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MathHandbook
ofFormulas,ProcessesandTricks
Geometry

Preparedby:EarlL.Whitney,FSA,MAAA
Version2.4
March24,2014

GeometryHandbook
T bl fC
Page Description
Chapter1:Basics
6 Points Lines & Planes
TableofContents
6 Points,Lines&Planes
7 Segments,Rays&Lines
8 DistanceBetweenPoints(1Dimensional,2Dimensional)
9 DistanceFormulainn Dimensions
10 Angles
11 TypesofAngles
Chapter 2: Proofs Chapter2:Proofs
12 ConditionalStatements(Original,Converse,Inverse,Contrapositive)
14 Inductivevs.DeductiveReasoning
15 AnApproachtoProofs
Chapter3:ParallelandPerpendicularLines
16 ParallelLinesandTransversals
17 MultipleSetsofParallelLines
18 ProvingLinesareParallel
19 ParallelandPerpendicularLinesintheCoordinatePlane
Chapter4:TrianglesBasic
20 TypesofTriangles(Scalene,Isosceles,Equilateral,Right) yp g ( , , q , g )
21 CongruentTriangles(SAS,SSS,ASA,AAS,CPCTC)
22 CentersofTriangles
23 LengthofHeight,MedianandAngleBisector
24 InequalitiesinTriangles
Chapter5:Polygons
25 Polygons Basic (Definitions Names of Common Polygons) 25 PolygonsBasic(Definitions,NamesofCommonPolygons)
26 PolygonsMoreDefinitions(Definitions,DiagonalsofaPolygon)
27 InteriorandExteriorAnglesofaPolygon
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GeometryHandbook
T bl fC TableofContents
Page Description
30 CharacteristicsofParallelograms
31 ParallelogramProofs(SufficientConditions)
32 KitesandTrapezoids
Chapter7:Transformations
33 I t d ti t T f ti 33 IntroductiontoTransformation
35 Reflection
36 Rotation
0
,y
0
)
40 Translation
41 Compositions
Chapter8:Similarity
42 RatiosInvolvingUnits
43 SimilarPolygons
44 ScaleFactorofSimilarPolygons
45 DilationsofPolygons
46 MoreonDilation
47 Similar Triangles (SSS SAS AA) 47 SimilarTriangles(SSS,SAS,AA)
48 ProportionTablesforSimilarTriangles
49 ThreeSimilarTriangles
Chapter9:RightTriangles
50 PythagoreanTheorem
51 PythagoreanTriples
52 S i l T i l (45 45 90 T i l 30 60 90 T i l ) 52 SpecialTriangles(454590Triangle,306090Triangle)
53 TrigonometricFunctionsandSpecialAngles
55 GraphsofTrigonometricFunctions
56 Vectors
57 OperatingwithVectors
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GeometryHandbook
T bl fC TableofContents
Page Description
Chapter10:Circles
58 Parts of a Circle 58 PartsofaCircle
59 AnglesandCircles
Chapter11:PerimeterandArea
60 PerimeterandAreaofaTriangle
61 MoreontheAreaofaTriangle
63 P i t d A f G l P l 63 PerimeterandAreaofGeneralPolygons
64 CircleLengthsandAreas
65 AreaofCompositeFigures
Chapter12:SurfaceAreaandVolume
66 Polyhedra
67 AHoleinEulersTheorem
68 PlatonicSolids
69 Prisms
70 Cylinders
71 SurfaceAreabyDecomposition
72 Pyramids
73 Cones
74 Spheres p
75 SimilarSolids
76 SummaryofPerimeterandAreaFormulas2DShapes
77 SummaryofSurfaceAreaandVolumeFormulas3DShapes
78 Index
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GeometryHandbook
T bl fC TableofContents
UsefulWebsites
WolframMathWorldPerhapsthepremiersiteformathematicsontheWeb.Thissitecontains
http://mathworld.wolfram.com/
http://www.mathleague.com/help/geometry/geometry.htm
MathLeagueSpecializesinmathcontests,books,andcomputersoftwareforstudentsfromthe4th
California Standard Geometry Test A standardized Geometry test released by the state of California
http://www.cde.ca.gov/ta/tg/sr/documents/rtqgeom.pdf
SchaumsOutlines
CaliforniaStandardGeometryTestAstandardizedGeometrytestreleasedbythestateofCalifornia.
Agoodwaytotestyourknowledge.
Animportantstudentresourceforanyhighschoolmathstudentisa
SchaumsOutline.Eachbookinthisseriesprovidesexplanationsofthe
varioustopicsinthecourseandasubstantialnumberofproblemsforthe
studenttotry.Manyoftheproblemsareworkedoutinthebook,sothe
studentcanseeexamplesofhowtheyshouldbesolved.
Note: This study guide was prepared to be a companion to most books on the subject of High
School Geometry In particular I used Geometry by Ron Larson Laurie Boswell and Lee Stiff to
SchaumsOutlinesareavailableatAmazon.com,Barnes&Noble,Bordersand
otherbooksellers.
School Geometry. In particular, I used Geometry, by Ron Larson, Laurie Boswell, and Lee Stiff to
determine which subjects to include in this guide. Although a significant effort was made to make
the material in this study guide original, some material from Geometry was used in the preparation
of the study guide.
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Version 2.4 March 24, 2014
Geometry
Points,Lines&Planes

Anintersectionofgeometric
shapesisthesetofpointsthey
shareincommon.
landmintersectatpointE.
landnintersectatpointD.
mandnintersectinlineAB

## Item Illustration Notation Definition

Point A Alocationinspace.
Segment
AB

Astraightpaththathastwoendpoints.
Ray

AB

Astraightpaththathasoneendpoint
andextendsinfinitelyinonedirection.
Line

lorAB

Astraightpaththatextendsinfinitelyin
bothdirections.
Plane

morAB

Aflatsurfacethatextendsinfinitelyin
twodimensions.
Collinearpointsarepointsthatlieonthesameline.
Coplanarpointsarepointsthatlieonthesameplane.

## Inthefi gure atright:

A, B, C, D, F anu Farepoints.
lisaline
mandnareplanes.

Farecollinearpoints. C, D, F anu
arecoplanarpoints. A, B u F
A, B u Darecoplanarpoints.
an
an
RayFF

goesoffinasoutheastdirection.
RayFC

## goesof anorthwestdirection. fin

Together,raysFF

andFC

makeuplinel.
Linelintersectsbothplanesmandn.

Note:Ingeometricfiguressuchastheoneabove,itis
importanttorememberthat,eventhoughplanesare
drawnwithedges,theyextendinfinitelyinthe2
dimensionsshown.
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Geometry
Segments,Rays&Lines

LineSegments
Linesegmentsaregenerallynamedbytheirendpoints,sothe
segment ghtcouldbenamedeitherAB

orBA

. atri
SegmentAB

containsthetwoendpoints(AandB)andallpointsonlineAB

thatare
betweenthem.
Rays
Raysaregenerallynamedbytheirsingleendpoint,
calle ninitialpoint,andanotherpointontheray. da
RayAB

containsitsinitialpointAandallpointsonline
AB

in edirectionofthearrow. th
RaysAB

andBA

ar tthesameray. eno
IfpointOisonlineAB

andisbetweenpointsAandB,
thenraysOA

andOB

arecalledoppositerays.They
haveonlypointOincommon,andtogethertheymakeuplineAB

.
Lines
Linesaregenerallynamedbyeitherasinglescriptletter
(e.g.,l)orbytwopointsontheline(e.g.,.AB

).
ow Alineextendsinfinitelyinthedirectionssh nbyits
arrows.
Linesareparalleliftheyareinthesameplaneandthey
neverintersect.Linesfand g,atright,areparallel.
Linesareperpendiculariftheyintersectata90angle.A
pairofperpendicularlinesisalwaysinthesameplane.
Linesfand e,atright,areperpendicular.Linesgand e are
alsoperpendicular.
Linesareskewiftheyarenotinthesameplaneandthey
neverintersect.Lineskand l,atright,areskew.
(Rememberthisfigureis3dimensional.)
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Geometry
DistanceBetweenPoints

Distancemeasureshowfaraparttwothingsare.Thedistancebetweentwopointscanbe
measuredinanynumberofdimensions,andisdefinedasthelengthofthelineconnectingthe
twopoints.Distanceisalwaysapositivenumber.

1DimensionalDistance

Inonedimensionthedistancebetweentwopointsisdeterminedsimplybysubtractingthe
coordinatesofthepoints.

Example:Inthissegment,thedistancebetween2and5iscalculatedas:S -(-2) = 7.

2DimensionalDistance

Intwodimensions,thedistancebetweentwopointscanbecalculatedbyconsideringtheline
betweenthemtobethehypotenuseofarighttriangle.Todeterminethelengthofthisline:
Calculatethedifferenceinthexcoordinatesofthepoints
Calculatethedifferenceintheycoordinatesofthepoints
UsethePythagoreanTheorem.

Thisprocessisillustratedbelow,usingthevariabled fordistance.

Example:Findthedistancebetween(1,1)and(2,5).Basedonthe
illustrationtotheleft:
xcoordinatedifference: S. 2 -(-1) =
ycoordinatedifference:S -1 = 4.
Then,thedistanceiscalculatedusingtheformula:
2
+4
2
) = (9 +16) = 2S J
2
= (S
So, d = 5

Ifwedefinetwopointsgenerallyas(x
1
,y
1
)and(x
2
,y
2
),thena2dimensionaldistanceformula
wouldbe:
d|xtance = (x
2
-x
1
)
2
+(y
2
-y
1
)
2

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Geometry
DistanceFormulainnDimensions

Thedistancebetweentwopointscanbegeneralizedtondimensionsbysuccessiveuseofthe
PythagoreanTheoreminmultipledimensions.Tomovefromtwodimensionstothree
dimensions,westartwiththetwodimensionalformulaandapplythePythagoreanTheoremto

3Dimensions

Considertwo3dimensionalpoints(x
1
,y
1
,z
1
)and(x
2
,y
2
,z
2
).Considerfirstthesituation
wherethetwozcoordinatesarethesame.Then,thedistancebetweenthepointsis2
dimensional,i.e.,J = (x
2
-x
1
)
2
+(y
2
-y
1
)
2
.

2
(z ) Jistoncc = J
2
+
2
-z
1
2
( ( Jistoncc
2
= ( x
2
-x
1
)
2
+ y
2
-y
1
)
2
)
2
(z
2
-
Jistoncc
2
= (x
2
-x
1
)
2
+(y
2
-y
1
)
2
+(z
2
-z
1
)
2

+ z
1
)
2

And,finallythe3dimensionaldifferenceformula:
d|xtance = (x
2
-x
1
)
2
+(y
2
-y
1
)
2
+(z
2
-z
1
)
2

nDimensions

Usingthesamemethodologyinndimensions,wegetthegeneralizedndimensional
difference e r n l, e sion): formula(wh retherea e termsbeneaththe radica oneforeachdim n
d|xtance = (x
2
-x
1
)
2
+(y
2
-y
1
)
2
+(z
2
-z
1
)
2
++(w
2
-w
1
)
2

Or,inhigherlevelmathematicalnotation:
Thedistancebetween2pointsA=(a
1
,a
2
,,a
n
)andB=(b
1
,b
2
,,b
n
)is

## d(A, B) = |A -B| = _(a

|
-h
|
)
2
n
|=1

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Geometry
Angles

PartsofanAngle
Anangleconsistsoftworayswithacommon
endpoint(or,initialpoint).
Eachrayisasideoftheangle.
Thecommonendpointiscalledthevertexof
theangle.
NamingAngles
Anglescanbenamedinoneoftwoways:
Pointvertexpointmethod.Inthismethod,theangleisnamedfromapointonone
ray,thevertex,andapointontheotherray.Thisisthemostunambiguousmethodof
naminganangle,andisusefulindiagramswithmultipleanglessharingthesamevertex.
Intheabovefigure,theangleshowncouldbenamedzBAC oi zCAB.
Vertexmethod.Incaseswhereitisnotambiguous,ananglecanbenamedbasedsolely
onitsvertex.Intheabovefigure,theanglecouldbenamedzA.
MeasureofanAngle
Therearetwoconventionsformeasuringthesizeofanangle:
Indegrees.Thesymbolfordegreesis.Thereare360inafullcircle.Theangleabove
measuresapproximately45(oneeighthofacircle).
approximately
1
4
SomeTermsRelatingtoAngles
Angleinterioristheareabetweentherays.
Angleexterioristheareanotbetweentherays.
Congruentanglesareaangleswiththesamemeasure.
Anglebisectorisaraythatdividestheangleintotwocongruent

bisectszBACinthefigureatright.
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Geometry
TypesofAngles

SupplementaryAngles ComplementaryAngles

D
C
A B
Angles mplementary. CandDareco
mzC + mz = 9u
AnglesAandBaresupplementary.
Angles linearpair. AandBforma
mzA + mzB = 18u

VerticalAngles

E
F
G
H
Angleswhichareoppositeeachotherwhen
twolinescrossareverticalangles.
AnglesEandGareverticalangles.
Angles F andHareverticalangles.
mzE = mz0 onJ mzF = mzE
AngleEissupplementarytoAnglesFandH.

