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The United Nations Organisation was formed to bring about

peace in the world. It is increasingly failing to fulfil the objective in the
present complex world. It is an organisation without a voice to support
its will, and a voice without power to support it like its predecessor, the
League of Nations that had been set up after the First World War. The
League of Nations then functioned akin to the present-day United
Nations Organisation and badly failed to prevent the Second World

The first Prime Minister of India, Jawaharlal Nehru respected the

UNO and honoured its call for ceasefire while Indian army was
successfully pushing Pakistan soldiers back from Kashmir in 1947 and
in the process, lost half of Kashmir to Pakistan by declaring ceasefire
and kept the irritating Kashmir issue alive to this day. No doubt, by
listening to the United Nations Organisation, he had increased the
prestige of India but it resulted in the main cause of the dispute
between India and Pakistan. But the calls and resolutions of the UNO
and its Resolutions are ignored as a rule by other countries. Absence of
its own armed forces to force its resolutions and its complete
dependence on other countries, particularly the United States of
America, rendered it weak.

Increasing the number of members of the Security Council to

include rising powers of the world in deciding the world affairs may
bring some initiatives and energy to the world body.

Military alliances are very common these days. Many wars have
been fought in the world in recent past. Countries in war need to team
up with other countries to win the war. Military alliances are important
for two reasons: political and moral support, and military and tactical
support. Even in the Mahabharata, the sides that fought the war, that
is, the Kauravas and the Pandavas, fought it with the support of allies,
who enhanced their power.

The need of allies is acute in conflicts in modern days. The

shrinking world with the explosion of communication and transport
facilities makes symbiosis foundation of the modern living. The famous
declaration of a renowned mathematician turned philosopher of the
19th century that “Everything is everywhere at all times” holds more
true for the material world of the present day. Everything everywhere
in this world is interlinked.

The world is developing into a huge net of inter-connections.

Nothing occurring in one part of the world escapes the other part of the
world. Wars and peace, constructions and destructions, successes and
failures, falls and rises, riches and poverty, progress and new findings,
all have a cascading effect throughout the world. Interests of nations
are becoming inter-related. First and Second World Wars are World
Wars because of this phenomenon. Both Allies and Axis Powers fought
the wars as conglomerates of nations almost dividing the world to two
opposing blocs. Later wars like the Korean War, Vietnam War, Gulf
War, Iraq War and Afghan War prove this need of alliance between
warring nations of the present world.
Even the Cold War of the two superpowers from 1950s to 1990
was not an exception to this compulsion. The world was almost divided
to two blocs supporting the United States of America representing
developed capitalist countries and the Soviet Union representing the
Communist alliance. The only distracting influence against the trend at
the time came through the institution of the Non-Aligned Movement
(NAM) by the triumvirates of India, United Arab Republic and
Yugoslavia by the initiatives of their leaders, Jawaharlal Nehru, Nasser
and Marshal Tito. The very fact that NAM had only partial success in
world affairs and at its death throes now proves the futility of the non-
alignment in the present world.

No country is a friend or foe permanently in politics and

diplomacy. It is all a matter of self-interests and security of a country.
India played close to the USSR till the latter disintegrated in 1990.
Soviet Union was really a loyal friend of India in those decades with
liberal political, diplomatic, military, scientific and economic helps to
India. India survived all international pressures for decades in Kashmir
issue and recurring Indo-Pak wars only because of the dependable
support of the Soviet Union.

The perceived stance of the United States of America regarding

Indo-Pak issue and its readiness to treat India with an exception with a
nuclear deal are moving India closer to the United States of America. It
is always the national interests that guide a country to decide with
whom to ally and against whom. India is not an exception to this. The
status of the United States of America as the only super power of the
world added to this slant.

Not that India is totally allied with any one country. Such a
stance is against all annals of wise diplomacy. It is keeping its options
open. It is conducting joint military exercises with the United States of
America as well as with China. It is seeking special relations with
various countries in the name of axis like India-Brazil-South Africa Axis
and India-Russia-China Axis et cetera apart from being member of
various world bodies and groups to strengthen its standing. India has
got a powerful enemy in China and a headache in Pakistan. India is in
need of powerful military alliances with the United States of America
against the ambitions of China in Indian border state of Arunachal
Pradesh, and with Russia against the ambitions of Pakistan over
Kashmir to fight it politically. A balanced move between is the
diplomatic need of India.


