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Advanced Formation Evaluation

October2012
by Alain Brie
Sonic Measurements
Acquisition and Evaluation
4.2
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Advanced Formation Evaluation Alain Brie 2012
Geo-Acoustic Measurement evaluate sound
propagation in the ground.
Seismic exploration uses low frequency wave
for deep penetration,
Sonic measurements are made between 1 and
20 kHz and read close to the wellbore,
Laboratory measurements are made at
ultrasonic frequency,
The wavelength is a function of frequency and
sound velocity,
Depth of investigation and vertical resolution
depend on wavelength.
0.1Hz 1Hz 10Hz 100Hz 1kHz 10kHz 100kHz 1MHz 10MHz
Frequency f
Seismic exploration
VSP
Sonic logging
Ultrasonic (laboratory)
Wavelength
10km 1km 100m 10m 1m 100mm 10mm 1mm 0.1mm
1000ft 100ft 10ft 1ft 0.1ft
Geo-Acoustic Measurements

1000
/ kHz ft s
ft
f t
=

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Advanced Formation Evaluation Alain Brie 2012
First Sonic Tool

1 2
Rspac
TT TT
t

=
The first sonic measurement:
A transmitter emits a sound pulse
The arrival of the sound is detected at two
receiver locations
The difference in time of arrival divided by the
inter-receiver spacing gives t
tis expressed in s/ft or s/m
This is called first motion detection; only the fastest arrival can be measured.
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Advanced Formation Evaluation Alain Brie 2012
Borehole Compensated Measurement
Making a measurement with two transmitters on top and
bottom of the receivers achieves borehole compensation.
The BHC measurement is the average of the upper and
lower transmitter measurements,
BHC corrects the effect of sonde tilt and borehole
enlargement,
The T-R spacings of the BHC tool are 3 ft- 5 ft

2
LTx UTx
BHC
t t
t
+
=
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Advanced Formation Evaluation Alain Brie 2012
Long Spacing Sonic
Short spacing measurements such as the 3 5 ft BHC limit
the depth of investigation and can cause adverse effects on
the measurement.
In very large boreholes the tool can read the mud t instead
of the formation,
In case of alteration (shale swelling) the log can read the
altered zone instead of the virgin formation,
Increasing the TR Spacing increases the depth of
investigation and provides a reliable measurement of the
formation,
The Long Spaced Sonic sonde with TR spacings of 8 10 ft
and 10 12 ft was designed for this purpose.
S
h
a
l
l
o
w

S
e
c
t
i
o
n
I
n
t
e
r
m
e
d
i
a
t
e

S
e
c
t
i
o
n
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Advanced Formation Evaluation Alain Brie 2012
Legacy Sonic Tools
Digital Cartridge
Array Sonic BHC LSS
Legacy Sonic Tools can be operated with a
common digital cartridge that digitizes sonic
waveforms downhole.
The BHC sonde has 3 - 5 ft spacing
The Long Spacing Sonde has 8-10 ft and 10-12ft
Spacings,
The Array Sonic has 3-5 ft, 8-10 ft spacings and an
array of 8 receivers every 6 in located at 8 ft from
the upper transmitter.
All these measurements are monopole.
LTx
UTx
LTx
UTx
LTx
UTx
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Advanced Formation Evaluation Alain Brie 2012
Array Sonic Waveforms
Typical Array Sonic Waveforms in a fast
formation. We observe 3 arrivals:
The CompressionalWave arrives first,
The ShearWave next,
The StoneleyWave last has lower
frequency.
Correlation of the different arrivals across
the array shows the Move-Outin time
versus distance which is the Slownessin
s/ft.
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Advanced Formation Evaluation Alain Brie 2012
Slowness-Time Coherence Computation
The Slowness Time Coherence technique
scans the waveforms for all possible times
and move-out to find coherent arrivals in
the waveform.
Coherence is the ratio of coherent energy
along a move-out over the total energy,
Coherence of 1 is perfect correlation,
Low coherence means no correlation.
The calculated coherence for each time
and slowness value is plotted on the ST
Plane.
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Advanced Formation Evaluation Alain Brie 2012
ST Plane
T
R

