targeted to be produced from various renewable resources could be provided through natural renewable resources is being economically produced from landfill gas is being produced uneconomically, and this has aroused the concern of the government

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WDS Ien 2002 KA<! /laciers originate in areas that lie above the limit of prominent snow. Thus in tropical climates glaciers are only to be found at very great heights, whereas in polar regions they flow into the sea. The largest glaciers are found in regions receiving the heaviest snowfall. The great glaciers of the 0imalayas lie in the path of the monsoon, which deposits on them the full measure of its vast water vapour content. The largest glacieri&ed areas after Antarctica are in /reenland, <orth America, and in central and south central Asia. It has been estimated that the volume of the world.s glaciers and ice sheets e4ceeds 22,LLL,LLL cubic miles which, if returned to the oceans, would raise the sea - level by some ;LL ft, submerging all e4isting seaports and much land besides.

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M9& Je n"erstan" %rom the $assage that ----& A $ ! " # the snowline is only apparent after a heavy fall of snow the si&e of a glacier is, in part, dependent on the amount of snowfall in a region glaciers cannot be found in tropical regions the monsoon has no effect at all in the formation of glaciers in the 0imalayas the volume of glaciers in the world is rapidly decreasing

MM& )n the $assage the contrast is ma"e between ----& A $ ! " # the benefits and the dangers of glaciers the si&e of glaciers in the 0imalayas and in Antarctica the glaciers on the snowline and those at great heights the location of glaciers in the tropics and in arctic regions the climatic effects of glaciers in different parts of the world

90& Irom the %ig res gi'en in the last $art o% the $assage we can in%er that ----& A $ ! " # the glaciers around the world are rapidly melting all towns close to the sea are under immediate threat the amount of water held by the glaciers really is enormous the oceans around the world have been rising steadily for some time it will be impossible to prevent flooding if the glaciers continue to meet at this rate


WDS Ien 2002 KA<! The report, Dams an" Development- which has been recently published, provides stark evidence that the world.s E6,LLL large dams which block over half of the world.s rivers, have been failed e4periments. They have failed to produce as much electricity and water, or control as much flood damage, as their backers claim. They regularly suffer huge cost-overruns and time delays. They have made up to KL million people homeless, and their benefits have largely gone to the urban welloff not the rural poor they displace. Horeover, their effects on ecosystems have been disastrous.

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92& Accor"ing to the $assage* the constr ction o% the worl"7s large "ams ----& A $ ! " # has been indirectly responsible for the pollution of rivers has led to a huge increase in electrical production has been to the advantage of rural communities rather than urban ones has forced millions of people to abandon their homes has often caused fierce controversy between the backers and opponents.

91& )t is $ointe" o t in the $assage that the large "ams o% the worl" to"ay ----& A $ ! " # have not given the benefits e4pected of them were primarily built to prevent flooding have proved more cost-effective than originally anticipated have contributed greatly to environmental improvement play a ma9or part in the economic success of individual countries.

93& )t is clear that the %acts gi'en in this $assage abo t "ams ----& A $ ! " # relate to only a small proportion of the world.s dams give a balanced picture of their success and failures make no reference at all to their impact upon the environment overlook the huge e4pense that was entailed in constructing them are derived from a recent report on the sub9ect


WDS Ien 2002 KA<! 1 r n"erstan"ing o% s bmarine 'olcanic er $tions has im$ro'e" s bstantially in the $ast "eca"e owing to the recent ability to remotely "etect s ch e'ents an" to res$on" rabi"ly with brief surveys and sampling at the eruption site. $ut these data are necessarily limited to observations after the event. In contrast, the 2JJK eruption of the A4ial volcano on the Puan de ?uce ridge was monitored by on site sea-floor instruments. 5ne of these instruments, which measured bottom pressure, was overrun and entrapped by the 2JJK lava flow. The data recorded by this discovered. The data recorded by this instrument reveal the duration, character and effusion rate of an eruption on a mid-ocean ridge.

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9:& Accor"ing to the $assage* with the ai" o% instr ments $lace" on the ocean %loor* ----& A $ ! " a great deal of information correcting the eruption of the A4ial volcano was obtained a lot of data have been collected concerning oceanic eruptions throughout the world it is now possible to anticipate when volcanic eruptions are going to take place scientists can now watch the volcanic activities at an eruption site while they are actually happening we have come to understand the part played by bottom pressure during a volcanic eruption

94& Accor"ing to the $assage* it is only within the last ten years or so that A $ ! " # the studies made of the A4ial volcano have given rise to a great deal of controversy scientists have reali&ed how important under ocean volcanic activity is it has been possible to monitor volcanic eruptions under the sea the effusions rate of the A4ial volcano has increased noticeably the geological causes of volcanic activity under the sea have been ma9or scientific concern.

9;& Je can concl "e %rom the $assage that the st "y o% s bmarine 'olcanic acti'ity ----& A $ ! is concerned more with the duration of an eruption than with its other aspects has so far made very likely progress has focused primarily upon the A4ial volcano ever since 2JJK

D) has been greatly im$ro'e" by early "etection o% s ch acti'ity # is fre7uently made more difficult due to the sudden uncontrolled flow1 of lava.


?$"s ?as3m 2002 (7; -M0) In modern times, it was perhaps the Sgentleman scientistsS of the nineteenth century who came closest to a genuinely ob9ective form of scientific research. !hese $ri'ilege" amate rs en(oye" a %inancial in"e$en"ence which most scientists to"ay cannot ha'e, an" which enable" them to satis%y their scienti%ic c riosity witho t the nee" to $lease $atrons. With the growth of scientific research after World War II, science has become an e4pensive occupation. Hany scientists today look back upon the 2JILs as a golden age of modern-day science, when research was mainly % n"e" by the taN$ayer, and scientific en7uiry was seen by governments to be part of the public good, and worth paying for. Today, the situation is very different. SAcademic freedomS is now often little more than an illusion for most scientists working at universities or in publicly-funded research institutes. Horeover, science is now largely "ominate" by the interests o% the in" strial worl", and hence, hardly deserves the name SscienceS.

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7M& !he writer o% the $assage arg es that contem$orary scienti%ic research ---A) is* to a large eNtent* controlle" by the interests o% in" stry $ ! " # finds its best milieu within the universities is advancing at an incredibly fast rate offers one of the most e4citing and stimulating of careers is far more concerned with theory than with any practical application

79& !he writer o% the $assage regar"s the _gentleman scientists_ o% the nineteenth cent ry as $ri'ilege" beca se ----& A $ the choice of field was rapidly e4panding there were plenty of patrons willing to finance them scientific research was still in its early stages and it was easy to discover something new they were always well-rewarded for their efforts

@) they were nrestricte" by %inancial $ress res " #

7;& Accor"ing to the $assage* the ma(or "i%%erence between the _gentleman scientists_ an" $resent "ay ones ----& A has fre7uently been ignored by governments and universities

M0& !he $hrase _$art o% the $ blic goo"_ (line 14-1:) in e%%ect means ----& A $ ! # deserving of a good public setting good standards for society ensuring a better future for society recogni&ed by the general public as being good

+) is that the %ormer were %ree to research as they chose* while the latter are not ! " # has become a highly controversial issue in university circles is not nearly so obvious as some people believe it to be the former were less ob9ective in their research methods than the latter are

D) bene%icial to society

77& !he writer $oints o t that in the 19;0s ---A $ ! research activities were largely carried out under the sponsorship of industry scientists believed that they were entering upon a golden age academic freedom was already a thing of the past

D) scientists carrie" o t their research acti'ities at the $ blic eN$ense # scientific research largely concentrated on meeting the needs of war