European Union is a Union of select European nations, admitted

only on majority consent of the existing members of the Union. L’
union fait la force. This is the principle that brought most developed
nations of Europe together to form the Union. Its Initial purpose was
economic and trade cooperation and open boundaries among the
member nations. In spite of rivalries and conflicts of interests among
the member nations, the European Union made considerable progress
not only in economic and trade cooperation, but also in showing
common front in important world issues, thereby extending their
cooperation to the political front also. Consent for a common currency,
Euro, for the member nations is a great step in consolidating their
position as the member states of the European Union.

European Union as a bloc has grown as a powerful economic

force in the world in the span of a few decades, a force to reckon with
and poses serious challenge to the dominance of the American
economy in the world. It now forms the main pillars of the world
economy with that of the United States of America and China.

The common cause of the European Union in favour of the Kyoto

Protocol is an example of the unity of purpose developed in the Union
in a span of a few decades. It produces around 22% of global
greenhouse gas emissions and agreed to a cut of 8% 1990 emission
levels. The European Commission announced plans for a European
Union energy policy in January 2007 for a unilateral 20% reduction in
GHG emissions by 2020. The EU has consistently been one of the
major nominal supporters of the Kyoto Protocol, negotiating hard to get
wavering countries on board.

The success of the European Union has led to other nations of

the Europe aspiring for the membership of the European Union.
Turkey even though is a Muslim country is trying to become a member
of the EU. But there is resistance to this move. East European countries
are also eager to make common cause with the European Union. But,
admission to the European Union is proved to be not easy involving
circuitous processes and majority consent of the existing members.
European Union believes in certain identity for itself based on history
and culture. This bars open admission to the European Union.

Most notable members of the European Union are England,

France, Germany and Italy. All these four nations are historically rivals
of each other. England and France, France and Germany, Germany and
France, Germany and England, Italy and France, so goes on the list.
The rivalries show up even now in their political differences to the
world issues. England was a reluctant member of the European Union
in the beginning. France and Germany repeatedly clash on economic
and political issues. Yet, European Union has succeeded in retaining its
unity and common front to the world with its unique identity all these
decades. It is not an ordinary accomplishment in the complex political
world of today.

The spirit of accommodation shown by these countries for the

commune bonum of Europe and its people and their economic
prosperity needs emulation by all other countries of the world.
Because, L’ union fait la force. Joining together is the only road and
means of prosperity inconceivable by individual efforts of nations.
Joining together leads to the shedding of enmity and rivalry and forges
friendship and cooperation for the common good of the all mankind.

The European Union has shown a rather firm and good response
to the different crises that have struck the world over the last few
years. Climate change has become a very important topic and it has
also been found that the EU has been tackling this crisis rather well.
Another rather important crisis that the EU has tackled rather well has
been the economic crisis. Thus, the EU must take a rather important
role in world politics in order to rid us of this trouble that it is striking
and irritating our world.

The EU is very big geographically and economically and thus

must take the leader’s role in eradicating these crises from this world.
However, this will not prove to be an easy task and the EU must work
hard in order to take the initiative and maintain it. Under the
Presidency of Sweden over the next few years, the EU will try its best
to resolve the problems that are facing it and the world. The Swedish
Prime Minister is very determined to make a very strong message and
stand during this time in which Sweden has the Presidency of the EU.
The EU will have to take the steps needed to resolve the economic

The member countries will have to work with each other and
must set up an administering body and must also not dabble in
protecting their own economies at the expense of others, as this will
only in the end make the situation in the world worse than it already is.
The other crisis is that of climate change is also something that all the
countries will have to work together on. The EU must some how co
ordinate attempts made at resolving this crisis too.

The European Union has not taken much initiative in this regard
till now and thus, it will not at all be an easy task to push forward now,
but Sweden is determined to make its Presidency a memorable one.


Islam is a religion that was founded about fifteen centuries back

by the holy prophet, Mohammed. Now, Islam is the second largest
religion in the world after Christianity in the number of people who
follow it. Islam is an aggressive religion. It believes in global
brotherhood of Islam and spreading the teachings of holy Prophet
Mohammed for enduring peace in the world. Islam does not
differentiate between the concepts of nationhood and religion. It is the
reason why Muslim majority countries tend to declare themselves as
Islamic countries as opposed to the global trend of calling themselves
as secular countries. The concept of Islamic Brotherhood and the
aggressive nature of Islam as a religion are at the back of the rising
militancy and unrest in the present world. Rabid militancy in Pakistan,
Afghanistan and Iraq, problems in Kosovo, Chechen militants fighting
for the liberation of Chechnya in Russia, problems at Xinjiang in China
are all symptoms of this.

