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TRAINING MATERIAL ON STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL (SPC)

116-A, JAWALAHERI MARKET, 2nd FLOOR, PASCHIM VIHAR, NEW-DELHI-63 Ph: 011 - 30 12161 M!"#$%: &10'0( , &1&(3 623 E-)*#$ : +$!"*$,%-.#/%,0d%$h#12*h!!3/!) "*$*4-#,hn*n0"*"51-%d#66)*#$3/!)

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TOOLS FOR PROCESS CONTROL


1.

Detection :- A past oriented strategy that attempts to identify unacceptable output after it has been produced and then separate it from the good output. Prevention :- A future oriented strategy that improves quality and productivity by directing analysis and action toward correcting the process itself so that unacceptable parts will not be produced.

2.

TECHNIQUES FOR PROCESS CONTROL


1.

Mista e Proo!in" :- In this technique 100% process control is achieved by preventing all types of failures by using modern techniques to get defect free product. ere causes are prevented from ma!ing the effect.

2.

#$$% Ins&ection : In this technique 100% chec!ing of all the parameters of all products has been done to get defect free product. ere only defects are detected. Statistica' Process Contro' : In this "tatistical technique such as #ontrol #hart$ istogram etc. are used so as to analyses the process and achieve and maintain state of statistical control to get defect free product. #auses are detected and prompting #A before defect occurs.

3.

(H) S*P*C* IS REQUIRED + %ffectiveness of any activity in an &rgani'ation is measured with respect to time and cost involved in it. Mista e Proo!in" In this method more advanced and modern techniques are used which require during its installation
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#$$% Ins&ection As it is detection type of technique it can(t avoid failure but re)ects defective products. more inspection times and

Statistica' Process Contro' +or this technique investment is very less and process is controlled on each wor!station therefore defective components is not forwarded to ne,t operation. -redictability reduces frequent
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substantial investment *equires more inspectors$

Training Material on SPC

and maintenance.

in turn more cost.

ad)ustments . in turn increases productivity$ reduces inspection

cost at station . at final inspection +rom above we can observe that ".-.#. is the economical way of controlling the process in comparison with /ista!e -roofing and 100% inspection. (HAT IS S*P*C* +
1.

Statistics :- A value calculated from or based upon sample data 0e.g. a subgroup average or range1 used to ma!e inferences about the process that produced the output from which the sample comes.

2.

Statistica' Contro' :- 2he condition describing a process from which all special causes of variation have been eliminated and only common causes remain. Statistica' Process Contro' :- 2he use of "tatistical techniques such as control charts to analy'e a process or it(s outputs so as to ta!e appropriate actions to achieve and maintain a state of statistical control and to improve the process capability.

3.

STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL


,ARIATION: - 2he inevitable differences among individual outputs of a process3 the sources of variation can be grouped into two ma)or classes4 #ommon #auses and "pecial #auses. Co--on Ca.ses: - A source of variation that affect all the individual values of the process output and inherent in the process itself and can not be eliminated totally. S&ecia' Ca.ses: - A source of variation that is intermittent$ unpredictable$ unstable3 2his causes can be identifiable and can be eliminated permanently. Ran/o- ,ariation &nly common cause are present #ommon causes are more in nos. #ommon causes are part of process #ontributes to constant variation Non-Ran/o- ,ariation #ommon . Assignable cause are present Assignable causes are very few in nos. 5isitor to the process ighly fluctuating variation
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-redictable "tatistics Apply /anagement controllable

7npredictable "tatistics shall not apply &perating personnel controllable

PROCESS CONTROL :A process is said to be operating instate of statistical control when the only source of variation is common causes. PROCESS STA0ILIIT): 2he process is said to be stable when the process is in control and variation is constant with respect to time i.e. 8eing in statistical control. PROCESS CAPA0ILIT): 2he measure of inherent variation of the process 0 i.e "i, "igma 09:; 6 <1 when it is in stable condition is called as process capability. O,ER AD1USTMENT: It is the practice of ad)usting each deviation from the target as if it were due to a special cause of variation in the process. If stable process is ad)usted on the basis of each measurement made$ then ad)ustment becomes an additional source of variation and inturn it increases the total variation.