?$"s ?as3m 2002 (7; -M0) Some people believe that meat consumption contributes to famine and depletes the #arth.s natural resources. Indeed, it is often argued that cows and sheep re7uire pasturage that could be better used to grow grain for starving millions in poor countries. Additionally, claims are made that raising livestock re7uires more water than raising plants foods. $ut both these argument are illogical. As for the pasturage argument, this ignores the fact that a large portion of the #arth.s dry land is unsuited to cultivation. ?or instance, desert and mountainous areas are not suitable for cultivation, but are suitable for animal gra&ing. 0owever, modern commercial farming methods prefer to raise animals in an enclosed space feeding them on grains and soybeans. Mnfortunately, the bulk of commercial livestock is not range-fed but stall-fed. Stall-fed animals do not ingest grasses and shrubs Dlike they should but are fed on unnatural array of grains and soybeans, which could be eaten by humans. The argument here, then, is not that eating meat depletes the #arth.s resources, but that commercial farming methods do. Such methods sub9ect livestock to deplorable living conditions where infections, antibiotics and synthetic hormones are common. These all lead to an unhealthy animal and, by e4tension, to unhealthy food product. ;& 1ne im$ortant $oint ma"e in this $assage is that ----& A $ ! " # desert and mountainous regions should be developed as amble land for cultivation the way livestock is raised on modern farms involves various health ha&ards more encouragement should be given to the application of modern farming technologies meat production in the developed world needs to be increased to combat famine every measure must be taken to conserve the #arth.s natural resources M&

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@ontrary to what is o%ten arg e"* the $assage $oints o t that ----& A $ ! " # synthetic hormones can be used to improve the 7uality of meat underdeveloped countries need to adopt modern farming methods in order to overcome famine gra&ing for sheep and cows needs to be upgraded so as to increase meat production the famine in the world is not directly related to the consumption of meat a very e4tensive part of the earth.s surface is ideally suitable for the cultivation of crops


!he writer attac,s $resent "ay commercial %arming metho"s ----& A $ ! " # but admits that there is a higher production rate than there was with earlier b methods though the end product is e4tremely healthy and claims that they are responsible for depleting the natural resources of the world though it ensures that there is sufficient food for everyone because, among other things, it makes no effort to cultivate dry, mountainous regions

10& +y the _$ast rage arg ment_ (line 9) is meant the arg ment that ----& A the land used for animal gra&ing ought to be cultivated and used to grow grain livestock should be stalled on grains and not allowed to gra&e freely cultivated land ought to be turned into pasturage only cattle that are allowed to gra&e freely produce good meat dry mountainous areas could be watered and turned into good pasturage


1ne arg ment that is clearly o$$ose" in the $assage ----& A $ ! " # concerns the value of antibiotics in the raising of healthy livestock concerns the introduction of soybeans as the basic feed for livestock is related to the inade7uate methods employed in the prevention of famine is that livestock need water as much as plants do is that land used for pasturage should be utili&ed for the cultivation crops

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?$"s ?as3m 2002 (91-9:) ?ast-food is such a pervasive part of American life that it has become synonymous with American culture. ?ast-food was born in America and it has now swollen into a c2LI-billion industry. America e4ports fast-food worldwide, and its attendant corporate culture has probably been more influential and done more to destroy local food economies and cultural diversity than any government propaganda program could hope to accomplish. <o corner of the earth is safe from its presence and no aspect of life is unaffected. ?astfood is now found in shopping malls, airports, hospitals, gas stations, stadiums, on trains, and increasingly, in schools. There are ;@,LLL restaurants in one chain alone, and another ;,LLL are being opened every year. Its effect has been the same on the millions of people it feeds daily and on the people it employs. ?ast-food culture has changed how we work, from its assembly-line kitchens filled with robotic frying machines to the trite phrases spoken to customers by its poorly paid part-time workforce. In the Mnited States, more than 6N per cent of the population eat meals away from home on any given day and they spend more money on fast-food than they do on higher education, personal computers, or even on new cars. 11& !his $assage on American7s %ast-%oo" in" stry ----& A $ ! " # shows convincingly that it is falling into disfavor is clearly written by someone who loves good food concentrates on negative aspects gives a rational account of why it grew so fast reveals the support it received from government propaganda

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13& 1ne $oint that recei'es a lot o% attention in the $assage is ----& A $ ! " # the fact that fast-food is now more popular outside the MS than it is inside the fact that fast-food meets our dietary needs the consideration the fast-food companies show to their employees the far-reaching effects of the fast-food industry the idea that in such places as gas stations and trains fast-food is actually the only practical kind of food

14& !he writer o% the $assage clearly regrets the %act that ----& A $ ! " # the fast-food companies cannot afford to pay even their part-time workers ade7uate salaries the growth of the fast-food industry has now come to a halt there are still more traditional restaurants than fast-food ones the fast-food industry cannot retain the high standards with which it started local and traditional styles of food are being pushed off the market

12& !he wor" _swollen_ in line 4 ----& A $ ! " # emphasi&es the speed at which the industry has grown suggests that the growth is e4cessive and unhealthy has very positive connotations draws attention to the inevitability of the growth of the industry implies that the industry will continue to grow on steadily

1:& !he assertion at the en" o% the $assage that Americans s$en" more money on %ast-%oo" than they "o on higher e" cation ----& A $ ! is a criticism of the amount of money spent on fast-food by Americans suggests that Americans are greedy for good food means that 6N percent of the American population has very little money left over when it has paid for its food is an indication that higher education in the MS is not e4pensive is, in the light of the rest of the passage, a gross e4aggeration

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?$"s ?as3m 2002 (9;-100) #ven though there have been truly significant advances in modern medicine, health problems still abound and cause untold misery. Although heart disease and cancer were rare at the beginning of the ;Lth century, today these two diseases strike with increasing fre7uency, in spite of billions of dollars in research to combat them, and in spite of tremendous advances in diagnostic and surgical techni7ues. In America, one person in three suffers from allergies, one in ten has ulcers and one in five is mentally ill. #very year, a 7uarter of a million infants are born with a birth defect and undergo e4pensive surgery, or are hidden away in institutions. 5ther degenerative diseases such as arthritis, multiple sclerosis, diabetes, and chronic fatigue afflict a significant ma9ority of Americans. ?urther learning disabilities make life miserable for seven million young people and their parents. These diseases were e4tremely rare only a generation or two ago. Today, chronic illness afflicts nearly half of all Americans and causes three out of four deaths in the Mnited States. 1;& 1ne $oint that is stresse" in the $assage abo t the American $eo$le is that ----& A $ ! " # they are less liable to degenerative diseases than most other peoples the rate of infant mortality among them is rising rapidly there is an alarming lack of communication between parents and their children the incidence of cancer among them is slowly being reduced due to medical advances in one way or another, a very large proportion of them have health problems

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1M& !he writer o% this $assage "raws o r attention to ----& A $ the fact that it is young people who are the most affected by degenerative diseases the parado4 that medicine today has improved remarkably, but more and more people are suffering from various diseases the commonly-held view that cancer will, in a few decades, be completely eradicated the argument that good health depends upon a healthy diet and early diagnosis the possibility that it is mental rather than physical health that is going to be the ma9or problem of the future in the MS

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19& !he $assage stresses that ill-health gi'es rise to a great "eal o% misery ----& A $ ! " # which is not confined to the patient alone which is largely associated with pain especially in the case of chronic illness even before an accurate diagnosis has been made especially when the symptoms are severe

17& Accor"ing to the $assage* cancer an" heart "iseases are on the increase ----& A $ ! " # and most of the cures have serious side-effects due to problems of diagnosis which for the present seem insurmountable since research so far carried out in these fields has been 7uite inade7uate even though a great deal of money is being spent on research into them but very little is being done by the authorities to combat them

20& )n line 1:-1; o% the $assage the term _signi%icant ma(ority_ re%ers to ----& A $ ! " # an articulate ma9ority a statistically small ma9ority a large and important ma9ority a rapidly increasing ma9ority an une4pected but continuing ma9ority


