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Abid Hussain, MSc, Horticulture, abid.tnau@gmail.

com
GENERAL AGRICULTURE STUDY MATERIAL

WEATHER AND CROPS

• The areas of heavy rainfall exist in the windward side of


Western Ghats and Khasi Hills and the Himalayas.
• Rajasthan receiving < 500mm rainfall annually.
• The average rainfall of 1,050 mm is highest in any part of the
world.
• 85-90% of the rainfall over the country occurs mostly during
southwest monsoon.
• North – East monsoon is the main contributor to the amount of
rainfall over the Southeast portion of peninsular.
• The conditions in the State, where the tracks of depression
terminate ex: - In Gujarat & Rajasthan tend to be erratic very
violent & destructive storms – Kalbaishaki of Bengal & Dust
storms/Andhis occur over Northwest India. Hailstorms occur
one/two occasions in the year, and pose a potential Hazard to
Rabi crops.
• Cyclonic Storms: On an average 2-3 storms may be expected in
a year.
Western disturbances: -
• These disturbances result in light rains which benefit the Rabi
crops.
• The cold waves are sometimes injurious to vegetables and fruit
crops.
Variability of rainfall
• The areas with low/scanty rainfall are generally the areas of
the high variability in rainfall.

S.d
• C .V. = -------- X100
X

• C V is 60-80 % in Western Rajasthan.


Drought
• Drought is taken to have occurred over an area where annual
rainfall is less than 75 % of the normal.
• When the annual rainfall is 50% of the normal it is called
severe drought.
• The palmer drought index which takes in to account rainfall
evapo-transpiration and soil moisture is considered as a
comprehensive approach in the problem.
Floods: Rainfall exceeding 40-50 cm within 24 hours results in
Floods.
Evapo-transpiration and water balance.
• The areas of high annual potential evapo-transpiration are
extreme in Rajasthan (Jaisalmer) and the exterior South of T N
(Tuticorn).
• Frosts: The forest hazard is greatest in Punjab.
• Sunshine: High Humidity and warm temperature are conducive
to most plant diseases.
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Weather modification & crop production
• The technique of cloud seeding aims at correcting the
deficiencies of nuclei in the cloud.
Silver iodide - cold clouds
Sodium chloride - warm clouds
• In India the cloud seeding experiments were conducted in
Jaipur, Agra & Delhi in the monsoon season during the period
ranging from 4 –9 years.

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SOILS
Igneous rocks: - mainly contains feldspars, marphic minerals &
quartz.
• The rocks containing high proportion of quartz Acidic (60-75
% quartz)
Ex: granite
• The rocks containing less proportion of quartz  Basic (<50%)
Ex: Basalts (Deccan trap).
• Common igneous rocks – Basalts (Basic) & Granite (Acidic)

Sedimentary rocks: -
• Derived form igneous rocks & is formed by the consolidation of
fragmentary rock materials.
Ex: -conglomerate, sandstone. Shale & limestone.
Metamorphic rocks: -
• They are formed from the igneous/sedimentary rocks the action
of high pressure & intense heat, both resulting in considerable
change in texture & mineral composition.
Ex: - Gneiss from - granite
Quartzite from - quartz/ sandstone
Marble from - limestone
Slate from - shale
• Pedology: study of soil formation & soil development
• Edephology: study of soil in relation to crop husbandry
• A2 horizon - is called as Elluvial Zone
• Particle Sizes:
International
System (mm) USDA (mm)
Gravel 2 & above 2 & above
Very coarse sand 2 – 1 --
Coarse sand 1 – 0.5 2 – 0.2
Medium sand 0.5 – 0.25 --
Fine sand 0.25 – 0.1 --
Very Fine sand 0.1 – 0.05 --
Silt 0.05 – 0.002 0.02 – 0.002
Clay < 0.002 < 0.002

Textural classes:
• The clayey soils hold more moisture but they have high wilting
%
Density: T – A
% Pore space (P) =--------- x 100
T
T - true density
A - apparent density
Soil air:
1/3 r d of the pore space in the soil by air & two thirds of it by
water constitute most favourable condition for plant growth.

Soil water:
1. Hygroscopic water: - 31 atm. & more
- Not available to plant
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- Discontinuous film
2. Capillary water: - continuous film
- Held by surface tension
0.3 - 31 atm.
3. Gravitational water: - held at below 0.3 bars
- Influenced by gravity.
• F.C.: - held at 0.3 bars to 15 bars
It is generally recognized that the capillary water held at
tension greater than 15 atm is not available to crops. At this the
plants shows the wilting symptoms hence 15 atm is called as
wilting point.
Soil Structure: -
Granular structure (spheroidal) is considered very favourable to
plant growth.
Clay fractions: -
1. Kaolinite: - - 1: 1 layer silicate
-Held together by mutually held oxygen

2.Montmorillonite: - 2:1 (silica to aluminia)

- Held together through weak oxygen linkages

3. Illite: - 15 % of silica in silica sheet is replaced by


aluminium and potassium atoms.

Principle minerals of earthcrust: -

Minerals approximate (%)

Feldspars 48

Quartz 36

Micas 10

Clay CEC (me / 100g)

Kaolinite 3-10

Illite 10-30

Montomorillonite 80-150

• Soil having >15% ESP - Alkali soil

• C: N ratio of O.M.  10:1

• Average value of C: N ratio of Indian Soils - 14:1

• Micro flora - Bacteria, Actinomycetes, Fungi & Algae

• Micro fauna - protozoa & nematodes

NH3 NO2
NO3
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Nitrosomonas Nitrobacter

 Nitrosofication-

1----------------------------------nitrification
----------------------1

• Protozoa are unicellular organisms.

