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MINISTRY OF ELECTRICITY AND WATER

Energy Conservation Program

CODE OF PRACTICE MEW/R-6/2010

Second Edition 2010

Table of Contents 1.0 Introduction ........ 2.0 Scope .......... 3.0 Definitions ...... 4.0 Typical Meteorological Year (TMY), Design Conditions and Design Day Profiles 5.0 Methods of Load Estimation .. 6.0 Basic Energy Conservation Requirements . 7.0 Minimum Required Energy Conservation Measures for Buildings .. 8.0 Minimum Required Energy Conservation Measures for A/C Systems and their Components ... 9.0 Basis for Building Peak Load Calculations 10.0 Application of the Code . 11.0 Enforcement of the Code 12.0 Appendix A ..... 21 24 25 29 30 10 12 14 16

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List of Tables 1. Scopes of the Old and the Revised Versions of Kuwaits Code of Practice for Energy Conservation .. 2. Classification of Building Construction ... 3. Design Conditions for Kuwaits Interior Areas ... 4. Design Conditions for Kuwaits Coastal Areas ... 5. Kuwaits Hourly Design Day Temperatures 6. Basic Energy Conservation Requirements of Different Standard Buildings 7. Maximum Allowable U values for Different Types of Walls and Roofs 8. Maximum Allowable Window-to-Wall Ratio for Different Types of Glazing . 9. Outdoor Air Requirements for Ventilation of Some Common Applications in Accordance with ASHRAE Standard 62-2001 .. 10 Maximum Power Rating for Different Types of A/C Systems and their Components .. 11 Electrical Motors and Lighting Fixtures .. 12 Role of Various Governmental Bodies in the Enforcement of this Code 13 Expected ESP for Package Units and Ducted Splits 14 Assumed Efficiency for Motors at Different Power Ratings .. 15 Pressure Loss in Chilled Water System ... 16 Pressure Loss in Condenser Water Systems 22 24 29 31 31 32 33 19 17 3 5 11 12 13 15 17

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The Building and Energy Department at the Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research would like to express its gratitude to the following people from the Ministry of Electricity and Water for their dedicated support in providing necessary information and eradicating difficulties for the KISR team to complete this report. They are: From the Technical Services Sector: Engr. Abdulhamid Qambar / Director of Design and Supervision Dept. Engr.Nahida Abdulla Dashti / Director of Planning and follow-up Department. Engr. Pulliyattu Chacko George / Chief Specialist Engineer (Mechanical). Engr. Ahmad Al-Sahhaf / Senior HVAC Engineer.

From the Electrical Distribution Network Sector, Electrical Installation Dept.: Engr. Saad Hussain Ali Al-Mishwat / Director of Electrical Installation Dept. Engr. Adel Ahmed Mohd. Al-Ruwayeh / HVAC Section Head. Engr. Zainab Ahmed Mohd. Al-Rasheed / Specialist HVAC Engineer.

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I. INTRODUCTION A significant portion of the worlds oil and other fossil fuel resources is consumed in comfort conditioning of buildings. Kuwait, where air-conditioning

(A/C) is a must for all types of buildings, is no exception. In Kuwait, A/C accounts for 70% of the electricity annual peak load and 45% of yearly electricity consumption. More importantly, it accounts for over 20% of fossil fuel consumption, with fossil fuel being the countrys only natural resource and sole source of revenue. Minimum requirements for efficient energy use in buildings have been enforced by the Ministry of Electricity and Water (MEW) sector for all new and retrofitted buildings since 1983, through an Energy Conservation Code of Practice which was prepared in accordance with the decision taken by The Council of Ministers in its session 18/80 dated April 20, 1980, that takes into consideration the fact that consumers pay only a fraction (5 to10%) of actual cost of power and energy. The 1983 code specifies minimum thermal resistance for walls and roofs, size and quality for glazing, fresh air requirements, and performance standards for A/C systems. More importantly, the code fixes the maximum allowable power for the A/C and lighting systems of buildings based on the application, area and type of A/C system. By implementing the code, buildings need 40% less cooling, and more than 40% less peak power and annual energy. It is estimated that implementation of the code, until 2005, resulted in over 2,530 MW savings of peak power, 1.26 million RT of cooling capacity, and nearly 131 million barrels of fuel. The estimated cost of these benefits is well over KD2.25 billion, in addition to the release of over 55 million metric tons of CO2 in Kuwaits environment. In 2003, the MEW spent KD160 million for the purchase of a new power generation plant besides spending over KD300 million more on fuel (at a rate of KD5/barrel). During the past 2 years, the energy and power demand grew at a rate of 6% per year. If the same trend continues, Kuwaits peak power demand will reach 27,000 MW in 2025. The energy conservation code, as legislation, helps foster economic growth and reduces adverse environmental impacts. The purpose of this revision is to

reassess the efficacy of the 1983 code and make necessary changes to further enhance the energy efficiency of buildings and to reduce power ratings of A/C systems. The 1

power rating is defined as the power required in kilo watts (kW) per unit of cooling (RT) for A/C systems and their components. This revision of the 1983 code needs to be viewed in light of the following changes that have come to pass in Kuwait:

Revision in design conditions. Development of sophisticated building energy simulation programs for accurate prediction of cooling demands and energy requirements.

Major advances in building envelope construction including insulation and glazing, and in lighting technology.

Significant improvement in the energy efficiency of A/C hardware and motors.

Incorporation of site-related features for a variety applications. Establishment of design features and power ratings for major components of A/C systems.

Growing concern with regard to indoor air quality (IAQ), resulting in an increase in ventilation requirements, as per the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) standards.

A comprehensive comparison of the scopes of the old and the revised version of the Code of Practice for Energy Conservation is presented in Table 1. The code has been revised using a multilevel analytical, experimental and field-oriented research and development (R&D) program that included:

Engineering-economic analysis of passive energy conservation measures and cooling energy requirements for buildings.

Establishment of power ratings for A/C systems and their major components using cost-effective energy conservation measures and techniques.

Assessment of operational techniques for A/C systems for power and energy savings.

This revised code establishes minimum requirements for the energy-efficient design of buildings, and types of A/C systems and their components.

Table 1. Scopes of the Old and the Revised Versions of Kuwaits Code of Practice for Energy Conservation. MEW/R6/1983

MEW/R6/2010 (ref.)