Acute Obtuse

Right Straight
Anacuteangleisonethatislessthan90.In
theillustrationabove,anglesEandGare
acuteangles.
Arightangleisonethatisexactly90.
Anobtuseangleisonethatisgreaterthan
90.Intheillustrationabove,anglesFandH
areobtuseangles.
Astraightangleisonethatisexactly180.

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Geometry
ConditionalStatements
Aconditionalstatementcontainsbothahypothesisandaconclusioninthefollowingform:

Ifhypothesis,thenconclusion.

Foranyconditionalstatement,itispossibletocreatethreerelated
conditionalstatements,asshownbelow.Inthetable,pisthehypothesis
oftheoriginalstatementandqistheconclusionoftheoriginalstatement.

TypeofConditionalStatement
Example
Statementis:
OriginalStatement: Ifp,thenq.(p -q)
Example:Ifanumberisdivisibleby6,thenitisdivisibleby3.
Theoriginalstatementmaybeeithertrueorfalse.

TRUE

## ConverseStatement: Ifq,thenp.(q -p)

Example:Ifanumberisdivisibleby3,thenitisdivisibleby6.
Theconversestatementmaybeeithertrueorfalse,andthisdoesnot
dependonwhethertheoriginalstatementistrueorfalse.

FALSE
InverseStatement: Ifnotp,thennotq.(~p -~q)
Example:Ifanumberisnotdivisibleby6,thenitisnotdivisibleby3.
Theinversestatementisalwaystruewhentheconverseistrueand
falsewhentheconverseisfalse.

FALSE
ContrapositiveStatement: Ifnotq,thennotp.(~q -~p)
Example:Ifanumberisnotdivisibleby3,thenitisnotdivisibleby6.
TheContrapositivestatementisalwaystruewhentheoriginal
statementistrueandfalsewhentheoriginalstatementisfalse.

TRUE
Notealsothat:
Whentwostatementsmustbeeitherbothtrueorbothfalse,theyarecalledequivalent
statements.
o Theoriginalstatementandthecontrapositiveareequivalentstatements.
o Theconverseandtheinverseareequivalentstatements.
Ifboththeoriginalstatementandtheconversearetrue,thephraseifandonlyif
(abbreviatediff)maybeused.Forexample,Anumberisdivisibleby3iffthesumof
itsdigitsisdivisibleby3.
belowbyredarrows
mustbeeitherboth
trueorbothfalse.
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Geometry
BasicPropertiesofAlgebra

PropertiesofEqualityandCongruence.

Property
DefinitionforEquality DefinitionforCongruence
Foranyrealnumbersa,b,andc:
Foranygeometricelementsa,bandc.
(e.g.,segment,angle,triangle)
ReflexiveProperty o = o o o
SymmetricProperty I o = b, tbcn b = o I o b, tbcn b o
TransitiveProperty I o = b onJ b = c, tbcn o = c I o b onJ b c, tbcn o c
SubstitutionProperty
If o = b, then eithei can be
substituteu foi the othei in any
equation (oi inequality).
If o b, then eithei can be
substituteu foi the othei in any
congiuence expiession.

MorePropertiesofEquality.Foranyrealnumbersa,b,andc:

Property DefinitionforEquality
AdditionProperty I o = b, tbcn o +c = b +c
SubtractionProperty I o = b, tbcn o -c = b -c
MultiplicationProperty I o = b, tbcn o c = b c
DivisionProperty I o = b onJ c = u, tbcn o c = b c

CommutativeProperty o +b = b +o o b = b o
AssociativeProperty (o +b) +c = o +(b +c) (o b) c = o (b c)
DistributiveProperty o (b +c) = (o b) +(o c)

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Geometry
Inductivevs.DeductiveReasoning
InductiveReasoning
Inductivereasoningusesobservationtoformahypothesisorconjecture.Thehypothesiscan
thenbetestedtoseeifitistrue.Thetestmustbeperformedinordertoconfirmthe
hypothesis.
Example:Observethatthesumofthenumbers1to4is(4 S2)andthatthesumofthe
numbers1to5is(S 62).Hypothesis:thesumofthefirstnnumbersis(n - (n +1)2).
Testingthishypothesisconfirmsthatitistrue.

DeductiveReasoning
ofaniteminthecategory.
Example:Allbirdshavebeaks.Apigeonisabird;therefore,ithasabeak.
Therearetwokeytypesofdeductivereasoningofwhichthestudentshouldbeaware:
LawofDetachment.Giventhatp -q,ifpistruethenqistrue.Inwords,ifone
thingimpliesanother,thenwheneverthefirstthingistrue,thesecondmustalsobe
true.
Example:Startwiththestatement:Ifalivingcreatureishuman,thenithasabrain.
Thenbecauseyouarehuman,wecanconcludethatyouhaveabrain.
Syllogism.Giventhatp -qandq -r,wecanconcludethatp -r.Thisisakindof
transitivepropertyoflogic.Inwords,ifonethingimpliesasecondandthatsecond
thingimpliesathird,thenthefirstthingimpliesthethird.
Example:Startwiththestatements:Ifmypencilbreaks,Iwillnotbeabletowrite,
andifIamnotabletowrite,Iwillnotpassmytest.ThenIcanconcludethatIfmy
pencilbreaks,Iwillnotpassmytest.

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Version 2.4 March 24, 2014
Geometry
AnApproachtoProofs
Learningtodevelopasuccessfulproofisoneofthekeyskillsstudentsdevelopingeometry.
Theprocessisdifferentfromanythingstudentshaveencounteredinpreviousmathclasses,and
mayseemdifficultatfirst.Diligenceandpracticeinsolvingproofswillhelpstudentsdevelop
reasoningskillsthatwillservethemwellfortherestoftheirlives.
RequirementsinPerformingProofs
Eachproofstartswithasetofgivens,statementsthatyouaresuppliedandfrom
whichyoumustderiveaconclusion.Yourmissionistostartwiththegivensandto
proceedlogicallytotheconclusion,providingreasonsforeachstepalongtheway.
Eachstepinaproofbuildsonwhathasbeendevelopedbefore.Initially,youlookat
whatyoucanconcludefromthegivens.Thenasyouproceedthroughthestepsinthe
Eachstepinaproofmusthaveavalidreasonassociatedwithit.So,eachstatementin
TipsforSuccessfulProofDevelopment
lookateachthingyoucanconcludeandseewhichonesmoveyouclosertowhatyou
aretryingtoprove.
Goasfarasyoucanintotheprooffromthebeginning.Ifyougetstuck,
whatyouweregivenandwhatyouhavebeenabletoprovesofar.
theproof.Youmayfindyourselfalternatingbetweenthefrontendandthebackend
untilyoufinallybridgethegapbetweenthetwosectionsoftheproof.
Dontskipanysteps.Somethingsappearobvious,butactuallyhaveamathematical
reasonforbeingtrue.Forexample,o = omightseemobvious,butobviousisnota
validreasoninageometryproof.Thereasonforo = oisapropertyofalgebracalled
thereflexivepropertyofequality.Usemathematicalreasonsforallyoursteps.
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Version 2.4 March 24, 2014
Geometry
ParallelLinesandTransversals

CorrespondingAngles
CorrespondingAnglesareanglesinthesamelocationrelativetotheparallellinesandthe
transversal.Forexample,theanglesontopoftheparallellinesandleftofthetransversal(i.e.,
topleft)arecorrespondingangles.
AnglesAandE(topleft)areCorrespondingAngles.SoareanglepairsBandF(topright),C
andG(bottomleft),andDandH(bottomright).Correspondinganglesarecongruent.
AlternateInteriorAngles
AnglesDandEareAlternateInteriorAngles.AnglesCandFarealsoalternateinteriorangles.
Alternateinterioranglesarecongruent.
AlternateExteriorAngles
AnglesAandHareAlternateExteriorAngles.AnglesBandGarealsoalternateexterior
angles.Alternateexterioranglesarecongruent.
ConsecutiveInteriorAngles
AnglesCandEareConsecutiveInteriorAngles.AnglesDandFarealsoconsecutiveinterior
angles.Consecutiveinterioranglesaresupplementary.
NotethatanglesA,D,E,andHarecongruent,andanglesB,C,F,andGarecongruent.In
secondgroup.
Transversal
H
G
F
E
C
D
B
A
Alternate:referstoanglesthatareon
oppositesidesofthetransversal.
Consecutive:referstoanglesthatare
onthesamesideofthetransversal.
Interior:referstoanglesthatare
betweentheparallellines.
Exterior:referstoanglesthatare
outsidetheparallellines.
ParallelLines
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Version 2.4 March 24, 2014
Geometry
MultipleSetsofParallelLines
TwoTransversals
Sometimes,thestudentispresentedtwosetsofintersectingparallellines,asshownabove.
Notethateachpairofparallellinesisasetoftransversalstotheothersetofparallellines.

G
E
F
H P
O
M
N
K
I
J
L D
C
B
A

Inthiscase,thefollowinggroupsofanglesarecongruent:
Group1:AnglesA,D,E,H,I,L,MandPareallcongruent.
Group2:AnglesB,C,F,G,J,K,N,andOareallcongruent.
EachangleintheGroup1issupplementarytoeachangleinGroup2.
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Geometry
ProvingLinesareParallel
Thepropertiesofparallellinescutbyatransversalcanbeusedtoprovetwolinesareparallel.
CorrespondingAngles
Iftwolinescutbyatransversalhavecongruentcorrespondingangles,
thenthelinesareparallel.Notethatthereare4setsofcorresponding
angles.
AlternateInteriorAngles
Iftwolinescutbyatransversalhavecongruentalternateinteriorangles
congruent,thenthelinesareparallel.Notethatthereare2setsof
alternateinteriorangles.
AlternateExteriorAngles
Iftwolinescutbyatransversalhavecongruentalternateexterior
angles,thenthelinesareparallel.Notethatthereare2setsof
alternateexteriorangles.
ConsecutiveInteriorAngles
Iftwolinescutbyatransversalhavesupplementaryconsecutive
interiorangles,thenthelinesareparallel.Notethatthereare2setsof
consecutiveinteriorangles.

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Version 2.4 March 24, 2014
Geometry
ParallelandPerpendicularLinesintheCoordinatePlane

ParallelLines
Twolines iftheirslopesareequal. areparallel
Iny = mx +bform,ifthevaluesofmare
thesame.
Example: y = 2x -S anu
y = 2x +1
InStandardForm,ifthecoefficientsofxand
yareproportiona tweentheequations. lbe
Example:Sx anu -2y = S
6x -4y = -7
Also,ifthelinesarebothvertical(i.e.,their
slopesareundefin d e ).
Example: anu x = -S
x = 2
PerpendicularLines
Twolinesareperpendiculariftheproductoftheir
slopesis-1.Thatis,iftheslopeshavedifferent
signsand tiveinverses. aremultiplica
Iny = mx +bform,thevaluesofm
multiplytoget-1..
Example: anu y = 6x +S
y = -
1
6
x -S
thexcoefficientstotheproductofthey
coefficientsandgetzero.
Example: anu 4x +6y = 4
Sx -2y = S because(4 S) +(6 (-2)) = u
Also,ifonelineis misundefined)andonelineishorizontal(i.e.,m = u). vertical(i.e.,
Example: anu x = 6
y = S
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Version 2.4 March 24, 2014
Geometry
TypesofTriangles

Scalene Isosceles

Equilateral Right

60
60 60
AScaleneTrianglehas3sidesofdifferent
lengths.Becausethesidesareof
differentlengths,theanglesmustalsobe
ofdifferentmeasures.
ARightTriangle isonethatcontainsa90
angle.Itmaybescaleneorisosceles,but
cannotbeequilateral.Righttriangles
havesidesthatmeettherequirementsof
thePythagoreanTheorem.
AnEquilateralTrianglehasall3sidesthe
samelength(i.e.,congruent).Becauseall
3sidesarecongruent,all3anglesmust
alsobecongruent.Thisrequireseach
angletobe60.
AnIsoscelesTrianglehas2sidesthesame
length(i.e.,congruent).Becausetwo
sidesarecongruent,twoanglesmustalso
becongruent.
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Version 2.4 March 24, 2014
Geometry
CongruentTriangles

Thefollowingtheoremspresentconditionsunderwhichtrianglesarecongruent.