Land capability classification

Arable land

Class - I - productive & suitable for intensive cropping.

II - used for raising many cultivated crops.

III - need careful management

IV - the cultivation of crop is restricted to once in 3-4


years.

V - restrict their use to pasture/adoptable tree species.

VI - restricted to pasture & silviculture.

VII - restrict their use for grazing.

VIII - use is restricted to recreation / wild life.

Alluvial soils: -

• This is the largest & most important soil group of India


contributing the largest share to its agricultural wealth.

Two types

1. Khadar - newer alluvium of sandy.

2. Bhangar - older alluvium of more clayey.

Black soils; -

• Maharastra has maximum black soil area in India.

Red soils: -

• Tamil Nadu has maximum red soil area in India. (2/3 r d of


cultivated area)

• Clay fraction is rich in Kaolinite.

• Colour is due to Hydration of the ferric oxide in them.

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Lateritic soils: -

All Lateritic soils are very poor in lime and magnesia and are
deficient in Nitrogen.

Desert soil -

Most predominant component of the desert sand is quartz

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Acid tolerant crops: -

Cereals Legumes miscellaneous

Maize Groundnut Sugarcane

Rice Soybean Potato

Wheat Berseem Tea

Barley Lentil

Oats

Saline & alkali soils:

• 7 m ha area has gone out of cultivation.

• Saline soils are also called as- white alkali soils

• Sodic soils are also called as - black alkali soils

Reclamation

• Acid soils - lime

• Basic soils - gypsum

• Saline soils - sulphuric pyrite and also gypsum

WATER RESOURCES

• Average annual rainfall is about 120 cm (India) and that of global


is 99 cm.

• Water source of the country - 178 M Ha M

• Ground water runoff is roughly assessed at about - 45 mham

• The utilizable flow has been estimated to be 66.6 mham

• Ground water recharge in the country as a whole works out


at10% of the total rainfall.

• Total volume of surface water presently utilized for irrigation is


about - 23.5 mham.

• The total volume of ground water presently used for irrigation is


estimated about 10.5 mham.

• The present total utilization of surface water for irrigation may


then be taken as - 23.31 (23.50) mham.
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• As regards the net area sown - 142mha

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LAND UTILIZATION

• Total geographical area - 328 mha, the land use statistics is


available only for 306 mha constituting 98% of the total.

• Technical committee in co-ordination of agricultural


statistics set up in 1948 by Ministry of food & agriculture.

• Arable land = net area sown + current of allows + other of


allow land

• Potential land available = available land+ cultivable waste


+ permanent postures & grazing land

Net area sown

• % Potential land exploited = --------------------- x 100

Potential land

Net area sown

% Arable land = ------------------- x100

Arable land

• 65.9 mha (21.6 %)

• Net area sown - 141.16 mha (46.1%)

• Gross cropped area -167.4 mha

Reporting area: -

• MH has highest net sown area in the country.

• The gross cropped area is highest in UP followed by MP &


MH.

UP has largest gross irrigated area in the country which is


about 21.6 % of the country as a whole, followed by Punjab -
11.0 and AP - 10.95

• In case of food grains - UP has highest irrigated area - 22.3


% followed by AP (11.7%) and Punjab (9.7 %)

• Non food grains - irrigated area UP – 19.2% and Punjab -


16.1 %

• State producing highest agricultural produce - UP (21.6%)

• Total geographical area (highest) - Rajasthan

• Area under forest (highest) - Madhya Pradesh


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• Land put to non cultural uses (highest) - Andra Pradesh

• Barren & uncultivated land (highest) - Rajasthan

• Net area sown (highest) - Madhya Pradesh

SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION

Extent of soil erosion

It is estimated that out of 305.9 mha of reporting area 145 mha is


in need of conservation measures.

Gullies are the most spectacular evidence of the destruction of


soil.

Wind erosion

• Saltation: the major portion of the soil carried by wind is


moved in a series of short bounces called Saltation. The soil
carried in a Saltation consists of fine particles ranging from
0.1 – 0.5 mm in diameter.

Mechanical measures of erosion control: -

1. Basin listing : Basin listing consists in making of small


interrupted basins along the contour with a special implement
called a basin -lister.

2. Subsoiling : This method consists in breaking with a subsoiler


the hard and impermeable subsoil to conserve more rainwater
by improving the physical conditions of a soil.

3. Contour – Bunding: This consists in making a comparatively


narrow based embankment at intervals across the slope of the
land on a level that is along the contour. It is an important
measure that conserves soil and water in arid & semiarid areas.
Slope - 3-6 %

4. Bench terracing : It consists of a series of platforms having


suitable vertical drops along contours or on suitable graded
lines across the general slope of the land. The vertical drop
may vary from 60 – 180 cm depending upon slope and soil
condition. Slope - 16 – 33%

Water sources: -

• The southwesterly monsoon contributes over 80 % to the


total precipitation.

• Shallow well derive their water supply from the surrounding


area through seepage, percolation, high water table etc.

• Deep wells depend for their water on aquifers.

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Salt tolerance crop:

1. Tolerant sps (>5000 ppm): Barley, sugarcane, date- palm,


grape, kale, cotton, rhodes, grass, sesbania

2. Semi tolerant sps (< 2500 ppm – 5000): Rice, sorghum, maize,
Barley, sunflower, Lucerne, berseem/guar, safflower, onion,
wheat, bajra.