Thermal insulation of walls and roofs excluded columns and beams. A common glazing-to-wall area ratio was specified regardless of building class. Three-dimensional thermal bridging due to window frames was not considered. Limits for U-value, SHGC and visible transmittance for windows were not specified. One set of design weather conditions was specified for the entire state of Kuwait. Application of water-cooled A/C systems was mandatory for capacities higher than 1,000 RT. ASHRAEs 1979 standard ventilation rate of 5 CFM/person was used. Application of thermal storage systems was not considered. Thermal insulation of exposed floors was not considered. No rigorous analysis on the application of cooling recovery units (CRUs) was made. Application of programmable thermostats for A/C control was not considered. No rigorous analysis on the application of variable speed drives (VSDs) was made Application condenser considered of seawater cooling was for not

Thermal insulation of exposed columns and beams is to be made mandatory. (7.2.1) Maximum glazing-to-wall area ratios are specified for each class of glazing. (7.2.2 Table 8) Thermal breaks for window frames are mandatory to prevent thermal bridging. (7.2.2) Acceptable ranges of U-values, SHGC and visible transmittance for whole window assemblies are specified for different types of glazing. (7.2.2 Table 8) Separate design weather conditions are defined for Kuwaits coastal and interior zones. (4.2 Tables 3 & 4) The capacity for mandatory use of water-cooled A/C systems is reduced to 500 RT for interior areas while 1,000 RT for coastal areas to be continued. (8.2) The higher of ASHRAEs latest ventilation rate of 20 CFM/person or 0.5 ACH + exhaust air is used. (7.3) Cool storage systems are mandatory for buildings with partial occupancy. (8.5) Thermal insulation for exposed floors with Rvalue of 10 is mandatory. (7.2.1) Use of CRUs for recoverable exhaust air of more than 940 L/s, taking into account weather zone and building type, is mandatory. (8.3) Clear recommendations for the application of programmable thermostats, including recommended pre-cooling levels. (8.4) Use of VSDs in cooling tower are mandatory for all sizes and locations. (8.9)

Use of seawater for condenser cooling for W/C plants of 5,000 RT or more is mandatory for coastal zone.

SHGC = solar heat gain coefficient; A/C = Air-conditioning; ASHRAE = American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-conditioning Engineers; ACH = air change per hour

II. SCOPE

The revised code provides the minimum energy-efficient requirements for the design and construction of new buildings and their heating, ventilating and airconditioning (HVAC) systems, new portions of buildings and their HVAC systems and new HVAC systems in existing buildings. Also, criteria are provided for

determining compliance with these requirements. The provisions of the revised code apply to all types of buildings including all single- and multiple-family residences, commercial buildings, institutional buildings and special buildings. The code shall not be used to circumvent any safety, health or environmental requirements.

III. DEFINITIONS

3.1

Building A building is defined as a structure entirely or partially enclosed within

exterior walls, or within exterior and partition walls, and a roof, affording shelter to persons, animals, or property.

3.2

Building type

3.2.1 Standard buildings. Such buildings are common buildings having similar design features and can be categorized as follows:

Residential buildings: All types of buildings meant for residential purposes, including single- and multiple-family residences such as villas, apartments and the like.

Commercial buildings: All types of buildings meant for commercial business such as offices, shops, malls, souks, hotels, banks and the like.

Institutional buildings: All types of buildings meant for public convenience such as schools, mosques, etc.

3.2.2 Special buildings. Such buildings include all types of buildings meant for industrial purposes including commercial warehouses.

3.3

Building envelope

3.3.1 Wall and roof areas. These are the external surface areas of the building envelope, measured in square meters or square feet, based on the external dimensions of walls or roof, as the case may be.

3.3.2 Wall and roof construction. Important related definitions are:

Construction classification: Building construction is classified into three basic types - light, medium and heavy, dictated by the net weight per unit area of wall and roof, as per Table 2.

Table 2. Classification of Building Construction. Building construction type Wall (kg/m2) Light Medium Heavy 50-240 245-480 485-730 Roof (kg/m2) 25-120 125-240 245-370

Thermally insulated buildings:

These are buildings that use insulation

materials to satisfy the minimum R-value stipulated elsewhere in the code for the wall and roof constructions.

Thermal insulation materials:

These are all types of passive insulation

materials used as a part and parcel of buildings wall and roof construction.

Thermal insulating screeds (light-weight concrete):

These are lightweight

mixtures of thermal-insulation materials with concrete or foam concrete.

Overall thermal resistance (R-value): This is the sum of the thermal resistance of all material layers constituting the wall or roof section, and includes the thermal resistance of the outside and the inside air films in (m2.K)/W or (h.ft2.F)/Btu.

Overall coefficient of heat transfer (U-factor): This is the overall rate of heat transfer through a section per unit area and per unit temperature difference, expressed as W/(m2.K) or Kcal/(h.m2.C) or Btu/(h.ft2.F). Thermal conductivity of a material (k or ): This is the rate of heat transfer per hour, per unit area, per unit length of material in the direction of heat flow

per unit temperature difference, expressed as W.m/(m2.K) or Kcal.m/(h.m2.C) or Btu.in/(h.ft2.F).

Thermal resistance of a material: (h.ft2.F)/Btu.in.

This is the inverse of the thermal

conductivity of a material, expressed as (m2.K)/W.m or (h.m2.C)/Kcal.m or

3.3.3 Shaded construction. All types of shading devices (passive) that form a part and parcel of a buildings construction are considered to comprise shaded construction.

3.3.4 Effective on-ground floor heat gain. Effective heat gain from the on-ground floor of an air-conditioned building is defined as the product of the perimeter or exposed edge, the heat gain coefficient per unit perimeter and the temperature difference between the indoor and the outdoor temperatures.

3.3.5 Glazing. Glazing is a part of the fenestration (an opening in the building envelope), whether fixed or operable, that serves as a physical and/or visual connection to the outdoors, as well as admitting light. Types of glazing include different designs and constructions with the intent of minimizing the A/C load by reducing direct radiation input and/or conduction. Important related definitions are:

Glazed area: This is the total projected area, in square meters or square feet, of the fenestration, an opening in the building envelope, that serves as a window or a door. The area measurement includes transparent glazing and any opaque element comprising the sash and frame.

Shading coefficient (SC): This is a multiplier that adjusts the solar heat gain value for clear glass to a value for tinted glass. The relationship between the solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) and the SC is defined as SC = (SHGC)/0.87. The SHGC is the fraction of incident irradiance that enters the glazing and becomes heat gain. It includes both transmitted and absorbed irradiance, where the latter is subsequently conducted, convected and radiated to the interior of the building.