?$"s Kay3s 2003 (M; -90) Scientists who study #arth.s moon have two big regrets about the si4 Apollo missions that landed a do&en astronauts on the lunar surface between 2JIJ and 2JN;. The biggest regret, of course, is that the missions ended so abruptly, with so much of the moon still une4plored. $ut researchers also lament that the great triumph of Apollo led to a popular misconception> because astronauts have visited the moon, there is no compelling reason to go back. In the 2JJLs, however, two probes that orbited the moon raised new 7uestions about #arth.s airless satellite. 5ne stunning discovery was strong evidence of water ice in the perpetually shadowed areas near the moon.s poles. $ecause scientists believe that comets deposited water and organic compounds on both #arth and its moon, well-preserved ice at the lunar poles could yield clues to the origins of life. 21& !he $oint ma"e in the $assage is that it may be $ossible to P& A $ ! " # come to a better understanding of comets through the study of the moon learn more about the beginnings of life from the ice at the moon.s poles resume Apollo missions as there is evidence of water on the moon identify the origin of the organic compounds found on the moon have a full knowledge of the moon without sending any more astronauts there

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23& Accor"ing to the $assage* e'en tho gh there were siN A$ollo missions to the moon ro ghly thirty years ago* P& A $ ! " # none of them could claim to be successful man.s knowledge of the moon has not increased at all a very large proportion of the lunar surface remains to date une4amined it was only the lunar poles that were e4plored fully the idea of sending astronauts back to the moon seems even more farfetched than formerly

24& As we n"erstan" %rom the $assage* a great many $eo$le P& A $ ! " # believe lunar missions should continue indefinitely regard the Apollo missions as a scientific breakthrough are sure the moon cannot support life feel that the very fact that man has landed on the moon is enough regard scientific investigations of the moon as unfeasible

22& As is $ointe" o t in the $assage* one signi%icant o tcome o% the l nar $robes in the 1990s was ----& A $ ! " # the staggering finding of evidence of water on the moon the focussing of scientific attention on the comets the resumption of lunar missions the reali&ation that life is possible on the moon the reali&ation that there were great similarities between earth and moon ! " # 2:& A ma(or $oint ma"e in the $assage is that P& A $ comets hold the secrets of the origins of life in the universe the si4 Apollo missions to the moon were a great scientific success the chances of finding water on the moon are very slim the probes of the 2JJLs demonstrated that the lunar landings should has continued scientists are agreed that there is nothing further to learn about the moon


?$"s Kay3s 2003 (91 -9:) The MS <ational Institute of Standards and Technology D<IST will soon be testing a controversial theory about the collapse of the World Trade !enter towers. According to an analysis by a leading fire-safety e4pert, had the fire-proofing insulation on the towers. steel structures been thicker, the towers would have survived longer and might even have remained standing after they were hit by the hi9acked planes. The work is being sei&ed on by lawyers representing victims. families and insurance companies. If confirmed, it could also lead to changes in building codes. <IST is responsible for drawing up the final report on the towers. collapses and recommending if any changes are needed. It is widely accepted that the collapses were caused by the failure of the buildings. steel structure as it was weakened by the heat of the fires. 2;& As it is $ointe" o t in the $assage* it is commonly recogni5e" that the main ca se %or the colla$se o% the twin towers P& A $ ! " # will only be understood after the release of a detailed report by <IST can never be established beyond doubt was the weakening of the steel structure due to the heat of the fire was not f-o much due to the heat of the fires as to the force of the impact of the hi9acked planes is of special interest to insurance companies

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2M& As we learn %rom the $assage* a s$ecialist in %iresa%ety P& A $ ! " # puts the blame for the collapse of the towers on the thin fire-proofing insulation is to blame for negligence as regards the burning of the twin towers has been cooperating with the victims. lawyers to start legal procedures has been commissioned to prepare a report on the collapse of the towers should have been aware of the structural weakness of the towers and given due warning

29& As is $ointe" o t in the $assage* the ina"e= acy o% the %ire-$roo%ing ins lation o% the towers P& A $ ! " # has been accepted by <IST as the main cause of the collapse has aroused a great deal of legal attention is less important than the weakness of the steel structure as the cause of the collapse had long been recogni&ed by fire-safety e4perts as the weakest point in their construction has never been considered by any serious body

27& )t is clear %rom the $assage that P& A the strength or the steel structure of the towers had been 7uestioned when the designs we1e drawn up <IST has already made a thorough study of the collapse of the towers the reason for the sudden collapse of the two towers is still under debate the structure of the twin towers was in many respects well below standard the hi9acked planes hit the weakest parts of the twin towers 30& Accor"ing to the $assage* i% the tower colla$se theory concerning the %ire-$roo%ing ins lation $ro'es to be tr e* P& A $ ! " # this will have, even so, no direct bearing on the fight against terrorism the victims. families will get no compensation this will free <IST from all blame then lawyers will have no grounds for ob9ections then <IST will probably introduce new building regulations

$ ! " #


?$"s ?as3m 2003 (M;-90) The Sahara desert takes up most of #gypt.s land, so overcrowding is a huge problem. Si4ty-two million people live s7uee&ed together into the si4 million fertile acres along the <ile delta and narrow river valley - 9ust five per cent of the total area of #gypt. $etween 2; and 26 million people live in !airo alone. Mntil recently, it was impractical and dangerous to even consider moving into the southern desert, where temperatures regularly rise above 6L ! and water is scarce and can only be reached using carefully placed irrigation wells. $ut in the last ;L years a S<ew CalleyS has slowly been taking shape. Towns with industrial centres, tourist areas and spacious apartment blocks are being constructed, factories are springing up. The main development making this possible is the construction of the vast Sheikh Wayed canal, also known as the Toshka canal. <amed for Sheikh Wayed al <ahya, president of the Mnited Arab #mirates, which is financially backing the pro9ect, the canal is part of the irrigation scheme dreamed up by the #gyptian government to make it possible for people to move away from the traffic, pollution and bustle of !airo. If a Ssecond <ileS cuts through the desert and water is distributed to surrounding land, people and crops can thrive there as they do around the e4isting <ile. The area is becoming known as the <ew Calley. 31& Je n"erstan" %rom the $assage that the canal n"er constr ction ----& A $ ! " # is designed to meet the water needs of !airo and other cities constitutes 9ust a portion of a massive irrigation pro9ect will bring fertility to the whole of the Sahara will irrigate only 6] of the total area of #gypt passes through an overcrowded part of the country A $ ! " #

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was originally proposed by Sheikh Wayed al <ahya of the Mnited Arab #mirates has already started to transform the economic potential of #gypt is primarily an agricultural one, and industrial activity is not provided for is very near to completion and large numbers of people have already moved in is proving far more problematic than was originally foreseen

34& )t is clearly state" in the $assage that almost the whole o% Cgy$t7s $o$ lation ----* A $ ! " # lives along the <ile Calley and its delta wants to move into the <ew Calley is engaged in agricultural activities rather than in industrial ones holds Sheikh Wayed al <ahya in great esteem is dubious about the outcome of the <ew Calley pro9ect

3:& )t is $ointe" o t in the $assage that the irrigation $ro(ect %or the Eew [alley ----& A $ ! has received a mi4ed reaction from the general public is going to cost the #gyptian government vast sums of money has primarily been designed to case the overcrowding in !airo will enable #gypt to recover from its chronic economic recession will make the inhospitable desert far more easily accessible

32& As it is $ointe" o t in the $assage* one o% the bene%its o% the Eew [alley will be that ----& A $ ! " # #gypt will change from an agricultural country into a fully industrial one #gypt can at last start a tourist industry the overcrowding in !airo and the <ile delta area will be reduced the hot, dry desert climate of #gypt will be rapidly modified it will set an e4ample for the developed world to invest in desert pro9ects

" #

33& Je can concl "e %rom the $assage that the Eew [alley $ro(ect* which has been n"erway %or ro ghly two "eca"es* ----&

