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CAPSTONE PROJECT REPORT

On

TO DEVISE A PORTABLE CHARGER USING WIND ENERGY


Submitted By ABHINAV KUMAR Registration No.
10802237

Under The Guidance of Mr. Sushil Kumar

May, 2012

School of Mechanical Engineering Lovely Professional University Phagwara (Punjab)

DECLARATIO BY THE CA DIDATE

I the undersigned solemnly declare that the report of the project work entitledTO

DEVISE A

PORTABLE CHARGER USI G WI D E ERGY


carried out during the course of my study under the supervision of Mr.

is based on my own work

Sushil Kumar.

I assert that the statements made and conclusions drawn are an outcome of my project work. I further declare that to the best of my knowledge and belief the report does not contain any part of any work which has been submitted for the award of degree or any other degree/diploma/certificate in this University or any other University of India or abroad.

_________________ (Signature of the Candidate) Name ABHINAV KUMAR Registration No.: 10802237

CERTIFICATE OF THE GUIDE


This is to certify that the work incorporated in the project report,TO DEVISE A

PORTABLE CHARGER USI G WI D E ERGYis a record of project work


carried out by ABHI AV KUMAR under my guidance and supervision for the award of Degree of Bachelor of Technology in Mechanical Engineering of Lovely Professional University, Phagwara (Punjab).

To the best of my knowledge and belief the project

i. ii. iii. iv.

Embodies the work of the candidate himself, Has duly been completed Fulfils the requirement of the degree of the University and Is up to the desired standard both in respect of contents and language for being referred to the examiners.

___________________ (Signature of the Guide) Forwarded to Lovely Professional University

_________________ (Signature of the Head of the Department) ame of COD/HOD (Seal of the Approved Place of Project)

TABLE OF CO TE TS: 1. INTRODUCTION 2. BENEFITS 3. BASIC PRINCIPLE INVOLVED 3.1 WIND ENERGY CALCULATIONS 4. DRAWBACKS 5. WORK DONE 6. ANALYSIS 7. FINAL SUGGESTED DESIGN 8. REFERENCES

1. WI D POWER
Wind power is the conversion of wind energy into a useful form of energy, such as using wind turbines to make electricity, windmills for mechanical power, wind pumps for water pumping or drainage, or sails to propel ships. Wind power, as an alternative to fossil fuels, is plentiful, renewable, widely distributed, clean, and produces no greenhouse gas emissions during operation, and the cost per unit of energy produced is similar to the cost for new coal and natural gas installations. The total amount of economically extractable power available from the wind is considerably more than present human power use from all sources. Energy received from the movement of the wind across the earth. This energy is a result of the heating of our oceans, earth, and atmosphere by the sun. The wind is caused by the uneven heating of the surface of our earth by the sun. The reason for the uneven heating is due to the different surfaces of our earth (land and water). Air above land mass heats up more rapidly during the day time, while the air above water will heat up at a slower rate. As the air above the land rises and expands (due to heating), the cooler air above the water will rush in to fill its place. It is this process which causes the wind the blow, as the wind is the force of air rushing to fill a gap. During the night, the process is slightly different, and instead of the air heating, the air cools. The air above land mass will lose heat more rapidly than the air above the water, resulting in air from the land rushing to fill air over the water. Larger winds are generally found closer to the equator, as the air will generally heat and cool more rapidly, reducing in a greater wind force. We are able to harness energy from the wind, and turn this into renewable electricity. Wind energy is reliable providing the correct location and most appropriate wind turbine design is researched. The wind will blow as long as the sun shines down on earth. As more efficient wind harnessing technologies become available, we will be able to take advantage of this clean, renewable energy source. Wind power is not practical in all locations across the globe because of variances in the wind cycles and speed. And since wind cycles change throughout the day, wind power is often not steady enough to provide 100% of an individual homes or a communitys energy needs. Supplementing wind power with solar energy, geothermal heat pumps, or low-impact hydro plants helps to minimize the fluctuations in wind power production.