The United States is at the crosshairs of the Islamic militancy. By

the popular doctrine known as the Eisenhower Doctrine of 1950s, the
United States decided to befriend and use Islamic countries for oil and
to neutralize the Communist USSR. It relentlessly continued with the
policy and generously poured money and weapons to Pakistan to
create Taliban to checkmate Soviet Union and gain control over the
resources rich Central Asia. The present troubles in Xinjiang are an
extension of this policy in the circumstances of the gas pipe project
passing through Russia and Xinjiang in China. If the theory is true and
the Special Forces of the United States of America succeed in its
Machiavellian maneuvers, the focus of Islamic militancy and Taliban
may soon shift to Central Asia from Afghanistan. Talks of
accommodating Taliban in Afghanistan are the harbinger of this shift in
the focus of the United States of America from Afghanistan to Central


Terrorism is violence to terrorise the government to submit it to

the objectives of the people who employ it. Terrorism is an immoral
political tool and anti-human activity as it is targets innocent and
peace-loving people for political gains. It involves mass killing and wide
destruction. The common forms of terrorism are hijacking and use of

There are many causes for terrorism. They include the high-
handedness of the powerful, helplessness of the weak, unemployment,
and the indifference of those in power to just demands by peaceful and
non-violent methods

Terrorism is not new to mankind. History all over the world is

replete with instances of terrorism by individuals or groups against the
established power. There are instances wherein terrorists or terror
groups succeeding in their efforts and establishing their own rule. Most
of the powerful dynasties of the world have small terrorist groups as
their origin. Terrorism in this sense is nothing more than asymmetric
violence against the state power to bend it to the group’s will. It be
Rana Prathap or Shivaji or Bhagat Singh of India, or the violent
freedom struggle of Irish people against the British rule, or the wars of
LTTE with Sri Lanka Government, or violent designs of Al-Qaeda for
Islamic hegemony of the world, basically they are all terrorism. Mass
destructions involved in present days because of sophisticated
weapons and bombs and support of outside elements including enemy
states in inspiring, designing and executing terrorism make terrorism
of present days different from that of yore and more reprehensible.

Causes for the rise in terrorism in present days are umpteen.

They include successes of terrorist means, militant Islam, birth of Israel
by less than just means leading to Palestine problem, hegemony of the
developed countries in world politics, poverty and unemployment.

The terrorism in India has also risen considerably and covers all
regions of the country. ISI operators in North India, ULFA in N-E India,
Naxalism in Central India, radical Muslims in West India and all of them
in South India. India is one of the worst affected countries of the world
in terrorism.

Taliban was ruling Afghanistan after the departure of the Soviet
Union from the field till the fall of the World Trade Centre in 2001. The
United States of America brought Taliban to power in Afghanistan by
militarily helping Taliban through its creator and sustainers, Pakistan to
pull down the Government of Afghanistan supported by the Soviet
Union. But, Taliban being what it is, a militant Islamic outfit to the core,
rebelled against its makers, the “Kaffirs” or “Infidels” from the United
States of America. It harboured and provided hideouts Al-Qaeda outfit
and its leaders, and provided infrastructure for the training of the
Islamic militants to operate all over the world. Afghanistan under
Taliban became the paradise of the Islamic militants from all over the
world. It was from this state support that Islamic militancy spread like
wild fire all over the world. The assets and interests of the United
States itself repeatedly became targets of these terrorists culminating
in the World Trade Centre incident on September 11, 2001. This act of
Al-Qaeda leadership conceived and executed from Afghanistan brought
curtains down on Taliban as the United States of America along with its
allies acted promptly to remove Taliban from power, and the Taliban
and Al-Qaeda leaders fled the scene to hiding.

However, neither Taliban nor Al-Qaeda was fully crushed and

they soon resurfaced along the rugged borders between Pakistan and
Afghanistan. Powerful tribals of the area supported them to the heels.
Taliban continued its asymmetric war against the allied forces from the
border areas of Pakistan with the active support of the Army and all-
powerful Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) of Pakistan. All strategies of
the United States of America including billions of dollars of economic
help to recover Pakistan from its economic crisis failed to win over
Pakistan to its side from supporting Taliban. United States is aware
that no solution is possible in Afghanistan till Taliban problem is solved,
and no solution to Taliban problem is possible until Pakistan’s
unstinted support for the cause is available.

