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PELTON TURBINE

1.0 INTRODUCTION There are two types of turbines, reaction and the impulse, the difference being the manner of head conversion. In the reaction turbine, the fluid fills the blade passages, and the head change or pressure drop occurs within the runner. An impulse turbine first converts the water head through a nozzle into a high-velocity jet, which then strikes the buckets at one position as they pass by. The runner passages are not fully filled, and the jet flow past the buckets is essentially at constant pressure. Impulse turbines are ideally suited for high head and

relatively low power. The Pelton turbine used in this experiment is an impulse turbine. The Pelton turbine consists of three basic components: a stationary inlet nozzle, a runner and a casing. The runner consists of multiple buckets mounted on a rotating wheel. The jet strikes the buckets and imparts momentum. The buckets are shaped in a manner to divide the flow in half and turn its relative velocity vector nearly 180. 2.0 OBJECTIVE To determine the characteristics of Pelton Turbine operation by using several speed. 3.0 LEARNING OUTCOMES At the end of the course, students should be able to apply the knowledge and skills they have learned to: a. Understand the basic operating system of the Pelton turbine. b. Understand the factors which influence the efficiency of turbine. 4.0 THEORY A Pelton Turbine characteristic operation curve can be derived by using the same method as a pump. It is because the velocity is usually assumed as an independent parameter when the plotting of power, efficiency, torque and discharge are carried out. Mechanical Power, Pm (watt) = Rotation ( , Nm) Circular velocity ( , rad/sec). Where, T=Force(N) Radius(m)(Nm) and
2radius / min (rad/s) where, 1 revolution is equal to 2 radius. 60 sec/min

Meanwhile, Water Power, Pw gHQ where, is water density (100kg/m3), g is gravity

constant (9.81m/s2), H is head at inlet point (m) and Q is flowrate (m3/s). Wheel efficiency,

Pm 100 . To convert the unit of rpm to radians per minute is given by, x rpm=( x Pw

revolution/min)=( x x2 radian)/min. 5.0 EQUIPMENTS i. ii. iii. Pelton Turbine Tachometer Stopwatch

6.0 PROCEDURES a) The Pelton turbine equipment was put on the hydraulic bench and by using the provided connecter, connected it to the water supply. b) By using clip, the optic tachometer was tighten. c) Then, make sure that the turbine drum is free from any load (0.0N). d) The valve controller was fully open. Then, the tachometer was level until the rotation reaches the maximum value of 2000 rotation/minute or rpm. e) The reading of tachometer, flow rate, pressure at inlet point (H) and load, W2 (N) were recorded. The brake equipment were put on the turbine drum. Then, the brake was level on the right spring at W1. Start with the W1 = 1.0N. f) All the readings were recorded in the Table 6.1. g) Step 3-6 were repeated with W varies in the range of 1.5N to 6.0N.

7.0 RESULT RPM

10229 1071.1 78 0 0 0

9863.5 1032.9 0 1.0 1.60 0.60

8417.8 881.51

7613.7 797.30

6750.0 706.85 8 2.5 4.40 1.90

5653.1 591.99

4640.6 485.96 2 3.5 6.80 3.30

3189.8 334.03 5 4.0 7.40 3.40

2418.2 253.23

1053.5 110.32

(rad/s) W1 (N) W2 (N) W2 W1 (N) Drum Radius x10-3m Rotation (Nm) Pm(W) Volume (l) Volume (m) Time(s) Flowrate (m3/s) X10-4 Pressure (mH2O) Pw (W) Efficienc y (%)