l
i
n
e
Each point on the ST plane represents the
result of a coherence computation at a certain
time and move-out.
Contours a drawn around zones of equal
coherence,
Low coherences are shown in blue and high
coherences in red,
High coherence peaks indicate a highly
correlated event propagating at this time and
slowness,
The arrival time of events propagating along
the borehole should be close to their slowness
times the TR spacing.
0 Coherence 1
Time s
S
l
o
w
n
e
s
s

s
/
f
t
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Advanced Formation Evaluation Alain Brie 2012
Field STC Processing Results
Field STC processing for monopole P&S (DSI SAM-4).
This display is used to control the quality of the
STC computation.
Track 3 shows the Slowness coherence projection
overlaid with the resulting DT logs,
Low coherences are shown in blue and high
coherences in red,
Continuous red bands indicate good quality data
(good coherence),
DT logs should follow track red bands,
Result logs are shown in Track 2,
Other information is shown in Track 1.
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Advanced Formation Evaluation Alain Brie 2012
Monopole Borehole Propagation
Monopole sonic tools measure head waves,
Not body waves
The transmitter sends a pressure pulse that
propagate as compressional and shear body waves
in the formation,
Body waves induce head waves in the formation
when they are faster than the mud compressional,
Sonic receivers record the head waves,
The shear headwaveonly exists in fast formations
Other waves propagate in the borehole
? The pseudo-Rayleigh wave,
? The Stoneley wave,
? Normal and leaky modes (borehole arrivals).
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Advanced Formation Evaluation Alain Brie 2012
Compressional and Shear Waves
Consider a pile of disks.
If we excite a vibration by knocking
vertically on the top it propagates down as a
compressional wave,
With a compressional wave particle motion
is parallel to the propagation direction,
If we excite a vibration by knocking the pile
laterally it propagates down as a shear
wave,
With a shear wave particle motion is
perpendicular to the propagation direction,
Compressional
(extensional)
Shear
(flexural)
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Advanced Formation Evaluation Alain Brie 2012
Monopole-Dipole Excitation
In monopole excitation one point source sends a
pressure pulse in all directions.
With dipole excitation two point sources side-by-
side pulse in opposite phase creating a lateral
push-pull effect.
Quadrupoleexcitation uses four point sources;
one diagonal pulses in phase opposition with the
other diagonal.
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Advanced Formation Evaluation Alain Brie 2012
Dipole Shear Sonic Imager
DSI Tool String
The DSI, dipole shear imager tool acquires
both monopole and dipole measurements.
Its main features are:
Two dipole transmitters in perpendicular
directions,
One monopole transmitter with high and low
frequency drives,
Array of 8 receivers stations with dipole and
monopole capability,
Long spacing for reading past altered zones,
Isolation joint to prevent direct wave
transmission through the tool body.
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Advanced Formation Evaluation Alain Brie 2012
Electrodynamic Dipole Transmitter
There are various ways to generate dipole excitation in the borehole.
The electrodynamictransmitter
works as a loudspeaker, pushing
the mud laterally,
The push excites
the borehole in
flexion,
Flexural wave propagates vertically
along the borehole, while particle
motion is transverse; it is therefore
close to a shear wave.
Propagation
Displacement ElectrodynamicTransmitter Flexural Wave
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Advanced Formation Evaluation Alain Brie 2012
DSI Upper Dipole (SAM-2)
Dipole DSI Waveforms
Flexural
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Advanced Formation Evaluation Alain Brie 2012
Flexural Wave Dispersion
Flexural Dispersion Curves in 8 in. Borehole
Inflection Point
The flexural wave is linked to the wellbore
and varies with frequency. This is called
frequency dispersion.
At low frequency the flexural slowness
reaches the formation shear slowness,
At higher frequencies the flexural slowness
increases,
The maximum amplitude of the flexural is
at the inflection point,
Dispersive STC processing accounts for
dispersion and outputs formation shear
directly.
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Advanced Formation Evaluation Alain Brie 2012
Dipole Processing Quality Control Display
Quality control plot for dipole shear
processing..
ST Projection with log tracking results is
presented in Track 3,
Coherence in Track 1,
Arrival frequency and filter band in Track 2,
Filtered waveform and reconstructed shear
arrival time in Track 4.
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Advanced Formation Evaluation Alain Brie 2012
Sonic Scanner Tool
The Sonic Scannertool is the latest development in Schlumberger sonic technology. The
SScan benefits from the experience acquired with the DSI-1 and DSI-2 tools and offers
superior dipole as well as monopole measurement capabilities.
The Sonic Scanner is modular, in the basic configurationit replaces all prior monopole
tools: BHC, LSS and AS.
In the full configurationit replaces the DSI and adds new capabilities for anisotropic and
inhomogeneous formation analysis.
The Sonic Scanner tool was designed by computer modeling, it has predictable acoustics
allowing full characterization of its response and frequency behavior for high fidelity answers.
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Advanced Formation Evaluation Alain Brie 2012
Sonic Scanner Basic Configuration
Minimum Service Sonde
Basic Configuration
Monopole only tool to replace old technology sondes.
True BHC with upper and lower monopole transmitters.
Large 13 receivers array provide robust measurement and
multiple spacings from 1 to 7 ft.
Cement bond log (CBL) and variable density log (VDL)
measurement
Improved behind casing monopole measurement with
CBL/VDL simultaneous acquisition
Measurements
Monopole P&S
Cement Evaluation
Altered zone evaluation
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Advanced Formation Evaluation Alain Brie 2012
Sonic Scanner Full Configuration
Full Service
Configuration
Basic configuration measurements plus:
Long-spacing 10.8 to 16.8 ft monopole with MF transmitter.
Low frequency monopole Stoneley measurement.
Wideband dipole measurements from X and Y transmitters.
All modes including BCR acquired all the time.
Improved behind casing dipole measurement with CBL/VDL
simultaneous acquisition.
Measurements
Dipole X&Y and anisotropy
Monopole P&S and Stoneley
Cement Evaluation
Stress Eval
Altered zone
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Advanced Formation Evaluation Alain Brie 2012
Monopole Far (MF)
Sonic Scanner Waveforms
High quality, high consistency waveforms;
Very wideband dipole waveforms for high quality answers, especially in cased hole and new
applications (formation alteration and stress evaluation).
Dipole (XD)
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Advanced Formation Evaluation Alain Brie 2012
Sonic Wave Dispersion Analysis Plot
Dipole Slowness Dispersion Analysis
DipoleXD
DipoleYD
MonopoleStoneley
MFCompressional
MFShear
Sonic Scanner wideband, high fidelity
waveforms allow new applications from
sonic waveforms.
More accurate dispersion correction,
Evaluation of formation alteration (radial
velocity profiling),
Anisotropy evaluation and characterization,
Formation stress direction and stress
evaluation.
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Advanced Formation Evaluation Alain Brie 2012
Alteration Evaluation From Dipole Dispersion
Chemical or mechanical alteration of the formation
near the wellbore increases the dispersion of the
dipole flexural wave.
Evaluation of dispersion provides:
More accurate formation shear,
Information on formation weaknesses and potential
failure,
Formation stress information.
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Advanced Formation Evaluation Alain Brie 2012
Dipole Anisotropy Radial Profiling
Systematic acquisition of XD and YD
dipole waveforms provides shear slowness
in the fast and slow directions in case of
anisotropy.
More accurate shear determination for
formation evaluation,
Dispersion analysis further provides stress
information,
This is essential information for rock
mechanics evaluation.
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Advanced Formation Evaluation Alain Brie 2012
Elastic Waves Velocities