?DDS ?as3m 2003 (9; Z 100) The space shuttle and its rockets are huge - some E.6 million pounds at lift-off. About K6 per cent of that weight is fuel. Since it is designed to work in a vacuum, the shuttle must carry not only fuel but the o4ygen to burn it. $ecause this is an inefficient way to go, <ASA engineers have recently tested an engine that gets some of its o4ygen on the run. This should reduce takeoff weights by half. A spacecraft e7uipped with this engine would take off like a rocket. $ut within minutes, incoming air would begin to supplement li7uid o4ygen. 5nce the spacecraft reaches a speed of 2,6LL miles per hour - twice the speed of sound - the li7uid o4ygen would shut off completely and the engine would burn fuel mi4ed with air. !onse7uently the craft would accelerate to about ten times the speed of sound. When the air got too thin for the engine to breathe, the ship would shift back to rocket mode to punch its way into space. 3;& Accor"ing to the $assage* a new roc,et engine is $resently being "e'elo$e" to ----& A $ ! " # reach previously unimagined speeds make space travel more comfortable and feasible halve the weight of a space shuttle at lift-off enable <ASA to remain in the forefront of space e4ploration reduce the physical effects of the atmosphere on the shuttle

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3M& As the $assage $oints o t* a s$ace sh ttle re= ires oNygen ----& A $ ! " # only when it is travelling within the atmosphere if it is to attain very high speeds but only in its li7uid form in order to burn the fuel in 7uite small 7uantities e4cept at lift-off

39& !he $oint is ma"e in the $assage that the reason %or "e'elo$ing the new engine is to ----& A $ ! " # reduce the time it takes the shuttle to e4ceed the speed of sound double the speed at which the shuttle travels economi&e on the use of li7uid o4ygen eliminate the need for li7uid o4ygen and thus cut down on the shuttle.s weight allow the shuttle to function in a vacuum

37& Je learn %rom the $assage that in the s al s$ace sh ttle* the weight ----& A $ ! " # makes high speeds impossible consists very largely of fuel does not pose any serious problem of the li7uid o4ygen is enormous of the rockets is insignificant

40& )t is clear %rom the $assage that* - once there is not s %%icient air to b rn the % el* then ----& A $ ! " # the speed of the shuttle increases to over ten times the speed of sound the engine reverts back to using the li7uid o4ygen aboard the shuttle the engine starts to increase the speed of the shuttle it is impossible for the shuttle to accelerate any further the rocket can no longer function efficiently


?$"s Kay3s 2004 (7; Z M0) $ehavioural biologist Pane Atkinson and her colleagues have been studying the subtleties of how crows steal food from one another. Atkinson had been watching the birds at the beach as they fed on fish, clams and other small animals in the intertidal &one. She noticed that if a crow had found a particularly large meal that couldn.t be eaten in a single gulp, another crow would often come by and try to steal the food away. ?ood theft is fairly common in the bird world, so the crows. thievery wasn.t une4pected. What really intrigued Atkinson was that the birds employed two different tactics to take the food. In some instances, the thieving bird would take an aggressive approach \ typically involving some chasing or physical contact, such as pecking in other e4changes, however, the thief would use a more passive method> merely approaching the other bird secretively and stealing the food without any commotion at all. What the team wanted to know was> how did these tactics fit into the group foraging practices of the crows8 41& Accor"ing to the $assage* the = estion that intereste" the research team was ----& A $ ! " # whether the crows. stealing practices were instinctive or ac7uired why the crows chose to steal related to the crows. foraging practices whether the nature of the food affected the degree of attempted theft whether the stealing practices of crows differed from those of other birds

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43& Accor"ing to the $assage* when one crow $lans to steal %oo" %rom another one* ---A $ ! " # this is really a means of establishing its superiority it will invariably try to do so in the first place without being seen there will inevitably be a fight between the two this is a sure sign that both crows are really hungry it will sometimes approach 7uite openly and boldly

44& Je n"erstan" %rom the $assage that so long as a crow ----& A $ ! " # can swallow its food at one gulp, it will encounter no challenge can find food easily, it will not steal from another crow can get food by stealing, it won.t look elsewhere for it has eaten well, it is unlikely to try to steal food is able to steal food without fighting, this is the method it will favour

42& )t is clear %rom the $assage that the research team was not s r$rise" that the crows were trying to steal %rom each other common ---A $ ! " # because this is a practice among birds since there was a scarcity of food at the time though crows don.t steal food as often as other birds do but it was surprised at their rate of success but the bitterness of the fight came as a surprise

4:& )t is clear %rom the $assage that Vane At,inson an" her colleag es ---A $ ! " # knew much more about crows than about any other type of bird. are specialist in bird behaviour are only interested in the eating habits of birds are particularly interested in the different types of food that crows like to eat are impressed by the similarity between stealing practices of ail bird species


?$"s Kay3s 2004 (91 Z 9:) Throughout history, eyewitnesses have reported orange glows, fireballs or flashes in the days before and during an earth7uake. It was in 2JIK, however, that the first photographs of Gearth7uake lightsS were taken during a series of earth7uakes in Papan. Some showed red streaks across the sky. 5thers looked like a low blue dawn from a distance. in 2JJJ, floating bails of light in the sky were broadcast on Turkish television, reportedly filmed the night before the devastating earth7uake of N.E on the Oichter scale that killed many thousand people in the Harmara region of Turkey. Hysterious or not, repeated sightings of earth7uake lights confirm their e4istence. it has to be said that earth7uake lights are a fairly wellknown phenomenon, but we don.t know what they mean, or what causes them. Seismologists have struggled far years to find a reliable earth7uake predictor. !ould the lights hold the key8 4;& )n the $assage* the writer won"ers whether ----& A $ ! " # earth7uakes lights might help in the prediction of earth7uakes the orange glows supposedly sighted before an earth7uake were actually seen the photographs taken of earth7uake lights in Papan are of any scientific use earth7uakes cause the lights, or whether the lights cause the earth7uakes the devastation caused by the Harmara earth7uake could have been prevented

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4M& Je n"erstan" %rom the $assage that the sighting o% earth= a,e lights ----& A $ ! " # has led to a great deal of confused and contradictory reporting among seismologists first occurred in Papan is a fairly recent phenomenon in Papan has attracted virtually no scientific attention from seismologists goes back a very long way in time

49& )t is $ointe" o t in the $assage that the $hotogra$hic recor"ing o% earth= a,e lights ----& A $ ! " # was made for the first time less than half a century ago was only done with great success during the Harmara earth7uake is what finally convinced people of their e4istence is widely regarded as a visual deception #-has always been a ma9or concern for seismologists

47& !he $assage em$hasi5es the %act that the Karmara earth= a,e ----& A $ ! " # was televised as it was happening was followed by strange lights in the sky was indeed a catastrophic one greatly pu&&led seismologists took everyone, seismologists included, by surprise

:0& !he writer o% the $assage seems to be con%i"ent that ----& A $ ! " # seismology is advancing rapidly through the study of earth7uakes lights future earth7uakes will be reliably predicted by means of earth7uake lights ! earth7uake lights have fre7uently been observed and even filmed the mystery of earth7uake lights can never be resolved the appearance of fireballs and flashes in the sky are a sure sign of an approaching earth7uake


?$"s Kay3s 2004 (9; Z 100) Huch has been said and written about the declining numbers of and disappointing lack of diversity among American college students ma9oring in engineering. Among the factors cited to e4plain this phenomenon are the lack of e4posure of high school students to the very idea of engineering and the fact that many have insufficient mathematics and science background to gain entrance to engineering school, even if they do identify the profession as a possible career. This is unfortunate, for the ideas of engineering should be integrated into the curricula not only of high schools but also of middle and primary schools. 5ur children are being done a disservice by not being e4posed properly throughout their education to engineering activities identified as such. After all, even pre-school children have the prere7uisites in their play for appreciating e4actly what engineering is> design. Indeed, design is everywhere around them throughout their school day, even in their before-school and after-school activities. It need only be pointed out to them that they are designing something, and therefore being engineers of sorts, in virtually everything that they do. :1& !he writer o% the $assage %eels strongly that ----& A $ ! " # children should be involved in engineering activities at an early age many children are being unfairly directed into a career in engineering the mathematics and science courses in schools need to be moderni&ed university engineering courses ought to be upgraded the education of pre-school children is being given too much importance