1.5 2.60 1.10

2.0 3.50 1.50

3.0 5.60 2.60

4.5 8.60 4.10

5.0 9.30 4.30

30

30

30

30

30

30

30

30

30

30

0 0 5

0.018 18.59 5

0.033 29.09 5

0.045 35.88 5

0.072 50.89 5

0.078 46.18 5

0.099 48.11 5

0.114 38.08 5

0.138 34.90 5

0.150 16.55 5

0.005 29.13 1.716

0.005 25.30 1.976

0.005 23.31 2.145

0.005 21.10 2.370

0.005 19.22 2.601

0.005 18.40 2.717

0.005 16.97 2.946

0.005 16.22 3.083

0.005 16.00 3.125

0.005 15.85 3.155

24.0 40.360 0

24.0 46.476 39.999

24.0 50.450 57.661

24.0 55.742 64.368

24.0 61.176 83.186

24.0 63.904 72.265

24.0 69.291 62.432

24.0 72.512 50.429

24.0 73.500 47.483

24.0 74.206 22.303

Table 1: Recorded Data for Pelton Turbine

8.0 DATA ANALYSIS Calculated Angular Velocity (w) Due to the recorded angular velocitys unit is based on RPM (Revolution per minutes), hence all the recorded value must be converted to SI unit, rad/s. Given formula: rad/s = (2 / 60) x RPM (1 revolution = 2 radius) W1 W2 W3 W4 W5 W6 W7 W8 W9 By converting this, the unit of w (Angular velocity) will be corrected to rad/s. = RPM1 X 2 /60 = (10229 X 2)/60 = RPM2 X 2 /60 = (9863.5X 2)/60 = RPM3 X 2 /60 = (8417.8 X 2)/60 = RPM4 X 2 /60 = (7613.7 X 2)/60 = RPM5 X 2 /60 = (6750.0 X 2)/60 = RPM6 X 2 /60 = (5653.1X 2)/60 = RPM7 X 2 /60 = (4640.6X 2)/60 = RPM8 X 2 /60 = (3189.8X 2)/60 = RPM9 X 2 /60 = (2418.2X 2)/60 = = = = = = = = = 1071.178 rad/s 1032.90rad/s 881.51 rad/s 797.30 rad/s 706.858rad/s 591.99rad/s 485.962 rad/s 334.035 rad/s 253.23 rad/s

Calculated Rotation (Nm) Given formula (Nm) = Force (N) x Radius (m) Given drum Radius, r = 30 x 10-3m 1 2 3 4 5 The force for rotation is the difference of w2 w1which tabulated on Table 1.
= (w2 = (w2 = (w2 = (w2 = (w2

w1) x r w1) x r w1) x r w1) x r w1) x r

= 0 x (30x 10-3) = 0.60 x (30x 10-3) = 1.10 x (30x 10-3) = 1.50 x (30x 10-3) = 1.90 x (30x 10-3)

= 0.000Nm = 0.018Nm = 0.033Nm = 0.045Nm = 0.072Nm

6 7 8 9

= (w2 = (w2 = (w2 = (w2

w1) x r w1) x r w1) x r w1) x r

= 2.60 x (30x 10-3) = 3.30 x (30x 10-3) = 3.40 x (30x 10-3) = 4.10 x (30x 10-3)

= 0.078Nm = 0.099Nm = 0.114Nm = 0.138Nm

Calculated Mechanical Power (Pm) Given formula: Pm = Torque () x Circular Velocity (w) The values of and w had been calculated and tabulated on the calculation (1) and (2) and Table 1 respectively. Pm1 Pm2 Pm3 Pm4 Pm5 Pm6 Pm7 Pm8 Pm9
=

1 x w1 2 x w2 3 x w3 4 x w4 5 x w5 6 x w6 7 x w7 8 x w8 9 x w9

0 x 1071.178 0.018 x 892.757 0.033 x 819.432 0.045 x 706.858 0.072 x 608.537 0.078 x 526.500 0.099 x 485.462 0.114x 334.035 0.138 x 214.403

= = = = = = = = =

0.000 w 18.59w 29.09w 35.88w 50.89w 46.18w 48.11w 38.08w 34.90w

Calculated Flow Rate (Q) Given formula Q = volume/time =m3/s The volume are initially fixed as 5 little = 0.005m3 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 = = = = 0.005/ 29.13 = 0.005/ 25.30 = 0.005/ 23.31 = 0.005/ 21.10 = 1.716 x10-4 m3s 1.976 x10-4 m3s 2.145 x10-4 m3s 2.370 x10-4 m3s

Q5 Q6 Q7 Q8 Q9

= = = = =

0.005/19.22 0.005/ 18.40 0.005/16.97 0.005/16.22 0.005/16.00

2.601 x10-4 m3s = = = = 2.717 x10-4 m3s 2.946 x10-4 m3s 3.083 x10-4 m3s 3.125 x10-4 m3s

Calculated Water Power (Pw) Given formula: Pw = flow rate x pressure Pw1 Pw2 Pw3 Pw4 Pw5 Pw6 Pw7 Pw8 Pw9 = = = = = = = = = 1.716 x24.0 1.976 x 24 2.145 x 24 2.370 x 24 2.601x 24 2.717 x 24 2.946 x 24 3.083 x 24 3.125 x 24 = = = = = = = = = 40.360w 46.476w 50.450 w 55.742w 61.176 w 63.904 w 69.291 w 72.512 w 73.500w

Calculated Efficiency (%) Given formula: Wheel efficiency % = Pm/PW X100 1 2 3 4 = = = = 0/ 40.360 x100 = = = = 0% 39.999% 57.661% 64.368%

18.59/46.476 x100 29.09/50.450 x100 35.88/55.742 x100

5 6 7 8 9

= = = = =

50.89/ 61.176 x100 46.18/ 63.904 x100 48.11/ 69.291x100 38.08/ 72.512x100 34.90/ 73.500x100

= = = = =

83.186% 72.265% 69.432% 50.429% 47.483%

9.0 DISCUSSION AND SUGGESTION 1. Graphs are plotted as below to show the relationship between rotational power curve, efficiency curve and discharge versus motor speed.

