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Advanced Formation Evaluation

October2012
by Alain Brie
Dipmeters
Borehole Imaging Logs
5.2
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Advanced Formation Evaluation Alain Brie 2012
Geology Oriented Log Measurements
Inclination of layers provide information of the formation structure
and faults.
Bedding within layers, or stratigraphy, inform about the deposition
history.
Dipmetersare tools designed to provide inclination and bedding.
Geologists want more detail images of the rock structure at a fine
scale as if they were looking at a core.
Imaging tools based either on resistivity, induction or ultrasonic
techniques provide this information.
They also tell about fractures and borehole deformation.
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Advanced Formation Evaluation Alain Brie 2012
Stratigraphic High Resolution Dipmeter Tool (SHDT with 4-
pads and 8 buttons).
Dipmeter Logs
4 pads are applied against
the bore hole wall.
One or two button electrodes
on each pad record the
resistivity of the layers.
Resistivity curves are
correlated to obtain formation
dips.
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Advanced Formation Evaluation Alain Brie 2012
Correlation principle
0 10 20 30 60 90
Dip magnitude
Dip azimuth
Dipmeter Log Presentation
Tadpole orientation
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Advanced Formation Evaluation Alain Brie 2012
Apparent Dip and True Dip
Apparent
Dip
Plane of
Electrodes
Horizontal
True Dip
V
e
r
t
i
c
a
l
Hole Deviation
Apparent
Dip
Plane of
Electrodes
Horizontal
True Dip
V
e
r
t
i
c
a
l
Hole Deviation
Dips calculated are with respect to the tool and the well, i.e., apparent.
They are then corrected for well deviation to obtain true dip.
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Advanced Formation Evaluation Alain Brie 2012
Stratigraphic Dipmeter Interpretation
Stratigraphic interpretation tells
the geologist about the
sedimentary environment.
Here we are in a deltaic
environment with river channels
and bars.
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Advanced Formation Evaluation Alain Brie 2012
Dipmeter Interpretation - Dip Patterns
Blue Pattern:
Increasing upwards
Constant azimuth
Green Pattern- Structural Dip:
Constant dip
Constant azimuth
Red Pattern:
Decreasing upwards
Constant azimuth
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Advanced Formation Evaluation Alain Brie 2012
Stratigraphic Dip Evaluation Example of a Channel
The geologist can identify the different channels
and even the current direction from the dip
patterns.
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Advanced Formation Evaluation Alain Brie 2012
Structural Dip 20E
Structural Dip Removal
Original
Structural Dip
Removed
Removing structural dip brings up bedding features and
helps interpretation
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Advanced Formation Evaluation Alain Brie 2012
Unconformity Dip motif
Angular unconformity
Angular unconformity in Algeria
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Advanced Formation Evaluation Alain Brie 2012
Fault Dipmeter Motifs
Normal fault with drag on upper block
Reverse fault with drag on both blocks
Normal fault Reverse fault
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Advanced Formation Evaluation Alain Brie 2012
Examples of Faults Patterns on Dipmeter
Growth fault
Normal fault with drag
Reverse fault with drag
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Advanced Formation Evaluation Alain Brie 2012
Thrust Fault
Thrust fault with beds overturned by
drag in upper block
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Advanced Formation Evaluation Alain Brie 2012
From Dipmeter to Imaging Tools
1945 1945
Present Present
3
Sensors
62
Sensors
4
Sensors
64
Sensors
192
Sensors
8
Sensors
PDT HDT SHDT
FMI
FMS
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Advanced Formation Evaluation Alain Brie 2012
4 Arms - 8 Pads
192 Electrodes
The FMI has 4 pads and
4 flaps to cover 85% of an
8 in borehole.
Each pad and flap
features 24 buttons in two
rows giving a total of 192
buttons.
FMI Formation Micro-Imager Tool
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Advanced Formation Evaluation Alain Brie 2012
Compared SHDT and FMI Coverage
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Advanced Formation Evaluation Alain Brie 2012
E
N
W
S
ImagesViewedInside Out
E
N
W
S
N
E N W S N
0 90 180 270 360
E
N W
S
N E S W N
Go od Sine Wa ve F it th rough A ll Poin ts
Planer Contact
N E S W N
Poo r Sine Wa ve F it th ro ugh A ll Poin ts
Non - Planer Contact
Images Viewed Inside Out
Borehole Image Presentation
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Advanced Formation Evaluation Alain Brie 2012
Dips calculated from FMI Images
Dips are calculated and visualized
on the FMI image.
An interactive program allows
selection and editing.
Fractures are identified and
evaluated.
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Advanced Formation Evaluation Alain Brie 2012
Major Normal Fault
GR Caliper RHOB Structural FMI interpreted FMI static FMI LLD/LLS
+drift -APLC interpretation dipresults image litho +MSFL
Dragging effect produced by a
major fault
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Advanced Formation Evaluation Alain Brie 2012
Example-1: Healed / Mineralized Fractures in Core &FMI Images in a vertical well.
The tadpole plot gives the angle and direction of the fractures
Natural Fracture Natural Fracture
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Advanced Formation Evaluation Alain Brie 2012
Induced Fractures Strike
Borehole Breakouts Strike
1
3
E
N
E
-
W
S
W
N
N
W
-
S
S
E
Borehole Breakout & Drilling Induced Fractures Borehole Breakout & Drilling Induced Fractures
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Advanced Formation Evaluation Alain Brie 2012
Oil-Base Mud Dipmeter and Borehole Imager Tools
Resistivity based devices, hence
HDT, SHDT and FMI, cannot work in
OBM.
Specific tools using micro-induction
technology were developed for
OBM: OBDT, and OBMI.
The OBMI Tool has 4 pads and 10
micro-induction buttons per pad,
hence a total of 40 buttons.
Ultrasonic scanners can also be
used: BHTV or UBI (ultrasonic
Borehole Imager)
OBDT
Oil-Base Mud Dipmeter
Tool
OBMI Pad
Oil-Base Mud
Micro-Imager Tool
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Advanced Formation Evaluation Alain Brie 2012
UBI
Amplitude
Dynamic
OBMI
Dynamic
UBI
Transit Time
Dynamic
Oil-Base Mud Borehole Images
Depth
m
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Advanced Formation Evaluation Alain Brie 2012
Other Devices with Dip and Imaging Capabilities
Azimuthal Laterologs: ARI and HALS
have 12 azimuthal measurement
electrodes giving a low resolution image
of the formation.
Ultrasonic scanners: BHTV or UBI
(ultrasonic Borehole Imager) have a
rotating ultrasonic sensor.
HALS
Azimuthal Laterolog
Sonde
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Advanced Formation Evaluation Alain Brie 2012
LWD Borehole Imaging with RAB Tool
The RAB Tool generates borehole images from 3 resistivity
buttons.
Resistivity is scanned 56 times per rotation.
Structural dip is evaluated.
3 azimuthal
electrodes
RAB / GVR Tool
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Advanced Formation Evaluation Alain Brie 2012
RAB Imaging of Borehole Breakouts and Fractures
Breakouts
Drilling induced
fractures
Tensile
Fracture
Compressive
Failure (shear)
P
mud

min

Max
Breakout
Induced
Fracture

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