2. BE EFITS

Wind energy is friendly to the surrounding environment, as no fossil fuels are burnt to generate electricity from wind energy. Wind turbines take up less space than the average power station. Windmills only have to occupy a few square meters for the base; this allows the land around the turbine to be used for many purposes, for example agriculture.

Newer technologies are making the extraction of wind energy much more efficient. The wind is free, and we are able to cash in on this free source of energy. Wind turbines are a great resource to generate energy in remote locations, such as mountain communities and remote countryside. Wind turbines can be a range of different sizes in order to support varying population levels.

Another advantage of wind energy is that when combined with solar electricity, this energy source is great for developed and developing countries to provide a steady, reliable supply of electricity.

One other advantage of wind energy that it is readily available around the globe, and therefore there would be no need of dependence for energy for any country. Wind energy may be the answer to the globe's question of energy in the face of the rising petroleum and gas prices.

The wind will exist till the time the sun exists, which is roughly another four billion years. Theoretically, if all the wind power available to humankind is harnessed, there can be ten times of energy we use, readily available.

The cost of producing wind energy has come down by at least eighty percent since the eighties. Along with economy, Wind Energy is also said to diminish the greenhouse effect. Remote areas that are not connected to the electricity power grid can use wind turbines to produce their own supply. Wind turbines are available in a range of sizes which means a vast range of people and businesses can use them. Single households to small towns and villages can make good use of range of wind turbines available today.

Rather than one large power plant generating large amounts of electricity, many smaller wind turbines can produce the same amount. This means there's less chance of a large failure and it's also less susceptible to some sort of interference. In fact, wind power is ideal for micro generation.

Wind energy is reliable and efficient. Unlike other power plants, wind energy systems require minimal maintenance and have low operating expenses. Wind turbines are very reliable and are available to generate electricity 99% of the time.

Market-wise, there a lot of advantage for wind energy, as it can help liven up the economy by reducing valuable money by totally depending on oil or petroleum. Soon enough, it may come to a time that Wind Energy may be the cheapest way to have power and also become a viable business.

Harnessing wind energy can help create jobs in numerous areas, such as manufacturing, construction and environmental management services. The next big growth spurt in Wind Energy is coming from the offshore Wind Energy sector. Huge Wind Turbines of 5 MW and above are being built around 30-40 kms from the coasts. This has the advantage of no land usage, no noise problems and the wind is much better leading to higher load factors.

Wind Energy has become a mainstream source of energy and a large industrial base already exists .This allows a rapid deployment of Wind Power in most places in the world. The number of Wind Turbine Producers is increasing with a number of Asian firms entering the industry.

A wind turbine compensates for the energy expended in its manufacture, assembly and maintenance in less than six months. Wind turbines do not need fuelling and have low maintenance demands, given that they are only serviced every six months. In comparison with other renewable energy sources, the kWh production cost is competitive: half way between the large wind and solar PV alternatives, and providing better efficiency, reduced carbon impact and a 20 year lifetime investment.

The small wind turbine parts are easily recyclable.