METHODOLOG) TO IDENTIF) ASSIGNA0LE CAUSES 2his write up is for assignment any one identify Assignable causes. As you are aware the success of any "-# program is not in our ability to collect data$ draw charts etc.$ but in
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Training Material on SPC

effectively identifying and eliminating assignable causes. Assignable causes are those causes that do not allow one to predict the behaviour of processes. 2here is no meaning in calculating -rocess #apability without having a predictable process. /any companies have initiated "-# charts. 8ut the charts do not benefit them * One o! t2e -ain reasons !or t2is is t2at t2e3 2ave not sto&&e/ t2e &rocess 42en an assi"na5'e ca.se is in/icate/ an/ e'i-inate/ t2e ca.se* 2his is not done because no body is aware on how to do it. /any e,perts only say that the cause is to be eliminated but no one is able to assist a company in doing this. >e are sharing with you our approach for doing this cause elimination. 8efore starting the "-# data collection$ let us do the following steps4 1. Identify the characteristic for which "-# is to be done. 2. ave a brainstorming to list all the causes that may influence the variation in this characteristic 6. -repare a #ause . %ffect ?iagram =. -repare a /aster #ause Analysis 2able 0Anne,ure 11 @. -repare a >hy;>hy Analysis 2able 0Anne,ure 21 A. Identify factors that may affect Average and those that may affect *ange After completion of the above$ plan for data collection$ calculation of preliminary limits$ etc. 2hen use the chart for &n ;Bine control. >hen you are routinely using the chart$ when ever a point goes beyond the control limits$ using the /aster #ause Analysis 2able$ we can narrow the assignable cause 08ased on our preliminary listing as mentioned in "l. Co.A above1 by verifying the condition of the cause from the limits specified in the table.

S'* No*

Ca.se

Is t2ere a s&ecn+

ANNEXURE 1 MASTER CAUSE ANAL)SIS TA0LE I! so6 42at 0asis !or Is it (2at is is t2e t2e s&ecn* c2ec e/ t2e s&ecn+ an/ 2o4+ act.a'+

Di!!* in S&ec!n* ,s
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Action &'an

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Act.a'

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ANNEXURE 2 (H) 7 (H) ANAL)SIS TA0LE S'* No* Ca.se (H) (H) (H) (H) (H)