SideAngleSide(SAS)Congruence

SAScongruence requiresthecongruenceof
twosidesandtheanglebetweenthosesides.
NotethatthereisnosuchthingasSSA
congruence;thecongruentanglemustbe
betweenthetwocongruentsides.

SideSideSide(SSS)Congruence

SSScongruence requiresthecongruenceofall
threesides.Ifallofthesidesarecongruent
thenalloftheanglesmustbecongruent.The
converseisnottrue;thereisnosuchthingas
AAAcongruence.

AngleSideAngle(ASA)Congruence

ASAcongruence requiresthecongruenceof
twoanglesandthesidebetweenthoseangles.
Note:ASAandAAScombinetoprovide
congruenceoftwotriangleswhenever
anytwoanglesandanyonesideofthe
trianglesarecongruent.

AngleAngleSide(AAS)Congruence

AAScongruence requiresthecongruenceof
twoanglesandasidewhichisnotbetween
thoseangles.

CPCTC

CPCTCmeanscorrespondingpartsofcongruenttrianglesarecongruent.Itisavery
powerfultoolingeometryproofsandisoftenusedshortlyafterastepintheproofwhereapair
oftrianglesisprovedtobecongruent.
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Version 2.4 March 24, 2014
Geometry
CentersofTriangles

Thefollowingareallpointswhichcanbeconsideredthecenterofatriangle.

Centroid(Medians)

Thecentroidistheintersectionofthethreemediansofatriangle.Amedianisa
linesegmentdrawnfromavertextothemidpointofthelineoppositethe
vertex.

Thecentroidislocated2/3ofthewayfromavertextotheoppositeside.Thatis,thedistancefroma
vertextothecentroidisdoublethelengthfromthecentroidtothemidpointoftheoppositeline.
Themediansofatrianglecreate6innertrianglesofequalarea.

Orthocenter(Altitudes)

Theorthocenteristheintersectionofthethreealtitudesofatriangle.An
altitudeisalinesegmentdrawnfromavertextoapointontheoppositeside
(extended,ifnecessary)thatisperpendiculartothatside.

Inanacutetriangle,theorthocenterisinsidethetriangle.
Inarighttriangle,theorthocenteristherightanglevertex.
Inanobtusetriangle,theorthocenterisoutsidethetriangle.

Circumcenter(PerpendicularBisectors)

Thecircumcenteristheintersectionofthe
perpendicularbisectorsofthethreesidesofthe
triangle.Aperpendicularbisectorisalinewhich
bothbisectsthesideandisperpendiculartothe
side.Thecircumcenterisalsothecenterofthe
EulerLine:Interestingly,
thecentroid,orthocenter
andcircumcenterofa
trianglearecollinear(i.e.,
lieonthesameline,
whichiscalledtheEuler
Line).

Inanacutetriangle,thecircumcenterisinsidethetriangle.

Inarighttriangle,thecircumcenteristhemidpointofthehypotenuse.
Inanobtusetriangle,thecircumcenterisoutsidethetriangle.

Incenter(AngleBisectors)
Theincenteristheintersectionoftheanglebisectorsofthethreeanglesof
thetriangle.Ananglebisectorcutsanangleintotwocongruentangles,each
ofwhichishalfthemeasureoftheoriginalangle.Theincenterisalsothe
centerofthecircleinscribedinthetriangle.

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Geometry
LengthofHeight,MedianandAngleBisector

Height
Theformulaforthelengthofaheightofatriangleisderived
fromHeronsformulafortheareaofatriangle:

h =
2 x (x-a) (x-h) (x-c)
c

where, x =
1
2
(a +h +c),and
a, h, carethelengthsofthesidesofthetriangle.

Median
Theformulaforthelengthofamedianofatriangleis:

m =
1
2
2a
2
+2h
2
-c
where,a, h, carethelengthsofthesidesofthetriangle.

AngleBisector
Theformulaforthelengthofananglebisectorofatriangleis:

t = _ah[1 -
c
2
(a+h)
2

where,a, h, carethelengthsofthesidesofthetriangle.

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Geometry
InequalitiesinTriangles

Anglesandtheiroppositesidesintrianglesarerelated.Infact,thisisoftenreflectedinthe
labelingofanglesandsidesintriangleillustrations.

Anglesandtheiroppositesidesareoften
labeledwiththesameletter.Anuppercase
letterisusedfortheangleandalowercase
letterisusedfortheside.

Therelationshipbetweenanglesandtheiroppositesidestranslatesintothefollowingtriangle
inequalities:
If mzC < mzB < mzA, then c < b < o
If mzC mzB mzA, then c h a

Thatis,inanytriangle,
Thelargestsideisoppositethelargestangle.
Themediumsideisoppositethemediumangle.
Thesmallestsideisoppositethesmallestangle.
OtherInequalitiesinTriangles
TriangleInequality:Thesumofthelengthsofanytwosidesofatriangle
isgreaterthanthelengthofthethirdside.Thisisacrucialelementin
decidingwh s r l . ether egmentsofany3lengthscanformat iang e
a +h > c and h +c > a and c +a > h
ExteriorAngleInequality:Themeasureofanexternalangleisgreaterthanthemeasureof
mzDAB > mzB and mzDAB > mzC
Note:theExteriorAngleInequalityismuchlessrelevantthantheExteriorAngleEquality.
ExteriorAngleEquality:Themeasureofanexternalangleisequaltothesumofthemeasures
mzDAB = mzB +mzC

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Geometry
PolygonsBasics

BasicDefinitions
Polygon:aclosedpathofthreeormorelinesegments,where:
notwosideswithacommonendpointarecollinear,and
eachsegmentisconnectedatitsendpointstoexactlytwoothersegments.
Side:asegmentthatisconnectedtoothersegments(whicharealsosides)toformapolygon.
Vertex:apointattheintersectionoftwosidesofthepolygon.(pluralform:vertices)
Diagonal:asegment,fromonevertextoanother,whichisnotaside.

polygon.(Noticetheorangediagonaldrawnoutsidethepolygonat
right.)Concavepolygonsactuallylookliketheyhaveacaveinthem.

polygon.(Noticethatalloftheorangediagonalsareinsidethepolygon
atright.)Convexpolygonsappearmoreroundedanddonotcontain
caves.

NamesofSomeCommonPolygons
Number
ofSides
NameofPolygon
Number
ofSides
NameofPolygon
3 Triangle 9 Nonagon
5 Pentagon 11 Undecagon
6 Hexagon 12 Dodecagon
7 Heptagon 20 Icosagon
8 Octagon n ngon
Diagonal
Namesofpolygons
aregenerallyformed
fromtheGreek
language;however,
somehybridformsof
LatinandGreek(e.g.,
undecagon)have
creptintocommon
usage.
Vertex
Side
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Geometry
PolygonsMoreDefinitions

Definitions
Equilateral:apolygoninwhichallofthesidesareequalinlength.
Equiangular:apolygoninwhichalloftheangleshavethesame
measure.
Regular:apolygonwhichisbothequilateralandequiangular.That
is,aregularpolygonisoneinwhichallofthesideshavethesame
lengthandalloftheangleshavethesamemeasure.

InteriorAngle:Anangleformedbytwosidesofapolygon.The
angleisinsidethepolygon.
ExteriorAngle:Anangleformedbyonesideofapolygonandthe
thepolygon.

Interior
Angle
Exterior
Angle
SimplePolygon:a
polygonwhosesidesdo
notintersectatany
locationotherthanits
endpoints.Simple
polygonsalwaysdividea
planeintotworegions
oneinsidethepolygonand
oneoutsidethepolygon.
ComplexPolygon:a
polygonwithsidesthat
intersectsomeplaceother
thantheirendpoints(i.e.,
notasimplepolygon).
Complexpolygonsdonot
alwayshavewelldefined
insidesandoutsides.
SkewPolygon:apolygon
forwhichnotallofits
verticeslieonthesame
plane.
HowManyDiagonalsDoesaConvexPolygonHave?
Believeitornot,thisisacommonquestionwithasimplesolution.Considerapolygonwithn
sidesand,therefore,nvertices.
Eachofthenverticesofthepolygoncanbeconnectedto(n -3)otherverticeswith
diagonals.Thatis,itcanbeconnectedtoallotherverticesexceptitselfandthetwoto
whichitisconnectedbysides.So,thereare| n (n -3)]linestobedrawnasdiagonals.
However,whenwedothis,wedraweachdiagonaltwicebecausewedrawitoncefrom
eachofitstwoendpoints.So,thenumberofdiagonalsisactuallyhalfofthenumberwe
calculatedabove.
Therefore,thenumberofdiagonalsin polygonis: annsided
n (n -3)
2

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Geometry
InteriorandExteriorAnglesofaPolygon

InteriorAngles

## Thesumofthe sidedpolygonis: interioranglesinan n

=(n -2) 18
InteriorAngles

Sides
Sumof
Interior
Angles
Each
Interior
Angle
3 180 60
4 360 90
5 540 108
6 720 120
7 900 129
8 1,080 135
9 1,260 140
10 1,440 144

Ifthepolygonisregular,youcancalculatethemeasureof
eachinteriorangleas:

(n-2) 18
n

ExteriorAngles

ExteriorAngles

Sides
Sumof
Exterior
Angles
Each
Exterior
Angle
3 360 120
4 360 90
5 360 72
6 360 60
7 360 51
8 360 45
9 360 40
10 360 36
Nomatterhowmanysidesthereareinapolygon,thesum
oftheexterioranglesis:
=3

Ifthepolygonisregular,youcancalculatethemeasureof
eachexteriora s: nglea

3
n

Notation:TheGreekletterisequivalent
totheEnglishletterSandismathshorthand
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Geometry

Name Definition
Kite
withoppositesidesnotcongruent.
IsoscelesTrapezoid Atrapezoidwithcongruentlegs.
Rectangle Aparallelogramwithallanglescongruent(i.e.,rightangles).
Rhombus Aparallelogramwithallsidescongruent.

## Rectangle Rhombus Isosceles

Trapezoid
Square

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Geometry

IsoscelesTrapezoid
1pairofparallelsides
Congruentlegs
2pairofcongruentbase
angles
Diagonalscongruent
Kite
2consecutivepairsof
congruentsides
1pairofcongruent
oppositeangles
Diagonalsperpendicular
Trapezoid
1pairofparallelsides
(calledbases)
Anglesonthesame
sideofthebasesare
supplementary

Parallelogram
Bothpairsofoppositesidesparallel
Bothpairsofoppositesidescongruent
Bothpairsofoppositeanglescongruent
Consecutiveanglessupplementary
Diagonalsbisecteachother
Rectangle
Parallelogramwithallangles
congruent(i.e.,rightangles)
Diagonalscongruent

Rhombus
Parallelogramwithallsidescongruent
Diagonalsperpendicular
Eachdiagonalbisectsapairof
oppositeangles
Square
BothaRhombusandaRectangle
Allanglescongruent(i.e.,rightangles)
Allsidescongruent

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Geometry
CharacteristicsofParallelograms

## Characteristic Square Rhombus Rectangle Parallelogram

2pairofparallelsides

Oppositesidesarecongruent

Oppositeanglesarecongruent

Consecutiveanglesaresupplementary

Diagonalsbisecteachother

All4anglesarecongruent(i.e.,rightangles)

Diagonalsarecongruent

All4sidesarecongruent

Diagonalsareperpendicular

Eachdiagonalbisectsapairofoppositeangles

parallelogram.

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Geometry
ParallelogramProofs

1. Bothpairsofoppositesidesareparallel.(note:thisisthedefinitionofaparallelogram)
2. Bothpairsofoppositesidesarecongruent.
3. Bothpairsofoppositeanglesarecongruent.
4. Aninteriorangleissupplementarytobothofitsconsecutiveangles.
5. Itsdiagonalsbisecteachother.
6. Apairofoppositesidesisbothparallelandcongruent.

1. All4anglesarecongruent.
2. Itisaparallelogramanditsdiagonalsarecongruent.

1. All4sidesarecongruent.
2. ItisaparallelogramandItsdiagonalsareperpendicular.
3. Itisaparallelogramandeachdiagonalbisectsapairofoppositeangles.