3. BASIC PRI CIPLES I VOLVED


Boiled down to its simplest principles, a wind generators rotating blades convert the winds kinetic energy into rotational momentum in a shaft. The rotating shaft turns an alternator, which makes electricity. This electricity is transmitted through wiring down the tower to its end use. The blades use engineered airfoils, matched to the alternator, that capture the winds energy. Most modern wind generators use three blades, the best compromise between the highest efficiency possible (one blade) and the balance that comes with multiple blades. Together, the blades and the hub they are attached to are termed the rotor, which is the collector of the system, intercepting winds that pass by. Most turbines on the market today are upwind machinestheir blades are on the windward side of the tower. A few downwind machines are available, but neither configuration has a clear performance advantage over the other. In most small-scale designs, the rotor is connected directly to the shaft of a permanent magnet alternator, which creates wild, three-phase AC. Wild, three-phase electricity means that the voltage and frequency vary continuously with the wind speed. They are not fixed like the 60 Hz, 120V AC electricity coming out of common household outlets. The wild output is rectified to DC to either charge batteries or feed a grid-synchronous inverter. In most designs (up to 15 KW in peak capacity), the rotor is usually connected directly to the alternator, which eliminates the additional maintenance of gears. In systems 20 KW and larger, as well as some smaller wind systems (like the Endurance, Tulipo, or Aircon), a gearbox is used to increase alternator speed from a slower turning rotor. The blades must turn to face the wind, so a yaw bearing is needed, allowing the wind turbine to track the winds as they shift direction. The tail directs the rotor into the wind. Some sort of governing system limits the rotor rpm as well as generator output to protect the turbine from high winds. A shutdown mechanism is also useful to stop the machine when necessary, such as during an extreme storm, when you do not need the energy, or when you want to service the system. There are two primary physical principles by which energy can be extracted from the wind; these are through the creation of either lift or drag force (or through a combination of the two). The difference between drag and lift is illustrated by the difference between using a spinnaker

sail, which fills like a parachute and pulls a sailing boat with the wind, and a Bermuda rig, the familiar triangular sail which deflects with wind and allows a sailing boat to travel across the wind or slightly into the wind. Drag forces provide the most obvious means of propulsion, these being the forces felt by a person (or object) exposed to the wind. Lift forces are the most efficient means of propulsion but being more subtle than drag forces are not so well understood.

The basic features that characterise lift and drag are:

Drag is in the direction of air flow Lift is perpendicular to the direction of air flow Generation of lift always causes a certain amount of drag to be developed With a good aerofoil, the lift produced can be more than thirty times greater than the drag Lift devices are generally more efficient than drag devices 3.1 WI D E ERGY CALCULATIO S Total wind energy flowing through an imaginary area A during the time t is: E = m v2 = (A * v * t * ) v 2 where v is the wind speed; is the air density; (A * v * t) is the volume of air passing through A (which is considered perpendicular to the direction of the wind); (A * v * t * ) is therefore the mass m passing per unit time. Note that ( * v2) is the kinetic energy of the moving air per unit volume. Power is energy per unit time, so the wind power incident on A (e.g. equal to the rotor area of a wind turbine) is: P = E / t = A * * v3 Wind power in an open air stream is thus proportional to the third power of the wind speed; double the wind speed and 8 times the power passes. Wind turbines for grid electricity therefore need to be especially efficient at the faster wind speeds.

4. DRAWBACKS

In order for you to turn the blades on a wind turbine, you must have wind. Without this, you are dead in the water.

If you do live along the coast, your personal property is rather expensive and you might not be able to afford the opportunity to afford the land, let alone a wind generator.

Beauty is in the eye of the beholder. Some would feel that having 100 wind turbines sitting outside your picture window is an eyesore.

Some say that wind turbines give off interference to television and radio signals. Some of these blades can have a span of 100 or more feet. if they are going fast enough, just like a propeller, you really do not see them. With that speed and length of blade, birds easily fly into the blade path and get killed.

So another of the disadvantages of wind energy is that wind turbines are noisy. They have the hum and also a "whooshing noise" when the blade turns.

Wind turbines generally produce allot less electricity than the average fossil fuelled power station, requiring multiple wind turbines to be built in order to make an impact.

Wind turbine construction can be very expensive and costly to surrounding wildlife during the build process.

The strength of the wind is not constant and it varies from zero to storm force. This means that wind turbines do not produce the same amount of electricity all the time. There will be times when they produce no electricity at all.

When wind turbines are being manufactured some pollution is produced. Therefore wind power does produce some pollution.

Many potential wind farms, places where wind energy can be produced on a large scale, are far away from places for which wind energy is best suited. Therefore, the economical nature of wind energy may take a beating in terms of costs of new substations and transmission lines.