ROTATIONAL POWER CURVE


0.14 Rotational Torque, (Nm) 0.12 0.1 0.08 0.06 0.04 0.02 0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 Angular Velocity, (rad/s)

Graph A1: Rotational power curve shows the relationship of angular velocity and rotational torque produced by Pelton turbine.

EFFICIENCY CURVE
140 120 Efficiency, (%) 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 Angular Velocity, (rad/s)

Graph A2: Efficiency curve shows the relationship of angular velocity and efficiency of Pelton Turbine.

DISCHARGE VERSUS MOTOR SPEED


3.5 3 Flow Rate, Q (m3/s) 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 Angular Velocity, (rad/s)

Graph A3: Discharge versus motor speed graph shows the relationship of angular velocity and flow rate produced by Pelton Turbine.

2. For the graph of rotation power curve, we can see the rotational torque has an inversely proportional relationship to angular velocity. This also can be proven by the equation of mechanical power which is Pm = x . When angular velocity increases, eventually the rotational torque is decreasing. For the graph of efficiency curve, we noticed that the shape of the graph is similar as a bell-shaped which means the efficiency of Pelton turbine is low when the angular velocity is small at the beginning. The efficiency increases as the angular velocity increase until reaching the angular velocity of 700.962rad/s with the maximum percentage of efficiency that accounts 85.62%. After all, the efficiency of Pelton turbine starts to drop as the angular velocity still keep on arising. For the graph of discharge versus motor speed, we observed that the motor speed increased which indicated by angular velocity, the discharge of this Pelton turbine decreased. Thus, it is obvious to prove that the performance of rotation of wheel are not necessary increased the water flow rate. From all the graphs regarding to the Pelton turbine that has been plotted, it has obeyed the standard Pelton wheel turbine performance on motor speed, power and efficiency. 3. To calculate the velocity where the maximum power is reached, we applied the conversion formulae of velocity and angular velocity. Velocity, v = Radius, r X Angular velocity, Maximum output power for experimental result of Pelton Turbine, Pmax = 50.89 W Angular velocity of the total experiment, = 110.32 rad/s v =r = 30 x 10-3 x 110.32 = 3.310 m/s As we keep the water power constant throughout the experiment without any losses of it when the turbine is turned on, we will obtained high efficiency if the mechanical power of the turbine is high. The varies of the water power as well as the mechanical power of this Pelton Turbine happened due to the rotational velocity of the turbines has kept multiplied in order to get a set of readings.

4. In order to achieve the most accuracy sets of readings for Pelton turbine experiment, some safety factors should be taken throughout the processes. a) Make sure the valve controller does not exceed the maximum pressure which reads 25mH2O. It may causes failure of water nozzle and Pelton wheel cups. b) For every various load testing, reading for rotation speed of drum brake should been taken only after the highest speed obtained. It can be determined by the highest frequency sound arise or keep checking the tachometer reading while adjusting the valve controller. c) Tachometer which used to record the rotation or revolution per minutes of stainless steel drum brake should always locate on the same marking tape which means it must be static all the time until getting the reading. d) After a set of testing is done, the tension of load belt should be released and run the Pelton turbine at zero load condition for at least five minutes to ensure that the turbine are free from loading. e) The hydraulic bench valve which connected to water supply should always open or unchanged so that the initial water flow or flow rate can be constant from time to time before affected by Pelton wheel. 5. Furthermore, an experiment normally exist a minor error which is done by human or accidentally mistakes. All the gross and accidental error should be taken in consideration to ensure that the result obtained has reaches an acceptable accuracy. We are advised to do the experiment indoor so that there is no disturbance from air movement such as wind to the load belt while the experiment is carry on.

10.0 CONCLUSION From this Pelton wheel turbine experiment, we understand the affect on the characteristic of Pelton turbine operation by using several speeds such as the changes in rotational torque, flow rate of the water as well as the efficiency of the turbine. It is clearly shown in the graphs that the increases of load on Pelton wheel turbine will influence the rotation of wheel by function of dynamometer which absorbed it mechanical power. Hence, the relationship between turbine rotational speed (RPM) with power output (W), wheel torque () and turbine efficiency as plotted on graph A1, A2 and A3. Based on the result, the power output and turbine efficiency obtained are not directly proportional to the turbine rotational speed, the highest power output only happened on specific rotational speed. Hence to ensure the highest efficiency on power generation, control the rotational speeds are significantly.