1. ItisbothaRhombusandaRectangle.

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Geometry
KitesandTrapezoids

Ithastwopairofcongruentsides.
Oppositesidesarenotcongruent.
Itsdiagonalsareperpendicular
Ithasexactlyonepairofcongruentoppositeangles.

PartsofaTrapezoid
Base
Leg
Leg
Midsegment
TrapezoidABCDhasthefollowingparts:
A

andBC

arebases.
AB

and

arelegs.
EF

isth idsegment. em
AC

andB

arediagonals.
Base
Diagonals
AnglesAandDformapairofbaseangles.
AnglesBandCformapairofbaseangles.

TrapezoidMidsegmentTheorem
Themidsegmentofatrapezoidisparalleltoeachofitsbasesand:EF =
1
2
(A +BC).

1. Itisatrapezoidandhasapairofcongruentlegs.(definitionofisoscelestrapezoid)
2. Itisatrapezoidandhasapairofcongruentbaseangles.
3. Itisatrapezoidanditsdiagonalsarecongruent.

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Geometry
IntroductiontoTransformation
ATransformationisamappingofthepreimageofageometricfigureontoanimagethat
retainskeycharacteristicsofthepreimage.
Definitions
ThePreImageisthegeometricfigurebeforeithasbeentransformed.
TheImageisthegeometricfigureafterithasbeentransformed.
Amappingisanassociationbetweenobjects.Transformationsaretypesofmappings.Inthe
figuresbelow,wesayABCDismappedontoABCD,orABC

--- ABC.Theorderofthe
verticesiscriticaltoaproperlynamedmapping.
AnIsometryisaonetoonemappingthatpreserveslengths.Transformationsthatare
isometries(i.e.,preservelength)arecalledrigidtransformations.
IsometricTransformations

Rotationisturninga
figurearoundapoint.
Rotatedfiguresretain
theirsizeandshape,but
nottheirorientation.

Reflectionisflippinga
figureacrossalinecalled
amirror.Thefigure
retainsitssizeandshape,
butappearsbackwards
afterthereflection.
Translationisslidinga
figureintheplanesothat
itchangeslocationbut
retainsitsshape,sizeand
orientation.

TableofCharacteristicsofIsometricTransformations
Transformation Reflection Rotation Translation
Isometry(RetainsLengths)? Yes Yes Yes
RetainsAngles? Yes Yes Yes
RetainsOrientationtoAxes? No No Yes

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Geometry
IntroductiontoTransformation(contd)
TransformationofaPoint
Apointistheeasiestobjecttotransform.Simplyreflect,rotateortranslateitfollowingthe
rulesforthetransformationselected.Bytransformingkeypointsfirst,anytransformation
becomesmucheasier.
TransformationofaGeometricFigure
Totransformanygeometricfigure,itisonlynecessarytotransformtheitemsthatdefinethe
figure,andthenreformit.Forexample:
Totransformalinesegment,transformitstwoendpoints,andthenconnectthe
resultingimageswithalinesegment.
Totransformaray,transformtheinitialpointandanyotherpointontheray,andthen
constructarayusingtheresultingimages.
Totransformaline,transformanytwopointsontheline,andthenfitalinethroughthe
resultingimages.
Totransformapolygon,transformeachofitsvertices,andthenconnecttheresulting
imageswithlinesegments.
resultingimages,constructtheimagecircle.
Totransformotherconicsections(parabolas,ellipsesandhyperbolas),transformthe
foci,verticesand/ordirectrix.Fromtheresultingimages,constructtheimageconic
section.

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Geometry
Reflection
Definitions
Reflectionisflippingafigureacrossamirror.
TheLineofReflectionisthemirrorthroughwhichthe
reflectiontakesplace.
Notethat:
Thelinesegmentconnectingcorrespondingpointsin
theimageandpreimageisbisectedbythemirror.
Thelinesegmentconnectingcorrespondingpointsin
theimageandpreimageisperpendiculartothemirror.

ReflectionthroughanAxisortheLiney = x
Reflectionofthepoint(a,b)throughthexoryaxisortheliney = xgivesthefollowing
results:
PreImage
Point
Mirror
Line
Image
Point
(a, b) xaxis (a, b)
(a, b) yaxis (a, b)
(a, b) the line: y = x (a, b)
Ifyouforgettheabo le,startwith ( onasetof ateaxes.Reflect
thepointthroughtheselectedlineandseewhichsetofa,bcoordinatesworks.
vetab thepoint S, 2) coordin

LineofSymmetry
ALineofSymmetryisanylinethroughwhichafigurecanbemappedontoitself.Thethinblack
linesinthefollowingfiguresshowtheiraxesofsymmetry:

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Geometry
Rotation
Definitions
rotated.PointP,atright,isthecenterofrotation.
TheAngleofRotationdeterminestheextentoftherotation.
Theangleisformedbytheraysthatconnectthecenterof
rotationtothepreimageandtheimageoftherotation.Angle
P,atright,istheangleofrotation.Thoughshownonlyfor
PointA,theangleisthesameforanyofthefigures4vertices.
Note:Inperformingrotations,itisimportanttoindicatethedirectionoftherotation
clockwiseorcounterclockwise.
PreImage
Point
Clockwise
Rotation
Counterclockwise
Rotation
Image
Point
(a, b) 9u 27u (b, a)
(a, b) 18u 18u (a, b)
(a, b) 27u 9u (b, a)
(a, b) S6u S6u (a, b)
Ifyouforg abovetable,star thepoint(S, 2) on tofcoordinatea otatethe
pointbytheselectedangleandseewhichsetofa,bcoordinatesworks.
etthe twith ase xes.R

RotationalSymmetry
AfigureinaplanehasRotationalSymmetryifitcanbemappedontoitselfbyarotationof
180orless.Anyregularpolygonhasrotationalsymmetry,asdoesacircle.Herearesome
examplesoffigureswithrotationalsymmetry:

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Version 2.4 March 24, 2014
Geometry
0
,y
0
)

thatpoint.Forapolygon,thisisaccomplishedbyrotatingeachvertexandthenconnecting
mathematicsbehindtheprocessofrotatingapointby90isdescribedbelow:

Letsdefinethefollowingpoints:
0
,y
0
)
Theinitialpoint(beforerotation):(x
1
,y
1
)
Thefinalpoint(afterrotation):(x
2
,y
2
)

Theproblemistodetermine(x
2
,y
2
)ifwearegiven(x
0
,y
0
)and(x
1
,y
1
).Itinvolves3steps:
problem).
2. Performtherotation.
3. Converttheresultbacktotheoriginalsetofaxes.

Wellconsidereachstepseparatelyandprovideanexample:

1
,y
1
0
,
y
0
)andcreateanew(translated)point.Thisisessentiallyanaxistranslation,which
wewillreverseinStep3.
GeneralSituation Example
PointsintheProblem
RotationCenter:(x
0
,y
0
)
Initialpoint:(x
1
,y
1
)
Finalpoint:(x
2
,y
2
)
PointsintheProblem
RotationCenter:(2,3)
Initialpoint:(2,1)
Finalpoint:tobedetermined
Calculateanewpointthatrepresentshow
(x
1
,y
1
)relatesto(x
0
,y
0
).Thatpointis:
(x
1
x
0
,y
1
y
0
)
Calculateanewpointthatrepresentshow
(2,1)relatesto(2,3).Thatpointis:
(4,2)

Thenextstepsdependonwhetherwearemakingaclockwiseorcounterclockwiserotation.

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Geometry

ClockwiseRotation:

andyvaluesofapointandnegatingthenewyterm.Thatis(x,y)becomes(y,x)after
rotationby90.
GeneralSituation Example
Prerotatedpoint(fromStep1):
(x
1
x
0
,y
1
y
0
)
Pointafterrotation:
(y
1
y
0
,x
1
+x
0
)
Prerotatedpoint(fromStep1):
(4,2)
Pointafterrotation:
(2,4)

Step3:Converttheresultbacktotheoriginalsetofaxes.
GeneralSituation Example
Pointafterrotation:
(y
1
y
0
,x
1
+x
0
)
0
,y
0
):
(y
1
y
0
+x
0
,x
1+
x
0
+y
0
)
whichgivesusthevaluesof(x
2
,y
2
)
Pointafterrotation:
(2,4)
(0,7)

Finally,lookattheformulasforx
2
andy
2:

Clockwise Rotation
x
2
= y
1
- y
0
+ x
0

y
2
= -x
1
+ x
0
+ y
0

Noticethattheformulasfor
clockwiseandcounter
clockwiserotationby90are
thesameexceptthetermsin
bluearenegatedbetweenthe
formulas.

simplysubstituteinthevaluesforthestartingpoint(x
1
,y
1
)andtheendingpoint(x
2
,y
2
)and
solvetheresultingpairofsimultaneousequationsforx
0
andy
0
.

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Geometry

CounterClockwiseRotation:

thexandyvaluesofapointandnegatingthenewxterm.Thatis(x,y)becomes(y,x)
afterrotationby90.
GeneralSituation Example
Prerotatedpoint(fromStep1):
(x
1
x
0
,y
1
y
0
)
Pointafterrotation:
(y
1
+y
0
,x
1
x
0
)
Prerotatedpoint(fromStep1):
(4,2)
Pointafterrotation:
(2,4)

Step3:Converttheresultbacktotheoriginalsetofaxes.
GeneralSituation Example
Pointafterrotation:
(y
1
+y
0
,x
1
x
0
)
0
,y
0
):
(y
1
+y
0
+x
0
,x
1
x
0
+y
0
)
whichgivesusthevaluesof(x
2
,y
2
)
Pointafterrotation:
(2,4)
(4,1)

Finally,lookattheformulasforx
2
andy
2:

Noticethattheformulasfor
clockwiseandcounter
clockwiserotationby90are
thesameexceptthetermsin
bluearenegatedbetweenthe
formulas.

Counter-Clockwise Rotation
x
2
= -y
1
+ y
0
+ x
0

y
2
= x
1
- x
0 +
y
0

Interestingnote:Thepointhalfwaybetweentheclockwiseandcounterclockwiserotationsof
90isthecenterofrotationitself,(x
0
,y
0
).Intheexample,(2,3)ishalfwaybetween(0,7)and
(4,1).

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Version 2.4 March 24, 2014
Geometry
Translation
Definitions

WhenTwoReflections= OneTranslation
Translationisslidingafigureintheplane.Each
pointinthefigureismovedthesamedistancein
thesamedirection.Theresultisanimagethat
looksthesameasthepreimageineveryway,
intheplane.
Eachofthefourorangelinesegmentsinthe
figureatrighthasthesamelengthanddirection.
Iftwomirrorsareparallel,thenreflectionthrough
oneofthem,followedbyareflectionthroughthe
secondisatranslation.
Inthefigureatright,theblacklinesshowthepaths
ofthetworeflections;thisisalsothepathofthe
resultingtranslation.Notethefollowing:
Thedistanceoftheresultingtranslation
(e.g.,fromAtoA)isdoublethedistance
betweenthemirrors.
Theblacklinesofmovementareperpendiculartobothmirrors.

DefiningTranslationsintheCoordinatePlane(UsingVectors)
Atranslationmoveseachpointbythesamedistanceinthesamedirection.Inthecoordinate
plane,thisisequivalenttomovingeachpointthesameamountinthexdirectionandthesame
amountintheydirection.Thiscombinationofxandydirectionmovementisdescribedbya
mathematicalconceptcalledavector.
Intheabovefigure,translationfromAtoA''moves10inthexdirectionandthe3inthey
direction.Invectornotation,thisis:AA''

= (1, -3).Noticethehalfraysymboloverthe
twopointsandthefunnylookingbracketsaroundthemovementvalues.
So,thetranslationresultingfromthetworeflectionsintheabovefiguremoveseachpointof
thepreimagebythevectorAA''

.Everytranslationcanbedefinedbythevectorrepresenting
itsmovementinthecoordinateplane.
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Geometry
Compositions
Whenmultipletransformationsarecombined,theresultiscalledaCompositionofthe
Transformations.Twoexamplesofthisare:
Combiningtworeflectionsthroughparallelmirrorstogenerateatranslation(seethe
previouspage).
Combiningatranslationandareflectiontogeneratewhatiscalledaglidereflection.
Theglidepartofthenamereferstotranslation,whichisakindofglidingofafigureon
theplane.

Note:Inaglidereflection,ifthelineofreflectionisparalleltothedirectionofthe
translation,itdoesnotmatterwhetherthereflectionorthetranslationisperformedfirst.