G K
V
p
+
=
3
4
Compressional Shear

G
V
s
=

G K V
t
p
+
= =
3
4
8 . 304 8 . 304

G V
t
s
s
8 . 304 8 . 304
= =
Units: Kand G in GPa in g/cc V
p
ansV
s
in km/s t and t
s
in s/ft
Sound waves are elastic waves that propagate in the ground as vibrations.
In an isotropic, homogeneous (HI) medium only two moduli and thedensity are necessary
to determine the velocity of the compressional and shear body waves.
K is the bulk modulus, G is the shear modulusand r is the density
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Advanced Formation Evaluation Alain Brie 2012
Elastic Waves Analogy with Spring-Mass Systems
Propagation of a vibration in a
system of spring and masses.
Displacement of masses.
Density
Moduli
Elastic Medium
Spring-Mass System
Spring Stiffness
Mass
Velocity
Slowness
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Advanced Formation Evaluation Alain Brie 2012
Elastic moduli represent the resistance of a
material to deformation.
Bulk modulus is the resistance to compression
Shear modulus is the resistance to distortion
Elastic Moduli

c
K =

s
G =
Compression
Shear
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Advanced Formation Evaluation Alain Brie 2012
Young Modulus and Poissons ratio are often
used in rock lab and rock mechanics.
Young Modulus is the resistance to uniaxial
compression (as in a press)
Poissons ratio characterizes lateral expansion as
the sample is compressed
1
3
1
2