3.3.6 Building air infiltration or leakage.

This refers to uncontrolled and

unintentional flow of outdoor air into a building through cracks or openings and as a 6

result of normal use of exterior doors. It is also referred to as air leakage. Another related term is ex-filtration, which is defined as the leakage of indoor air out of a building. Both types of leakage, expressed in terms of air-change per hour (ACH), result from natural or artificial pressure differences. ACH is the ratio of the outdoor airflow in a building in an hour to its volume.

3.3.7 Natural and forced ventilation.

Ventilation includes any intentional Natural

introduction of outdoor air into the building, either natural or forced.

ventilation is the intentional flow of outdoor air through planned openings in the building envelope like windows, doors, and grilles, driven as a result of natural or artificially produced pressure differences. Forced ventilation, also called mechanical ventilation, is the intentional movement of air into and out of a building using fans, and intake and exhaust vents. Ventilation is expressed in terms of ACH.

3.3.8 Recoverable exhaust air for CRU. Recoverable exhaust air is the amount of exhaust air that can be used for cooling recovery units (CRU). This is calculated as follows: recoverable exhaust air = total fresh air air used for pressurization (0.5 * ACH) non recoverable exhaust air (exhaust from kitchen, chemical labs and special applications).

3.4

A/C This is the air-conditioned area of a building The area, measured using external

3.4.1 Air-conditioned space.

measured in square meters or square feet.

dimensions, can be either directly air-conditioned or a contiguous to the airconditioned space.

3.4.2 A/C systems. A/C systems are categorized based on the medium of heat transfer in the condenser and evaporator. Systems covered in the code correspond to vapor-compression A/C systems.

Air-cooled A/C system:

In these systems, heat is rejected to the outside

environment through air, i.e., air-cooled condenser. The cooling transport medium to the place of use may be either air in a direct expansion (DX) system or chilled water.

Water-cooled A/C system. In these systems, heat is rejected to the outside environment through water, i.e., a water-cooled condenser. The water used can be potable, brackish from an underground source, or seawater. In recirculating water-cooled system, the water is re-circulated normally in a cooling tower to conserve water. In once-through systems, the cooling water is used only once, after which it is discharged, as in seawater cooling. The cooling transport medium to the place of use may be either air (in a DX system) or chilled water.

Chilled water A/C system: In these systems, cooling is supplied to room air by chilled water in air-handling units or fan-coil units.

DX A/C system: In these systems, cooling is supplied to room air directly from refrigerant boiling in a heat exchanger, called an evaporator.

3.4.3 Standby A/C units. These include any units that are operated only during the failure of main A/C units.

3.4.4 Partial cool storage. This concept stipulates that the cooling production system (chillers) shall run at full plant capacity for 24 hours of the peak design day. The capacity of the plant is arrived at by dividing the total design day cooling demand (RTh) by 24 hours. The capacity of the partial cool storage shall be arrived using the design day cooling profile.

3.5

Peak electrical load This term refers to the maximum electrical load of a building as a whole or its

miscellaneous users, and is expressed as kilowatts (kW).

3.5.1 Peak electrical load for A/C systems. This term refers to the maximum electrical load on the A/C system which comprise of subsystems for cooling production excluding standby units, cooling distribution, heat rejection and all other auxiliary equipment.

3.5.2 Peak Electrical Load for Cooling Production Subsystems. This term refers to the maximum electrical load of the cooling production subsystem which comprise

of the chiller equipment, the heat rejection subsystem and accompanying auxiliary equipment.

3.5.3 Peak electrical load for lighting system. This term refers to the maximum electrical load for lighting system of air-conditioned buildings.

3.5.4 Total peak electrical load for buildings. This term refers to the maximum electrical load of a building which includes the A/C system, internal lighting system and other electrically operated appliances or equipment.

3.6

Peak power density This term refers to the maximum electrical load for the building as a whole or

for its miscellaneous users per unit area of building and expressed in watts per square meter (W/m2).

3.6.1 Peak power density of an A/C system. This is the ratio of the total electrical load of the A/C system, as defined for peak electrical load for A/C systems expressed as watts to the air-conditioned area of the building as defined for airconditioned space expressed as square meters.

3.6.2 Peak power density of lighting system. This is the ratio of the total electrical load of a buildings lighting fixtures, inclusive of associated losses, as defined for peak electrical load for lighting system expressed as watts, to the air-conditioned area of the building as defined for air-conditioned space, expressed as square meters.

3.6.3 Peak Power Density of a Building. This is the ratio of the total electrical load of the building, as defined for total peak electrical load for buildings expressed as watts to the air-conditioned area of the building as defined for air-conditioned space expressed as square meters.

3.7

Power Rating This term refers to the power required, expressed as kilowatts, to provide a

unit of cooling, expressed as refrigeration tons, for an A/C system and its components. 9

3.7.1 Power rating of chiller (PRCHIL). This term refers to the chiller of a vaporcompression A/C system.

3.7.2 Power rating of cooling tower fan (PRCTF). This term refers to the cooling tower fan of a vapor-compression A/C system with a water-cooled condenser.

3.7.3 Power rating of condenser water pump (PRCW). This term refers to the condenser water pump of a vapor-compression A/C system with a water-cooled condenser.

3.7.4 Power rating of chilled water pump (PRCHW). This term refers to the chilled water pumps of an A/C system.

3.7.5 Power rating of air-handling system (PRAH). This term refers to the airhanding system of an A/C system.

3.7.6 Power rating of total A/C system (PRT). This term refers to the total A/C system.

IV. TYPICAL METEOROLOGICAL YEAR (TMY), DESIGN CONDITIONS AND DESIGN DAY PROFILES Kuwaits meteorological data over the past several years show an appreciable difference in weather conditions in the coastal and the interior zones, particularly during the summer season. Coastal zone experience hot and humid conditions,

whereas the interior zone is hot and dry. It is imperative that the A/C plant capacity for a building be accurately determined to conserve power and energy, and to provide a comfortable indoor environment throughout the summer. Over sizing leads to higher initial investments and greater energy consumption by auxiliaries such as pumps and fans, while under sizing results in discomfort during the peak summer season. It is for this reason that separate sets of recommendations are made for the coastal (i.e., within 2.5 kilometers of the coastline) and interior zones:

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4.1

TMY To estimate the peak cooling demand and the annual cooling and electrical

energy requirements, it is essential to generate hourly data profiles for parameters that significantly affect the hour-to-hour cooling and/or heating demand of the building. These parameters are the dry-bulb temperature (DBT), wet-bulb temperature (WBT), wind speed and global solar radiation. Two typical meteorological years (TMYs) listing the hourly values for these parameters for the coastal and the interior zones are provided electronically.