3. Sensitive sps (< 2500 ppm): peas, cabbage, grapes, orange,


potato, tomato

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Boron toxicity tolerant:

1. Tolerant sps: (2-4 ppm): - datepalm, sugar beet, Lucerne,


onion, turnip, cabbage, and lettuce

2. Semi-tolerant (1-2 ppm): - wheat, maize, barley, cotton,


sunflower, potato, tomato, peas & sweet potato

3.Sensitive crops (0.3-1 ppm): - Apple, apricot, grape, orange,


cherry, walnut

• Water requirement = consumptive use of water +


application

Losses+ special needs

1 cubic foot of water - 62.4 lb

1 cubic foot /sec = one cusec = 448.83 gallons

= 0.99 acre. inch/hr = 100 tons

1 Acre inch of water = 101 tons = 12.8 cubic meter = 22,660


gallons

Sprinkler method : can be adopted in the case of almost all


crops and is specially suited to shallow sandy soils of uneven
topography, where leveling is not practicable.

Drip irrigation: - first initiated in Israel.

Critical stages of rice: - tillering and flowering

Water need for rice: Conditions

1000 –1500 mm heavy soils, high water table,


kharif

1500 – 2000 mm medium soils, kharif

2000 – 2500 mm light soils, long duration varieties.

WHEAT: -

Optimum moisture range - 100 – 60 % of availability.

Critical stage - crown root initiation (CRI) - 3 weeks after


sowing (21-25 days)

- Flowering

- Grain development

Maize: -

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Critical stages: - Early vegetative period - 30-40 weeks after
Sowing

- Tasselling - 45-50 weeks after sowing

Maize is highly sensitive to excess water

Sorghum: -

Critical stages: - pre-flowering and grain development

Kharif legumes - kidney bean -Green gram (Mung), pigeon


pea.

-Black gram (mash)

Rabi legumes: - gram, lentil, pea and Indian bean.

Critical stages of pulses: - early vegetative growth, flowering,


pod development.

Sunflower and mustard are relatively hardy crops and can


withstand more unfavourable conditions that other.

Cotton: - extremely sensitive to excess moisture and lack of


aeration. Optimum soil moisture is necessary during the stages of
flowering and ball formation.

• Sugarcane: - only vegetative growth is the economic


importance. (Formative stage)

• Tobacco: - water with a high chloride content, affects the


leaf, burning quality and hence is unsuitable for irrigation.

• Potato: - stolonization and tuber formation stages during


20-60 days growth are critical.

• Onion And Garlic: - bulbing is most important critical


stage.

• Tomato, watermelon & Muskmelon: - excessive irrigation


during ripening results in fruit cracking and hence it should
be avoided.

SOIL FERTILITY AND FERTILIZER USE

Cations form of uptake by plants

K K+

Ca Ca++

Mg Mg++

Fe Fe+++

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Zn Zn++

Anions

N NO 3 - , NH 4 +

P H 2 Po 4 -

S SO 4 -

Cl Cl -

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3 mechanisms of absorption of nutrients : -

1. Mass flow / convection

2. Diffusion

3. Contact exchange and root interception.

• Mass flow /convection is considered to be important of


nutrient uptake.

• Nutrient ions such as nitrate, chloride & sulphate are not


absorbed by the soil colloids and remain mainly in solution. Such
nutrient ions area absorbed by the roots along with soil.

Diffusion: This mechanism is predominant in supplying most of


the phosphorous and potassium to plant roots.

Plant Nutrients & Their Functions.

Source

Carbon - CO2

Oxygen - air & water

Hydrogen - water

Nitrogen - air, soil & both

Others - soil

Primary nutrients - N, P, K

Secondary nutrients - Ca, Mg, S

Trace elements / micronutrients - Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, B Mo, Cl

Primary and secondary elements are known as major elements.

Nitrogen: -

Excess _ lodging in cereals

-Delays maturation of plant.

Deficiency - reddening of leaves in cotton.

Phosphorus: -

Function; - formation of grains.

Offsets harmful effects of excess nitrogen in plants.

Deficiency: - purplish / reddish discoloration of the stem

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- Abnormal increase in the sugar content and the

Formation of anthocynin

Potassium: -

Function:

1. Enhance ability of a plant to resist pest, diseases and other


abnormal condition

2. Formation of starch and in the production and translocation


of sugars and is thus of special value of water rich crops.

Plants can take-up and store potassium in much larger


quantities than what is needed for optimum growth. This is
called luxury consumption.

Deficiency: - firing along the edges in maize leaves

Calcium: -

Function: - Constituent of cell wall (calcium pectate

- Involved in cell division

Excess - favours scab in potato

Deficiency - commonly associated with acidity.

Magnesium -

Function: - constituent of chlorophyll

- Necessary for formation of oil.

Deficiency: - in maize intraveinal chlorosis.

Sulphur: -

Function: - Important constituent of straw and plant stalk.

- Constituent of AAS - methionine and cysteine.

Fe: -

Deficiency: - gray speck - maize

Marsh spot - sugarcane (sugar beet)

Yellow diseases - spinach and beans

White streak - field peas

Dry spot - field peas

Leaf spot - field peas


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Cu: -

Deficiency - dieback in citrus

Zn: - is taken up by the plant in the ionic form/ complex with


chelating agent. Ex: EDTA.

Deficiency: - white bud - maize

Khaira - rice

In calcareous soils and soils with high P content the Zn


deficiency is commonly observed.

Boron: -

Deficiency: - Yellow and resetting - Lucerne

Snakehead - walnut

Pitting of fruits - tomatoes

Die back & corking of fruits - apples

Hollow stem and bronzing of curd in cauliflower

Brown heart - table beets and turnip

Molybdenum:

Deficiency: - whip tail in cauliflower, broccoli and other Brassica


species.