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GUIDELINES FOR USING ANNE8URE 7 # 1. %nter a serial number 2. %nter the cause from the cause and effect diagram. All the causes from the cause and effect diagram must be covered 6. +or each cause as! the Euestion4 Is there a "pecificationF -lease note that the specification is for the cause. 2he answer can be Ges or Co. =. If there is a "pecification$ write the actual value of the specification. If there is no specification$ %nter in the Action -lan column H"pecification is to be establishedI. @. Jive the basis for the specification mentioned in #olumn Co.=. "ometimes the "pecification may be based on the drawing$ machine manufacturer(s catalogue$ wor! instruction$ -ast %,perience$ etc. ?o not write your e,pectations. &nly enter what is actually e,isting. *emember that there has to be some basis. A. Is this specification being chec!ed. If yes$ write the actual method used for chec!ing. If it is not being chec!ed$ then enter Co. It may be possible that there are methods for chec!ing but not done here$ in which case the answer is Co. If the answer is Co$ then enter in the Action -lan #olumn H/ethod of chec!ing is to be establishedI. D. %nter here the actual value of the cause by using the method of chec!ing. "ometimes it may be the range of variation 0%,4 Input material condition1 or it may be &ne 5alue 0%,4 2aper in the fi,ture1. 2his is the actual value and not a guess. 2ime may be required to complete this column. K. If there is a difference between the actual value and the specification$ then e,amine how important based on technical !nowledge. If the difference is not ma)or$ then mention Co. &therwise mention Ges. If the answer is Ges$ then enter in the Action -lan #olumn that further analysis is needed li!e >hy;>hy Analysis or correction to eliminate the variation. 9. 7nder this column enter the specific Action -lan needed as already mentioned above.
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GUIDELINES FOR USING ANNE8URE 7 9 2his table can be used for all the causes identified in the #ause and Analysis 2able with top priority for the #auses found to have variation from the /aster #ause Analysis 2able. 1. %nter the running serial number 2. %nter the cause to be studied 6. %nter >hy this cause should vary. 2here may be more than one reason. %nter all the reasons one below the other. =. +or each of the >hy identified in #olumn 6$ write the possible causes. Cote that the cause is to be identified only for column 6 and not bac!ward. @. -roceed in the same manner as #olumn =. %nsure that each time the focus is only on the previous column. A. -roceed in the same manner as #olumn =. %nsure that each time the focus is only on the previous column. D. -roceed in the same manner as #olumn =. %nsure that each time the focus is only on the previous column. #ontinue in this manner$ till any of the following happen4 a. Co further >hy can be answered b. 2he system cause has been identified 0%,4 Co system for chec!ing$ verification$ control$ etc.1 c. 2he reverse is the solution 8ased on the listed whyLs$ develop the action plan for implementation. *emember4 It is the system$ which is at the *oot #ause of all problems and not individuals.
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Training Material on SPC

SPC PROCEDURE FLO( CHART /"A

?A2A #&BB%#2I&C

Is process -redictableF 0i.e. In #ontrol 1

Co

+ind out Assignable causes and eliminate it.

Ges

Is process #apableF

Co Improve the process

Ges %stablish the #ontrol Bimits

-repare *eaction -lan

&n going -rocess #ontrol

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PREDICTA0LE PROCESS :- -rocess free from Assignable causes* CAPA0ILIT) :- /easure of inherent variation* #A-A8B% -*&#%"" 4 #p . #p! M 1.66 #*MEASUREMENT S)STEM ANAL)SIS : /easurement "ystem Analysis measures the contamination of the variation due to measurement system in the total variation of characteristic. In this technique both variable and attribute data measurement systems are verified. +ollowing types of variations are observed in /.".A.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

%quipment 5ariation 4; 5ariation of measuring instrument. Appraiser 5ariation 4; 5ariation between measuring persons. #ombine 5ariation 4; 5ariation of both instruments and person. -art to -art 5ariation 4; 5ariation comes when measuring two different parts. >ithin -art 5ariation 4; 5ariation comes when measuring same part at different places.

*esultant of all these variation is called as 2otal 5ariation in the measuring system. *eproducing and *epeatability "tudy are conducted to evaluate %quipment 5ariation and Appraiser 5ariation. 2his * . * value should be less than 10% when it is between 10 to 60%$ then measuring system requires improvement. 8ut if this variation is more than 60% then measurement system required to be changed. 9* DATA COLLECTION :?ata is available in two types 4
1. 2.

5ariable data 4 ?ata which is available in numerical form. Attribute ?ata 4; ?ata which is in term of decision and not in numerical terms. e.g. ; ?ata form Jo;Co go gauges.