4.2

Design conditions For each of the two zones, different sets of design conditions were established.

One is based on the DBT prioritization and the other is based on the WBT prioritization. For the first set of design conditions, the extreme DBTs were

established for different frequencies of occurrence, and WBTs were then estimated by averaging the corresponding WBT values occurring simultaneously. The reverse was done to produce the second set for design conditions. Tables 3 and 4 give these design conditions for the 1%, 2.5% and 5% frequencies of occurrences. The

recommended design conditions are more appropriate than single set of design conditions as they are representative of the locations and applications for which A/C equipment must be selected. Table 3. Design Conditions for Kuwaits Interior Zone. DBT Prioritization Frequency (%) DBT (o C) 1.0 2.5 5.0 48.0 47.0 46.2 WBT (o C) 22.1 22.1 22.1 WBT Prioritization Frequency (%) 1.0 2.5 5.0 WBT (o C) 27.1 25.5 24.0 DBT (o C) 36.3 37.0 38.4

DBT = dry-bulb temperature; WBT = wet-bulb temperature

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Table 4. Design Conditions for Kuwaits Coastal Zone. DBT Prioritization Frequency (%) 1.0 2.5 5.0 DBT (o C) 47.4 46.1 44.8 WBT (o C) 27.1 27.1 27.0 WBT Prioritization Frequency (%) 1.0 2.5 5.0 WBT (o C) 32.6 31.8 31.0 DBT (o C) 43.4 42.9 41.9

DBT = dry-bulb temperature; WBT = wet-bulb temperature

4.3

Design day profiles Design day profiles for DBTs and WBTs are required by designers to estimate

hourly cooling production for air-cooled and water-cooled systems respectively. These profiles are based on hour-by-hour analysis of the temperature data recorded for the months of July and August, for the interior and coastal zones. Table 5 gives the hourly temperatures for the two zones with DBT and WBT prioritization, respectively, with 1 % frequency of occurrence. designers in designing cool storage applications. This information is useful for

V. METHODS OF LOAD ESTIMATION

Any transient analysis computer software that considers the thermal mass of the building envelope, the hourly values of the outdoor temperatures, solar radiation and other weather parameters can be used to estimate peak-day load demand and annual cooling energy. Some of the currently used methods are DOE-2b, ESP-r and Carriers E-II-20.

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Table 5. Kuwaits Hourly Design Day Temperatures. Hour of day 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Interior Zone DBT (oC) 39.7 38.2 38.0 37.0 36.0 35.5 36.4 37.8 40.2 43.0 45.5 47.0 47.0 47.7 48.0 47.9 47.6 47.4 47.0 44.8 43.0 42.4 41.5 40.5 WBT (oC) 26.6 26.0 27.0 26.7 26.8 26.5 26.6 27.0 27.1 26.5 26.0 26.4 27.1 27.1 26.8 26.6 27.1 26.7 27.0 26.7 26.5 26.4 26.7 27.0 Coastal Zone DBT (oC) 37.5 36.7 36.2 36.0 36.0 35.3 35.4 37.5 39.5 42.1 45.0 46.9 45.5 46.0 46.8 47.4 47.1 46.1 47.0 43.7 41.4 40.5 39.5 38.1 WBT (oC) 31.0 31.5 30.6 30.4 29.7 29.6 29.7 30.8 31.6 32.6 31.6 32.2 32.3 32.6 32.4 32.0 31.2 32.6 31.8 31.4 31.0 30.5 30.5 31.0

DBT = dry-bulb temperature; WBT = wet-bulb temperature Note: The above DBT & WBT are not coincidental but are based on individual prioritization.

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VI. BASIC ENERGY CONSERVATION REQUIREMENTS

6.1

Standard buildings The basic energy conservation requirement of a standard building is

determined by adopting peak wattage per square meters for the A/C and lighting systems, the two major consumers of electricity in a building. These values for different types of buildings and A/C systems are given in Table 6.

6.2

Special buildings In all special buildings, like industrial warehouses, sheds, factories,

workshops, swimming pool, data center, kitchen, laundry, mechanical and electrical plant room etc., no peak wattage per square meter criterion is applied. Instead, the minimum energy conservation requirements described herein related to the building and the A/C system are used.

6.3

General notes Allowance shall be made for the actual power of the A/C equipment installed in calculating the peak wattage per square meter for A/C. If the actual power of the A/C equipment to be installed exceeds the design peak wattage per square meter, then additional procedures shall be taken to reduce the design wattage per square meter to compensate for the increased power needs.

The designer must ensure that the total peak electrical power drawn when operating standby A/C equipment shall not exceed the allowable peak wattage per square meter for A/C equipment allocated to the building. In installations where only a portion of a cooling machines capacity is considered to be standby, then the whole machine shall be considered as part of the basic system cooling load, and the machines full peak electrical power shall be included in the calculation of the peak wattage per square meter for A/C.

In installations where additional cooling machines are installed for future building expansion or future buildings, their peak wattage per square meter should be calculated separately.

Ventilation rates are applicable to non-smoking spaces.

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Mini-split and window units shall not be used for areas if the W/m2 exceeds the maximum allowable limit. Exceptions can be made for drivers room, maids room and kitchens in villas and stand-alone guard rooms for other projects.

Table 6. Basic Energy Conservation Requirements of Different Standard Buildings*. Building Type Lighting (W/m2) A/C Systems (W/m2)** DX** Air-Cooled Chiller Water-Cooled Chiller <250 RT 250<RT<500 >500 RT

Residential - Villa - Apartment Clinic School Mosque - prayer area Fast food restaurant - Stand-alone - In a mall

10 10 20 20

60 60 85 100

71 71 100 118

53 53 75 88

46 46 65 76

44 44 63 74

20

115

135

101

88

85

20 20

145 120

171 141

128 106

111 92

107 88

Office Shopping mall Stand alone shops Community hall, dinning hall, theatre Show room

20 40 40

70 70 80

82 82 94

62 62 71

54 54 61

51 51 59

20 40

115 115

135 135

101 101

88 88

85 85

* This table is based on zero diversity. **DX = direct expansion; A/C = air-conditioning Mini-Split and window units shall not be used for areas if the W/m2 exceeds the maximum allowable limit.