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:3& !he writer recogni5es the %act that engineering ----& A $ ! " # is becoming less and less popular as a field of study among university students is only suitable for highly intelligent students is a complicated sub9ect only suitable for really mature students has become one of the most popular fields of study at American universities re7uires many years of training prior to 7ualification

:4& Among the reasons gi'en in the $assage %or the "ecline in the n mbers o% engineering st "ents is that ----& A $ ! " # the American schools still follow out-dated curricula university entrance re7uirements are far too demanding it is generally recogni&ed as one of the most difficult of all the courses engineering in the MS is not considered to be a competitive field of study many of them fail to ac7uire an ade7uate knowledge of mathematics and science at high schools

:2& !he writer $oints o t chat chil"ren can* at a 'ery early age ----& A $ ! " # be encouraged to take part in after-school activities develop an interest in scientific matters make up their minds to study engineering at university learn something about the basis of engineering, which is design be influenced by their school environment

::& Accor"ing to the $assage* all school $rogrammes ----& A $ ! " # should be designed to make students aware of the engineering practices and principles ought to give priority to the sciences must encourage children to make creative designs seem to put the emphasis on the need to diversify learning overlook the fact that all children are different


?$"s ?as3m 2004 (M1 Z M:) $y the early 2Jth century the eminent ?rench &oologist /eorges !uvier believed he had found rock-solid evidence for the biblical great flood. While studying the geological strata around Baris, !uvier found that fossils of sea creatures in one ancient layer of chalk were overlaid by those of land creatures. Then, 9ust as abruptly, the layer above contained sea creatures again, with the top layer showing evidence of a vast and rapid inundation around present-day Baris. !uvier regarded these sudden changes in the fossil record as evidence for sudden catastrophes which devastated life on #arth, of which the great flood was 9ust the most recent e4ample. !uvier.s discoveries, published in 2K2;, won support from a large number of eminent scientists such as the geologist Sir Pames 0all. 0owever, there were a few who were deeply sceptical, pointing out that the evidence of a global flood was far from conclusive. Host sceptical of all were the followers of the Scottish geologist Pames 0utton. In 2NJ6, he had published a two-volume te4t based on the view that the slow, steady processes that shape our planet today, such as erosion, were also crucially important in the distant past.

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:M& )t is clear %rom the $assage that @ 'ier ----& A $ ! " # adopted an indifferent attitude towards the attacks of his critics was greatly influenced by 0utton.s theory concerning the #arth.s formation was particularly interested in marine fossils and concentrated on them for research purposes interpreted his fossil discoveries as indications of ma9or catastrophes similar to the great flood had devoted years of research to establishing that the biblical great flood had actually occurred

:9& Accor"ing to the $assage* @ 'ier7s critics ----& A $ were e4tremely 9ealous of his discoveries near Baris felt that there was insufficient geological evidence to confirm that the biblical great flood ever had occurred regarded erosion as only a minor geological process were also e7ually opposed to the views e4pressed by 0utton certainly believed there had been a global flood but did not regard his discoveries as scientifically important

:;& Je learn %rom the $assage that many scientists ----& A $ ! " # gave full support to !uvier.s view that the great flood had actually taken place were not at all impressed by !uvier.s discoveries in the Baris area followed up !uvier.s e4cavations of marine fossils were, like !uvier, engaged in a search for evidence of the great flood ceased to be sceptical of the great flood once Sir Pames 0all had given his support to !uvier ! " #

;0& As we learn %rom the $assage* A tton7s theory was that ----& A :7& )t is $ointe" o t in the $assage that in the co rse o% eNca'ations near Daris @ 'ier ----& A $ ! " # slowly came to recogni&e the geological significance of the biblical great flood was particularly surprised that there were chalk formations in the area was slow to recogni&e the geological importance of marine fossils grew interested in the fossils of sea creatures only after he came across a second layer discovered alternating layers of fossils relating to sea and land creatures long-term geological change, such as erosion, had been of paramount importance in the #arth.s history erosion was the single most important cause of geological change on #arth some geological processes, such as erosion, were relatively recent in the history of the #arth our planet had been sub9ected to countless catastrophes in the distant past the formation of our planet was the outcome of different processes in different places

$ ! " #


?$"s ?as3m 2004 (M; Z 90) <o child is too young to play and therefore to engage in engineering, even though it is of a primitive kind. We all did so as children ourselves when we devised our own toys and games and sometimes even imaginary friends to en9oy them with us. The idea of playfulness is embedded in engineering through the concepts of invention and design. <ot that engineering is trivial3 rather, the heart of the activity is to give imagination its freedom to dream and turn those dreams into reality. !hildren do e4perience the essence of engineering in their earliest activities, yet there is seldom any recognition that this is the case. They may hear the word SengineerS only in connection with railroad locomotives and have no idea that their playful activity could become a lifelong profession. #ngineers themselves are understandably reluctant to e7uate their professional activity with mere child.s play. After all, they studied long and hard to master complicated knowledge of atoms and molecules, stresses and strains, heat and power, current and voltages, bits and bytes. They manipulate e7uations, not blocks. They use computers for serious modelling and calculation, not for fun and games. They design and build real towers and bridges that test the limits of reliability and safety, not toy ones that totter and fall down with little conse7uence.

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;3& As we can see %rom the $assage* the writer is care% l ---A $ ! " # not to e4aggerate the importance of creative play to a child to list all areas that are of concern to an engineer to show how slowly a child.s mental capacity develops not to offend engineers by his comparison to avoid using technical terminology in the passage

;4& )t is s ggeste" in the $assage that chil"ren ---A $ ! " # are not aware of the fact that in their games they are involved in some kind of engineering activity should be constantly encouraged to play games that involve engineering techni7ues love to imitate the activities that go on around them are incapable of imaginative thinking have a primitive perception of life

;1& !he main $oint the writer is ma,ing in this $assage is that ----& A $ ! " # man has practised engineering ever since primitive times some children are born to be engineers children and engineers both have the capacity to imagine and create reliability and safety are minor details for the professional engineer any engineering fault in design or calculation does have serious conse7uences ;:& Accor"ing to the $assage* what chil"ren an" engineers ha'e in common are ---A $ ! " # ;2& 1ne $oint stresse" in the $assage is that $ro%essional engineering ---A $ ! " # is very different from all other scientific activities re7uires more imagination than technical knowledge and calculation makes little use of theoretical knowledge gives priority to design rather than to invention covers a vast field of involved or intricate sub9ects of wide scope reliability and safety e4perience and knowledge invention and design modelling and calculation recognition and reality


?$"s Kay3s 200: (7; Z M0) ?or two decades after World War II, mass production reigned supreme. Hass-production techni7ues pushed companies into standardi&ed products, long product life cycles, and rigid manufacturing, emphasi&ing efficiency and low cost over fle4ibility. Special orders cost more. $ut today.s consumers are very choosy. They want 7uality, value and products specially tailored to their needs, but always at the lowest possible price. ?or now mass customi&ation has come to the fore. Hass customi&ation uses information technology to produce and deliver products and services designed to fit the specifications of individual customers. !ompanies can customi&e products in 7uantities as small as one with the same speed and low cost as mass-production methods. Hass-customi&ation systems use information taken from the customer to control the flow of goods. ;;& Je learn %rom the $assage that mass $ro" ction ----& A $ ! " # has now regained its previous popularity was the leading method of production in the twenty years or so that followed World War II can easily be adapted to meet the needs of individual customers can be very profitable because of the wide appeal of its goods gives priority to 7uality and longevity in the goods produced but ignores aesthetic 7ualities

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;M& +y the $hrase _mass c stomi5ation_* as it is se" in the $assage* is meant the $ro" ction o% goo"s ----& A $ ! " # in very large 7uantities and for general use to meet standardi&ed specifications which will please everyone at high speed regardless of cost designed to have a long life designed to meet the specific needs of individual customers