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Training Material on SPC

:* CHEC;ING FOR PROCESS PREDICTION :-rocess is said to be predictable when it is in control and stable i.e. when all "pecial causes are removed from the process. 2he process can be chec!ed from #ontrol #hart and istogram* Contro' C2art: - >hen all points are within control limits or there is no obvious run or non;random pattern of points with in the control limits. Histo"ra-: - >hen bell shape is observed on istogram. REMO,ING ASSIGNA0LE CAUSES: >hen process is fail to satisfy above requirements then e,istence of special causes may be there. In this cause find special causes and remove. <* CALCULATING PROCESS CAPA0ILIT): After removing all special causes from the process calculate the capability indices #p and #p!. If #p and #p! is greater than 1.66 then process is said to be within acceptable capability. 8ased on the priority ma!e improvement plan for the process. If #p and #p! is less than 1.66$ then find out ma)or common causes and remove it. =* ESTA0LISHING CONTROL LIMITS: >hen #p and #p! is greater than 1.66 $ 2hen $ %stablish 7#B:B#B and #B mar!ed on control chart and Issued to &perators for ongoing control. >* PREPARE REACTION PLAN: After deciding control limits$ #orrective and disposition actions to be given to the operators for any special causes e,pected to occur during the process. 2hese corrective and disposition actions can be documented in *eaction -lan.

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?* ON GOING PROCESS CONTROL :#ontinuous -eriodical review of control chart and recorded process events to identify the preventive action and revise the control limits. OPERATOR@S ROLE IN SPC FOR INDI,IDUAL SU0-GROUP*

?ata #ollection

-lot &n #hart

Ges Is process in #ontrol F i.e. no special cause Co *efer *eaction -lan 2a!e #orrective Action

2a!e ?isposition Action 0 If *eqd.1 NOTE : #*A!ter Corrective action ta en6 t2e I--e/iate s.5"ro.& s2a'' 5e -eas.re/ an/ &'otte/* 9*Recor/ in /etai' t2e ca.ses6 corrective action an/ /is&osition action ta en !or ever3 o.t o! contro' con/ition*
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FACTORS FOR COMPUTING LIMITS n 9 : < = > /9 #*#9A #*>B: 9*$=B 9*:9> 9*=:< A9 #*AA$ #*$9: $*?9B $*=?? $*<A: D: $ $ $ $ $ D< :*9>A 9*=?< 9*9A9 9*##< 9*$$< E9 9*>> #*?? #*<> #*9B #*#A

CONTROL CHART INTERPRETATION AND DISPOSITION ACTION T2e MOST RECENT ACTIONS ON THE PROCESS OUTPUT 0ase/ on t2e On"oin" &rocess ca&a5i'it3 CC& 1 1.66 ; 1.AD Jreater than 1.AD

POINT in/icates t2at t2e &rocess Is in #ontrol

Accept product #ontinue to reduce as gone out of control in an adverse direction. All individuals in the sample are within specification as gone out of control in an and one or more individuals in the sample are outside specification product variation I?%C2I+G . #&**%#2 "-%#IAB #A7"% Inspect 100% Accept product since the last in; control point. #ontinue to reduce product variation

I?%C2I+G . #&**%#2 "-%#IAB #A7"% 100% inspect product produced since the last in;control sample.

CONTROL CHART METHODOLOG) INTRODUCTION:


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It is a technique$ which builds quality into the process. "-# is most effective when problems are resolved as soon as identified. #ontrol charts are mainly to increase productivity$ improve quality and reduce cost. -rocess variation can be easily analysed by control charts. &b)ective of control chart analysis is to identify any evidence that through process variability or the process averages are not operating at a constant level. 2he goal of the process control chart is not perfection$ but a reasonable and economical state of control. CONTROL CHARTS FOR ,ARIA0LES N 8A* * chart is developed from measurements of a particular characteristic of a process output. 2his chart is pertaining to variables. #ontrol charts for variables are powerful tools that can be used when measurements from a process are available. >ith variable data performance of a process can be analysed and improvement can be qualified even if all individual values are within the specification limits. 8asically fewer pieces need to be chec!ed before ma!ing reliable decisions. "o the time gap between production of parts and corrective action often cab be shortened. #* DATA COLLECTION 8 5ar -R CHART: N bar ;* chart is developed from measurements of a particular characteristic of a process output. N bar;* chart e,plains process data in terms of both its spread 0piece to piece variability1 and its location 0process average1. ?A2A #&BB%#2I&C4 N /easure of Bocation * /easure of "pread

