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Design Type II Compensation In A Systematic Way

Liyu Cao, Ametek Programmable Power Type II compensators are wi ely use in t!e control loops "or power con#erters. A type II compensator !as two poles $one at t!e origin% an one &ero, an t!e &ero is place somew!ere between t!e poles. Designers use t!is type o" compensator to pro#i e a p!ase boost to t!e control loop. It is known t!at t!e compensator reac!es its ma'imum p!ase boost at t!e geometric mean o" t!e &ero(s "re)uency an t!e secon pole(s "re)uency. To esign t!is type o" compensator, t!e popular approac! is to place t!e esire loop crosso#er "re)uency at t!e geometric mean o" t!e &ero an pole *+,,-. T!is approac! can pro uce ma'imum p!ase margin "rom a gi#en compensator. .owe#er, it oes not take t!e ot!er important loop parameter, t!e gain margin, into consi eration. In general, to make a control loop work properly, it is necessary to !a#e bot! enoug! p!ase margin an gain margin, In t!is sense, it is important to !a#e a esign proce ure t!at can take care o" bot! esign parameters. In t!is note, a systematic esign proce ure is e#elope to esign a type II compensator, w!ic! gi#es t!e esigner an easy way to take bot! p!ase margin an gain margin into consi eration an to a /ust t!e compensator until t!e esign re)uirement is satis"ie .
C1 R2 R1 Vi OUT + Vo C2

Figure 1. A type II error amplifier configuration using four passive components.

Gain and phase characteristics. T!e sc!ematic o" a type II compensator is s!own in "igure +, w!ere "our passi#e circuit components are nee e . T!e trans"er "unction o" t!e Type II compensator in "igure + is gi#en by
C $ s% = vo sC , R, + + = vi R+C+ s $ sC+, R, + +%
Equation 1

w!ere C+, is t!e parallel combination o" C+ an C,,

C+, =

C+C , C+ + C ,

Equation 2

T!e trans"er "unction in 0)uation $+% can be rewritten as

G$ C $s% = s$ s


+ +% + +%
Equation 3

w!ere t!e &ero1s an pole1s "re)uencies are gi#en by

z =
+ C , R, + C+, R,
Equation 4

p =


T!e constant gain G is gi#en by

G= + R+ $C+ + C , %
Equation !

T!e amplitu e o" t!e trans"er "unction in 0)uation 2 at a gi#en "re)uency can be calculate as
, % G G z C $ j% = = + + $ %, $+ + j % p p
$+ + j ++$

% z

Equation "

T!e p!ase o" t!e trans"er "unction in 0)uation 2 at a gi#en "re)uency can be calculate as
[C $ j%]
= $ G % + $+ + j % $+ + j % j z p

+ tan +

tan + z p

Equation #

As can be seen, t!e p!ase o" C$j% !as two parts3 a constant p!ase o" 4 5, ue to t!e pole at t!e origin, an a #ariable part as a "unction o" "re)uency . T!e #ariable part is gi#en by
v $% = tan + tan + z p
Equation $

In *+-, v$% is e"ine as t!e p!ase boost o" t!e compensator.

0)uation 6 can be con#erte to

v $% = tan + $ p z % , + z p
Equation 1%

0)uation +7 !as a use"ul "eature in t!at t!e "unction reac!es its ma'imum at t!e geometric mean o" & an p. T!at is, v$% reac!es its ma'imum #alue at t!e "re)uency e"ine by
m = p z
Equation 11

In t!e "ollowing, we call m t!e ma'imum p!ase "re)uency o" t!e compensator. 8y substituting 0)uation ++ into +7, one can get t!e ma'imum p!ase o" v$% as
v $m % = tan + p z $p z %
,p z = tan +

p z
, p z

De"ine t!e ratio o" t!e pole(s "re)uency to t!e &ero(s "re)uency as

p z

Equation 12

9rom 0)uation +7 an ++ one can see t!at k can also be e"ine as

k =

m p = z m
k + , k k + , k

Equation 13

T!en t!e ma'imum p!ase o" v$% can be written as

v $m % = tan +
Equation 14

An t!e ma'imum p!ase o" t!e type II compensator is gi#en by

*C $ jm %- =
, + tan +
Equation 1

We can see t!at k is a measure on t!e istance between t!e &ero an pole, an !ence we call it separation factor. Wit! 0)uation +:, we can calculate t!e ma'imum p!ase boost o" t!e type II compensator "or a gi#en separation "actor, or #ise #ersa. &esign 'rocedure. Designing a type II compensator is about w!ere to place t!e &ero $&% an pole $p%, an !ow to c!oose t!e constant gain G. Since t!ree parameters are in#ol#e , selecting t!ese parameters to meet t!e gain margin an p!ase margin may be #ery complicate an time4 consuming. In t!e "ollowing, a esign approac! is e#elope , w!ic! uses t!e ma'imum p!ase "re)uency m as t!e only parameter to ;tune; t!e compensator an !ence is #ery simple to use. In a ition, a systematic proce ure is establis!e to calculate t!e components1 #alues, w!ic! can be easily implemente in some computer programs like <icroso"t 0=C0L. 8y a "ew times o" running t!e proce ure, t!e targete p!ase margin an gain margin can be ac!ie#e . 2