Windmill power must contend with traditional generation sources on a cost basis. The wind farm may or may not be useful, depending on how energetic a wind site is. Even though the cost of its setup decreased in the last 10 years, it still needs higher financial support than the fossil-fuelled generators.

Another of the disadvantages is that they can be damaged in thunderstorms, partially because of their tall, thin shape. The website of the National Lightning Safety Institute indicates that most damage to wind turbines is caused by lightening. This is more of a problem in warmer parts of the world, where they are frequent.

Wind farms take up massive amounts of land, because a large amounts of turbines are needed to supply sufficient power, the land needed to build these farms are excessive and would block future developments.

5. PROBLEM STATEME T
To fabricate a portable wind turbine -cum-generator device which could create enough power to charge a standard laptop/mobile? The device should be handy and portable and could be carried around with ease. While travelling in say trains, buses etc. one might not be provided with electricity to charge his/her laptop/mobile. In such cases, such a device could be used to generate power to provide enough electricity. This could be done by placing the device on the window of the automobile from where it can get enough wind to generate power when the automobile is moving.

6. WORK DO E

Rated power of a laptop charger is 65W. Rated power of a mobile charger 3.5 W Further the material of the turbine blade should be lighter in this case because we are attempting to make a portable device.

The good choice for this case will be Aluminium because it is very light, has good tensile strength and is very cheap, thus not affecting the cost of the device very much.

If the blades are open to very high flowing winds, as it could happen when the automobile in which we are travelling is moving at a very high speed, it is a damaging situation for the wind turbine blades, thus it is suggested that in order to protect the blades to get damaged, the whole of the blades should be kept in a protective box made of metal with an inlet for the wind to strike the blades at the desired angle from the side. To provide outlet for the

incoming air, it is suggested that the protective box should have small holes on its body to allow the wind to get out in an efficient manner without damaging the turbine blades. Since we have planned to allow the wind to have a sideways entry towards the turbine blades instead a head-on contact with the blades, this system is more or less like a Pelton wheel turbine in which water is allowed a tangential entry towards the blades, thus a similar kind of configuration will be used for the turbine blades. An Electrical Circuit will be connected to the generator coil which will directly supply the generated power to the required system. The Electrical Circuit will consist of Zener Diodes which will handle the fluctuating input from the generator coil to manage a steady output to the required system. Since direct supply is appreciated, hence there will be no need of a storage system. From the formula follows: For a mobile, required power is 3.5W. Assuming the average wind velocity to be 40kmph, wind density 1.26 kg/m3 & K = 0.4, we calculate the rotor diameter to be D = 11.35cm ~ 12cm For a Laptop, required power is 65W; we calculate the rotor diameter to be D = 48.93cm ~ 50cm Since 50cm diameter is a large value and hence will make the apparatus huge so as to cease its portability hence we approach towards making a smaller diameter device and keep the scope of the charger only to mobile charging. P = K*E / t = K* A * * v3 , we calculate the required swept area as

7. FI AL SUGGESTED DESIG

Fig. 1 Suggested Design

Fig. 2 Axial Turbine

Fig. 3 Turbine; Rear View

Fig. 4 - Casing

Fig. 5 Dynamo; 6W

Fig. 6 Dynamo Setup; Rear View

Fig. 7 Turbine; Isolated View

8. REFERE CES
a) http://homepower.com/basics/wind/ : Basic of wind turbine b) http://news.mongabay.com/2009/0622-hance_global_wind.html : requirement of wind turbine c) http://www.mapsofindia.com/maps/nonconventional/windpowercapacity.htm : Indian scenario of wind capacity d) http://www.alternative-energy-resources.net/disadvantages-of-windenergy.html disadvantages of wind energy e) http://www.clean-energyideas.com/articles/advantages_and_disadvantages_of_wind_energy.html clean energy f) Introduction to wind energy system: basics, technology & operation By Hermann-Josef Wagner, Jyotirmay Mathur g) Wind energy: the facts. By European Wind energy Association h) Non-conventional energy resources: D.S. Chouhan