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2o analy'e the particular characteristics of a process or process output$ data are collected in small subgroups of constant si'e 02 to @ consecutive pieces1. "ubgroups are ta!en periodically. "ample si'e should remain constant for all subgroups. "78J*&7- "IO%4 "ubgroup si'e should be chosen so that opportunities for variation among the units within a subgroup are small. If the variation within the subgroup represents the piece to piece variability over a very short period of time$ then any unusual variation between subgroups would reflect changes in process that should be investigated for appropriate action. -ieces within each subgroup would all be produced under very similar production condition over a very short time. "o the variation within each subgroup would primarily reflect common causes. "78J*&7- +*%E7%C#G4 -urpose of selecting subgroup is to detect changes in the process over time. ?uring an initial process study$ the subgroups are often ta!en consecutively or at short intervals$ to detect whether the process can shift to show other instability over brief time periods. As the process demonstrates stability$ the frequency of subgroups can be increased. C7/8%* &+ "78J*&7-"4 +rom a process standpoint$ enough subgroups should be gathered to assure that the ma)or sources of variation have had an opportunity to appear. Jenerally 2@ or more subgroups containing 100 or more individual readings give a good test for stability. -lot the averages and *anges on the #ontrol #harts4 -lot the averages and ranges on their respective charts. 2his should be done as soon as possible after scaling has been decided. #onnect the points with lines to help visuali'e patterns and trends.

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"can the plot points$ confirm that the calculations and plots are correct. /a!e sure that the plot points for the corresponding N and * is vertically in line. Initial study charts used for first time capability or for studies after process improvements:changes should be the only process control charts allowed on the production floor which do not have control limits placed on them. 9* CALCULATE CONTROL LIMITS : * P 0 *1 9 *2 9 QQQ9 *R 1 : R N P 0 N1 9 N2 9 QQQ9 NR 1 : R >here R is the number of subgroups. *1 is the range of the first subgroup. N1 is the average of the first subgroup. "etup control charts 4 N and * charts are normally drawn with the N chart above the * chart$ and a data bloc!. 2he values of N and * will be the vertical scales. ?ata bloc! should include spare for each individual reading$ average 0 N 1$ *ange 0 * 1 and the date:time or other identification of the subgroup. #haracteristics to be plotted are the sample average 0 N 1 and the sample si'e 0 * 1 for each subgroup$ collectively these reflect the overall process average and its variability. Average 0 N 1 P 0 N1 9 N2 9 QQQ. 9*n 1 : n >here n subgroup sample si'e. *ange 0 * 1 P
ighest

S Bowest

"elect the "cales for control charts 4 "ome general guidelines for determining the scales may be helpful$ although they may have to be modified in particular circumstances. +or N #hart 4