>i#en t!e esire crosso#er "re)uency c an p!ase margin m, an t!e control plant(s gain an p!ase at c as Gp an p. T!e main i""erence between t!e propose esign approac! in t!is note an t!e popular approac! in *+,,- is in t!e placement o" m, w!ic! can be e'presse in relati#e to t!e esire crosso#er "re)uency, t!at is,
m = c
Equation 1!

w!ere is a number to be etermine . 9or t!e popular approac!, is always c!osen to be +, w!ile !ere is a /ustable. We can start t!e esign wit! ?+, an a"ter "inis!ing t!e esign c!eck t!e loop gain margin. I" t!e gain margin is not satis"ie , we can a /ust an run t!e esign proce ure again. T!is process continues until bot! p!ase margin an gain margin meet t!e targets. Wit! a selecte m, t!e type II compensator can be calculate as "ollows. At t!e crosso#er "re)uency, base on 0)uation +7 we !a#e
v $c % = tan + c $ p z % c, + z p
Equation 1"

To meet t!e p!ase margin re)uirement, we nee to satis"y t!e "ollowing e)uation,

+ v $c % + p + = m ,

Equation 1#

9rom 0)uation +@ an +A we can get c $ p z % tan + , = m p , c + z p or e)ui#alently

c $ p z % + p z
, c

= tan$ m p

% = cot$ p m % ,

Equation 1$

8ase on 0)uation ++ an 0)uation +6, we can get t!e "ollowing two e)uations about p an z
, z p = m

Equation 2% Equation 21

p z = d

w!ere d is e"ine by
d = $+ + , %c cot$ p m % .
Equation 22

Bote t!at d is known wit! t!e gi#en parameters m an p, an t!e selecte "re)uencies c an m. We can sol#e 0)uation ,7 an ,+, an "igure out t!e solutions to t!em as "ollow C

, , z = 7.:$ d + Cm d % , , p = 7.:$ d + Cm + d % .

Equation 23 Equation 24

Wit! z an p etermine base on t!e abo#e e)uations, we can calculate t!e constant gain G as "ollows. 9rom 0)uation @ we !a#e

C $ j c % =

G c

c , % z ++ $ c %, p
++ $

Equation 2

At t!e crosso#er "re)uency,

C $ j c % G p =+

T!us, we can calculate t!e compensator(s constant gain G as


c Gp

++ $

c , % p + + $ c %, z

Equation 2!

We can see t!at t!e compensator1s trans"er "unction is completely etermine wit! t!e &ero, pole an constant gain gi#en by 0)uation ,2, ,C an ,D. Bow we are rea y to calculate t!e components1 #alues. We !a#e "our components to select, but t!ree con itions $e'presse in 0)uation C, : an D% to constrain t!ese components. 9or t!is reason, one component1s #alue nee s to be selecte "irst, an t!en t!e rest o" t!e components1 #alues are calculate to meet 0)uation C, : an D. In practice t!e resistor E + is usually c!osen "irst, an t!is note "ollows t!is con#ention. 0)uation C an : can be con#erte to
C , R, = +

Equation 2"

C+C , R, + = C+ + C , p

Equation 2#

An 0)uation D is e)ui#alent to
C+ + C , = + GR+
Equation 2$

0)uation ,@, ,A an ,6 are t!e t!ree e)uations to etermine t!e components E,, C+ an C, a"ter E+ !as been c!osen. Alt!oug! two o" t!e e)uations are nonlinear, t!ey can be sol#e easily as escribe below.

8y substituting 0)uation ,@ an ,6 into 0)uation ,A, we can get t!e solution "or C + as gi#en by
C+ =

p R+G
+ C+ GR+

Equation 3%

Wit! C+ gi#en, C, can be calculate base on 0)uation ,6

C, =
Equation 31

T!en "rom 0)uation ,@, we can etermine E, as

R, = +

z C ,

Equation 32

Bow we can summari&e t!e complete esign proce ure in t!e "ollowing. +. Select a resistor #alue "or E+. ,. Select an calculate t!e compensator1s ma'imum p!ase "re)uency m using 0)uation +D. 2. Calculate t!e i""erence between t!e &ero1s "re)uency an pole1s "re)uency using 0)uation ,,. C. Calculate t!e &ero1s "re)uency z an pole1s "re)uency p using 0)uation ,2 an 0)uation ,C respecti#ely. :. Calculate t!e compensator(s constant gain G using 0)uation ,D. D. Calculate C+ using 0)uation 27. @. Calculate C, using 0)uation 2+. A. Calculate E, using 0)uation 2,. 6. Plot t!e loop 8o e plot an #eri"y t!e p!ase margin. +7. C!eck t!e gain margin. I" t!e gain margin is not satis"ie , a /ust an go back to step , to re4 esign t!e compensator. ++. I" bot! p!ase margin an gain margin are satis"actory, c!eck t!e calculate components1 #alue to see i" t!ey are reasonable $"or e'ample, not too big or too small%. I" some o" t!em is not reasonable, properly c!ange E + an go back to step ,. +,. Stan ar i&e t!e components1 #alues.