Chlorine: - In 1954 chlorine was proved as essential


micronutrient.

Deficiency: - bronze discoloration in tomatoes.

Na: - not an essential element but the presence is considered to


be beneficial.

• Most commonly used organic manure in India - FYM - 0.5 %


N

• Sewage, sludge and activated dry contains N  4-7 %

P 2 O 5  2.1 – 4.2 %

K 2 O  0.5 – 0.7%

• Tree leaves of pongamia, (Karanj/Honge) N  3.69 %

P 2 O 5  2.41%

K 2 O  2.42 %

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Crop Synonyms

Cowpea  chavli, lobia

Cluster bean  guar

Horsegram  Kulthi

Mothbean  Mutki, moth

Greengram  mung, mug

Blackgram  urd, urid (mush)

Redgram  arhar

• Calcium sulphate /gypsum and supper phosphate have proved


most promising in preventing the escape of ammonia.

• Folding 7,000 sheep for on night is said to add equivalent of


149.3 quintals of cattle dung.

• Calcium nitrate - also known as Chilean nitrate.

• Ammonium sulphate widely used fertilizer in the country.

• Nitrochalk: - is the trade name of a product formed by mixing


ammonium nitrate with 40% lime stone /Dolomite.

• Non- proteinaceous organic nitrogen  Urea.

CROPPING PATTERNS

Among post monsoon crops (rabi) wheat, sorghum & gram

• Largest area under Kharif maize is in UP

• The area under the Kharif Jowar in India is highest in


Maharashtra.

• Ragi is mainly concentrated in Karnataka.

• Bajra is drought resistant crop. The Rajasthan has maximum


area (4.6 mha) of Bajra (2/3 of total area of India).

• G/N - Gujarat is producing maximum G/N (24.4 %)

• Cotton - Maharashtra shares 36% of the total cotton area


followed by Gujarat.

• Hot water treatment for seed borne diseases - 54 o c for 1 min.

• Bordeaux mixture - CuSO4 + CaCO 3  Millardet

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• Burgundy mixture - CuSO4+ Na 2 CO 3  Mason

Systemic fungicides

Oxanthin derivatives - plantavax - oxycarboxin -for rusts

Vitavax - carboxin - for smuts

Agrimycin 100 is the mixture of streptomycin + tetracycline

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Diseases and Causal organisms

Rice

Brown spot - cochliobolus miyabeanus

Stem root - Leptosphaeria salvini

Sheath blight - Rhizoctonia solani

Foot rot/ bakanae - Gibberella fujikuroi

Bunt - Neovossia horrida

False smut - Ustilaginoidea virens

Leaf smut - Entyloma Oryzae

Ultra disease - Ditylenchus angustus

Bacteria blight - Xanthomonas Oryzae

Yellow dwarf - Mycoplasm

Leaf yellowing -Virus

Pan sukh (dry leaf disease) -Physiological

Khaira -Zn def

Wheat:

Black mould -Cladosporium herbarum

Pythium root rot -Pythium graminicolum

Foot rot -Helmisthosporium sativum

Hill bund -Tilletia foetida & T caries

Karnal bund -Neouossia indica

Flagsmut -Urocystis tritici

Loosesmut -Ustilago tritici

Stemrugt -Puccinea graminis tritici

Stripe rust (yellow rust) -Puccinia glumarum

Leaf / Brown rust - Puccinia recondita

Powdery mildews - Erysiphe graminis

Earcocle -Anguina Tritici

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Molya/cereal cyst nematode -Heterodera avenae

Insecticidal property of DDT in 1939 by  Paul Muller

Two breeding seasons of Lucusts  1) winter spring

2) Summer Monsoon

Ectoparasitic nematodes

Spiral nematodes - Helicotylenchus, Rotylenchus

Lance nematodes - Hoplolaimus

Ring nematodes - Cericonemoides,


Hemicriconemoides

Stunt nematodes - Tylenchonemoides

Sheath nematodes - Hemicycliophora

Semiendoparatic nematodes:

Citrus nematode - Tylenchus semipenctrans

Reniform nematode - Rotylenchus reniformis

Endoparasites:

Roof knot Nematode (RKN)-Meloidogyne sp

Cyst nematode - Heterodera, Globadera

Roof lesion nematode - Pratylenchus

Seed parasites nematode - Anguina tritici

Foliar nematode - Aphelenchoides sp

Stem & Bulb nematode - Ditylenchus sp

SL-120 – RKN resistant tomato variety released from IARI

• Bladed harrows are also called as Bakharas/guntakas.

• Agricultural produce Grading and Marketing Act (APGMA)

• Central Agmark lab – Nagpur & there are about 16 regional


labs.

1878 - Sea customs Act.

1955 - Essential Commodity Act.

NAFED - National Agricultural Co-operative Marketing Federation.

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Differed liabilities

Debt equity ratio = ------------------------

Net worth

AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION EDUCATION

• Community development programme – 1952

• The word extension was first used in USA

• Extension education is - Informal education

• National Extension Service (NES) - 1953

• Community development and extension Service in India

• Stage I - pre-independence Era: - (1886-1974)

• Sevagram - Mahatma Gandhi

• Shantiniketan - Rabindranath Tagore

• Marthandam - Spencer Hatch

• Gurugaon - F.L. Brayne

• Department of Agriculture – 1871 June

• 1905 – IARI  PUSA Bihar

• Royal Commission on Agriculture – 1928

• Stage II : post independent Era ( 1947 – 53 )

• Etawah Pilot project - (1948-52) - Albert Mayer

• Community development project (1952 Oct 2)

• Stage III : community development and National Extension


Service Era (1953 – 60 )

• National extension service was inaugurated on 2 n d Oct 1953

• In 1958 panchayat raj was introduced as recommended by the


Balwant Rai Mehta Committee.