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2he difference between the highest and the lowest values on the scale should be atleast two times the difference between the highest and the lowest of the subgroup averages 0 N 1. +or * #hart 4 5alue e,tends from 'ero to an upper value about two times the largest range. +or * #hart 4 7#B* P ?= * B#B* P ?6 * +or N #hart 4 7#B, P N 9 A2 * B#B, P N ; A2 * >here ?=$ ?6$ A2 are constants varying by sample si'e with values from sample si'es from 2 to 10. ?raw the average 0 * 1 and process average 0 N 1 as solid hori'ontal lines. #ontrol limits 0 7#B* $ B#B*$7#B,$ B#B, 1 as dashed hori'ontal lines. Babel the lines. :*INTERPRETATION FOR PROCESS CONTROL "ince the ability to interpret either the subgroup ranges or subgroup averages depends on the estimate of piece to piece variability$ the * chart is analysed first. 2he data points are compared with the control limits$ for points out of control or for unusual patterns or trends. +or *ange #hart 4 0a1 -oints beyond the control limits are primary evidence of non;control of that point. Any point beyond a control limit is the signal for immediate analysis of the operation for the special cause. A point above the control limit is generally due to 011 -lot point may be miscalculated. 021 -iece to piece variations has increased.
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061 /easurement system has changed. A point below the control limit is generally due to 011 -lot point is in error. 021 -iece to piece variation has decreased. 061 /easurement system has changed. 0b1 -resence of unusual patterns or trends even when all ranges are within control limits$ can be evidence of change of process spread$ also indicates some special causes. 0c1 *uns 011 D points in a row on one side of the average indicate that the process is not normally distributed and there is shift in the process average. 021 D points in a row that are consistently increasing or decreasing. 0d1 -resence of cycles in the chart indicates that special causes due to machine set up$ non;uniformity in the material wear of machine. Fin/ an/ A//ress S&ecia' Ca.ses +or each indication of special cause in the range data$ conduct an analysis of the operation of the process to determine the cause and to improve the process. A process log may also be a helpful source of information in terms of identifying special causes of variation. "ingle point out of control is reason to begin an immediate analysis of the process. Reca'c.'ate Contro' Li-its >hen conducting an initial process study or a reassessment of process capability$ the control limits should be recalculated to e,clude the effects of control periods for which process causes have been clearly identified and removed.

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Training Material on SPC

Analy'e the data on the A5%*AJ% # A*2 >hen the ranges are in statistical control$ the process spread S the within subgroup variation is considered to be stable. 2he averages can then be analysed to see if the process location is changing over time. #ontrol limits for N 8ar are based upon the variation in the ranges. 2hen if the averages are in statistical control$ their variation is related to the amount of variation seen in the ranges 0common cause variation of the system1. If the averages are not in control$ some special causes of variation are ma!ing the process location unstable. -oints beyond control limits indicates that there is 011 shift in process 021 -lot points are in error. +ind and address the special causes and then recalculate the control limits after eliminating the special causes. <* INTERPRET FOR PROCESS CAPA0ILIT) Interpretation process capability is to be carried out only under the following assumptions4 011 -rocess is statistically stable. 021 Individual measurements from the process conform to normal distribution. 061 ?esign target is in the center of the specification width. 0=1 /easurement variation is small. aving determined that a process is in statistical control$ the question still remains whether the process is capable of meeting customer needs. 2o understand and improve the capability of a process$ one should understand that capability reflects variation from common causes and management action on the system is required for capability improvement.

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Ca'c.'ate Process Stan/ar/ Deviation4 "ince within subgroup process variability is reflected in the subgroup averages$ the estimate of the process standard deviation H<H can be based on the average range 0*1. <P * : d2 >here * the average of the subgroup ranges. d2 the constant varying by sample si'e. #apability can be described in terms of the distance of the process average from the specification limits in standard deviation units$ O. +or unilateral tolerance O P 0 7"B S Nbar1 : < +or bilateral tolerance O7"B P0 7"B S N 1 : < >here 7"B 7pper specification limit B"B Bower specification limit O Cegative value of O indicates the process average is out of specification. O/IC /inimum of O7"B and OB"B O values can be used with the table of the standard normal distribution 0appendi, +in "-# manual1 to estimate the proportion of output that will be beyond any specification. 2he value of O/IC can also be converted to a capability inde,$ #-R #-R P O/IC : 6 P /in T 07"B S Nbar1 : 6 < or 0Nbar S B"B1 : 6 < U A process of O/IC P 6 would have a capability inde, of #-R P 1.00 If O/IC P =$ the process would have a capability inde, of #-R P 1.66
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0or1