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VII. MINIMUM REQUIRED ENERGY CONSERVATION MEASURES FOR BUILDINGS

7.1

Introduction In order to meet the Basic Energy Conservation Requirements, the code

stipulates that certain minimum standards for energy conservation measures be adhered to. These standards may or may not guarantee that a given building will meet the Basic Energy Conservation Requirements described herein. The building designer always has the option of going beyond these minimum standards or using other recommended measures or any other additional measures approved for application in Kuwait. No relaxation shall be made in applying the values specified in this section, and these measures should, therefore, be considered mandatory.

7.2

Building envelope construction

7.2.1 Walls and roofs

Minimum requirements for wall and roof insulation: Table 7 provides a list of the maximum allowable overall heat transfer coefficients (U) for variety of wall and roof constructions and their external color.

Exposed floor: Exposed floors in multistory apartment buildings or similar constructions shall not have a U value of more than 0.568 W/(m2.K) (0.1 Btu/(h.ft2.F)).

Columns and beam insulation: Columns and beams should be insulated in a manner similar to corresponding walls and roofs. Accordingly, their U-values should not exceed 0.568 W/(m2.K) (0.1 Btu/(h.ft2.F)) for the columns and 0.397 W/(m2.K) (0.07 Btu/(h.ft2. oF)) for the beam.

7.2.2 Fenestration

Maximum glazing requirements: Maximum allowable window-to-wall ratio in each direction for specific glazing type and quality, such as U-value and SHGC, are given Table 8.

Windows: All windows should have a thermal break between metallic frame and glazing.

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Table 7. Maximum Allowable U-values for Different Types of Walls and Roofs. Description Heavy construction, medium-light external color Heavy construction, dark external color Medium construction, medium-light external color Medium construction, dark external color Light construction, medium-light external color Light construction, dark external color
Note: All figures are given in W/m2.K (Btu/h.ft2.F)

Wall
0.568 (0.100) 0.426 (0.075) 0.483 (0.085) 0.426 (0.075) 0.426 (0.075) 0.369 (0.065)

Roof
0.397 (0.070) 0.256 (0.045) 0.341 (0.060) 0.199 (0.035) 0.284 (0.050) 0.170 (0.030)

Table 8. Maximum Allowable Window-to-Wall Ratio for Different Types of Glazing*.


Glazing Type SHGC** Tv** U-Value (W/m C) East
6-mm single-clear 6-mm single-reflective 6-mm double-tinted 6-mm double-reflective 0.721 0.314-0.371 0.36-0.40 0.245 0.8 0.16-0.27 0.3-0.57 0.228 6.21 6.41-6.44 3.42-3.44 3.38
2

Window to wall Ratio

West

South

North

5
6-10 11-15 16-50

3
3-10 10 10-45

4
4-10 10 10-45

5
6-10 11-15 16-50

6-mm double-spectrally 0.230 0.530 1.71 5145-75 45-75 51-100 selective*** 100 * based on combined cooling and lighting at 15:00 h. ** SHGC and Tv are solar heat gain coefficient and visible light transmittance coefficient, respectively. *** high performance green/bronze/blue tinted glass with low e (0.05) interior clear pane. Note: the above table is also applicable to any new material used in lieu of glass.

7.3

Ventilation Unless otherwise mentioned, all residential- and commercial-sector buildings

shall have a minimum ventilation rate of 0.50 ACH for pressurization. This is likely to maintain a positive pressure of 20 to 50 Pa in buildings of good construction quality. The ventilation rate should be the higher of the two following values:

0.50 ACH for pressurization + exhaust air from kitchens, toilets and other areas.

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Recommended air quantity per person or floor area as per ASHRAE Standard 62. (Table 9). Latest ASHRAE standard shall be considered.

7.4 7.4.1

Infiltration control Exterior envelope. The exterior envelopes of buildings shall be made tight

with no cracks or open joints in order to prevent air infiltration. Buildings using precast concrete elements in their wall construction must have joints permanently sealed with an appropriate seal, such as silicone-based compounds, through the whole depth of the joint.

7.4.2

Windows and doors. All window and exterior doors shall be properly sealed

and weather-stripped. All cracks should be sealed with caulking or similar materials. Positive pressure inside buildings should be maintained by the air-handling system to minimize air and dust infiltration.

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Table 9. Outdoor Air Requirements for Ventilation of Some Common Applications in Accordance with ASHRAE Standard 62-2001. Application Residence - Living area - Kitchen** - Bath and toilet** Office - Office space - Reception area - Conference room Education - Classroom - Laboratory - Library - Auditorium Hotel - Bedroom - Living room - Bath and toilet*** - Lobby - Conference room Assembly hall Dormitory Eating and Drinking - Dining room - Cafeteria and fast-food areas - Kitchen (cooking) 30 50 120 20 30/room 30/room 35/room 15 20 15 15 15/room 15/room 18/room 8 10 8 8 7 60 50 15 25 (total) 20 (total) 7.5 12 (total) 10 (total) Occupancy/ 100 m2* Outdoor Air Requirement Occupancy-Related Area-Related CFM/person l/(s.person) CFM/ft2 l/(s.m2)

20 15 20

10 8 10

50 30 20 150

15 20 15 15

8 10 8 8

70 100 20

20 20 15

10 10 8

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Table 9. (continued) Outdoor Air Requirement Application Occupancy/ 100 m2 Occupancy Related Area Related CFM/person l/(s.person) CFM/ft2 l/(s.m2)

Hospital - Patient room - Operating room - ICU and recovery room Garage and Warehouses - Enclosed parking - Auto repair room - Warehouse - Factory Sports and Amusement - Spectator area - Game room - Swimming pool (and deck area) - Gymnasium - Ballroom - Bowling alley 150 70 30 100 75 15 25 20 25 25 8 13 10 13 13 0.5 2.5 5 1.5 1.5 0.05 0.10 7.5 7.5 0.25 0.50 10 20 20 25 30 15 13 15 8 -

ASHRAE = American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers; ICU=intensive care unit; ACH = air-change per hour; CFM=cubic feet per minute * Only for general guidelines. **Continuous minimum exhaust: 5 ACH. ***Continuous minimum exhaust: 2 ACH or 20 CFM (10 l/s), whichever is greater.

7.4.3

Building and shop entrances. Except for residential buildings, all exterior

entrances of buildings and shops shall be double- or revolving-doors, with both entrance doors closing automatically after use.

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7.4.4

Seals and weather stripping.