An E(ample. Take a current4mo e controlle DC4DC con#erter as an e'ample. T!e current loop compensation esign was alre ay "inis!e , an t!e measure control plant1s 8o e plot $un er current4mo e control% is s!own in "igure ,. T!e esign task is to esign a #oltage loop compensator to ac!ie#e t!e target loop ban wi t! o" 2k.&, t!e p!ase margin o" D7 egrees, an t!e gain margin not less t!an 6 8.

-20 dB -40 -60 1 10 200 100 degree 0 -100 -200 1 10






10 Hz



Figure 2. )ontrol plant*s +ode plot measured from the current set,point to the voltage feed-ac. signal/ sho0ing one,pole characteristic due to current,mode control.

As can be seen "rom "igure ,, t!e control plant1s gain plot basically !as a F+ slope between C7.& an ,k.&, an a &ero at about Ck.& ue to t!e output capacitor1s 0SE. Since t!is &ero is #ery close to t!e target crosso#er "re)uency, it can !a#e negati#e impact on t!e loop gain margin. 9irst t!e compensator is esigne using t!e tra itional approac!, t!at is, to place t!e ma'imum p!ase "re)uency at t!e loop crosso#er "re)uency. T!is is one by setting ?+. Wit! t!is c!oice, t!e resulte #oltage loop 8o e plot is s!own in "igure 2. Gne can notice "rom "igure 2 t!at, alt!oug! t!e loop crosso#er "re)uency is 2k.&, t!e gain passes t!roug! t!e crosso#er "re)uency wit! a slope larger t!an F+. T!is lea s to a re uce gain margin o" @.: 8. T!is is not esirable since a "lat crosso#er cur#e means t!e crosso#er "re)uency is sensiti#e to small amount o" gain c!anges, an may lea to an unstable control loop.

loop magnitude 100 50 0 -50 -100 1 10 100 0 -100 -200 -300 1 10

X: 196.3 Y: -147.3
2 3 4 5

X: 8902 Y: -7.473





loop phase

X: 2915 Y: -119.8





Figure 3. 1he voltage loop +ode plot 0ith the popular approach 2 314/ having a quite flat crossover section.

Be't, t!e loop is re esigne by a /usting . It is "oun t!at by setting ?7.,, t!e re)uire gain margin can be reac!e , an t!e crosso#er section o" t!e gain plot is also impro#e as s!own in "igure C. As can be seen in "igure C, t!e crosso#er section !as a slope close to F +, w!ic! makes it a better loop t!an t!at o" "igure 2 in terms o" less sensiti#ity to possible gain c!anges. It is wort! to note t!at t!e i""erence in t!e p!ase plots between "igure 2 an "igure C. As can be seen in "igure 2, t!e p!ase rops to F+C@ egrees at about ,77.&, w!ile in "igure C t!e p!ase basically stays at F+77 egrees at t!e "re)uencies up to +.:k.&. 9rom t!e #iewpoint o" uncon itional stability, t!e loop in "igure C is better t!an t!e loop in "igure 2, since t!e "ormer allows more p!ase rop t!an t!e later be"ore becoming con itionally stable.

loop magnitude 100 50 0 -50 -100 1 10 100 0 -100 -200 -300 1 10

X: 2915 Y: -119 X: 8111 Y: -9.185





loop phase





Figure 4. 1he voltage loop +ode plot 0ith 3%.2/ sho0ing an improved crossover section and gain margin.

5ummary. A new esign approac! !as been e#elope "or esigning a type II compensator. Hnlike t!e tra itional approac!, t!e new approac! allows t!e ma'imum p!ase "re)uency to be i""erent "rom t!e loop crosso#er "re)uency. 8y a /usting t!e ma'imum p!ase "re)uency, not only t!e p!ase margin but also t!e gain margin can be taken into consi eration. 6eferences. +. D. Ienable, T!e J "actor3 A new mat!ematical tool "or stability analysis an synt!esis, Procee ing o" Powercon +7, +6A2. ,. D. Ienable, Ienable Tec!nical Paper K2, Gptimum "ee back ampli"ier esign "or control systems. A-out the author Liyu Cao is a Sr. 0ngineer at Ametek Programmable Power, w!ere !e is engage wit! esigning programmable DC an AC power supplies an control loops. Liyu !ol s a P!.D egree in electrical engineering "rom Tsing!ua Hni#ersity, 8ei/ing, C!ina.