Figure2:ReflectionfollowedbyTranslation. Figure1:TranslationfollowedbyReflection.

CompositionTheorem
ThecompositionofmultipleisometriesisasIsometry.Putmoresimply,iftransformationsthat
preservelengtharecombined,thecompositionwillpreservelength.Thisisalsotrueof
compositionsoftransformationsthatpreserveanglemeasure.
OrderofComposition
Ordermattersinmostcompositionsthatinvolvemorethanoneclassoftransformation.Ifyou
applymultipletransformationsofthesamekind(e.g.,reflection,rotation,ortranslation),order
generallydoesnotmatter;however,applyingtransformationsinmorethanoneclassmay
producedifferentfinalimagesiftheorderisswitched.

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Version 2.4 March 24, 2014
Example:
Note:theunitinchescancelout,so
1
4
,not
1
4
incb.
S incbcs
12 incbcs
=
1
4

Example:
S incbcs
2 cct
=
S incbcs
(2 cct) (12 incbcs oot )
=
S incbcs
24 incbcs
=
1
8

Geometry
RatiosInvolvingUnits

RatiosInvolvingUnits
Whensimplifyingratioscontainingthesameunits:
Simplifythefraction.
Notice that the units disappear. They behave
just like factors; if the units exist in the
numeratoranddenominator,thecancelandare
Whensimplifyingratioscontainingdifferentunits:
Simplifythefraction.
Noticethattheunitsdisappear.

DealingwithUnits
Noticeintheaboveexamplethatunitscanbetreatedthesameasfactors;theycanbeusedin
fractions and they cancel when they divide. This fact can be used to figure out whether
multiplicationordivisionisneededinaproblem.Considerthefollowing:
Example:Howlongdidittakeforacartravelingat48milesperhourtogo32miles?
Considertheunitsofeachitem: S2 milcs 48
mIcs
hou

## Ifyoumultiply,youget:(S2 milcs) [48

mIcs
hou
= 1,SS6
mIcs
2
hou
.Thisisclearlywrong!
If you divide, you get: (S2 milcs) [48
mIcs
hou
=
32
48
milcs [
hou
mIcs
=
2
3
bour. Now,
Now you could have solved this problem by remembering that Jistoncc = rotc timc, or
J = rt. However, paying close attention to the units also generates the correct answer. In

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Version 2.4 March 24, 2014
Geometry
SimilarPolygons
Insimilarpolygons,
Correspondinganglesarecongruent,and
Correspondingsidesareproportional.
Bothoftheseconditionsarenecessaryfortwo
polygonstobesimilar.Conversely,whentwo
polygonsaresimilar,allofthecorresponding
anglesarecongruentandallofthesidesareproportional.
NamingSimilarPolygons
Similarpolygonsshouldbenamedsuchthatcorrespondinganglesareinthesamelocationin
thename,andtheorderofthepointsinthenameshouldfollowthepolygonaround.
Example:Thepolygonsabove llowingnames: couldbeshownsimilarwiththefo
ABCEF0EI ~ SIuIwXZ
Itwouldalsobeacceptabletoshowthesimilarityas:
EF0EIABC ~ IwXZSIu
Anynamesthatpreservetheorderofthepointsandkeepscorrespondinganglesin
correspondinglocationsinthenameswouldbeacceptable.
Proportions
Onecommonproblemrelatingtosimilarpolygonsistopresentthreesidelengths,wheretwo
ofthesidescorrespond,andtoaskforthe g the side gth. len thof correspondingtothethirdlen
Example:Intheabovesimilarpolygons,ifBC = 2u, EF = 12, onJ wX = 6, wbot is Iu.
Thisproblemissolvablewithproportions.Todosoproperly,itisimportanttorelate
correspondingitems hep portion: int ro
BC
Iu
=
EF
wX

---
2u
Iu
=
12
6

--- Iu = 1u
olygonisrepresentedonthe ofbothproportions Noticethattheleftp top andthattheleft
mostsegmentsofthetwopolygonsareintheleftfraction.

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Geometry
ScaleFactorsofSimilarPolygons
Fromthesimilarpolygonsbelow, following he thsofthesides: the isknownaboutt leng
AB
SI
=
BC
Iu
=
C
uI
=
E
Iw
=
EF
wX
=
F0
X
=
0E
Z
=
EA
ZA
= k

Thatis,theratiosofcorrespondingsidesinthe
twopolygonsarethesameandtheyequal
someconstant k,calledthescalefactorofthe
twopolygons.Thevalueofk,then,isallyou
needtoknowtorelatecorrespondingsidesin
thetwopolygons.
FindingtheMissingLength
Lookfortwocorrespondingsidesforwhichthevaluesareknown.
Calculatethevalueofk.
Usethevalueofktosolveforthemissinglength.
kisameasureoftherelativesizeofthetwopolygons.Usingthisknowledge,itispossibleto
putintowordsaneasilyunderstandablerelationshipbetweenthepolygons.
LetPolygon1betheonewhosesidesareinthenumeratorsofthefractions.
LetPolygon2betheonewhosesides einthedenominatorsofthefractions. ar
Then,itcanbesaidthatPolygon1isk timesthesizeofthePolygon2.
Example:In eabo polygons,ifBC = 2u, EF = 12, onJ wX = 6, wbot is Iu. th vesimilar
SeeingthatEFandwXrelate,calculate:
EF
w
=
12
6
= 2 = k
X
ThensolveforIubased thevalueofk: on
BC
Iu
= k -
2u
Iu
= 2 - Iu = 1u
o everysideinth Also,sincek = 2,thelength f ebluepolygonisdoublethelengthofits
correspondingsideintheorangepolygon.
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Version 2.4 March 24, 2014
Geometry
DilationofPolygons
ScaleFactorThescalefactorofsimilarpolygonsistheconstantkwhichrepresentsthe
relativesizesofthepolygons.
Ce sthepointfromwhichthedilationtakesplace. nterThecenteri
Notethat anu k = 1inordertogenerateasecondpolygon.Then, k > u
If thedilationiscalledanenlargement. k > 1,
Ifk < 1,thedilationiscalledareduction.
DilationswithCenter(0,0)
Incoordinategeometry,dilationsareoftenperformedwiththecenterbeingtheorigin(u, u).
Inthatcase,toobtainthedilationofapolygon:
Multiplythecoordinatesofeachvertexbythescalefactork,and
Connecttheverticesofthedilationwithlinesegments(i.e.,connectthedots).
Examples:
Inthefollowingexamples:
Thegreenpolygonistheoriginal.
Thebluepolygonisthedilation.
Thedashedorangelinesshowthemovementawayfrom
(enlargement)ortoward(reduction)thecenter,whichis
theorigininall3examples.
N : oticethat,ineachexample
_
d|xtance rum center
tu a uertex u the
d||ated pu|ygun
_ = k _
d|xtance rum center
tu a uertex u the
ur|g|na| pu|ygun
_
Thisfactcanbeusedtoconstructdilationswhencoordinateaxes
arenotavailable.Alternatively,thestudentcoulddrawasetof
coordinateaxesasanaidtoperformingthedilation.

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Version 2.4 March 24, 2014
Geometry
MoreonDilation
DilationsofNonPolygons
Anygeometricfigurecanbedilated.Inthedilationofthe
greencircleatright,noticethat:
Thedilationfactoris2.
dilationwiththecenterattheorigin.Allofthekeyelementsthatdefinethefigureare
increasedbythescalefactork.
DilationswithCenter(a, h)
k = 2.Noticethefollowing:
Inthefiguretotheleft,thedilationhascenter
(u, u),whereasinthefiguretotheright,the
dilationhascenter(-4, -S).Thesizeofthe
resultingfigureisthesameinbothcases
(becausek = 2inbothfigures),butthe
locationisdifferent.
otherthantheoriginisshownbelow.Compar lresulttothefigureabove(right). ethefina
Step1:Translatetheoriginalfigureby(-o, -b)toresetthecenterattheorigin.
Step2:Performthedilation.
Step3:Translatethedilatedfigureby(o, b).Thesestepsareillustratedbelow.
Step1 Step3 Step2
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Version 2.4 March 24, 2014
Geometry
SimilarTriangles

Thefollowingtheoremspresentconditionsunderwhichtrianglesaresimilar.
SideAngleSide(SAS)Similarity
SASsimilarity requirestheproportionality of
twosidesandthecongruenceoftheangle
betweenthosesides.Notethatthereisnosuch
thingasSSAsimilarity;thecongruentanglemust
bebetweenthetwoproportionalsides.

SideSideSide(SSS)Similarity
SSSsimilarity requirestheproportionalityofall
threesides.Ifallofthesidesareproportional,
thenalloftheanglesmustbecongruent.

AngleAngle(AA)Similarity
AAsimilarity requiresthecongruenceoftwo
anglesandthesidebetweenthoseangles.

SimilarTriangleParts
Insimilartriangles,
Correspondingsidesareproportional.
Correspondinganglesarecongruent.
Establishingthepropernamesforsimilartrianglesiscrucialtolineupcorrespondingvertices.
Inthepictureabove,wecansay:
oi ABC~EF oi BCA~EF oi CAB~FE
ACB~FE oi BAC~EF oi CBA~FE
Allofthesearecorrectbecausetheymatchcorrespondingpartsinthenaming.Eachofthese
similaritiesimpliesthe b t riangles: followingrelationships e weenpartsofthetwot
zA z anu z u zC zF zB E an

AB
L
=
BC
LP
=
CA
P

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Version 2.4 March 24, 2014
Geometry
ProportionTablesforSimilarTriangles

SettingUpaTableofProportions
Itisoftenusefultosetupatabletoidentifytheproperproportions
inasimilarity.Considerthefiguretotheright.Thetablemightlook
somethinglikethis:
Triangle LeftSide RightSide BottomSide
Top AB BC CA
Bottom DE EF FD
DevelopingtheProportions
Todevelopproportionsfromthetable:
Extractthecolumnsneededfromthetable:

AB BC
DE EF Alsofromtheabove
table,
AB
E
=
CA
F

BC
EF
=
CA
F

Eliminatethetablelines.
Replacethehorizontallineswithdivisionlines.
Putanequalsig hetworesultingfractions: nbetweent

AB
L
=
BC
LP

Solvingfortheunknownlengthofaside:
Youcanextractanytwocolumnsyoulikefromthetable.Usually,youwillhaveinformationon
Lookinthetableforthecolumnsthatcontainthe4sidesinquestion,andthensetupyour
proportion.Substituteknownvaluesintotheproportion,andsolvefortheremainingvariable.

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Version 2.4 March 24, 2014
Geometry
ThreeSimilarTriangles

Acommonproblemingeometryistofindthemissingvalueinproportionsbasedonasetof
threesimilartriangles,twoofwhichareinsidethethird.Thediagramoftenlookslikethis:

c
PythagoreanRelationships
Insidetriangleontheleft: d
2
+a
2
= h
2
Insidetriangleontheright: h
2
+e
2
= h
2
Outside(large)triangle: a
2
+h
2
= c
2

SimilarTriangleRelationships
Becauseallthreetrianglesaresimilar,wehavetherelationshipsinthetablebelow.These
relationshipsarenotobviousfromthepicture,butareveryusefulinsolvingproblemsbasedon
theabovediagram.Usingsimilaritiesbetweenthetriangles,2atatime,weget:

Fromthetwoinsidetriangles
Fromtheinsidetriangleon
theleftandtheoutside
triangle
Fromtheinsidetriangleon
therightandtheoutside
triangle
h
d
=
e
h

a
d
=
c
a

h
e
=
c
h

or or or
h
2
= d e a
2
= d c h
2
= e c
Theheightsquared
=theproductof:
thetwopartsofthebase
Theleftsidesquared
=theproductof:
thepartofthebasebelowit
andtheentirebase
Therightsidesquared
=theproductof:
thepartofthebasebelowit
andtheentirebase

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Version 2.4 March 24, 2014
Geometry
PythagoreanTheorem

where,
a and b are the lengths of the legs of a right
triangle,and
cisthelengthofthehypotenuse.
Inarighttriangle,thePythagorean heoremsays: T
a
2
+h
2
= c
2

Right,Acute,orObtuseTriangle?
determinewhetheratriangleisarighttriangle,anacutetriangle,oranobtusetriangle.
Todeterminewhetheratriangleisobtuse,right,oracute:
Arrangeth esidesfromlowtohigh;callthema,b,andc,inincreasingorder elengthsofth
Calculate: , b o
2 2
, anu c
2
.
Compare:o
2
+b
2
vs. c
2

Usetheillustrationsbelowtodeterminewhichtypeoftriangleyouhave.

a
2
+h
2
< c
2

ObtuseTriangle
a
2
+h
2
= c
2

RightTriangle
a
2
+h
2
> c
2

AcuteTriangle

S
2
+8
2
:s. 9
2

2S + 64 > 81

- Acute Tr|ang|e
Example:
Trianglewithsides:5,8,9

7
2
+ 9
2
:s. 12
2

## 49 +81 < 144

- Ohtuxe Tr|ang|e
Example:
Trianglewithsides:7,9,12
6
2
+ 8
2
:s. 1u
2

S6 + 64 = 1uu
- R|ght Tr|ang|e

Example:
Trianglewithsides:6,8,10
50
Version 2.4 March 24, 2014
Geometry
PythagoreanTriples

PythagoreanTheorem: a
2
+h
2
= c
2

Pythagoreantriplesaresetsof3positiveintegersthatmeettherequirementsofthe
PythagoreanTheorem.Becausethesesetsofintegersprovideprettysolutionstogeometry
problems,theyareafavoriteofgeometrybooksandteachers.Knowingwhattriplesexistcan
helpthestudentquicklyidentifysolutionstoproblemsthatmightotherwisetakeconsiderable
timetosolve.