O P 0 Nbar S B"B 1 : <

0or1

OB"B P0 N ; B"B1 : <

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Training Material on SPC

Eva'.ate &rocess ca&a5i'it3 It is necessary to evaluate the process capability in terms of meeting customer requirements. +undamental goal is never ending improvement in process performance. Improve the process performance by reducing the variation that comes from common causes$ or shift the process average close to the target. 2his generally means ta!ing management action to improve the system. I-&rove Process Ca&a5i'it3 2o improve process capability$ there must be increased attention on reducing the common causes. Accounts must be directed towards the system namely$ the underlying process factors which account for the process variability such as 011 /achine performance. 021 #onsistency of input materials. 061 8asic methods by which process operates. 0=1 2raining methods. 0@1 >or!ing environment. As a general rule these system;related causes for unacceptable process capability may be beyond the abilities of the operator or their local supervisor to correct. Instead they may require management intervention to ma!e basic changes$ allocate resources and provide the co ordination needed to improve the overall process performance. 8 7 S CAvera"e an/ Stan/ar/ Deviation c2artsD *ange charts were developed as measures of process variation because the range is easy to calculate and is relatively efficient for small subgroup sample si'es. "ample standard deviation H " H is more efficient indicator of process variability especially with larger sample si'es. It is sensitive in detecting special causes of variation. Gat2er Data 011 If raw data are voluminous$ they are often recorded on a separate data sheet. 021 calculate subgroup sample standard deviation " P V 0NI S N 12 : 0 n S 11 W1:2 >here NI Individual values
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N Average n "ample si'e. Cote4 0?o not round off N values1. Ca'c.'ate Contro' Li-its 7#B" P 8= " B#B" P 86 " 7#BN P N 9 A6 " B#BN P N ; A6 " >here " Average of individual subgroup samples standard deviation. 8=$ 86$ A6 #onstants varying by sample si'es. Inter&ret !or Process Contro' *efer N S * chart(s Interpretations for process control. Inter&ret !or Process Ca&a5i'it3 *efer N S * chart(s Interpretations for process capability. -rocess "tandard deviation$ & P " : #= where " Average of sample standard deviation. #= #onstant varying by sample si'e. MEDIAN CHARTS /edian charts are alternatives to N and * charts for control of processes with measured data. 011 easy to use

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Training Material on SPC

021 "ince a single chart shows both the median and spread$ it can be used to compare the output of several processes. Gat2er /ata 011 /edian charts are used with subgroup sample si'e of 10 or less. &dd sample si'es are more convinient. 021 If using even si'e subgroups$ the median is the average of middle two units. 061 %nter the subgroups median Contro' Li-its 7#B* P ?= * B#B* P ?6 * 7#BN P N 9 A2 * B#BN P N ; A2 * where ?= $?6 $A2 are constants varying by sample si'es. Interpret for process control and process capability is same as that of N S * charts 0refer bac! 1. CHARTS FOR INDI,IDUAL AND MO,ING RANGE C 8 - MR D It is necessary for process control to be based on individual readings rather than subgroups. #ontrol chart for individuals can be constructed as described below. In such cases the within subgroup variation is effectively 'ero. 011 #harts for individuals are not sensitive in detecting process changes as N and * charts. 021 "ince there is only one individual item per subgroup$ values of N and & can have substantial variability 0even though the ptocess is stable1 untill the number of subgroups is 100 or more. Gat2er Data 011 Individual readings 0N1 are recorded. 0 N 1 and range 0 * 1 in the table. It is recommended to also plot the range chart to observe trends or runs in range.

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021 #alculate the moving range 0/*1 between the individuals. It is generally best to record the difference between each successive pair of readings 0eg4 difference between first and second reading $ the second and third etc.1. 061 2here will be one less such moving range than there are individual readings. Contro' Li-its
7#B/* P ?=

B#B/* P ?6 * 7#BN P N 9 %2 * B#BN P N ; %2 * where * N is the average moving range. is the process average. 0refer