• IADP - Intensive Agriculture Development Programme

• First Agriculture University - GBPUAT - 1960 pantnagar


(Rudrapur)

• SFDA - Small Farmer’s Development Agency  started under 4 t h


FYP
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• Bhoodan & Gramdhan Acts: started in early 1950’s  Acharya
Vinobha Bhave initiated this movement.

• The first attempt to prevent further fragmentation was made in


Maharashtra – (1947)

• Minimum Wages Act - 1948

• Insecticide Act - 1968 & Insecticide Rules - 1971

• Karnataka Cotton control Act - 1974

• Seeds Act -1966 seed rules - 1968

• Karnataka land improvement Act - 1966

• Karnataka Agriculture pests & Disease Act - 1974

• Fertilizers order - May 1973

• Destructive insect pest act - 1914

• Agricultural produce act - 1937

• Taccavi loans - started in 1973

• National co-operative development corporation act – 1962

Wheat

• Common bread wheat - T. aestivum

• Macaroni wheat - T. durum

• Indogangetic plains form the most important wheat area

• Soil - well-drained clayey loam.

• Spacing - 22.5 cm between rows.

• Varieties - medium long duration - kalyan sona Short


duration - sonalika

• Most critical stage - CRI stage

• Weedicide  2-4 D

• Phalaris minor - graminaceous problematic weed.

• Storage - < 10% moisture content

RICE

• Oryza sativa - cosmopolitan (Asian rice)

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• Ooryza glabarima - confined to Africa

• Fruit - caryopsis

• Rice is considered as short day plant

• West Bengal has highest rice area

• PH - 5- 8.5

• Spacing 20-25 cm

• Nursery area 10% of main field (1/10 t h of total area)

• Seed rate - 40-50 kg/ha

• In calcareous soils - Fe is deficit, so FeSO 4 is added.

• ‘Dapog’ nursery - used especially in place where there is


assured water supply & when early transplanting is needed &
30-40 m2 area is required to raise enough seedlings to
transplant 1 ha area.

• Water requirement is high than any other crop of similar


duration.

• About 37-75 acre-inches of water is needed.

Maize

• Native to America

• Highest production- UP

• With the average yield maze ranks first among cereals

• Nutritionally superior opaque – 2 composites - Shakti


Rattan Protina

• These opaque – 2 composites are rich in essential AAS life –


lysine & Tryptophan

• Pulses are deficit in methionine & Tryptophan

• Cereals are deficit in Lysine & Tryptophan

• Used in the manufacture of Beer & Whisky

Oats

Grown in Rabi - mostly for fodder

Black gram - Urd, mash

Bengalgram
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Germinated seeds are recommended to cure scurvy.

Malic and oxalic acids collected from green leaves are prescribed
for intestinal disorders.

Greengram

Highest production MP

Horsegram Highest production AP

Lentil Highest production MP

Moth bean Highest production Rajasthan

Peas Highest production UP

Pigeon pea (Red gram/ arhar) Highest production MH

Potato

Native – South America

Occupies largest area under any single vegetable in the world

Kufiri Jyothi.

Best method of starting potato is cold stores at 2.2 ºC at 75-80 %


RH

Tea

Popularly known as – health herb

Soils - acidic pH 4-6

Spacing - 120x75 cm - 10000 plants / ha

1 – 1 ½ year old nursery seedlings are used for planting in the


field.

Shade trees - oak ( Gravelea robusta ) Erythrina lithosperma


(dadapa)

Acacia

Albizzia

State: Assam

UPASI: United Planters Association of Southern India

Chinchona P O., Coimbatore dist., T.N.

Coffee
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Abid Hussain, MSc, Horticulture, abid.tnau@gmail.com
State - Karnataka

Cocoa : Theobroma cocoa, Theobrama means –‘The food of


gods’

Coconut

Tree of heaven - coconut

India ranks 2 n d w.r.t. Coconut production.

Groundnut

Native - Brazil

Oil content - 44-50%

Oil is extensively used as cooking medium - both as refined oil


and vanaspati ghee.

Groundnut is predominantly self-pollinated crop.

Peg which later swells to become the pod.

Groundnut is raised mostly as rainfed Kharif crop.

The application of 500 kg gypsum / ha at the pegging stage will


enhance pod formation.

Safe moisture content is not more than - 5 %

Damp nuts of stored will ferment and allow the development of


poisonous moulds

Ex:- Aspergillus falvus - produce Aflatoxin in Kernels

Indian mustard - Brassica Juncea - commonly called as rai /


raya/ laha

Origin of B.juncea - China

Taramira – is native to - North Africa & Europe

Oil content of rape seed & mustard - 30 – 48 %

India occupies first position w.r.t. Area & production.

Sesamum Primary center of origin. - Africa India ranks first.UP


ranks first

Linseed MP ranks first

Castor India ranks first AP ranks first

Saf flower MH ranks first

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Abid Hussain, MSc, Horticulture, abid.tnau@gmail.com
Sunflower Native – USA Country _ Russia

Niger State – MP Country _ India

Sugarcane UP have largest acres under sugarcane (57%) Yield/ha


- TN

Ek sali - Dec – Feb -MH

Oct - Nov - AP

Adsali - July - Aug - 18-month crop

Water requirement - 200 – 300 cm

Cotton

AICRP on cotton – 1967, Short staple - 9.5 mm – 25.4 mm

Medium staple - 13mm – 40mm

Long staple - 25.4mm – 63mm

The group now recognized in India is

Superior long staple - 27mm & above

Long staple - 24.5 – 26

Superior medium staple - 22 – 24

Medium staple - 20- 21.5

Short staple - <19

First co-operative cotton sales society was opened at Gadag in


Mysore in 1917.