= =
1

u
E =
Uniaxial Compression
Elastic Moduli
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Advanced Formation Evaluation Alain Brie 2012
Poissons ratio is linked to the Vp/Vs ratio.
The physical limits of Poissons Ratio are:
Poissons Ratio and Vp/Vs are linked as:
From which the physical limits for Vp/Vs
(isotropic material) are:
Poissons Ratio is linked to Vp/Vs
5 . 0 0
Vs Vp / 2
1 /
2 /
2
1
2
2

=
Vs Vp
Vs Vp

soft
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Advanced Formation Evaluation Alain Brie 2012
Elastic Moduli Equivalence
-
Poissons Ratio
-
Lame Constant
-
-
E
G

K
-
Youngs Modulus
Shear Modulus
Bulk Modulus
K, G E, ,
K
K
3
9
+

) 3 ( 2
2 3

K
K


+
+ ) 2 3 (
) ( 2

+
3
2 3 K
) 2 1 )( 1 (

+
E
) 2 1 ( 3
E
) 1 ( 2 +
E

3
2
+

Two elastic constants are sufficient to describe elastic properties of a HI medium


(Homogeneous Isotropic),
Young modulus and Poissons ratio are used in rock mechanics,
The Lame constants and are used in theoretical physics.
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Advanced Formation Evaluation Alain Brie 2012
Dynamic Elastic Moduli
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Advanced Formation Evaluation Alain Brie 2012
Porosity
Lithology (mineralogy) including clay content
Pore fluid
Pore shapes
Micro structure
Stress (pressure) and compaction
Factors of Influence on Sonic Slowness
Sizes of pores and grains have no influence (Sonic wavelength ismuch larger)
Equations that do not account for all effects are approximate and limited,
Most equations only account for Porosity and Lithology effects,
Elastic Moduli are needed to account for fluid effect (GassmannEquation).
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Advanced Formation Evaluation Alain Brie 2012
Wyllie Sonic Porosity
In 1950 Mr Wyllie proposed a simple time-average response equationbased on a
correlation of laboratory measurements to link t and porosity:
m f
m
S
t t
t t


=
m f
m
S
t t
t t
Cp

=
1

In unconsolidated sands the Wyllie Porosity is larger than true porosity. A


compaction factor (multiplier) is added:
Cp: compaction factor is 1 in well consolidated sands
up to 2 in loose sands.
m f
t t t + = ). 1 ( .
The Wyllie sonic porosityisthis obtained as:
( )
m f
t Cp t Cp t + = . . 1 . .
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Advanced Formation Evaluation Alain Brie 2012
Sonic Porosity Equations
Raymer-Hunt-GardnerEquation -RHG
m f
t t t

2
) 1 ( 1
) 1 (
1 1

s
t t
m
) (
1
t
t t
s
m


=
s = 1.45 in sandstones
1.60 in carbonates.
VelocityEquation -VelC
and
with
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Advanced Formation Evaluation Alain Brie 2012
Sonic Porosity Chart Por-3
Porosity Evaluation from Sonic (Por-3)
V, ft/s t, s/ft
Water 5300189
26000 38.5
Dolomite 23000 43.5
Limestone 21000 47.6
Hard Sands19500 51.3
Soft Sands 18000 55.5
H
a
r
d

S
a
n
d
s
t
o
n
e
s
S
o
f
t

S
a
n
d
s
t
o
n
e
s
L
i
m
e
s
t
o
n
e
D
o
l
o
m
i
t
e
Uncompacted
Sandstones
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Advanced Formation Evaluation Alain Brie 2012
Mineral End Points
1.53 78.2 55.5 2.65 Soft sand
1.84 92 50 2.98 Anhydrite
1.73 116.5 67 2.16 Salt
1.8 78.5 43.5 2.87 Dolomite
1.86 88.5 47.5 2.71 Limestone
1.59 88 51.5 2.65 Hard sand
Vp/Vs
m
ts
m
t
m

m
End points
End points for Wyllie Equation
These are slightly different from mineral values.
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Advanced Formation Evaluation Alain Brie 2012
Sound Slowness of Saline-Water Solutions
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Advanced Formation Evaluation Alain Brie 2012
Sonic Porosity Equations In Sandstones
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Advanced Formation Evaluation Alain Brie 2012
Slowness in Unconsolidated Sandstones
Compressional slowness in shallow unconsolidated sands
Group 1 Group 2 Group 3
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Advanced Formation Evaluation Alain Brie 2012
Crossplot compressional t-porosity in a water-bearing limestone
Sonic Porosity Equations In Carbonates
S
SPI =
62 s/ft
15 PU
10.5 PU
t = 62 s/ft,
Sonic
= 10.5 PU