;9& Accor"ing to the $assage* $resent-"ay c stomers ----& A $ ! " # are encouraged to buy ready-made goods available in the shops are pleased far more easily than customers were in the past do not attach much importance to production methods specify what they want and insist on getting it rarely distinguish between standardi&ed and non-standardi&ed goods

70& !he $oint is ma"e in the $assage that mass c stomi5ation ----& ;7& Je learn %rom the $assage that one o% the characteristics o% mass $ro" ction is ----& A $ ! " # the need to please every customer a disregard for fle4ibility a disregard for cost-effectiveness to take into consideration the specifications given by individual customers the rescheduling of production as the need arises ! " # A $ is no more costly and no more time-consuming than mass production is a system that dates back to the end of World War 22 has actually never been as popular as mass production is primarily concerned with efficiency but overlooks 7uality does not attach much importance to fle4ibility


?$"s Kay3s 200: (M1 Z M:) $efore the Bolish-born ?rench-American mathematician $enoit Handelbrot made his mark on the world, scientists liked to forget about the imperfections and irregularities of nature. The study of perfect s7uares, triangles and planes had dominated their field for over ;,LLL years, since the /reek geometer #uclid wrote maths. oldest treatise S#lementsS and provided us with the tools to measure these flawlessly smooth shapes. #arly 7uestion about how to measure the real shape of a tree, a coastline or anything with a rough edge could not be tackled by #uclidean geometry and had therefore been ignored. $ut Handelbrot changed all this when he invented fractal geometry, which enables us to measure roughness. SHy whole career has been one long, ardent pursuit of the concept of roughnessS, he says. SThe roughness of clusters in the physics of disorder, of turbulent flows, of e4otic noises, of chaotic dynamical systems, of the distribution of gala4ies, of coastlines, of stock-price charts and of mathematical constructions.S

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73& lt is clear %rom the $assage that Kan"elbrot ---& A $ ! only began to work on the concept of roughness at a later stage in his career finds the concept of roughness immensely e4citing, and apparent in widely different areas worked on the concept of roughness because he wanted to prove that #uclid.s theories were contradictory didn=t discover fractal geometry but worked to e4tend its uses has still to convince the scientific world of the value of fractal geometry

" #

74& 1ne $oint ma"e in the $assage is that C cli"ean geometry ----& A has led to a better appreciation of the irregularities in nature has had to be modified in the light of new discoveries has been shown to be invalid is not universally applicable doesn.t deserve the respect it has en9oyed for ;,LLL years

71& )t is clear %rom the $assage that* be%ore Kan"elbrot7s conce$ts attracte" the attention o% the scienti%ic worl"* ----& A $ ! " # mathematics followed the lead of #uclid and concentrated on regular shapes everyone felt that #uclidean geometry was inade7uate scientists relied on #uclidean geometry to measure trees and e4otic noises Handelbrot almost lost confidence in the concept of roughness Handelbrot was careful to limit the scope of his studies into roughness

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7:& Accor"ing to the $assage* %ractal geometry ----& 72& Accor"ing to the $assage* C cli"ean geometry can* in a way* be regar"e" as ha'ing ha" a negati'e e%%ect $on the "e'elo$ment o% mathematics beca se it ----& A $ ! " # can be neither substantiated nor disproved is too involved with measurement makes the investigation of roughness impossible is far too comprehensive put forward the concept of roughness A $ ! " # makes possible the measurement of anything with a rough edge is actually, as regards method, very similar to #uclidean geometry is merely an e4tension of #uclidean geometry is well on the way to replacing #uclidean geometry entirely is 9ust one of several remarkable innovations propounded by Handelbrot

?$"s Kay3s 200: (9;-100)


Why does sea water taste salty8 It is a 7uestion that has been asked by countless people down the ages. And the answer seems straightforward> rain constantly erodes the surface of the #arth, washing a mi4 of natural chemicals into rivers and thence into the sea. The most water-soluble and abundant of these 9ust happen to taste salty. All very simple. 5r is it8 After all, erosion has been taking place for millions of years, dumping ever more of these salty compounds into the sea, yet the concentration is still far below the saturation level. So the real mystery is not why the sea tastes salty, but why it isn.t utterly packed with salt, and as lifeless as the "ead Sea. 0ere is another curious thing about our planet. Its atmosphere has e4isted for billions of years, and yet it still contains a mi4 of highly reactive gases like o4ygen and methane. Why haven.t they settled down into a boring unreactive atmosphere like that of Hars or Cenus8 7;& Accor"ing to the $assage* the most im$ortant an" %ascinating = estion abo t salt an" the sea isR ----` A $ ! " # why do certain natural elements taste salty8 how much salt is there in the sea how does the salt get to the sea when will the salt in the sea reach saturation level why isn.t the sea more salty A $ ! " #

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it is dangerous to interfere with the balance of nature everything in the universe has an e4planation many of the facts about various planets are e4ceedingly boring all the seas in the world will eventually be like the "ead Sea what may seem simple and straightforward may actually not be so

79& )t is clear %rom the $assage that writer o%ten won"ers abo t why ----& A $ ! " # certain gases are not highly reactive there is no end to the chemicals that are carried into the sea the world is as it is people are not attracted to the "ead Sea the atmosphere of Hars is similar to that of Cenus

77& 1ne $oint ma"e in the $assage is that nanswere" = estions abo t the worl" an" the ni'erse ----& A $ ! " # will, at some point in the future, be answered in a satisfactory manner are now very few in number are unimportant and can be ignored help to highlight the mysteries of the world are only of interest to scientists

M0& !he $hrase _( st ha$$en to_ s $$orts the writer7s 'iew o% the worl" as a $lace ----& A $ ! " # where many phenomena remain ine4plicable where everything goes according to a master plan where most occurrences have a logical e4planation of continuous and relentless change of little interest to anyone who is interested in science

7M& 1ne aim o% the writer in this $assage is to ma,e $eo$le reali5e that ----&

?$"s ?as3m 200: (M1 Z M:) 5ne of the greatest natural catastrophes the world will ever see could be little more than a decade away. The film Supervolcano traces the evolution of an enormous volcanic eruption - one that not only wipes out several states of America but that threatens the entire planet. $ut is such an eruption really possible8 Well, supervolcanoes certainly aren.t fiction. a normal part of the way the #arth works and occur perhaps every 6L,LLL years. #very statistic associated with a supereruption is always wildly over-e4aggerated. Holten magma is blasted out at a rate 2EL times greater than the flow of water over the Cictoria-?alls. Ash and gas are thrown more than 6Lkm upwards to the edge of space before falling over one percent of the #arth.s surface. #nough ash would pile up on the ground to bury $ritain under a blanket Em thick. ?urther, devastating winds carrying burning gas and red hot ash would scour the land surface over an area of 2L,LLL s7uare kilometers. Worst of all, a super-eruption is followed by a dramatic fall in global temperatures, leading to years and years of bitter cold known as a volcanic winter. M1& Je n"erstan" %rom the $assage that the %ilm Supervolcano ----& A $ ! " # gives a convincing and credible account of an imminent super-eruption has attracted a great deal of attention in the scientific world has aroused little interest among the general public focuses on the horrors of a volcanic winter presents a futuristic account of the effects of a volcanic super-eruption

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M3& Accor"ing to the $assage* one o% the "e'astating conse= ences %ollowing a s $er-er $tion wo l" be ----& A $ ! " # the complete destruction of America and $ritain a very long period of e4cessive cold on earth that deep layers of volcanic ash would cover the whole surface of the planet the drying-up of all water sources on earth a dramatic increase of heat on earth, the result of burning gas

M4& !he writer seems con'ince" that ----& A $ ! " # super-eruptions really do occur at long but fairly regular intervals no part of the MS could possibly survive a supereruption $ritain would be the first region of the planet to be buried under the ashes of a super-eruption A volcanic winter, following a super-eruption, would wipe out life on earth there is no likelihood of a super-eruption happening in the near future