1 bale = 170 kg

Staple length classification

upto 1961 – 62 after 1961 – 62

Long 24 & above 24 &


above

Medium 18 –21 20 – 24

Short 17 & below 19 & below

Tobacco

India ranks 3 r d after USA & China

AP ranks first

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Abid Hussain, MSc, Horticulture, abid.tnau@gmail.com
Central Tobacco Committee - 1945

Topping & Suckering

Removal of flower head alone/ along with some of the top leaves
of the plant is known as topping.

After topping, the axillary buds grow and their removal is known
as Suckering.

Banana: State - TN Desuckering - removal of daughter suckers.

Mango:

Veneer grafting has been found to be best method of mango


propagation.

The graft joint should be at least 15cm above the ground.

The application of Ethrel (200 ppm) from September onwards has


been found to induce flowering in Mango in Karnataka by the
Indian Institute of Horticultural Research.

Harvesting - June to Aug in Northern India.

Guava UP has largest area L – 49 (Allahabad safeda) - seedless


variety

Pomegranate _ MH

Avocado - rich in protein & Fat

Apple Rootstock Use M. IX dwarfing rootstock for propagating


dwarf apple trees.

- Malling – Merton - rootstocks are recommended where

Vegetables

Daily minimum requirement of veg - 284 g/ day / head

Veg gardens are classified into 6 types.

Spices

King of spices - pepper

Queen of spices - cardamom

Fruits of cardamom - small trilocular capsules.

Hoshomin the queen of China first introduced sericulture in China

Outbreak of pebrine disease - 1857 to 1895

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Abid Hussain, MSc, Horticulture, abid.tnau@gmail.com
The cocoons of erisilkworm cannot be ruled as they produce
cocoon with small opening.

Entomology (General Agriculture)

• Per hectare consumption of pesticides in India – 440 gm/ha

• Pesticides consumption is maximum in – Andhra Pradesh


(19%)

• Per hectare consumption is maximum in – Tamil Nadu

• Consumption of pesticides in India

1994-95 (metric tons)

Imported 6266

Indigenous 55191

Total 61357

Maximum consumption of pesticides

Imported – Carbaryl followed by Chlorpyriphos

Indigenous – B H C followed by Monocropophos & Endosulfon

Export of Agro Chemicals:

• Maximum (in terms of Rupees) – Cypermethrin followed by


Endosulfon, Aluminium Phosphide & Lindane.

• The top Agro-business company – Novartis (Ciba + Sandoz)

• Production of Agro-Chemicals – 1995-96 (‘000 tons)

B H C - 25

Monocrotophos - 9

Endosulfon - 6.8

Total Production of pesticides in India – 88,890 tons (1994-95)

82,000 tons (1995-96)

No. of pesticides registered in India – 143 (as on 31.3.95)

No. of Technical grade pesticides manufactured in India – 66

Pigeon Pea: - 2nd most important pulses after Chickpea.

Origin – India Maximum area and Production – M H

Groundnut: - Critical stage  Pegging Origin – Brazil


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Abid Hussain, MSc, Horticulture, abid.tnau@gmail.com
Rice: - Area -43.2 million hectare

Production – 82 mt Origin – Hindustan

India ranks first in area and 2 n d in production

Maximum area and production – West Bengal

Rice grain in known as – caryopsis

Rice is short day plant

Dapog method – Introduced from Philiphines 30-40 m² area is


needed

Nitrification inhibitors – N-serve, ST, DCA

Slow release N fertilizers – S coated/neem coated/Lac coated –


useful

Critical stage – Tillering to flowering

Water requirement – 100-120 cm

Herbicides – Propanil @ 1-1.5 kg/ha Butachlon @ 1-2 kg/ha

Father of Hybrid rice – Prof. Long Ping Yuan

First rice hybrid  COH R-1/MGR-1

WHEAT:

Bread wheat –T.Aestivum

Club wheat – Tritium compactum

Macaroni wheat -T.durum

Einkorn wheat – T. monococcum

Emmer wheat -T.dicoccum

India – area -25 mha

Production -65 mt

India is 2 n d largest producer only after China

Wheat is World’s leading cereal

Maximum area & production of wheat – Uttar Pradesh

Critical stage – CRI stage

Operations

Topping & Suckering - Tobacco


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Abid Hussain, MSc, Horticulture, abid.tnau@gmail.com
Nipping - Gram (Bengal gram)

Tripping - Lucerne (Alfalfa)

Xanthomonas

Bacterial Blight of rice Xanthomonas Oryzae oryzae

Bacterial leaf streak of rice Xanthomonas oryzae oryzicola

Bacterial blight of cowpea Xanthomonas axonopodis


vignicola

Citrus canker Xanthomonas oxonopodis citri

Black rot of crucifers Xanthomonas Campestris


Campestris

Sugarcane gummosis Xanthomonas axonopodis


vascularum

Angular leaf spot of cotton Xanthomonas axonopodis


malvacearum

Leaf spot & Blight of beans Xanthomonas axonopodis phaseoli

Leaf spot of Tomato Xanthomonas axonopodis


Vesicatoria

Leaf spot of red gram Xanthomonas campestries cajani

Leaf spot of Bajra Xanthomonas campestris


annamalaiensis

Leaf blotch of Bajra Xanthomonas campestris Penniseti

Bacterial blight of Banana Xanthomonas campestris


musarum

Leaf spot of pomegranate Xanthomonas axonopodis punicae

Leaf spot of cluster bean Xanthomonas compestris


cyamopsidis

Bacterial pustule of soybean Xanthomonas axonopodis


phaseoli - sojens

Bacterial bllight of sesamum Xanthomonas campestris sesami

Pseudomonas

Brown rot of potato Ralstonia solanacearum (= pseudomonas


solanacearum )