All exterior doors and windows shall be

properly sealed and weather-stripped to cut infiltration to a minimum.

7.4.5

Exhaust fans. All exhaust fans shall have dampers, which will automatically

shut when fans are not in use.

VIII. MINIMUM REQUIRED ENERGY CONSERVATION MEASURES FOR A/C SYSTEMS AND THEIR COMPONENTS

8.1

Minimum energy efficiency of A/C systems Based on the operating conditions and guidelines outlined in the Appendix-A,

the power rating of different types of A/C systems and their components are as given in Table 10.

8.2

Air- vs. water-cooled central plants Water-cooled chillers shall be used for buildings that have a total operating

plant capacity of 500 RT and above for the interior areas of Kuwait and 1,000 RT and above for the coastal areas of Kuwait.

8.3

Cooling recovery units Use of rotary-wheel cooling recovery units (CRUs) with a minimum

efficiency of 75% is mandatory for all buildings in the coastal areas of Kuwait as well as in buildings with high ventilation rates (buildings peaking at wet bulb prioritization) in the interior areas of Kuwait, provided the recoverable exhausted air is more than 940 L/s (2,000 cfm). Exception to this rule can be granted when health hazards may accrue such as in operating theaters and toilets. For such applications, fixed-plate or heat-pipe CRUs (non mixing CRUs) should be used having a minimum efficiency of 55%. Central exhaust system shall be incorporated in the design of building to facilitate the above requirement.

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Table 10. Maximum Power Rating for Different Types of A/C Systems and their Components. System Type Capacity (RT) Ducted split and packaged units Air-cooled Water-cooled * All 250 250-500 >500 1.60 0.95 0.75 0.70 0.04 0.06 0.05 0.07 0.35 0.38 2.00 1.50 1.30 1.25 All 1.70
PRCHIL

Power Rating (kW/RT)


PRCTF PRCW PRCHW PRAH PRT

A/C = air-conditioning; RT = refrigeration ton; kW = kilowatt; PR = power rating. Subscripts; CHIL=chiller, CTF=cooling tower fan, CW=condenser water pump, CHW=chilled water pumps, AH=Air-handling fan unit, T=total. * Capacity shown is for individual chillers.

8.4

Time-of-day controls for energy savings Time-of-day controls in air-conditioned buildings can save appreciable

amounts of energy annually.

Commercially available programmable thermostats

provide simple, trouble-free temperature offset control and switching off the air circulating fan for energy conservation, particularly in buildings with only part-day occupancy, such as: commercial offices, diwaniyas, community centers, mosques, clinics, schools, public offices, banks, game and sports centers, gymnasiums, clubs etc. Use of programmable thermostats is mandatory for buildings with part-day occupancy with a recommended offset of 5C together with switching off of aircirculating fans during the non-occupancy period. However, prior the occupancy period, buildings need to be pre-cooled for sufficient duration to ensure that there is: 1. 2. No discomfort to the occupants at the start of the occupancy period. No increase in demand for cooling or power after 12:00 h, the start of the peak demand period.

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8.5

Use of partial cool storage (chilled water storage) Buildings with part-day occupancy pattern and chilled water systems serving

buildings peak load of 100 RT or above, partial cool storage is mandatory. Some examples of buildings with part-day occupancy are: commercial offices, community centers, schools, public offices, banks, games and sports centers, gymnasiums, clubs etc.

8.6

Electrical motors and lighting fixtures Motors to be used for A/C systems are required to have a minimum power

factor (PF) and efficiency as given in Table 11. Also, fluorescent and discharge lamps should have a minimum PF of 0.9.

8.7

Utilization of alternative water sources in water-cooled central plants Different alternatives of water sources can be used in water-cooled central

plants according to the following: Use of seawater for condenser cooling for water-cooled central plants with cooling capacity of 5,000 RT and above is mandatory for coastal zone. Use of treated water shall be considered wherever its availability is ensured.

8.8

District cooling District cooling shall be applied for new townships, university campuses and

similar neighborhood, in view of its proven advantage for energy saving and peak load shaving. HVAC design report shall include detailed feasibility study

highlighting energy saving potential and cost effectiveness of the system over a 30year life span for the plant and equipment.

8.9

Use of variable speed drives for cooling towers Cooling towers of all sizes and for all locations must have variable speed

drives (VSD) for their fan motors. The fan speed will be regulated by a temperature sensor monitoring the temperature of water leaving the cooling tower. For minimizing the water consumption and optimizing the power consumption, it is recommended that:

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Regardless of the weather conditions or the load on the cooling tower, the temperature of water leaving the cooling tower should be kept fixed at the design value.

Regardless the number of chillers in operation, all the cooling towers, including the standby, with their fans in operation should be used sharing the water from the common header.

Single temperature sensor should regulate all the VSDs, thus ensuring similar speed for all the fans.

Table 11. Electrical Motors and Lighting Fixtures. Motors and Lighting Fixtures Full-Load Full-Load Motor

PF Minimum Efficiency (%) Single Phase Motors 240 Volts 1450 rpm. and 50 Hz 3-Phase motors, 415 volts, 1500 rpm, 50 Hz:
-

0.80

35-80

15 50 HP 50 100 HP 100 200 HP 200 400 HP > 400 HP

0.83 0.85 0.87 0.88 0.89 0.90

86 - 89 89 - 90 90 - 91 93 - 94 > 94

Fluorescent and discharge lamps


PF = power factor; HP = horse power

IX. BASIS FOR BUILDING PEAK LOAD CALCULATIONS

9.1

Design conditions For peak A/C load calculations refer to MEW-R7, Rules and Regulations for

the Design of Air Conditioning Systems under Kuwaits Environmental Conditions.

Acceptable methods of calculation: (a) Handbook methods: The following handbook methods are acceptable. - ASHRAE 2001 and onward 24

(b) Computer methods All computer methods which utilize ASHRAE-certified computation routines. Kuwait Energy Simulation of Buildings (KESB) used by Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research. In computer methods, detailed weather data shall be obtained from certified government sources.

X. APPLICATION OF THE CODE 10.1 Limits. This code of practice limits the following: (a) Maximum w/m2 for various types of buildings and A/C systems. (b) Maximum w/m2 for internal lighting for various types of buildings. (c) Maximum kW/RT for various types of A/C equipment and systems. (d) Minimum power factor for certain equipment and appliances. (e) Maximum overall U-values for walls and roofs. (f) Maximum percentage of glazed areas by type of glazing.