M2& )n this "ramatic acco nt o% the %ilm Supervolcano* the writer ----& A $ ! " # urges the general public to go and see the film is primarily concerned with the measures needed to contain a super-eruption essentially deals with the causes of a supereruption also includes certain specific details is obsessed with the idea that the end of the world is very near

M:& Accor"ing to the $assage* the "estr ction ca se" by a 'olcanic s $er-er $tion ----& A $ ! " # could lead to the break-up of the entire planet . could be contained, if not prevented would be on an unimaginably huge scale would result largely from the flow of molten magma can only be guessed at as one has never occurred


?$"s ?as3m 200: (9; Z 100) The discovery of an ancient tomb in modern !hina is so commonplace that it often annoys as much as e4cites, because it can delay construction for months or even years. So when archeologists were called in fast Hay to check structures discovered during the e4pansion of a bonemeal factory in a southern suburb of $ei9ing, they weren.t e4pecting to find anything of great interest. To the archeologists. surprise, the structures were the remains of two traditional domed tombs, each over a thousand years old. 5ne was flooded and badly damaged, but the other Scontained beautifullypreserved wall frescoes from the 2Lth century. SIt.s only recently that the !hinese have been publishing artifacts from ancient tombs, and it.s unusual to see them in the Western press,S says "r Pessica Oawson, Brofessor of 5riental Art and Archeology at 54ford Mniversity. M;& Je learn %rom the $assage that the @hinese ----& A $ ! " # show archeologists a great deal of respect are very proud of their ancient archeological heritage are very skilled in the art of frescoes often have mi4ed feelings when an ancient tomb is discovered used to prefer tombs without domes to those with domes

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MM& Accor"ing to Dro%essor <awson in the $assage* @hina ----& A $ ! " # has only recently emerged as an area of interest for archeologists has only 9ust started to publish art ob9ects for the West is noted for its ancient domed tombs with frescoes continues to be very secretive about its archeological finds has the finest frescoes anywhere in the world

M9& Je n"erstan" %rom the $assage that only one o% the tombs nearthe" " ring eNtension wor, at a %actory in +ei(ing ----& A $ ! " # attracted the attention of "r Oawson had a domed roof which was undamaged could be dated back to the 2Lth century revealed frescoes in e4cellent condition caused a delay in the pro9ect

M7& )t is clear %rom the $assage that in @hina to"ay the $rogress o% a constr ction wor, ----& A $ ! " # is very often hindered by the une4pected discovery of ancient tombs is fre7uently supervised by archeologists is liable to be delayed for a variety of reasons depends, to a certain e4tent, on weather conditions often runs parallel with archeological e4cavations

90& !he $assage $oints o t that the archeologists who were calle" in ----& A $ ! " # were not impressed by the frescoes on the walls of one of the tombs weren.t e4pecting to discover tombs of such great value in a suburb of $ei9ing made ancient tombs their specialty had published e4tensively in the western press were annoyed by the discovery of two ancient tombs in $ei9ing


?$"s Kay3s 200; (7; Z M0) #ngineering is akin to writing or painting in that it is a creative endeavor that begins in the mind=s eye and proceeds into new frontiers of thought and action, where it does not so much find as make new things. Pust as the poet starts with a blank sheet of paper and the artist with a blank canvas, so the engineer today begins with a blank computer screen. Mntil the outlines of a design are set down, however tentatively, there can be no appeal to science or to critical analysis to 9udge or test the design. Scientific, rhetorical or aesthetic principles may be called on to inspire, refine and finish a design, but creative things do not come of applying the principles alone. Without the sketch of a thing or a diagram of a process, scientific facts and laws are of little use to engineers. Science may be the theater, but engineering is the action on the stage. 91& !he writer#s main aim in this $assage is to ----& A $ ! " # show how many different types of creativity there are stress the creative and constructive aspects of an engineer=s work compare and contrast the way poets and painters work show that literary creativity is superior to the painter=s creativity establish the fact that it is the engineers= scientific knowledge that makes him creative

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93& !he $oint is ma"e in the $assage that aesthetic $rinci$les ----& A $ ! " # have no place in an engineer=s design are central to the very best works of art and creativity are two very different things cannot be taught or learnt can infuse life into an ill-conceived poem

94& )t can be in%erre" %rom the $assage that* once a $oet has achie'e" the basic core o% his $oem* ----& A $ ! " # the creative process is complete he tends to lose interest in it he should wait a while before transcribing it onto a blank sheet of paper aesthetic principles may help him to intensify and complete it he must start to e4amine it for flaws and then remove them

92& Je n"erstan" %rom the $assage that* %or the engineer* scienti%ic laws ----& A $ ! " # only have a role to play after a design has taken some sort of form are only relevant in details concerning safety are a constant factor all through the creative process of design play an important role only when it comes to finali&ing certain details are rarely applicable at any stage in his pro9ects

9:& Accor"ing to the writer o% the $assage* each act o% creati'ity ----& A $ ! " # necessitates the crossing of frontiers and entry into unknown regions is dependent upon a storehouse of closely related knowledge arises almost e7ually out of thought and inspiration and knowledge has some bearing on other acts of creativity in one sphere of endeavour has its counterpart in another


?$"s Kay3s 200; (91 Z 9:) The natives of the Aewis Island know wind \ sometimes too well. #very winter the Atlantic gales come blasting across the northern tip of Scotland=s 5uter 0ebrides. The wind hardly slows down even after striking land3 in the island=s marshy interior, gusts regularly e4ceed 2ILkph. #veryone stays indoors but the sheep. Tourists arrive in summer, lured by mild temperatures and unspoiled countryside3 even so, there=s rarely a calm day. GThe weather here is changeableU, says <igel Scott, spokesman for the local government. G$ut the wind is constantU. The brutal climate could finally be Aewis=s salvation. The place has been growing poorer and more desolate for generations, as young people seek sunnier prospects elsewhere. $ut now the energy industry has discovered the storm-swept island. The multinationals AH#! and $ritish #nergy are talking about plans to erect some @LL outsi&e wind turbines across a few thousand hectares of moorland. If the 6LL million-pound pro9ect goes through, the array will be #urope=s largest wind farm, capable of churning out roughly 2 per cent of $ritain=s total electrical needs \ and generating some badly needed 9obs and cash for the people of Aewis.

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9M& Accor"ing to the $assage* /ewis )slan" ----& A $ ! " # has the climate and conditions favourable to agriculture suffers more than any other island in Scotland=s 5uter 0ebrides from Atlantic gales will undergo many important changes unless a wind farm is established there may one day be home to #urope=s largest wind farm has an aging population that regards the windfarm scheme with distrust

99& )% the energy in" stry carries o t the $ro(ect "escribe" in the $assage an" sets $ 300 win" t rbines on /ewis* ----& A $ ! " # maintenance costs due to the gale force winds could cause financial failure the young people will want to leave their much loved island there will be a shortage of land for the sheep to gra&e on other windswept coastlines throughout #urope will probably follow suit these will provide $ritain with roughly of 2 per cent of her total electrical needs

9;& Je n"erstan" %rom the $assage that* in s mmer* the islan" o% /ewis ----& A $ ! " # attracts visitors as nature there has remained unspoiled en9oys a warm, wind-free climate is one of the most attractive of the islands that make up the 5uter 0ebrides has little to offer its inhabitants by way of a living other than fishing can offer its inhabitants even less in the way of a livelihood than it can in the winter

97& )t#s clear %rom the $assage that %or a long time now the yo ng $eo$le o% /ewis ----& A $ ! " # have been looking forward to the establishment of a wind farm on their island have been leaving the island intent on finding a better way of life elsewhere have reali&ed that the island=s most valuable asset is its climate have been reluctant to leave the island on a permanent basis feel no sympathy for the old traditions and ways of life of the island

100& Accor"ing to the $assage* i% the $ro$ose" win" %arm is set $ on /ewis* ----& A $ ! " # this could make the island unattractive to summer visitors the idea could spread rapidly to neighbouring islands this will open up much needed employment opportunities for the islanders it will only function efficiently in the winter months the costs will be shared e7ually by AH#! and $ritish #nergy