345TriangleFamily 72425TriangleFamily

3
2
+4
2
= 5
2
7
2
+24
2
= 25
2

## 9 +16 = 2S 49 +S76 = 62S

51213TriangleFamily 81517TriangleFamily

5
2
+12
2
= 13
2
8
2
+15
2
= 17
2

## 2S +144 = 169 64 +22S = 289

Sample
Triples
51213
102426
153639
...
50120130
Sample
Triples
345
6810
91215
121620
304050
Sample
Triples
72425
144850
217275
...
70240250
Sample
Triples
81517
163034
244551
...
80150170
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Version 2.4 March 24, 2014
Geometry
SpecialTriangles
Therelationshipamongthelengthsofthesidesofatriangleisdependentonthemeasuresof
theanglesinthetriangle.Forarighttriangle(i.e.,onethatcontainsa90angle),twospecial
casesareofparticularinterest.Theseareshownbelow:

454590Triangle

306090Triangle

Inarighttriangle,weneedtoknowthelengthsoftwosidestodeterminethelengthofthe
third.Thepoweroftherelationshipsinthespecialtrianglesliesinthefactthatweneedonly
knowthelengthofonesideofthetriangletodeterminethelengthsoftheothertwosides.
ExampleSideLengths
Ina454590triangle,thecongruenceoftwo
anglesguaranteesthecongruenceofthetwo
legsofthetriangle.Theproportionsofthethree
sidesare: .Thatis,thetwolegshave
thesamelengthandthehypotenuseistimes
aslongaseitherleg.
Ina306090triangle,theproportionsofthe
threesidesare: .Thatis,thelongleg
istimesaslongastheshortleg,andthe
hypotenuseistimesaslongastheshortleg.
454590Triangle

306090Triangle

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Version 2.4 March 24, 2014
Geometry
TrigFunctionsandSpecialAngles

TrigonometricFunctions

SpecialAngles

TrigFunctionsofSpecialAngles
Radians Degrees stn0 us 0 tan0
0 0
u
2
= u
4
2
= 1
u
4
= u
n
6
,
30
1
2
=
1
2

S
2

1
S
=
S
S

n
4
,
45
2
2

2
2

2
2
=1
n
S
,
60
S
2

1
2
=
1
2

S
1
= S
n
2
,
90
4
2
= 1
u
2
= u
undefined
SOHCAHTOA
sin =
oppostc
hpotcncusc
sinA =
u
c
sinB =
b
c

cos =
ud]uccnt
hpotcncusc
cos A =
b
c
cos B =
u
c

tan =
oppostc
ud]uccnt
tan A =
u
b
tanB =
b
u

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Version 2.4 March 24, 2014
Geometry
followingmanner:
DrawtheangleontheCartesianPlane.
Calculatethemeasureoftheanglefromthex
axisto.
Findthevalueofthetrigonometricfunctionof
theangleinthepreviousstep.
Assigna+or-signtothetrigonometric
valuebasedonthefunctionusedandthe
Examples:

For0 = 12u,baseyourworkon18u - 12u = 6u
sin 6u =
3
2
,so:stn12 =
3
2
For0 = 21u,baseyourworkon21u - 18u = Su
cos Su =
3
2
,so:us 21 = -
3
2

For0 = S1S,baseyourworkonS6u - S1S = 4S
tan 4S =1,so:tan315 = -1
54
Version 2.4 March 24, 2014
Thesineandcosecantfunctionsareinverses.So:
sin
1
csc
and csc
1
sin

Thecosineandsecantfunctionsareinverses.So:
cos
1
sec
and sec
1
cos

Thetangentandcotangentfunctionsareinverses.So:
tan
1
cot
and cot
1
tan

Geometry
GraphsofTrigonometricFunctions

55
Version 2.4 March 24, 2014
Geometry
Vectors
Definitions
Avectorisageometricobjectthathasboth
magnitude(length)anddirection.
TheTailofthevectoristheendoppositethearrow.
Itrepresentswherethevectorismovingfrom.
v = AB

representswherethevectorismovingto.
TheZeroVectorisdenoted0.Ithaszerolengthand
allthepropertiesofzero.
Twovectorsareequalistheyhaveboththesamemagnitudeandthesamedirection.
Twovectorsareparalleliftheyhavethesameoroppositedirections.Thatis,iftheangles
ofthevectorsarethesameor180different.
Twovectorsareperpendicularifthedifferenceoftheanglesofthevectorsis90or270.
MagnitudeofaVector
pointsA = (x
1
, y
1
)andB = ( a e is x
2
, y
2
),thenthem gnitud ofv :
|v|= |AB

| = (x
2
-x
1
)
2
+(y
2
-y
1
)
2

Notethat|AB

| = |BA

|.Thedirectionsofthetwovectorsareopposite,buttheirmagnitudes
arethesame.
DirectionofaVector
Thedirectionofavectorisdeterminedbytheangleitmakes
withahorizontalline.Inthefigureatright,thedirectionisthe
angle6.Thevalueof6canbecalculatedbasedonthelengths
ofthesidesofthetriang thevectorforms. le
tan0 =
3
4
oi 0 = tan
-1
_
3
4
]
wherethefunctiontan
1
istheinversetangentfunction.Thesecondequationinthelineabove
3
4
.

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Version 2.4 March 24, 2014
Geometry
OperationswithVectors
Itispossibletooperatewithvectorsinsomeofthesamewaysweoperatewithnumbers.In
particular:
general,
u = (u
1
, u
2
)
v = (:
1
, :
2
)
u +v = (u
1
, u
2
) +(:
1
, :
2
) = (u
1
+:
1
, u
2
+ :
2
)
Example:Inthe figureatright,
u = (4, S)
-6 v = (2, )
w = u +v = (4, S) +(2, -6) = (6, -S)
V a ectorAlgebr
= u +v = v +u u +(-u) a (u +v) = (a u) +(a v)
+w +( (u +v) = u +(w+v) u = (a +b) u = (a u) b u)
u + = u 1 u = u (ab) u = a (b u) = b (a u)
ScalarMultiplication
Scalarmultiplic sthemagnitudeofavector,butnotthedirection.Ingeneral, ationchange
u = (u
1
, u
2
)
k u = (k u
1
, k u
2
)
Inthefigureatright,
u = (4, S)
2 u = 2 (4, S) = (8, 6)

57
Version 2.4 March 24, 2014
Centerthemiddleofthecircle.Allpointsonthecircle
arethesamedistancefromthecenter.
alsousedtorefertothedistancefromthecentertothe
pointsonthecircle.
Diameteralinesegmentwithendpointsonthecircle
thatpassesthroughthecenter.
Arcapathalongacircle.
MinorArcapathalongthecirclethatislessthan180.
MajorArcapathalongthecirclethatisgreaterthan
180.
Semicircleapathalongacirclethatequals180.
Sectoraregioninsideacirclethatisboundedbytwo
Geometry
PartsofCircles

SecantLinealinethatintersectsthecirclein
exactlytwopoints.
TangentLinealinethatintersectsthecircle
inexactlyonepoint.
Chordalinesegmentwithendpointsonthe
circlethatdoesnotpassthroughthecenter.
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Version 2.4 March 24, 2014
Geometry
AnglesandCircles

CentralAngle InscribedAngle

mzA = m RS

mzA =
1
2
m RS

Vertexinsidethecircle Vertexoutsidethecircle

mzA =
1
2
(m RS

+m MN

) mzA =
1
2

(m RS

-m M

R = AN AS
N)
RA AN = SA AM AM A

Tangentononeside Tangentsontwosides

mzA =
1
2
(m RS

- zA =
1
2
m RN

) m (m
AR
2
= AN AS AR = AS
RTS

-m RLS

59
Version 2.4 March 24, 2014
Geometry
PerimeterandAreaofaTriangle
PerimeterofaTriangle
Theperimeterofatriangleissimplythesumofthemeasuresofthethreesidesofthetriangle.
P = a +h + c
AreaofaTriangle
triangleisavailable.
Formula1:Theformulamostfamiliartothestudentcanbeusedwhenthebaseandheightof
thetriangleareeitherknownorcanbedetermined.
A =
1
2
hh
where, bisthelengthofthebaseofthetriangle.
bistheheightofthetriangle.
Note:Thebasecanbeanysideofthetriangle.Theheightisthemeasureofthealtitudeof
whicheversideisselectedasthebase.So,youcanuse:

or or

Formula2:Heronsformulafortheareaofatrianglecanbeusedwhen
thelengthsofallofthesidesareknown.Sometimesthisformula,
thoughlessappealing,canbeveryuseful.
A = x(x -a)(x -h)(x -c)
where, x =
1
2
P =
1
2
(a +h +c). Note: sissometimescalledthesemiperimeterofthetriangle.
a, h, carethelengthsofthesidesofthetriangle.
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Version 2.4 March 24, 2014
Geometry
MoreontheAreaofaTriangle
TrigonometricFormulas
Thefollowingformulasfortheareaofatrianglecomefromtrigonometry.Whichoneisused
dependsontheinformationavailable:
Twoanglesandaside:
A =
1
2

a
2
stnB stnC
stnA
=
1
2

h
2
stnA stnC
stnB
=
1
2

c
2
stnA stnB
stnC

Twosidesandanangle:
A =
1
2
ah stnC =
1
2
ac stnB =
1
2
hc stnA

CoordinateGeometry
Ifthethreeverticesofatrianglearedisplayedinacoordinateplane,theformulabelow,usinga
determinant,willgivetheareaofatriangle.
Letthethreepointsinthecoordinateplanebe:(x
1
, y
1
), (x
2
, y
2
), (x
3
, y
3
).Then,theareaof
thetriangleisonehalfoftheabsolutevalueofthedeterminantbelow:
A =
1
2
_ _
x
1
y
1
1
x
2
y
2
1
x
3
y
3
1
_ _
Example:Forthetriangleinthefigureatright,theareais:
A =
1
2
_ _
2 4 1
-3 2 1
3 -1 1
_ _
=
1
2
[2
2 1
-1 1
-4
-3 1
3 1
+
-3 2
3 -1
=
1
2
27 =
27
2

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Version 2.4 March 24, 2014
Geometry
Name Illustration Perimeter Area
Kite

P = 2o + 2
=
2
1
(J
b
A
1
J
2
)
Trapezoid

=
1
2
P = b
1
+ b
2
+ o + c
(b
1
+ b
2
)b A
P = 2o + 2b A
Parallelogram

= bb
Rectangle

P = 2o + 2b A = bb
Rhombus

= bb =
1
2
P = 4s
(J
1
J
2
) A
= s
2
=
1
2
P = 4s
(J
2
) A
Square

62
Version 2.4 March 24, 2014
Geometry
PerimeterandAreaofRegularPolygons
DefinitionsRegularPolygons
Thecenterofapolygonisthecenterofitscircumscribed
circle.PointOisthecenterofthehexagonatright.
circumscribedcircle.OA

andOB

hexagonatright.
Theapothemofapolygonisthedistancefromthecenter
tothemidpointofanyofitssides.aistheapothemof
thehexagonatright.
Thecentralangleofapolygonisananglewhosevertexisthecenterofthecircleandwhose
sidespassthroughconsecutiveverticesofthepolygon.Inthefigureabove,zAOBisa
centralangleofthehexagon.
AreaofaReg P on ular olyg
A =
1
2
aP where, istheapothemofthepolygon o
Pistheperimeterofthepolygon