Bacterial wilt of Brinjal Ralstonia solanacearum

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Abid Hussain, MSc, Horticulture, abid.tnau@gmail.com
Bacterial wilt of Tomato Ralstonia solanacearum

Moko disease of Banana Ralstonia solanacearum

Wild fire of tobacco pseudomonas syringae tabaci

Bacterial stalk rot of maize pseudomonas lapsa

Leaf stripe of sorghum pseudomonas lapsa

Leaf spot of mango pseudomonas mongiferae indicae

Angular leafspot of tobacco pseudomonas anguluta

Leaf spot of grape pseudomonas viticola

Erwinia

Stalk rot of maize Enterobacter dissolvens ( = Erwinia


dissolvens )

soft rot of vegetable Erwinia caratovora caratovora

fire blight of apple Erwinia amylovora

Black leg of potato Erwinia caratovora


abroseptica

Clavibacter

Yellow ear of wheat Rathayibacter tritici

Ring rot of potato Clavibacter michiganensis


spidonicum

Stem & fruit canker of tomato Clavibacter


michiganensis michiganensis

Agrobacterium

Crown gall of stone fruits Agrobacterium tumefacines

Streptomyces

Potato scab streptomyces scabis

Herbicides

2-4 DB - can be used in pulse crops

Propanil - selective contact herbicide (used in Rice)

Paraquat - non-selective contact herbicide used in non-cropped


areas.

Glyphosate - non-selective translocated herbicide

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Abid Hussain, MSc, Horticulture, abid.tnau@gmail.com
Rice - propanil, 2-4 D, Butachlor

Wheat - Isoproturon, sulfosulfuron, clodinofos

Weight of top 15 cm soil  2.25 x 10kg/ha

STATISTICS

• Probability of an event  any number lying between  0-1

• Positive Binomial distribution – Variance< mean

• Negative Binomial distribution – Variance> mean

• Binomial distribution  variance < mean

• Poisson distribution  variance = mean

• Normal distribution  mean, median & mode are equal

(Coincide at a single point)

• Limiting value of correlation coefficient  -1 to =1

• Limiting value of multiple co-relation coefficient  0 to 1

S.E = ------

√n

CV = ---------- x 100

• CRD (completely randomized block design) is mostly used for


lab experiments.

Nipping: - is the process of plucking the apical buds of the crop


at 30-40 DAS. It is done in Gram safflower, which promotes
lateral branching, more flowers & pod yield.

No. of soil orders – 12

Short day plants - soyabean, s/c, rice, tobacco

LDP - wheat, oats, sugarcane, raddish, lettuce

Day neutral - tomato, ‘bulk wheat ‘ , maize & sun flower

True seeds of s/c are called as FLUFF

Artificial s/c ripeners – polaris, sodium metasylicate, cycoul.


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Abid Hussain, MSc, Horticulture, abid.tnau@gmail.com
TMO - technology mission on oilseeds -May 1986

(mha)

• ultimate irrigation potential - 148

• irrigation potential created - 92

• Irrigation potential utilized - 82

• Net irrigated area - 55

• Irrigated area (%) - 35 %

• Igneous rocks - granite , Basalt

• Sedimentary rocks - limestone, quartz, sandstone shale,


conglomerate

• Metamorphic rocks - gneiss, quartz, marble, slate

1. True/particle density - 2.5 - 2.7 g/cc

2. Apparent/bulk density - 1.4 - 1.8 g/cc

3. First hybrid rice – WHR – 1/ MGR –1 (1994)

4. Density of water is highest at - 4ºc ( 1.02 g/cc )

5. 1959 – 60  Urea was first produced at Sindri ( Bihar)

6. ICPH – 8  first pigeon pea hybrid

7. 1 km² = 100 ha

8. 1 ft³ = 28.32 lbs

9. 1 ban = 10⁶ dynes/cm² = 0.1 Mpa

10. C.N ratio  0.M = 10:1

11. Indian soils = 14 :1

12. Most of Indian soils are deficit in N & contains about –


0.05%

13. Taking in to account the total land resources ( 328


mha) , the availability of land / head in India = 0.58 ha

14. Australia - 59 ha

• Graded bunding - if rainfall is - 780 cm

• Zing terracing - 3- 10% slope


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Abid Hussain, MSc, Horticulture, abid.tnau@gmail.com
• Bench terracing - 6-33% slope

• 1871 - Department of Agriculture

• 1963 - N S C

• 1972 - I C R I S A T

• 1995 - Institutional Village Level Programme

• 1998 - National Agricultural Technology Project

• 1976 - N C A (National commission on


Agriculture)

• 1926 - R C A (Royal Commission on Agriculture)

• Project Directors - 10

• A I C R P - 78

• N R C - 10

• National Bureaus - 4

During 2001-02

1. GDP (Agricultural Share) 25.00% (27.00%)

2. (Exports) 16.18% (15.30%)

3. Distribution of certified seeds – 100 lakh tons

Cloud Seeding :

Silver iodide – cold clouds

Sodium Chloride – Warm

• Crumb and granular structure (Spheroidal) of soil are


considered as favourable to plant growth.