10.2

Guidelines for consulting offices. This code of practice specifies criterion for the following in consulting offices:

10.2.1 Architects No design submittal is required for approval by MEW at the design stage. However, the architect (consulting office) is responsible for ensuring the following: 1. The overall U-value for walls and roof are within the maximum permitted values. 2. 3. The type of glazing used shall ensure the values specified in Table 8 of R-6. All exposed floors, columns and beams are insulated as specified in R-6.

If any of the above measures can not be achieved due to design constraints, the architect (consulting office) shall take prior approval of the MEW before tendering

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the project. For this purpose the architect (consulting office) shall make a detailed design submittal justifying the reasons for non-adherence to the code.

10.2.2 Electrical design engineer No design submittal is required for approval by MEW at the design stage. However, the electrical engineer (consulting office) shall design the project according to and fully complying with the following MEW regulations: 1. MEW/R-1, 4th Edition 1983 and amendments. 2. MEW Regulations No. MEW/R-2 and amendments. 3. MEW Regulations No. MEW/R-3. 4. MEW Regulations No. MEW/R-6.

If any of the above regulations cannot be fully complied with due to design constraints, the electrical design engineer (consulting office) shall take the prior approval of the MEW before tendering the project. For this purpose the engineer (consulting office) shall make a detailed design submittal justifying the reasons for non-adherence to the code. Furthermore, consulting office shall obtain an official written confirmation of power availability from MEW before tendering the project.

10.2.3 HVAC design engineer No design submittal is required for approval by MEW at the design stage. However, it is the responsibility HVAC design engineer (consulting office) to design the HVAC system according to and fully complying with these regulations (R-6 & R7). If these regulations cannot be fully complied with due to design constraints, the HVAC design engineer (consulting office) shall take the prior approval of the MEW before tendering the project. For this purpose the engineer (consulting office) shall make a detailed design submittal justifying the reasons for non-adherence to the code. IMPORTANT NOTE: MEW reserves the right to ask for complete HVAC design drawings whenever it is deemed necessary. HVAC contractors submittals to MEW As mentioned above, no submittals are required by MEW at the design stage if the designers fully comply with the relevant regulations of the Ministry. However, 26

10.3

the HVAC contractor shall submit the documents mentioned below to confirm that the Ministrys regulations are fully complied with, before commencement of any project and before ordering any HVAC equipment.

10.3.1 Architectural submittals The following architectural drawings approved by Kuwait Municipality, besides any additional information requested by the MEW engineer, are required to be submitted.

10.3.1.1

Plan drawings

(a) Type, thickness weight and color of the building material to be used for external walls and cladding (where applicable). (b) Location and width of windows and glass doors and type of glazing, and the percentage of glazed are to the wall envelope area. (c) Location and thickness of wall cavity and type of insulation to be used, and its location in the wall and method of application. (d) Internal wall building material to be used and color (or internal cladding where applicable). (e) Overall thickness of wall. (f) Thickness and material of participation walls.

10.3.1.2

Wall sections drawing

(a) Type, thickness and color of external and internal walls building materials (or cladding where applicable). (b) Thickness of wall cavity. (c) Height of roof slab and from F.F.L. (d) Height of false ceiling if any from F.F.L. (e) Height of windows and glazed areas and its level from F.F.L. (f) Type, location and thickness of glazing to be used & its S.F. (g) Overall thickness of wall. (h) Thickness and type of building materials and color of partition walls and cladding (where applicable). (i) Drop of beams from bottom of roof slab.

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10.3.2 HVAC submittals The following are the minimum submittals required. However the contractor shall submit any other additional information requested by the MEW engineer. The HVAC drawings must include the following: (a) All air-conditioned areas. (b) Type of A/C system to be used such as DX split or one piece units, or chilled water system, fan coil induction or variable systems, air cooled, water cooled, or sea water cooled condensers etc. (c) Fresh air percentages. (d) Location of plants and equipment. (e) Typical and simplified line diagram for system of air distribution and plant. (f) kW/RT for A/C system and equipment (g) W/m2 for the A/C system for the different types of areas used. (h) Schedule of all HVAC equipment (cooling and heating) showing kW input for each equipment at Kuwait conditions, model number and quantity. Other documents shall include (a) Catalogue pages or computer selection for the complete HVAC system. (b) A letter of assurance written by the consulting office to the MEW stating that the MEW codes are met in the submitted project. (c) Copy of the HVAC contract between the HVAC contractor and the client. (d) Heat load calculations for those applications where W/m2 is not specified. (e) A letter of assurance from the HVAC contractor stating that the HVAC equipment mentioned in the contract documents and drawings shall be installed at site without any deviation in model number and quantity.

10.4

Inspection of building by MEW After completion of any building, but before giving power supply, MEW

reserves its right to inspect the building and carry out necessary field tests using the latest technology to confirm compliance with the insulation and glazing requirements. No power supply will be given if the tests reveal that the building is not adequately insulated or the glazing used do not comply with the requirements, unless and until necessary corrective measures as recommended by MEW are taken and the building re-inspected, and all HVAC equipment & material.

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XI. ENFORCEMENT OF THE CODE Table 12 delineates responsibilities of various governmental bodies in the enforcement of this code.

Table 12. Role of Various Governmental Bodies in the Enforcement of this Code. Ministry/Government Authority Ministry of Electricity and Water (MEW) (1) Approval of: (a) W/m2 calculations for A/C and lighting. (b) All HVAC and electrical drawings (c) kW/RT for A/C systems and equipments. (d) Electrical Engineer (e) HVAC engineer (f) Energy efficiency of HVAC equipment to be certified by 3rd party internationally reputed testing agency. (g) Insulation materials and glazing. (h) Other energy conservation measures mentioned in R-6 and R-7 (2) Perform non-Destructive site testing of buildings (NDT) to confirm compliance with insulation and glazing requirements. Kuwait Municipality / MEW Ministry Works of Public - Inspection during construction of insulation materials and glazing applications. - Testing and certification of building materials including all insulation materials and systems. Responsibility

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XII. APPENDIX A

12.1

Operating parameters and guidelines for estimation of power ratings of A/C systems Power analysis for compressors and the air-cooled condenser fan motors for

all types of air-conditioning (A/C) systems were conducted using the manufacturers catalogues only. Analyses of the other components of A/C systems, such as

condenser and chilled-water pump sets and air-handling units were fixed using field data and energy auditing experience. Specific guidelines were prepared for analyses to determine the power requirements of compressors and other components of A/C systems. Some of the following guidelines are general and others are specific to types of A/C systems.