PerimeterandAreaofSimilarFigures
LetkbethescalefactorrelatingtwosimilargeometricfiguresF
1
andF
2
suchthatF
2
= h F
1
.
Then,
Pertmeter uI F
2

Pertmeter uI F
1
= h
Area uI F
2

Area uI F
1
= h
2

and

63
Version 2.4 March 24, 2014
Geometry
CircleLengthsandAreas
Circum Area ferenceand
r C = 2a
A = ar
2
istheareaofthecircle.
isthecircumference(i.e.,theperimeter)ofthecircle.
LengthofanArconaCircle
Acommonprobleminthegeometryofcirclesistomeasurethelengthofanarconacircle.
Definitio thecircumferenceofacircle. n:Anarcisasegmentalong
arc |ength =
mAB

3
C
where:mzAB

isthemeasure(indegrees)ofthearc.Notethat
thisisalsothemeasureofthecentralanglezA0B.
Cisthecircumferenceofthecircle.
AreaofaSectorofaCircle
Anothercommonprobleminthegeometryofcirclesistomeasuretheareaofasectoracircle.
Definitio a lethatisboundedbytworadiiandanarcofthecircle. n:Asectorisaregion in circ
xectur area =
mAB

3
A
where: mzAB

isthemeasure(indegrees)ofthearc.Notethat
thisisalsothemeasureofthecentralanglezA0B.
Aistheareaofthecircle.
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Version 2.4 March 24, 2014
Geometry
AreaofCompositeFigures
Tocalculatetheareaofafigurethatisacompositeofshapes,considereachshapeseparately.
Example1:
Calculatetheareaoftheblueregioninthefiguretotheright.
Tosolvethis:
Recognizethatthefigureisthecompositeofa
rectangleandtwotriangles.
Disassemblethecompositefigureintoitscomponents.
Calculatetheareaofthecomponents.
Subtracttogettheareaofthecompositefigure.

## Area u Reg|un = (4 ) -2_

1
2
4 3] = 24 -12 = 12

Example2:
Calculatetheareaoftheblueregioninthefiguretotheright.
Tosolvethis:
Recognizethatthefigureisthecompositeofasquareanda
circle.
Disassemblethecompositefigureintoitscomponents.
Calculatetheareaofthecomponents.
Subtracttogettheareaofthecompositefigure.

Area u Reg|un = 8
2
-4(a 2
2
) = 4 -1a ~ 13. 73
65
Version 2.4 March 24, 2014
Geometry
Polyhedra
Definitions
Faces
APolyhedronisa3dimensionalsolidboundedbyaseries
ofpolygons.
Facesarethepolygonsthatboundthepolyhedron.
AnEdgeisthelinesegmentattheintersectionoftwofaces.
AVertexisapointattheintersectionoftwoedges.
ARegularpolyhedronisoneinwhichallofthefacesarethe
sameregularpolygon.
Vertices
AConvexPolyhedronisoneinwhichalldiagonalsarecontainedwithintheinteriorofthe
polyhedron.AConcavepolyhedronisonethatisnotconvex.
ACrossSectionistheintersectionofaplanewiththepolyhedron.
Eulers orem The
Let: numberoffacesofapolyhedron. F =the
henumberofverticesofapolyhedron. I =t
E =thenumberofedgesofapolyhedron.
Then,foranypolyhedronthatdoesnotintersectitself,

CalculatingtheNumberofEdges
Edges
+ 8 = 12 +2
EulersTheoremExample:
Thecubeabovehas
6faces
8vertices
12edges
F +F = F +2
Thenumberofedgesofapolyhedronisonehalfthenumberofsidesinthepolygonsit
thesidesofthepolygons,therefore,doublecountsthenumberofedgesonthepolyhedron.
hexagonsand12pentagons.Thenthenumberofedgesis:
F =
1
2
|(2 ) +(12 5)] = 9

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Example:
Thecubewithatunnelinithas
I = 16
E = S2
F = 16
so, F -F + F =
Geometry
AHoleinEulersTheorem
Topologyisabranchofmathematicsthatstudiesthepropertiesofobjectsthatarepreserved
throughmanipulationthatdoesnotincludetearing.Anobjectmaybestretched,twistedand
coffeecupbecausebothhaveonehole;youcandeformeitherthecuporthedonutandcreate
theother,likeyouareplayingwithclay.
Alloftheusualpolyhedrahavenoholesinthem,soEulersEquationholds.Whathappensif
weallowthepolyhedratohaveholesinthem?Thatis,whatifweconsidertopologicalshapes
differentfromtheoneswenormallyconsider?
EulersCharacteristic
WhenEulersEquationisrewrittenasF - F +F = 2,thelefthandsideoftheequationis
calledtheEulerCharacteristic.

GeneralizedEulersTheorem
Let: F =thenumberoffacesofapolyhedron.
I =thenumberofverticesofapolyhedron.
E =thenumberofedgesofapolyhedron.
g =thenumberofholesinthepolyhedron.gis
calledthegenusoftheshape.
Then,foranypolyhedronthatdoesnotintersectitself,

NotethatthevalueofEulersCharacteristiccanbe
negativeiftheshapehasmorethanoneholeinit(i.e.,if
g 2)!

F -F +F = 2 -2g
TheEulerCharacteristicofashapeis:F -F +F
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Geometry
PlatonicSolids
APlatonicSolidisaconvexregularpolyhedronwithfacescomposedofcongruentconvex
regularpolygons.Therefiveofthem:

KeyPropertiesofPlatonicSolids
Itisinterestingtolookatthekeypropertiesoftheseregularpolyhedra.
Name Faces Vertices Edges TypeofFace
Tetrahedron 4 4 6 Triangle
Cube 6 8 12 Square
Octahedron 8 6 12 Triangle
Dodecahedron 12 20 30 Pentagon
Icosahedron 20 12 30 Triangle
Noticethefollowingpatternsinthetable:
Allofthenumbersoffacesareeven.Onlythecubehasanumberoffacesthatisnota
multipleof4.
Allofthenumbersofverticesareeven.Onlytheoctahedronhasanumberoffacesthat
isnotamultipleof4.
Thenumberoffacesandverticesseemtoalternate(e.g.,cube68vs.octahedron86).
Allofthenumbersofedgesaremultiplesof6.
Thereareonlythreepossibilitiesforthenumbersofedges6,12and30.
Thefacesareoneof:regulartriangles,squaresorregularpentagons.

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Geometry
Prisms
Definitions
APrismisapolyhedronwithtwocongruentpolygonalfaces
thatlieinparallelplanes.
TheBasesaretheparallelpolygonalfaces.
TheLateralFacesarethefacesthatarenotbases.
TheLateralEdgesaretheedgesbetweenthelateralfaces.
TheSlantHeightisthelengthofalateraledge.Notethat
alllateraledgesarethesamelength.
TheHeightistheperpendicularlengthbetweenthebases.
ARightPrismisoneinwhichtheanglesbetweenthebasesandthe
lateraledgesarerightangles.Notethatinarightprism,theheightand
theslantheightarethesame.
AnObliquePrismisonethatisnotarightprism.
RightHexagonal
Prism
TheSurfaceAreaofaprismisthesumoftheareasofallitsfaces.
TheLateralAreaofaprismisthesumoftheareasofitslateralfaces.
SurfaceAreaandVolume htPrism
where, sc P = tbc pcrimctcr o tbc
b = tbc bcigbt o tbc pris
B = tbc orco o tbc bosc
bo
m
of aRig
SurfaceArea: +2B SA = Ph
LateralSA: SA = Ph
Volume: F = Bh
CavalierisPrinciple
Iftwosolidshavethesameheightandthesamecrosssectionalareaateverylevel,thenthey
havethesamevolume.Thisprincipleallowsustoderiveaformulaforthevolumeofan
obliqueprismfromtheformulaforthevolumeofarightprism.
SurfaceAreaandVolume bliquePrism
where, P = tbc pcrimctcr o tbc bo
c p
m
sc
rism s = tbc slont bcigbt o tb
b = tbc bcigbt o tbc pris
B = tbc orco o tbc bosc
ofanO
SurfaceArea: +2B SA = Px
LateralSA: SA = Px
Volume: F = Bh
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Geometry
Cylinders
Definitions
ACylinderisafigurewithtwocongruentcircularbasesinparallelplanes.
AcylinderhasonlyoneLateralSurface.Whendeconstructed,thelateralsurfaceofa
cylinderisarectanglewithlengthequaltothecircumferenceofthebase.
TherearenoLateralEdgesinacylinder.
TheSlantHeightisthelengthofthelateralsidebetweenthebases.Note
thatalllateraldistancesarethesamelength.Theslantheighthas
applicabilityonlyifthecylinderisoblique.
TheHeightistheperpendicularlengthbetweenthebases.
ARightCylinderisoneinwhichtheanglesbetweenthebasesandthelateralsideareright
angles.Notethatinarightcylinder,theheightandtheslantheightarethesame.
AnObliqueCylinderisonethatisnotarightcylinder.
TheSurfaceAreaofacylinderisthesumoftheareasofitsbasesanditslateralsurface.
TheLateralAreaofacylinderistheareasofitslateralsurface.
SurfaceAreaandVolume htCylinder of aRig
SurfaceArea: SA = Ch +2B
= 2
2

## where, bosc C = tbc circumcrcncc o

tbc
Jcr b = tbc bcigbt o tbc cylin
B = tbc orco o tbc bosc
r = tbc roJius o tbc bosc

arh +2ar
LateralSA: h SA = Ch = 2ar
Volume: F = Bh = ar
2
h
SurfaceAreaandVolume bliquePrism ofanO
SurfaceArea: SA = Cx +2B
= 2 r
2

## where, C = tbc circumcrcncc o tbc

= tbc c cyl
Jcr
bosc
inJcr s slont bcigbt o tb
o

## b = tbc bcigbt tbc cylin

B = tbc orco o tbc bosc
r = tbc roJius o tbc bosc
a x +2ar
LateralSA: SA = Cx= 2arx
Volume: F = Bh = ar
2
h

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Geometry
SurfaceAreabyDecomposition
decomposetheprismintoitscomponentshapes,andthencalculatetheareasofthe
components.Note:thisprocessalsoworkswithcylindersandpyramids.
DecompositionofaPrism
Tocalculatethesurfaceareaofaprism,decomposeitandlookateachoftheprismsfaces
individually.
Example:Calculatethesurfaceareaofthetriangularprismatright.
Todothis,firstnoticethatweneedthevalueofthehypotenuseofthe
base.UsethePythagoreanTheoremorPythagoreanTriplesto
determinethemissingvalueis10.Then,decomposethefigureintoits
variousfaces:

Thesurfacearea,then,iscalculatedas:
SA = (2 Boscs) +(Front) +(Bock) +(SiJc)
SA = 2 _
1
2
6 8] +(1u 7) +(8 7) +(6 7) = 216
DecompositionofaCylinder

Thesurfacearea,then,iscalculatedas:
SA = (2 tops) +(lotcrol occ)
SA = 2 (n S
2
) +(6n S) = 48n ~ 1Su.8u

Thecylinderatrightis
decomposedintotwocircles(the
bases)andarectangle(thelateral
face).
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Geometry
Pyramids
Pyramids
APyramidisapolyhedroninwhichthebaseisapolygonand
thelateralsidesaretriangleswithacommonvertex.
TheBaseisapolygonofanysizeorshape.
TheLateralFacesarethefacesthatarenotthebase.
TheLateralEdgesaretheedgesbetweenthelateralfaces.
TheApexofthepyramidistheintersectionofthelateral
edges.Itisthepointatthetopofthepyramid.
TheSlantHeightofaregularpyramidisthealtitudeofoneof
thelateralfaces.
TheHeightistheperpendicularlengthbetweenthebaseandtheapex.
ARegularPyramidisoneinwhichthelateralfacesarecongruenttriangles.Theheightofa
regularpyramidintersectsthebaseatitscenter.
AnObliquePyramidisonethatisnotarightpyramid.Thatis,the
apexisnotaligneddirectlyabovethecenterofthebase.
TheSurfaceAreaofapyramidisthesumoftheareasofallits
faces.
TheLateralAreaofapyramidisthesumoftheareasofitslateral
faces.
SurfaceAreaandVolume gularPyramid ofaRe
SurfaceArea:
1
SA =
2
Px
LateralSA:
+B
SA =
1
2
Px
Volume: F =
1
3
Bh

