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AP Lit Critical Analysis Terms - Barrs 7th

Quiz Schedule March 17 --> abstract-caesura March 19 --> canto-falling action March 21 --> farce-objective March 27 --> onomatopoeia-voice

Abstract- A style (in writing) that is typically complex, discusses intangible qualities like good and evil, and seldom uses examples to support its points. Used as a noun, the term refers to a short summary or outline of a longer work. As an adjective applied to writing or literary works, abstract refers to words or phrases that name things not knowable through the five senses. Aesthetic - Philosophical investigation into the nature of beauty and the perception of beauty, especially in the arts; the theory of art or artistic taste. Allegory - A story or visual image with a second distinct meaning partially hidden behind its literal or visible meaning. In written narrative, allegory involves a continuous parallel between two (or more) levels of meaning in a story, so that its persons and events correspond to their equivalents in a system of ideas or a chain of events external to the tale. Alliteration - a literary device where words are used in quick succession and begin with letters belonging to the same sound group. Ex: The Wicked Witch of the West went her own way. (The W sound is highlighted and repeated throughout the sentence.) Allusion - An indirect or passing reference to some event, person, place, or artistic work, the nature and relevance of which is not explained by the writer but relies on the readers familiarity with what is thus mentioned. The technique of allusion is an economical means of calling upon the history or the literary tradition that author and reader are assumed to share. Anachronism - error of chronology or timeline in a literary piece, for example Brutus: Peace! Count the clock. Cassius: The clock has stricken three. Mechanical clocks existed when the work was written, but not in the time setting of the work Analogy - compares an idea or thing to something different in order to explain that idea by comparing it to something familiar Anaphora- repetition, typically of the first part of a sentence, for example It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief

Anthropomorphism - the act of lending a human quality, emotion or ambition to a non-human object or being. Ex: The raging storm brought with it howling winds and fierce lightning as the residents of the village looked up at the angry skies in alarm. (different from personification because it can give human qualities to animalspersonification is only inanimate objects) Anticlimax - Your book is building up to something intense, right? Your two favorite characters are about to kiss. Or the hero is only pages away from slaying the dragon. Or the detective is just steps behind the diamond thief. Here it comes, the big payoff you've been waiting for! But then, all of a sudden, there's a shift. And everything changes. Whatever event you were anticipatingthe smooch, the dead dragon, the thrilling capturedoesn't happen. Yeah, that's anticlimax. It's just a fancy term for a disappointing end to all the hullabaloo. It's the bummer, the let-down, the womp womp. Antihero - A prominent character in a work with characteristics unlike those of the conventional hero. A central figure in a work that repels us by his or her actions or morality, yet who is not a villain. The Anti-hero accomplishes a useful purpose or even does heroic deeds. Max of The Road Warrior epitomizes the 1970-80s anti-hero. Antithesis - two opposite ideas are put together for contrasting effect, for example It was the best of times, it was the worst of times Apostrophe - a term used when a speaker directly addresses someone or something that isn't present in the poem.The speaker could be addressing an abstract concept like love, a person (dead or alive), a place, or even a thing, like the sun or the sea. Archetype - a typical character/action/situation representing universal patterns of human nature, for example a hero exhibiting goodness and going against evil to restore harmony Aside - A term used in drama and theater, an aside happens when a character's dialogue is spoken but not heard by the other actors on the stage. Asides are useful for giving the audience special information about the other characters onstage or the action of the plot. Assonance - words close to each other repeat a vowel sound, for example depressed and restless Atmosphere - the emotional mood created by the entirety of a literary work, established partly by the setting and partly by the author's choice of objects that are described

Ballad - A ballad is a song. But in poetry, a ballad is also an ancient form of storytelling. In the wayback days, common people didn't get their stories from booksthey were sung as musical poems. Because they are meant to convey information, ballads usually have a simple rhythm and a consistent rhyme scheme. They often tell the story of everyday heroes, and some poets, like Bob Dylan, continue to set them to music. Bathos- when an author seems to be trying really, really hard to write about something lofty or noble or elevated, but then descends into the trivial and/or stupid. It is an abrupt shift in tone from high to low. Bathetic style can be unintentional or used for comedic effect, as in this famous line from Douglas Adams's The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy: Why are people born? Why do they die? And why do they spend so much of the intervening time wearing digital watches? Black humor - In literature, drama, and film, grotesque or morbid humor used to express the absurdity, insensitivity, paradox, and cruelty of the modern world. Ordinary characters or situations are usually exaggerated far beyond the limits of normal satire or irony. Black humor uses devices often associated with tragedy and is sometimes equated with tragic farce. Blank verse - refers to verse that has no rhyme scheme, but does have a regular meteriambic pentameter, to be exact. Burlesque - Burlesque is a comic style that works in one of two ways: you can either elevate something lowly and ridiculous (high burlesque) or trivialize something lofty and important (low burlesque).Burlesque makes audiences laugh because of the difference between the content and the form (the style and the substance). Cacophony - harsh and inharmonious sounds, especially consonants, for example Beware the Jabberwock, my son! The jaws that bite, the claws that catch! Cadence - Cadence refers to the rhythmic or musical elements of a poem. You can think of it as the thing that makes poetry sound like poetry. Caesura - Caesura is a fancy word for a not-so-awkward pause that occurs in the middle of a line of verse in poetry. You can use this term if you want to sound smart, but we think "pause" is just fine. You can create pauses in a lot of ways, but the most obvious is to use punctuation like a period, comma, or semicolon. So if you see one of those smack dab in the middle of a line of poetry, chances are you're looking at a caesura. (Note that a pause at the end of a line is not a caesura.)

