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# Fatigue properties from rotating bending tests If large numbers of specimens are tested at different values of stress amplitude

Sa, the resulting plot is called the S-N diagram. It is normal practice to plot log Sa vs. log N
S-N diagram
1

Sa/Su

Se

0.1 1.E+03

1.E+04

1.E+05

1.E+06

1.E+07

1.E+08

1.E+09

N -cycles to failure

For ferrous alloys, (steels) it is usually found that, above about 106 cycles to failure, the plot levels off, i.e. there is a value of stress amplitude, Se, below which fatigue failure does not occur. This is called the endurance limit or fatigue limit. For most non-ferrous alloys, such as aluminum alloys, the S-N diagram does not level off.
S-N diagram for Aluminum alloys
1

Sa/Su 0.1
1.E+03 1.E+04 1.E+05 1.E+06 1.E+07 1.E+08 1.E+09

N - cycles to failure

## Fatigue properties from rotating bending tests

There is no actual fatigue limit. It is common to use the value of Sa corresponding to 108 or 5*108 as the fatigue limit in this case.

S-N diagram
1

0.9Su

Sa/Su

Se = 0.506 Su

0.1 1.E+03

1.E+04

1.E+05

1.E+06

1.E+07

1.E+08

1.E+09

N -cycles to failure

While it is always much preferred to use actual values for fatigue strength, for the purposes of this course, you will usually use an approximation to the S-N diagram for steels as shown above. Note that this corresponds to the median fatigue properties of the metal, i.e. 50% of the specimens will have survived for points below the line shown above. Also, it is good practice to only use the Se = 0.506 Su relation for Su < 1460 Mpa (212 ksi). For higher strength steels use Se = 740 MPa (107 ksi). The text gives a table of fatigue strength for Al alloys. See table E-24(b) on page 1212. These values are for a life of 50x107 cycles. Note that for most Al alloys, a usable approximation is to let Se = 0.4 Su unless Su > 350 MPa (50 ksi). In the latter case, use Se = 135 Mpa (19.5 ksi). Effect of surface finish: The surface of the standard rotating bending specimen is carefully finished by grinding and polishing to remove any circumferential scratches. Most actual parts have a less well finished surface and have a reduced endurance limit as a result. The surface factor ka is used to account for this. It is given by: Ka = a(Su)b The coefficient a and the exponent b are given in Table 7-5 (p. 373) in your text.