12.1.1 General specifications:

Ambient design dry-bulb temperatures (DBTs) and wet-bulb temperatures (WBT) are 48C (118.4F) and 32C (89.6F), respectively. This condition is valid for both coastal and interior areas.

Temperatures for air entering cooling coils are 26.67C (80F) DBT and 19.44C (67F) WBT, based on indoor temperature of 24C (75.2F) DBT, assuming that the fresh air supply constitute around 10% of the air in circulation.

Power ratings should be based on gross cooling as net cooling may differ from application to application depending upon the external static pressure (ESP).

Power ratings should be based on actual power demands and not on connected loads. The actual power demand may differ significantly from the connected load from case to case. Manufacturers are requested to provide the brake power requirements of fans, pumps, and compressor shafts, and the efficiencies of feed motors. It is important to note that the efficiency of motors of less than 0.5 HP is around 35%. Thus, for such motors, the actual power consumption may be significantly more than the connected load.

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12.1.2 Package units and ducted splits:


All units have air-cooled condensers. ESP does not include the pressure drop in air filters. The expected ESPs for different package-unit and ducted-split capacities are specified in the Table 13. It is advised not to round these figures to exact values, as it may not be practically possible.

Table 13. Expected ESP for Package Units and Ducted Splits. Cooling Capacity (RTs) 0-5 5-10 10-15 15 Pa 150 200 250 350 Package Unit Water (in) 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.4 Ducted-Split Unit Pa 75 150 200 350 Water (in) 0.3 0.6 0.8 1.4

ESP = external static pressure; RT = refrigeration tons; Pa = Pascal; in = inches

Airflow through the evaporator is close to 236 l/(s.RT) (500 cfm/RT) for the actual cooling capacity of system under Kuwaits conditions.

The cooling capacity of equipment, based on catalogue information is gross cooling not sensible cooling.

Fan motor efficiency for different motor powers as in Table 14.

Table 14. Assumed Efficiency for Motors at Different Power Ratings. Motor Power (HP) < 0.5 0.5-1.0 1.0
HP = horse power

Efficiency (%) 35 50 80

12.1.3 Mini-split units and unitary:

All units have air-cooled condensers. 31

The ESP can be as low as 50 Pa (i.e., 0.2 in of water). Airflow through the evaporator is close to 236 l/(s.RT) (500 cfm/RT) for the actual cooling capacity of a system under Kuwaits conditions.

The cooling capacity of the equipment based on the catalogue information is gross cooling, not sensible cooling.

Fan motor efficiency for different motor powers is as in Table 14.

12.1.4 Central chilled-water systems with air-cooled condensers:

Design ambient temperature for selection of this equipment is 48C (118.4F) DBT.

Water temperature at the chiller outlet is 6.67C (44F). Temperature drop of chilled water across the cooler is 5.56C (10F). Water flow rate through the cooler is 0.15 l/(s.RT) (2.4 USGPM/RT). Maximum pressure drop across the cooler or evaporator is 5 m (16.4 ft) of water for a water flow rate 0.15 l/(s.RT) (2.4 USGPM/RT).

Chiller fouling factor is 0.00025 (ft2.h.F)/Btu (0.000044(m2.C)/W). Maximum power rating for the chilled water pump, based on a maximum pump head of 25.9 m (85 ft) of water (Table 15), pump efficiency of 70% and motor efficiency of 90% is 0.061 kW/RT.

Maximum power rating for the air distribution system with central AHU having bag filter, based on a minimum airflow rate of 190 l/(s.RT) (400 cfm/RT), maximum total static pressure of 1,145 Pa (4.5 in of water), fan efficiency of 70% and motor efficiency of 90%, is 0.345 kW/RT.

Table 15. Pressure Loss in Chilled Water System. Pressure Loss No. 1 2 3 4 5 Total Component Water (m) (Water (ft)) Cooler or evaporator Air-handling unit Control valve Globe valve Chilled water piping 5.00 (16.4) 2.40 ( 8.0) 2.40 ( 8.0) 0.60 ( 2.0) 15.50 (50.0) 25.90 (85.0)

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12.1.5 Central chilled-water systems with water-cooled condensers:

Design ambient temperature for the selection of this equipment is 32C (89.6F) WBT.

Cooling water at 34.4C (94F) from a cooling tower. Water temperature rise across the condenser is 5.56C (10F). Water temperature at the chiller outlet is 6.67C (44F). Temperature drop of chilled water across the cooler is 5.56C (10F). Water flow rate through the condenser is 0.186 l/(s.RT) (3 USGPM/RT). Allowable pressure drop across condenser is 5-6 m (16.4-19.7 ft) of water for a water flow rate corresponding to a temperature rise of 5.56C (10F).

Allowable pressure drop across the cooler or evaporator is 5-6 m (16.4-19.7 ft) of water for a water flow rate 0.15 l/s.RT (2.4 USGPM/RT).

Fouling factors for the evaporator and condenser are 0.00025 (ft2.h.F) /Btu (0.000044 (m2.C)/W) and 0.00075 (ft2.h.F)/Btu (0.000132 (m2.C)/W), respectively.

Maximum power rating for the condenser water pump, based on a maximum pump head of 21.3 m (70 ft) of water (Table 16), pump efficiency of 70% and motor efficiency 90% is 0.062 k W/RT.

Table 16. Pressure Loss in Condenser Water Systems. No. 1 2 Condenser Static head for cooling tower (a fraction of C/T height) 3 4 5 Total Spray nozzles Globe valve, 2 nos. Condenser water piping 4.6 (15.0) 1.2 ( 4.0) 5.9 (19.0) 21.3 (70.0) Component Pressure Loss Water (m) (Water (ft)) 5.0 (16.4) 4.6 (15.0)

33

Maximum power rating for the chilled water pump, based on a maximum pump head of 25.9 m (85 ft) of water (Table 15), pump efficiency of 70% and motor efficiency 90%, is 0.061 kW/RT.

Maximum power rating for the air distribution system, based on a minimum airflow rate of 188 l/(s.RT) (400 cfm/RT), maximum total static pressure of 1,145 Pa (4.5 in of water), fan efficiency of 70% and motor efficiency of 90%, is 0.345 kW/RT.

Maximum power rating for the cooling tower fan motor is 0.04 kW/RT. This is the average of 0.02 - 0.06 kW/RT in the range of 120 1,120 RT obtained from the manufacturers catalogue for an approach of 2.77C (Marley, 1995).

34