Canto- Kind of like a novel has chapters, a long poem has cantos. It's that easy. Cantos are just a way to divide up the text. Cantos are usually reserved for epic poems, those hefty suckers that date back to the pre-writing days. Caricature- certain aspects of a subject are exaggerated for a silly or comic effect Catharsis- Greek for cleansing, emotional discharge to achieve moral/spiritual renewal or liberation from anxiety/stress, change leads to emotional rejuvenation Colloquialism- use of informal words and phrases or slang, for example Jims vernacular in Huck Finn Conceit- unlikely comparison of two different things through simile or metaphor Conflict- struggle between two forces, external or internal Connotation - The emotional implications and associations that words may carry, as distinguished from their denotative meanings. Consonance- A kind of alliteration, consonance happens when consonant sounds are repeated. While the consonants stay the same, the vowels can change. Ex: Stella levels the laughter with an alarming leer. Hear all those L sounds? Couplet- Tiny stanzas. So tiny, in fact, that they only include two lines. Sometimes they rhyme, sometimes they don't. Sometimes they're written in meter (as in heroic couplets), sometimes they're not. Bottom line? If you see a stanza that's two lines long, it's a couplet. Denotation - The basic dictionary meaning of a word, as opposed to its connotative meaning. Denouement - The "end game" of a work of fiction. More than "how the plot comes out," the denouement (a French term using French pronunciation) suggests the ways in which several plot elements work out toward the end of a text or film. Diction - Literary word choice. Dirge- a lament for the dead, esp. one forming part of a funeral rite. Doggerel- comic verse composed in irregular rhythm. Dramatic monologue- a poem in the form of a speech or narrative by an imagined person, in which the speaker inadvertently reveals aspects of their character while describing a particular situation or series of events. Elegy- a poem of serious reflection, typically a lament for the dead. Enjambment- (in verse) the continuation of a sentence without a pause beyond the end of a line, couplet, or stanza. Epic- A long poem, typically one derived from ancient oral tradition, narrating the deeds and adventures of heroic or legendary figures or the history of a nation. Epigraph- a quotation set at the beginning of a literary work or one of its divisions to suggest its theme

Epitaph- a phrase or statement written in memory of a person who has died, esp. as an inscription on a tombstone. Epithet- describes a person, place or thing in such a way that it brings out or makes prominent the typical characteristic of the person, place or thing described. Euphemism- a mild or indirect word or expression substituted for one considered to be too harsh or blunt when referring to something unpleasant or embarrassing. Euphony- the quality of being pleasing to the ear through a harmonious combination of words, usually soft sounds Exposition- a comprehensive description and explanation of an idea or theory, intended to give information about something (ie. important background information to the audience), the first part of drama in a dramatic structure Falling action- the part of a literary plot that occurs after the climax has been reached and the conflict has been resolved, contrast to the rising action Farce- a comedic form of satire that is supposed to be serious but has turned ridiculous through its exaggerations, crude characterization, and ludicrously improbable situations Feminine rhyme- a rhyme that matches two or more syllables like motion & ocean or willow & billow Figurative language- a set of literary devices used by authors so that what is being said is different from the actual literal meaning of the words, helps give the reader a clearer picture of whats happening and can also be used to convince the reader of something (ie. simile, metaphor and personification) Foil- a character that shows qualities that are in contrast with the qualities of another character with the intention of highlighting certain characteristics Foreshadowing- a writer gives a warning or hint of an event that is to occur later Free verse- poetry that is free from limitations of regular meter or rhythm and does not rhyme with fixed forms Gothic-style of literature that combines elements of both horror and romance Hyperbole-an unreal exaggeration to emphasize the real situation Imagery- to use figurative language to represent objects, actions and ideas in such a way that it appeals to our physical senses. Usually it is thought that imagery makes use of particular words that create visual representation of ideas in our minds. Interior monologue-In literature, stream of consciousness is a method of narration that describes in words the flow of thoughts in the minds of the characters. Another appropriate term for this device is Interior monologue where the individual thought process of a character associated to his or her actions are portrayed in form of a monologue the addresses the character itself. Inversion-a literary technique in which the normal order of words is reversed in order to achieve a particular effect of emphasis or meter Irony (including the three types)Lament - A song or poem expressing deep grief or mourning