?= $ ?6 and %2 are constantsthat vary according to the sample si'e n. Interpret for process control and process capability is same as that of N S * chart bac!1. P CHART - chart measures the proportion of non conforming items in a group of items being inspected. eg4 D pieces are defective out of D0 pieces. 8efore - chart can be used several preparatory steps must be ta!en 4 011 %stablish an environment suitable for action. 021 -rocess must be understood in terms of its relationship to other operations:users and in terms of the process elements 0people$equipment$material$methods$environment1. 2echnique such as cause and effect diagram help ma!e these relationships visible. S.5"ro.& SiEe 4 #harts for attributes require large subgroup si'es to be able to detect moderate shift in performance. eg4 n- M @

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S.5"ro.& FreF.enc3 4 "ubgroup frequency should ma!e sense in terms of production periods. short time intervals allow faster feedbac!. S.5"ro.& N.-5er 4 It must vbe large enough to capture all the li!ely sources of variation affecting the process. Jenerally 2@ or more subgroups. Pro&ortion Non Con!or-in" 4 Cumber of items inspected n Cumber of non conforming items found n-roportion Con #onforming$ - P n- : n -rocess Average -roportion Con #onforming$ - P 0 n1 -1 9 n2 -2 9 QQQQQQ. 9 nR -R 1 : 0 n1 9 n1 9 QQQ.. 9 n1 1 Contro' Li-its 4 7#B- P - 9 6 V - 01 S -1 : nW1:2 B#B- P - ; 6 V - 01 S -1 : nW1:2 where n is the constant sample si'e. "uppose if the sample si'e varies then ta!e average of sample si'e 0 n 1. 2hen 7#B- P - 9 6 V - 01 S -1 : nW1:2 B#B- P - ; 6 V - 01 S -1 : nW1:2 Inter&ret !or Process Contro' 4 -oints above upper and lower control limit is generally sign of higher proportion non conforming. Average number of non conforming items per subgroup 0n-1 is large 0 9 or more1$ the distribution of the subgroup is nearly normal and trend analysis can be used. >hen nbecomes small$ trend and run analysis is not applicable.

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Inter&ret For Process Ca&a5i'it3 4 +or a - chart$ process capability is reflected by the process average non conforming p. eg4 If - P 0.0612 -rocess capability currently is 6.12% failures of the functional chec! 09A.KK% o!1. Eva'.ate t2e Process Ca&a5i'it3 4 -rocess capability as )ust calculated reflects the ongoing level of performance that the process of generating and can be e,pected to generate as long as it remains in control. nP CHART n- chart measures the number of non conforming items in an inspection. It proves the actual numberof non conforming items rather than proportion of the sample. Gat2er Data 4 "ample si'es must be equal. "amples should large enough to allow several non conformingitems to appear in each subgroup. Contro' Li-its 4 -rocess Average Con #onforming is n7#Bn- P n- 9 6 Vn- 01;-1W1:2 B#Bn- P n- ; 6 Vn- 01;-1W1:2 Process Ca&a5i'it3 4 Cote that the process capability for an n- chart is still -.

C 7 CHART
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#;#hart is used when number of defects are found in single unit or product. Data Co''ection 4 "ample si'e must be constant. It is applied to 011 Con conformities are scattered through a continous flow of product. eg4 flaws in a bolt of vinyl$ bubbles in glam. Ca'c.'ate Contro' Li-its 4 -rocess average number of non conformities # P 0#1 9 #2 9 QQQ #R 1 : R 7#B# P # 9 6 0 # 11:2 B#B# P # ; 6 0 # 11:2 Process Ca&a5i'it3 4 -rocess #apability is #. GUH CHART 7 S #hart measures the number of non conformities per inspection reporting unit in subgroups which can have varying sample si'es. It is similar to #;#hart e,cept that the number of non conformities is e,pressed on a per unit basis. Contro' Li-its 4 7P#:n where # number of non conformities found. n sample si'e of the subgroup. #alculate process average non conformities 0 7 1. 7#B7 P 7 9 60 7 : n11:2 B#B7 P 7 ; 60 7 : n11:2 -rocess capability is 7$ the average number of non conformities per reporting unit.

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