• Percentage of forest area to geographical area is highest in


Japan (69%), while that of India is 22%

• Water erosion: 3 forms, sheet, Rill, Gully erosion

• Wind erosion: There are 3 types of soil movement

Particle Size

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Abid Hussain, MSc, Horticulture, abid.tnau@gmail.com
1) Saltation 0.1-0.55 mm in diameter – Major process

2) Suspension < 0.1 mm

3) Surface creep > 0.5 mm

• DAP – 18% N, 46% P2O5 OR 16% N 48% P2O5

• CAN – 25-28% N

• Ammonium nitrate – 33-35 % N – It is explosive

Statistics (1994-95)

Geographical area - 328.73 mha

Forests - 68.39 mha (22.40%)

Net area sown - 142.82 mha

Gross area sown - 188.15 mha

Cropping intensity - 131.70 %

Net irrigated area - 55 mha

Gross irrigated area - 82 mha

Fertilizers: N P K Total

10.3 mt 2.97 mt 1.02 mt 14.3 mt

Average haˉ² consumption of fertilizers

India - 86 kg/ha

World Avg. - 86 kg/ha

Punjab - 158 kg/ha  (Highest with respect to states


excluding UTs (Union Territories))

Netherlands - 542 kg/ha

Gross capital formation in Agriculture – 9.4 %

• Uttar Pradesh – Contributes maximum food grain production


(42 mt) and has maximum area and production of wheat,
maize, sugar cane, potato, mango

• West Bengal – has maximum area and production of Rice,


Jute and Mesta

• Maharashtra – has maximum area and production of warse


cereals, jowar, pigeon pea and cotton

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Abid Hussain, MSc, Horticulture, abid.tnau@gmail.com
• Madhya Pradesh – maximum area and production of pulses,
chickpea, oilseeds and soyabean

Groundnut  highest area – Andhra Pradesh

Production – Gujarat

Sugarcane  area & production – West Bengal

Productivity – Tamil Nadu

Rice and Wheat – Productivity is highest in Punjab

Water requirement – Rice – 100-120 cm

Sugarcane - 200-300 cm

Sugarcane

• Origin - Thincane - India

 Thickcane - New Guinea

• Area – 4mha

• Production – 279 mt

• Seed rate – 30.35 thousand setts 3 buded 2 buded – 75,000


1 single – 1,25,000

• Herbicides – 2-4 D (75-80 gt)

Atrazine

• Brix nad refactometer – 17-18 ideal stage for harvest

GENERAL

• Fibrinogen is the precursor of Fibrio

• Fertilizin is an (hormone) chemical substance produced by the


egg during fertilization which attract the sperm

• First geneticist who had received Nobel Prize – T H Morgan

• Agroclimate Zones - 15

• Agroecological Zones - 21

• Agroclimatic regions - 126

• Fobrinogen - Fibrin

• Trypsinogen - Trypsin

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Abid Hussain, MSc, Horticulture, abid.tnau@gmail.com
• First enzyme crystalized – urease – by Sumner

• Metallovitamin – B 1 2 (Cobalamine)

• First aromatic hybrid Rice – Pusa basmati – 1

• First Basmati – Pusa RH – 10

• Stomata less (Astomatal) plant – potamogaton & submerged


plants

• Central molecule controlling cell division aquatic plant – cycline

• Father of Physiology – Stephan Hales

• Pollination by bats – Chiropterophylly

• Most of the Indian soils are deficit in – Nitorgen and Zn

• India is the largest producer of Mango, Banana, Sapota and


Cauliflower

• Elements absorbed in complex form  Na

• Plant uptake maximum amount of  K from soil amount all


elements (Luxury consumption)

• Indian soils are usually poor in – OM & nitrogen

• White Revolution - Milk

• Blue Revolution - Fishery

• Round Revolution - Potato

• Silver Revolution - Eggs & Poultry

• Brown Revolution - Biomass (fertilizer production)

• Orange Revolution - Onion

• Yellow Revolution - Oilseeds

• Green Revolution - Wheat & Rice

• Grey Revolution - I T in Agriculture

• Fertilizer having explosive nature – Ammonium nitrate

• 50 % of Indian soils are deficit in Zn(among micro nutrients)

• Neutral fertilizer – CAN – Calcium Ammonium Nitrate

Crop State (%)


38
Abid Hussain, MSc, Horticulture, abid.tnau@gmail.com
Sugarcane West Bengal (51.00)

Tobacco Andhra Pradesh (48.00)

Potato Uttar Pradesh (33.60)

Jute West Bengal (60.00)

Coconut Kerala (68.30)

Rubber Kerala (92.80)

Cashew Kerala (67.40)

Tea West Bengal

Coffee Kerala

Onion Maharashtra (18.50)

Chillies Andhra Pradesh (26.90)

Coriander Andhra Pradesh (36.00)

Weed Control

• The crops like sudangrass, sorghum and cowpea are good


competitors while crops like linseed, groundnut and lentil are
poor competitors

• Prickly pear – opuntia spp

• Water hyacinth – Eichhornia crassipes

• Grass carp – feed on guatic weeds

• Eradication of prickly pear by using the cochineal insects


Doctylopius tomentosus in Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu is best
example of Biological Control in India

• Parthenium - Compositae family

• Cyperus - Cyperaccae

• Echinochloa - Graminae

• Orobanchae - Orobanchaceae

• Argemone mexicana – Papaveraccae

• Striga - Scrophulariaceae

39