Lampoon - a sharp, often virulent satire directed against an individual or institution; a work of literature, art, or the like, ridiculing severely the character or behavior of a person, society, etc. Litotes - figure of speech that employs an understatement using double negatives; a positive statement is expressed by negating the opposite. Example: not too bad=very good Malapropism - a use of an incorrect word in place of another word that sounds phonetically similar to create a nonsensical and humorous expression. Example: alcoholics unanimous instead of anonymous Masculine rhyme - a rhyme scheme in which only the last syllable of each line rhymes, the final syllable is often stressed Melodrama- a sensational dramatic piece with exaggerated characters and exciting events intended to appeal to the emotions. Metaphor - A figure of speech "in which one thing, idea, or action is referred to by a word or expression normally denoting another thing, idea, or action, so as to suggest some common quality shared by the two." The term, "metaphor" is often reserved for figures of speech in which the comparison is implicit or phrased as an "imaginary identity," but it has become more common in recent years to refer to all figures of speech that depend upon resemblances as metaphors. Metonymy - A figure of speech that replaces the name of one thing with the name of something else closely associated with it. The figure is based upon logical connections other than resemblance. Motif - A recurrent image, word, phrase, represented object or action that tends to unify the literary work or that may be elaborated into a more general theme. Also, a situation, incident, idea, image, or character type that is found in many different literary works, folktales, or myths. Nemesis- refers to a situation of poetic justice where positive characters are rewarded and negative characters are punished. Also can refer to the character by which such justice is brought upon. Objective Onomatopoeia - refers to words that are pronounced similarly to the sound they are supposed to depict. Examples: buzz, huff, grunt. Oxymoron - a combination of words that contrast each other when they stand alone but make sense when they are put together. Examples: deafening silence, icy hot, jumbo shrimp Paean - an ancient Greek song of joy, triumph, or praise Parable - a short, simple story that seeks to illustrate an explicit moral lesson. Paradox- a statement that appears self-contradictory by containing multiple contradictory elements to create a true statement. Parody - used to imitate the serious manner and characteristics of a literary work in order to make fun of those same characteristics. Pastoral -poems set in beautiful rural landscapes

Pathos - form of rhetoric that seeks to persuade by appealing to the readers emotions using vivid language, emotional language, and sensory details. Persona - the person who is understood to be speaking in a particular work. Persona is how an author wishes to voice himself whether through writing style or through characters. Personification - Personification is figurative language that gives human traits (qualities, feelings, action, or characteristics) to non-living objects (things, colors, qualities, or ideas). [NOT anthropomorphism that gives human traits to animals that are living] Point of view Prelude -short poem at start of a work Refrain- phrase, verse, or group of verses repeated at intervals throughout a song or poem, especially at the end of each stanza Requiem -Chant for the dead Rhapsody - a written or spoken expression of great enthusiasm, praise, etc. Rising action - the series of events that begin immediately after the exposition (introduction) of the story and builds up to the climax. Satire (including the two types and their definitions)Slant rhyme (also called approximate rhyme) - These rhymes aren't quite rhymes. The words "dear" and "door" form a slant rhyme. The words sound similar, but they aren't close enough to make a full rhyme. Soliloquy When a character talks to themselves for a long time about pretty much anything. Their thoughts, things happening in the play, whatever, but they are talking to themselves with no regard for anyone who might be hearing (usually, no one hears or someone overhears creating a plot twist gasp!). Different from a monologue, which is to other people, or an aside, which is directly to the audience. Sonnet A poem of 14 lines, usually composed in iambic pentameter. Usually set in a specific rhyme pattern. Italian form is 8 lines followed by 6 lines, English form is three quadruplets followed by a couplet. Shakespeare wrote a lot of these. Stanza - a group of lines forming the basic recurring metrical unit in a poem; aka a verse of a poem. Subjective based on or individualized by personal feelings, opinions, or tastes. Synonyms: personal, individual, antonyms: objective Symbolism the use of symbols to represent/quantify ideas or qualities Syntax - the way in which linguistic elements (as words) are put together to form constituents (as phrases or clauses). Aka the thing we pretended to analyze with diction in all our AP Lang essays last year. Types of syntax: long sentences, short sentences, really fucked (hey! language)up sentences that dont make any sense, etc. Theme the subject/topic of a thought, piece of writing, or an exhibition.

Tone the general character or attitude of a piece of writing. Ex: the TONE of my thoughts during Magic Mike Barrs monologues varies is generally one of quiet desperation (which, funnily enough, does not tend to physically manifest itself quietly). Travesty a false, absurd, or disoriented representation of something. Also, a word used by your grandmother to describe her slightly overcooked fish at a restaurant. Voice the authors style, flair, je ne sais quoi.