?$"s ?as3m 200; (7; Z M0) Mnlike the older forms of occultism, such as magic and astrology, organi&ed occultism is a modern phenomenon. ?ew of the various organi&ed occult movements have e4isted for more than 26L years3 some were formed as a belated countermovement to the #nlightenment, when people began to follow rational schools of thought. Today=s occult views are based on the idea that there are events within nature, as well as within one=s spiritual life, which seem mysterious and cannot be e4plained by science. #4amples include e4trasensory perceptions such as telepathy and telekinesis, and haunted places or people. $elievers maintain that these phenomena stem from unknown powers that can often be accessed only by some people with special abilities. 101& Je n"erstan" %rom the $assage that a"herents o% occ ltism claim that certain $eo$le ----& A $ ! have e4traordinary talents that allow them to have contact with the unknown practise magic and e4plain events by means of astrological signs were the pioneers of the anti-#nlightenment movements in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries can tell us what places are haunted and why can teach others what e4trasensory perceptions are

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103& As we learn %rom the $assage* occ lt $ractices in o r time ----& A $ ! " # are particularly widespread among people who follow rational schools of thought have mostly focused on the mysteries of telepathy and telekinesis essentially stem from the occult movements of the past are concerned with phenomena which are thought to be scientifically ine4plicable seem to benefit from science in e4plaining natural phenomena

104& )t is im$lie" in the $assage that magic an" astrology ----& A $ ! " # have failed as occult practices in e4plaining e4trasensory perceptions are forms of occultism which can be traced back into the past lost their significance with the rise of rationalism during the #nlightenment did not e4ist as occult practices prior to the #nlightenment have always been used in order to communicate with unknown powers

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102& Accor"ing to the $assage* some o% the organi5e" occ lt mo'ements in the $ast came into being ----& A $ as a result of various magical and astrological practices since people in the past were seriously concerned about their e4trasensory perceptions because the public was not satisfied with scientific e4planations of events in nature due to the assumption that many phenomena in nature were related to man=s spiritual life in reaction to the rational thinking style that characteri&ed the #nlightenment

10:& )t is ob'io s %rom the $assage that occ ltism ----& A contributes enormously to a more comprehensive understanding of nature has gained far more popularity in modern times than in the past is an unscientific practice that doesn=t rely on rationality can fully e4plain the spiritual side of humanity derives a great deal from magic and astrology

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?$"s Kay3s 2007 (7; Z M0) There seems no 7uestion but that the clock dial, which has e4isted in its present form since the seventeenth century and in earlier forms since ancient times, is on its way out. Hore and more common are the digital clocks that mark off the hours, minutes, and seconds in ever-changing numbers. This certainly appears to be an advance in technology. +ou will no longer have to interpret the meaning of Gthe big hand on the eleven and the little hand on the five.U +our digital clock will tell you at once that it is E>66. And yet there will be a loss in the conversion of dial to digital, and no one seems to be worrying about it. Actually, when something turns, it can turn in 9ust one of two ways, clockwise or counter-clockwise, and we all know which is which. !lockwise is the normal turning direction of the hands of a clock, and counter-clockwise is the opposite of that. Since we all stare at clocks Ddial clocks, that is , we have no trouble following directions or descriptions that include those words. $ut if dial clocks disappear, so will the meaning of those words for anyone who has never stared at anything but digitals. 10;& !he a thor maintains that* when "ial cloc,s go o t o% se an" only "igitals are se"* ----& A $ the words GclockwiseU and Gcounter-clockwiseU will cease to carry any meaning people will continue to use the words GclockwiseU and Gcounter-clockwiseU on a regular basis it will be 7uite confusing for everyone to tell the time right away most people will wonder about the meanings of the words GclockwiseU and GcounterclockwiseU it will certainly be a ma9or technological change unprecedented in the past

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10M& )n the $assage* the a thor a"mits that "igital cloc,s* com$are" with "ial cloc,s* ----& A $ ! " # have a number of drawbacks which make their use rather restricted can, in the long run, be replaced by technologically new and more efficient clocks are technologically more advanced and tell time very precisely do not seem to have much efficiency and easily break down have ceased to be in widespread use due to some ine4plicable technological shortcomings

109& !he a thor asserts that $eo$le ----& A $ are not aware of the fact that in anti7uity time was completely disregarded do not seem to be concerned about Gthe lossU that the replacement of dial clocks by digitals will cause can also define their position accurately by using digital clocks today have a growing interest in dial clocks and value them very much have already stopped using the words GclockwiseU and Gcounter-clockwiseU to indicate directions

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107& )t is $ointe" o t in the $assage that the se o% the cloc, "ial ----& A is no longer practical since one is often confused about the meaning of the words GclockwiseU and Gcounter-clockwiseU was most popular in the seventeenth century but has since lost its importance is still widely used despite the technological progress in the manufacture of digital clocks has improved enormously since the seventeenth century due to advances in technology has a very long history though at present it is becoming less and less popular

110& As has been $ointe" o t in the $assage* the wor" Xcloc,wiseT ----& A $ ! " # first came into use in the seventeenth century is used only in con9unction with the word Gcounter-clockwiseU can also be used with reference to a digital clock signifies the direction in which the hands of a dial clock move has no meaning unless it is used with reference to a dial clock

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?$"s ?as3m 2007 (9;-100) A couple of months ago <ASA asked the scientific community what kinds of research it should conduct when it returns humans to the moon. In doing so, <ASA wanted prioriti&ed research ob9ectives for the robotic orbiters and landers that will be used primarily for reconnaissance purposes prior to later e4plorations by astronauts of the lunar surface. Oecommendations made by scientists varied greatly, but they can be summari&ed. The top priority that scientists have recommended is the development of programmes for lunar data analysis. <e4t is the e4ploration of the moon=s south pole, which is called Gthe Aitken basin,U an impact scar mostly on the moon=s back side. Then comes an instrument network for probing the interior of the moon, and this is followed by rock sample returns, scientifically selected landing sites, and analysis of any icy polar deposits. 111& Irom the research recommen"ations s mmari5e" in the $assage* it becomes clear that ----& A $ ! there is still a lot that has to be learned about the moon scientists are e4tensively familiar with the structure of the moon the e4ploration of the lunar surface is not so urgent as understanding the inner structure of the moon the scientific community does not regard <ASA=s ob9ectives about the moon as feasible <ASA is determined to make the moon a new base for space e4ploration

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113& As is clear %rom the $assage* EASA#s $ r$ose in cons lting scientists is to ----& A $ ! " # make sure that its programmes for lunar data analysis are supported by them learn whether the moon has water deposited as ice under its poles find out about the kind of research which is primarily important for lunar e4ploration encourage them to focus their attention on a full study of the Aitken basin give them the opportunity to discuss their research results about the moon

114& Accor"ing to the $assage* one o% the recommen"ations ma"e by the scienti%ic comm nity concerns ----& A $ ! " the scientific specification of the locations where robots or astronauts can land the problems related to the working of the robots orbiting the moon or landing on the surface the analysis of the rock samples that will be taken from the Aitken basin the tasks that will be performed by the astronauts when they e4plore the moon=s south pole the 7uestion of how <ASA can benefit from the results obtained from lunar e4plorations

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112& 1ne n"erstan"s %rom the $assage that EASA ----& A $ ! " # and scientists have conflicting research ob9ectives about the moon has already developed a multi-purpose research programme for the moon always consults the scientific community, but seldom takes its advice into consideration is planning to send robots to the moon before it sends astronauts has been indifferent to various recommendations made by scientists

11:& )t is clearly state" in the $assage that astrona ts ----& A $ ! " # will use a variety of instruments only to learn about the interior of the moon will be sent to the moon to investigate the lunar surface will, in the first place, select a suitable spot for landing their craft are e4pected to discover icy deposits under the south pole have been trained to perform lunar data analysis