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ACADEMIC WTITING Academic writing typically does not contain elements, such as 1. personal language 2. judgmental words 3.

emotive language and as a result it is characterized as impersonal and objective. However, academic writing still requires you to develop an argument and express your opinion about issues. or example, by as!ing questions such as" #hat do you thin!$ %valuate... &o you agree$ 'rgue in (avour o( or against...

lecturers and tutors are see!ing your opinion ) what you thin! about a particular issue, event, or theory. *n addition, academic articles or boo!s usually contain opinions in the (orm o(" interpretations o( results theories evaluations conclusions hypotheses

+o it is a convention o( academic writing to express arguments and opinions, yet this convention also requires that these arguments and opinions incorporate the objective and impersonal style that is a signi(icant (eature o( academic writing. *n academic writing, arguments should imply impartial and sound judgement through the use o( rational, impersonal and unemotional language. 'nother convention o( academic writing is the use o( evidence to support the arguments being presented" arguments cannot be presented without supporting evidence or they may sound as i( they are just the writer,s opinion. -his evidence cannot be anecdotal evidence but must be already published or !nown in(ormation presented by authorities in the (ield. *t must be integrated expertly into the structure o( your overall argument, into your paragraphs and into your sentences. .ertain conventions in academic writing dictate how this supporting evidence is cited or re(erenced. -hese conventions ensure that readers o( your wor! are clearly able to (ind and evaluate the sources o( your evidence.

Checklist o language to a!oid in academic writing

"# Do not use contractions .ontractions are the words (ormed (rom two abbreviated words, such as $don%t$, $can%t$ and $won%t$. /lease write the (ull words. &# Do not use collo'uial !oca(ulary .olloquial vocabulary includes words and expressions that are used in everyday spo!en language. -hey do not provide the exactness needed in an academic setting 0 owler 1 'llen, 12223. 'n example is" 4etirement is something most o( us must (ace sooner or later. -his could be replaced by the more (ormally worded" 4etirement is inevitable. 'lso avoid other types o( conversational language such as (igures o( speech, cliches and idioms5 (or example"

Collo'uial E)pression above board reached a happy medium get through it part and parcel easier said than done beyond a shadow o( doubt in recent years pay lip service to got out o( hand a stumbling bloc! explored every avenue

*ormal Alternati!e legitimate reached an acceptable compromise survive, penetrate intrinsic to more di((icult in practice de(initely recently support through words but not through actions was no longer under control point o( contention investigated alternatives

+# A!oid using run,on e)pressions 4un on expressions include phrases such as ,and so (orth,, ,and so on, or ,etc,. -ry to complete the sentence properly5 do not use these i( you can avoid them5 (or example" In ormal -includes run on. *ormal Alternati!e

6urses must ta!e into consideration patients, 6urses must ta!e into consideration patients, dietary needs resulting (rom allergies, medication, dietary needs resulting (rom allergies, medical conditions and so on. medication and medical conditions. /ublic transport includes vehicles (or public use on the roads, airways, waterways etc. /ublic transport includes vehicles (or public use, such as buses, trains and aeroplanes.

/# Do not use rhetorical 'uestions ' rhetorical question is a question (or which no answer is expected. ' rhetorical question is one in a written text where the writer assumes the reader !nows the answer, or where the writer goes on to answer the question in the text. +uch questions are inappropriate (or academic writing" readers might not !now the answer and the point being made could be more strongly and clearly expressed as a statement. 7ou should not ris! your point being misunderstood" ma!e your point clear and ,up (ront,5 (or example" In ormal -includes rhetorical 'uestion. *ormal

*ndustrial sites cause vast amounts -he question surrounding the continued o( environmental pollution, so use o( industrial sites, given their vast why do we still use them$ pollution production, still remains. #hat is a team$ ' team can be ' team can include one person but usually one person but will usually end up involves many more. including many more. -he question is, however, does the *t is questionable whether the 8&esign 8&esign +chool 9odel8 provide a +chool 9odel8 provides a practical

practical solution to the problem o( how to (ormulate strategy$

solution to the problem o( strategy (ormulation.

6otice that you can change your rhetorical questions into statements and still use them e((ectively in an essay. 0# 1lace ad!er(s within the !er( 'dverbs should be placed within the verb group rather than in the initial or (inal positions. *n in(ormal %nglish, adverbs o(ten occur as clauses at the beginning or end o( sentences5 (or example" In ormal -hen the solution can be discarded. -he blood is withdrawn slowly. *ormal Alternati!e -he solution can then be discarded. -he blood is slowly withdrawn.

*ormal or In ormal"
-hese (our texts di((er in (ormality. :ne o( the reasons (or this di((erence is the di((erent audiences they are targeting. 4ead the texts below care(ully and then ran! them (rom most (ormal 013, to most in(ormal 0;3. #hen you have (inished ran!ing the texts, submit your answer.

2ank the Te)ts

'3 Why write essays3 *n the modern world our thin!ing is largely transmitted by speech and through radio and television. 't the university, however, you are required to do much o( your thin!ing through writing. *n the Humanities and +ocial +ciences you are inevitably required to produce a considerable number o( essays. 2 2anking4 <3 *t might be said that in)vitro (ertilisation, at any age, is a matter o( (ree choice, especially i( the patient pays. *( a woman wants the procedure, age should be irrelevant. <ut age can never be totally irrelevant. -he line is unclear. <ut in the case o( older mothers, questions o( the 8best interest o( the child8 press more insistently. 'nd even when the patient pays something towards the cost o( these procedures, there is some cost to the public. -he issue o( resource allocation remains.3 2anking4 .3 *n many radiotherapy centres where planning (or external beam treatments is per(ormed by radiation therapists, the treatment sheet and its calculations are independently chec!ed by sta(( (rom a di((erent educational bac!ground, typically a radiotherapy physicist. -he bene(its o( this practice were evaluated in a radiotherapy department with two

linear accelerators" one combined super(icial)orthovoltage unit and one telecaesium unit.; 2anking4 &3 *t,s a real shame that something as simple as a diet was not ta!en account o( by nurses, thus causing unnecessary pain to the patient. *t probably caused even more pain to the patient,s (amily and (riends having to see their loved one die li!e that. How would we (eel i( we saw our own relative go through that experience$ 2anking4

-his exercise has been adapted in part (rom material developed (or ' text based guide to academic writing, .&)4:9, &epartment o( 9odern =anguages, >niversity o( #ollongong, 2???. 2 .lanchy, @. and <allard, <. 012A13 Essay Writing for Students, 9elbourne" =ongman .heshire 3 %ditorial (rom -he +ydney 9orning Herald ; 'bstract (rom /hysics @ournal