ND
= 15 PU
Secondary Porosity Index
SPI = 15 10.5 = 4.5 PU
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Advanced Formation Evaluation Alain Brie 2012
Porosity Evaluation from Slowness
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Advanced Formation Evaluation Alain Brie 2012
Porosity Evaluation Recommendations
Well compacted sands
Unconsolidated sands
Carbonates
Metamorphic and igneous rocks
Both Wyllie and VelCare adequate
Moderate unconsolidation: VelC
Substantial unconsolidation: calibrated Wyllie with Cp
VelCis a good average
Can use a dual porosity model : intergranular / isolated pores
Wyllie often gives good results for unfracturedblock
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Advanced Formation Evaluation Alain Brie 2012
Vp/Vs Crossplot in Shaly Sands - Effect of Gas
Original Crossplot for Gas Sands.
Brie et al. - SPE 1995
Vp/Vsvstcrossplot
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Advanced Formation Evaluation Alain Brie 2012
Updated Vp/Vs Crossplot for Sands and Carbonates
Vp/Vsvstcrossplot
Updated Vp/VsCrossplot
Includes:
- Effect of water salinity in sands,
- Water and gas trends in carbonates
Brie, SPWLA-2001
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Advanced Formation Evaluation Alain Brie 2012
Natural Gas Properties
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Advanced Formation Evaluation Alain Brie 2012
Live Oil Slowness
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Advanced Formation Evaluation Alain Brie 2012
Effect of Live Oil on Vp/Vs
Live oil has an effect on tand Vp/Vs.
Although intuitively oil is liquid like water, it is
more compressible.
At high GOR the effect of live oil on sonic t
and Vp/Vsis comparable to that of gas.
Sands with live oil, gravity 35 API, at 200Fand 5000 psi
For different GOR
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Advanced Formation Evaluation Alain Brie 2012
Elastic physics govern sound propagation in materials and rocks. To understand the
effect of the pore fluid, especially that of gas, on sound velocity and slowness we have
to go back to the elastic properties of the rock. We have seen that sound velocity are
linked to elastic moduli and density with the relations:
Evaluation of Gas Effect on Sonic Slowness
2
3
4
2
s
b
p
b
V V K =
2
s
b
V G =
Where K is the bulk modulus, G the shear modulus and
b
is the rock density.
and
and

G K
V
p
+
=
3
4

G
V
s
=
Starting from the logs K and G can be obtained with the expressions:
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Advanced Formation Evaluation Alain Brie 2012
Gassmann Equation for Fluid Effect
2
2
1
1
m
dry
m f
m
dry
dry
K
K
K K
K
K
K K

+ =

dry
G G =
Kand Gare the moduli of the saturated rock
K
dry
and G
dry
are the moduli of the dry rock-frame
K
m
, is the bulk modulus of the mineral composing the frame
K
f
, is the modulus of the pore fluid and f is the porosity.
The Gassmann Equation is a physical model
that relates the properties of the saturated rock
to the properties of the dry frame and those of
the pore fluid.
It is valid at low frequency and is commonly
used in seismic interpretation.
It also gives good results at sonic frequencies
provided the pore fluid modulus is known.
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Advanced Formation Evaluation Alain Brie 2012
In partially saturated rocks the effective fluid bulk modulus,
K
fe
, must be entered in the Gassmannequation.
Geophysicist use Woods Law, a compliance law to evaluate
K
fe
.
However Woods Law is too abrupt at sonic frequency where
a more gradual change is observed.
A realistic approximation is provided by the power mixing
law:
The exponent eis usually around 5.
Note that when saturation is less than 50% the fluid bulk
modulus is practically that of gas.
Partially Saturated Rocks
Fluid Mixing Laws (low pressure)
K
fe
= K
mf
K
g
( )
S
xo
e
+ K
g
0 100
Liquid Saturation %
0
2.5
P
o
r
e