## SurfaceAreaandVolume bliquePyramid ofan O

SurfaceArea: +B SA = LSA
Volume: F =
1
3
Bh

where, P = tbc pcrimctcr o tbc bosc
= tbc s c pyr
= omiJ
omiJ s lont bcigbt o tb
b tbc bcigbt o tbc pyr
B = tbc orco o tbc bosc
where, ISA = tbc lotcrol suroc
b tbc bcigbt o tbc pyr
B = tbc orco o tbc bosc
c orco
= omiJ
Thelateralsurfaceareaofanobliquepyramidisthesumof
theareasofthefaces,whichmustbecalculatedindividually.
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Geometry
Cones
Definitions
ACircularConeisa3dimensionalgeometricfigurewithacircularbasewhichtapers
smoothlytoavertex(orapex).Theapexandbaseareindifferentplanes.Note:thereis
alsoanellipticalconethathasanellipseasabase,butthatwillnotbeconsideredhere.
TheBaseisacircle.
TheLateralSurfaceisareaofthefigurebetweenthebaseandtheapex.
TherearenoLateralEdgesinacone.
TheApexoftheconeisthepointatthetopofthecone.
TheSlantHeightofaconeisthelengthalongthelateralsurfacefromtheapextothebase.
TheHeightistheperpendicularlengthbetweenthebaseandtheapex.
ARightConeisoneinwhichtheheightoftheconeintersectsthebaseat
itscenter.
AnObliqueConeisonethatisnotarightcone.Thatis,theapexisnot
aligneddirectlyabovethecenterofthebase.
TheSurfaceAreaofaconeisthesumoftheareaofitslateralsurface
anditsbase.
TheLateralAreaofaconeistheareaofitslateralsurface.
SurfaceAreaandVolume tCone ofaRigh
SurfaceArea: +ar
2
SA = arx
LateralSA: SA = arx
Volume: F =
1
3
Bh =
1
3
ar
2
h
SurfaceAreaandVolume iqueCone ofan Obl
SurfaceArea: SA = LSA +ar
2

Volume: F =
1
3
Bh =
1
3
ar
2
h

where, r = tbc roJius o tbc bosc
= tbc s c
c

## conc s lont bcigbt o tb

b = tbc bcigbt o tbc con
B = tbc orco o tbc bosc
where, orco ISA = tbc lotcrol surocc
r = tbc roJius o tbc bosc
b = tbc bcigbt o tbc conc

Thereisnoeasyformulaforthelateralsurfaceareaofan
obliquecone.
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Geometry
Spheres
Definitions
ASphereisa3dimensionalgeometricfigureinwhichall
pointsareafixeddistancefromapoint.Agoodexampleof
asphereisaball.
Centerthemiddleofthesphere.Allpointsonthesphere
arethesamedistancefromthecenter.
usedtorefertothedistancefromthecentertothepoints
onthesphere.
Diameteralinesegmentwithendpointsonthesphere
thatpassesthroughthecenter.
GreatCircletheintersectionofaplaneandasphere
thatpassesthroughthecenter.
Hemispherehalfofasphere.Agreatcircleseparatesa
planeintotwohemispheres.
SecantLinealinethatintersectsthesphereinexactly
onepoint.
TangentLinealinethatintersectsthesphereinexactly
twopoints.
Chordalinesegmentwithendpointsonthespherethatdoesnotpassthroughthecenter.
SurfaceAreaandVolumeo fa Sphere
SurfaceArea:
2
SA = 4ar
Volume: F =
4
3
ar
3

## where, r = tbc roJius o tbc spbcrc

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Geometry
SimilarSolids
alloftheirkeydimensionsareproportional.

Edges,SurfaceAreaandVolumeofSimilarFigures
LetkbethescalefactorrelatingtwosimilargeometricsolidsF
1
andF
2
suchthatF
2
= h F
1
.
Then,forcorrespondingpartsofF
1
andF
2
,

Edge uI F
2

Edge uI F
1
= h
and

SurIae Area uI F
2

SurIae Area uI F
1
= h
2

And

Vulume uI F
2

Vulume uI F
1
= h
3

Theseformulasholdtrueforanycorrespondingportionofthe
figures.So,forexample:

TotaI Edgc Lcngth oI F
2

TotaI Edgc Lcngth oI F
1
= k
Arca oI a Facc oI F
2

Arca oIa Facc oI F
1
= k
2

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Geometry
SummaryofPerimeterandAreaFormulas2DShapes
Shape Figure Perimeter Area
Kite

P = 2h +2c
b, c = siJcs
A =
1
2
(d
1
d
2
)
J
1
, J
2
= Jiogonols
Trapezoid

P = h
1
+h
2
+c +d
b
1
, b
2
= boscs
c, J = siJcs
A =
1
2
(b
1
+b
2
)h
b
1
, b
2
= bases
h = height
Parallelogram

P = 2h +2c
b, c = siJcs
A = bh
b = bosc
b = bcigbt
Rectangle

P = 2h +2c
b, c = siJcs
A = bh
b = bosc
b = bcigbt
Rhombus

P = 4x
s = siJc
A = hh =
1
2
(d
1
d
2
)
J
1
, J
2
= Jiogonols
Square

P = 4x
s = siJc
A = x
2
=
1
2
(d
1
d
2
)
J
1
, J
2
= Jiogonols
RegularPolygon

P = nx
n = numbcr o siJcs
s = siJc
A =
1
2
a P
o = opotbcm
P = pcrimctcr
Circle

r = roJius
J = Jiomctcr
A = ar
2

r = roJius
Ellipse
P = 2a _
1
2
(r
1
2
+r
2
2
)
r
1
= mo]or oxis roJius
r
2
= minor oxis roJius
A = ar
1
r
2

r
1
= mo]or oxis roJius
r
2
= minor oxis roJius
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Geometry
SummaryofSurfaceAreaandVolumeFormulas3DShapes
Shape Figure SurfaceArea Volume
Sphere

SA = 4ar
2

r = roJius
F =
4
3
ar
3

r = roJius
Right
Cylinder

SA = 2arh +2ar
2

b = bcigbt
r = roJius o bosc
F = ar
2
h
b = bcigbt
r = roJius o bosc
Cone

SA = ar| +ar
2

l = slont bcigbt
r = roJius o bosc
F =
1
3
ar
2
h
b = bcigbt
r = roJius o bosc
Square
Pyramid

SA = 2x| +x
2

## s = bosc siJc lcngtb

l = slont bcigbt
F =
1
3
x
2
h
s = bosc siJc lcngtb
b = bcigbt
Rectangular
Prism

SA = 2 (|w+|h +wh)
l = lcngtb
w = wiJtb
b = bcigbt
F = |wh
l = lcngtb
w = wiJtb
b = bcigbt
Cube

SA = x
2

F = x
3

## s = siJc lcngtb (oll siJcs)

General
RightPrism
SA = Ph +2B
P = Pcrimctcr o Bosc
b = bcigbt (or lcngtb)
B = orco o Bosc

F = Bh
B = orco o Bosc
b = bcigbt

77
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Page Subject
16 AlternateExteriorAngles
16 AlternateInteriorAngles
23 AngleBisectorLengthinaTriangle
Angles
10 AnglesBasic
11 AnglesTypes
Area
65 AreaCompositeFigures
63 AreaPolygons
64 AreaRegionofaCircle
60,61 AreaTriangle
76 AreaFormulasSummaryfor2DShapes
69 Cavalieri'sPrinciple
CentersofTriangles
22 Centroid
22 Circumcenter
22 Incenter
22 Orthocenter
22 Centroid
Circles
64 CirclesArcLengths
58 CirclesDefinitionsofParts
64 CirclesRegionAreas
59 CirclesRelatedAngles
59 CirclesRelatedSegments
22 CirclesandTriangles
22 Circumcenter
12 ConditionalStatements(Original,Converse,Inverse,Contrapositive)
Cones
73 ConesDefinitions
73 ConesSurfaceAreaandVolume
21 CongruentTriangles
12 ContrapositiveofaStatement
12 ConverseofaStatement
16 CorrespondingAngles
55 CosecantFunction
Geometry Handbook
Index
78
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Page Subject
Geometry Handbook
Index
5355 CosineFunction
55 CotangentFunction
68 Cube(Hexahedron)
Cylinders
70 CylindersDefinitions
DistanceFormula
8 DistanceFormula1Dimensionaland2Dimensional)
9 DistanceFormulainn Dimensions
68 Dodecahedron
20 EquilateralTriangle
66,67 EulersTheorem
23 HeightLengthinaTriangle
60 Heron'sFormulaAreaofaTriangle
68 Icosahedron
22 Incenter
12 InverseofaStatement
20 IsoscelesTriangle
32 Kites
6,7 Line
Logic
12 ContrapositiveofaStatement
12 ConverseofaStatement
12 InverseofaStatement
23 MedianLengthinaTriangle
68 Octahedron
22 Orthocenter
ParallelLines
16,17 ParallelLinesandTransversals
19 ParallelLinesintheCoordinatePlane
Parallelograms
30 ParallelogramsCharacteristics
31 ParallelogramsProofs(SufficientConditions)
Perimeter
64 PerimeterArcLengthofaCircle
63 PerimeterPolygons
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Page Subject
Geometry Handbook
Index
60 PerimeterTriangle
76 PerimeterFormulasSummaryfor2DShapes
19 PerpendicularLinesintheCoordinatePlane
6 Plane
68 PlatonicSolids
6 Points
Polygons
25,26 PolygonsDefinitions
45,46 PolygonsDilation
45,46 PolygonsDilationsofPolygons
27 PolygonsExteriorAngles
27 PolygonsInteriorAngles
25 PolygonsNames
26 PolygonsNumberofDiagonalsinaPolygon
63 PolygonsPerimeterandArea
44 PolygonsScaleFactorofSimilarPolygons
43 PolygonsSimilarity
Polyhedra
66,67 PolyhedraEuler'sTheorem
66 PolyhedraNumberofEdges
Prisms
69 PrismsDefinitions
69 PrismsSurfaceAreaandVolume
Proofs
18 ProofsParallelLines
31 ProofsParallelograms
15 ProofsRequirements
15 ProofsTipsforSuccess
Properties
13 PropertiesofAlgebra
13 PropertiesofEqualityandCongruence
Pyramids
72 PyramidsDefinitions
72 PyramidsSurfaceAreaandVolume
50 PythagoreanTheorem
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Page Subject
Geometry Handbook
Index
51 PythagoreanTriples
42 RatiosDealingwithUnits
6,7 Ray
14 ReasoningInductivevs.Deductive
20 RightTriangle
20 ScaleneTriangle
55 SecantFunction
6,7 Segment
Similarity
4346 SimilarPolygons
4749 SimilarTriangles
75 SimilaritySolids
5355 SineFunction
75 SolidsSimilarity
Sphere
74 SpheresDefinitions
74 SpheresSurfaceAreaandVolume
SurfaceArea
73 SurfaceAreaCones
70 SurfaceAreaCylinders
69 SurfaceAreaPrisms
72 SurfaceAreaPyramids
74 SurfaceAreaSpheres
71 SurfaceAreaUsingDecomposition
77 SurfaceAreaFormulasSummaryfor3DShapes
5355 TangentFunction
68 Tetrahedron
Transformation
41 TransformationComposition
33 TransformationDefinitions
33 TransformationIsometric
35 TransformationReflection
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Page Subject
Geometry Handbook
Index
36 TransformationRotation
0
,y
0
)
40 TransformationTranslation
32 Trapezoids
Triangles
22 CentersofTriangles
21 TriangleCongruence(SAS,SSS,ASA,AAS,CPCTC)
24 TriangleInequalities
47 TriangleSimilarity(SSS,SAS,AA)
20 TrianglesGeneral
60,61 TrianglesPerimeterandArea
48 TrianglesProportionTablesforSimilarTriangles
52 TrianglesSpecial(454590Triangle,306090Triangle)
49 TrianglesThreeSimilarTriangles
TrigonometricFunctions
55 CosecantFunction
5355 CosineFunction
55 CotangentFunction
55 SecantFunction
5355 SineFunction
5355 TangentFunction
53 TrigonometricFunctionsDefinition
55 TrigonometricFunctionsGraphs
53 TrigonometricFunctionsSpecialAngles
Vectors
56 VectorsDefinitions
56 VectorsDirection
56 VectorsMagnitude
57 VectorsOperations
Volume
73 VolumeCones
70 VolumeCylinders
69 VolumePrisms
72 VolumePyramids
74 VolumeSpheres
77 VolumeFormulasSummaryfor3DShapes
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