The recent thoughts of the United States of America are to

involve the Taliban in solving the problems of Afghanistan by
accommodating the Taliban in the governance by a mechanism of
power sharing by using Pakistan’s channels with the Taliban. So, the
United States of America is coming full circle in its policy towards the


Man for millenniums inhabits the Earth now. Survival is his basic
instinct and survival in uncivilised world means fighting others and
surviving. In the process, he invented weapons for both defence and
aggression in his fight for survival. And continually he improved upon
the weapons making it more and more destructive and deadly. Mass
and immediate destructions were what he sought in these new
weapons. He moved from sticks and stones to knives and axes and
swords, to bows and arrows and maces, to guns, tanks, missiles and
bombs now. He rapidly improved on his recent weapon technologies
with the help of science to produce weapons of mass destruction as
rivalry and wars became common between nations of the present
world and survival demanded and depended on the efficiency and
destructive capabilities of the weapons a country possesses.

Nuclear bombs were produced in this backdrop. Competition to

produce the nuclear bomb was intense in 1940s during the Second
World War after scientists discovered the weapons capabilities of the
nuclear energy in the previous decade. The United States succeeded in
producing the nuclear bombs first and did not wait long in using it
against Japan at Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945 to bring
curtain down on the Second World War. The devastations and deaths
the twin nuclear bombs caused shocked the sensibilities of the world
and helped consensus to save the humanity from nuclear arms.
Present attempts to contain the spread of the nuclear weapons and the
significance of Non-Proliferation Treaty should be read in this context.

Nuclear bomb is based on Uranium-235, which is a stable form of

Uranium. When a nuclear bomb is released, a neutron strikes Uranium-
235 and that transforms the Uranium-235 to Uranium-236, a very
unstable form of Uranium, releasing tremendous energy and a cluster
of neutrons. The released neutrons strike other atoms of the Uranium-
235 again releasing more energy and neutrons, thus initiating a chain
reaction that exponentially release energy, heat and fire that cause
total destructions and loss of life.

Attempts to contain the spread pf nuclear weapons and the Non-

Proliferation Treaty can only delay or suppress the global spread of the
nuclear weapons and nothing more. More and more countries
producing and possessing these deadly weapons these days in spite of
global opposition and threats of the United States prove this. India and
Pakistan produced and possess them in the concluding years of the
20th century; North Korea declared itself as a nuclear power in 2009
and Iran is on that path. Once a country becomes a nuclear power,
nothing else can be done about the matter by anybody. The most
chilling prospect of the nuclear weapons is it falling to wrong hands of
the terrorists and destroying the world order. None can rule out such a
possibility. This is the price humanity pay for its thoughtless progress
in the field of science.


Economic recession struck the world in 2008. This is the worst
economic recession the world encountered since the Great Depression
1929 and affected almost all countries of the world.

Many countries have rolled out plans to minimize the effect of

the horrible crisis on their respective economies. Inter-dependence of
countries in the modern global village primarily in world trade rendered
independent efforts of countries to solve the crisis impossible.
Coordinated action to attack the problem at the global level became
inevitable and leaders of the major economic powers of the world
along with China and India are meeting and discussing at various world
forums about how to tackle the problem and save he world from the

The United States of America, Japan and other economically

powerful industrialized countries witnessed their exports rapidly
decreasing to affect their trade balance and foreign reserve positions.

The solution lies in boosting the economy by increasing or at

least maintaining demand all over the world. Maintaining world trade
at present level is the key to tide over this crisis. Fall in world trade in
any part of the world would lead to a cascading effect to the ruin of the
world economic structure. All nations as responsible partners of the
world economic structure are cooperating to save the situation, but it
is easier said than done.

Energy is defined as the capacity of a body to do work. It is life-

giver in the world and life revolves around it. Energy runs the whole
world. Appliances in the kitchen, refrigerators, televisions, cars, fans,
lighting or heating appliance or anything in the world for that matter
run with the help of Energy. Energy is the fuel of life.

Fuel is basically classified into two groups based on the kind of

sources they are derived from - as Conventional and Unconventional
Energy. Conventional Energy is the source of energy that has been
traditionally used by the world for a long time, say since the Industrial
Revolution. Unconventional Energy is the source of Energy that is
newly discovered and naturally needs lots of further research and
propaganda to make it fit for mass and popular use. Conventional
Energy is though important, fast depletion is its Achilles’ heel.
Unconventional Energy is renewable and there is no problem of
depletion in this source of energy and it takes a very short time to be
renewed. A few examples of the Unconventional Energy are Solar
Energy, Wind Energy, Tidal Energy, Hydroelectric Energy and Biomass
Energy. Conventional Energy primarily includes Petroleum Products
like Petrol, Diesel, Natural Gas and Coal that are present on the Earth
in limited amount and fast depleted because of the constant and
constantly increased use for centuries by the technology hungry life
style of the mankind.