F
l
u
i
d

M
o
d
u
l
u
s


G
P
a
W
o
o
d

s
L
a
w
P
o
w
e
r

M
ix
in
g

L
a
w
g
xo
mf
xo
fe
K
S
K
S
K

+ =
1
1
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Advanced Formation Evaluation Alain Brie 2012
Effect of Gas on Vp/Vs
( ) ( )
3
4
2 2
+ = =
G
K
m
Vs
Vp
dry
Vs
Vp
dry
In shaly sands the Vp/Vsof the dry rock is constant and
equal to the Vp/Vsof the minerals; 1.5 to 1.58
(depending on additional minerals).
This expression provides a link between dry bulk
modulus K
dry
and the shear modulus G, obtained from
t
shear
.
K
dry
can then be used to estimate the hydrocarbon
volume from t, or tat different saturation conditions
(fluid substitution).
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Advanced Formation Evaluation Alain Brie 2012
Effect of Gas on tSlowness
Light hydrocarbon effect is large in
porous, unconsolidated formations.
The effect of gas on compressional tis
small to negligible in low porosity, compact
formations.
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Advanced Formation Evaluation Alain Brie 2012
Vp/Vs Crossplot in Tight Gas Sands - Algeria
Although the porosity is very low, the
effect of gas on Vp/Vs is visible in tight
sands with porosities of 10 PU or less.
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Advanced Formation Evaluation Alain Brie 2012
Vp/Vs Crossplot in Low Porosity Oil Sand
Although the effect is small, the effect of live oil on
Vp/Vs is visible in tight sands with porosities of 6 to
11 PU.
A quicklookmethod can be used to detect oil
bearing intervals in the field.
A polynomial correlation is adjusted to fit the Wet
Sand line on the Vp/Vscrossplot
The wet tcan then be calculated from t
shear
.
Live Oil properties:
41 deg API
1301 cuft/bbl
260F
4500 psi
Chardacet al. SPE-2003
4 3 2
. . . .
s s s s wet
t e t d t c t b a t + + + + =
In the example shown: a = -0.8482
b = 0.7665
c = -1.450 10
-3
d = 1.391 10
-6
e = -5.364 10
-10
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Advanced Formation Evaluation Alain Brie 2012
tOverlay for HC Detection in Low Porosity Sands
The wet tcalculated from t
shear
. with the polynomial
calculation is drawn with the measured t
log
A separation between t
log
and t
wet
indicate the
presence of light hydrocarbon in the formation.
There is good agreement with the subsequent ELAN
evaluation.
Chardacet al. SPE-2003
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Advanced Formation Evaluation Alain Brie 2012
Vp/Vs Crossplot in Limestone
Comparison of model curves with data
from a clean limestone with some gas
intervals.
Wet Vp/Vs varies little and does not
depend on spherical porosity fraction,
Dry (gas bearing) Vp/Vs decreases with
porosity and with decreasing spherical
porosity fraction.
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Advanced Formation Evaluation Alain Brie 2012
Generalized Dry Vp/Vsfor Complex Lithology
In shaly sands Vp/Vs
dry
is constant around 1.53, but in carbonates it changes with porosity and
spherical pores fraction. A generalized equation for Vp/Vs
dry
is given by the expression:
) 9 . 0 1 ( ) 53 . 1 / ( 1 . 3 / ) / ( spf Vs Vp Vs Vp Vs Vp
m m dry
=
Vp/Vs
m
: Vp/Vsof the minerals
(solids),
spf: Fraction of spherical
pores (molds or vugs) in
the porosity
Vp/Vs
m The generalized Vp/Vs
dry
allows us to
evaluate the hydrocarbon effect and
do fluid substitution on the sonic logs
in all lithologies.
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Advanced Formation Evaluation Alain Brie 2012
Sonic Applications
Seismic
Time Depth curve
Synthetic seismogram
AVO/AVA calibration
Anisotropy
Cased Hole
Cement Bond Evaluation
Rock Mechanics
Pore pressure
Stress orientation and magnitude
Hydro-Fracdesign
Well bore stability evaluation
Sanding prediction
Petrophysics
Porosity-Lithology (especially in CH)
Gas detection
Fractured reservoir evaluation
Permeability
Sonic Imaging